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Unit1RationalNumberSummary

KeyTerms
TheAbsoluteValueofanumberisitsdistancefromzero.
AbsoluteValueisnevernegative.AbsoluteValuenotation:|2|
Example:
Find|2|

2is2unitstotheleftofzero,therefore,|2|=2

Find|2|

2is2unitstotherightofzero,therefore,|2|=2

Theopposite,orAdditiveInverse,ofanumberisthesame
distancefrom0onanumberlineastheoriginalnumber,buton
theothersideofzero.Thesumofanumberanditsadditive
inverseis0.
Example:

5+5=0

AdditiveInverse

Number

14+14=0

Zeroisitsownadditiveinverse.

Rules for Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers


Adding Integers
Same Sign

Add their absolute values


Keep the sign

Different Signs

Subtract their absolute values


Answer takes sign of greater
absolute value

Subtracting Integers

Keep the first number the same


Change subtraction to addition
Change the sign on the second number (add
the additive inverse)
Then, follow the rules for addition.

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

Adding Integers
Same Sign

Add their absolute values


Keep the sign

Example:
2+7

(2) + (5)

|2| + |7|
2 + 7 = 9
2+7=9

Add the
absolute values

|2| + |5|
2 + 5 = 7

Keep the sign

(2) + (5) = 7

Adding Integers
Different Signs

Subtract their absolute values


Answer takes sign of greater
absolute value

Example:
9 + 11
|9| = 9
|11| = 11

Subtract their absolute values

11 9 = 2
Answer = +2

11 has the greater absolute value,


therefore, answer is positive

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

Subtracting Integers

Keep the first number the same


Change subtraction to addition
Change the sign on the second number
Then, follow the rules for addition.

Example:

Solve

K
4

F
+

4 (8)

C
8

Change subtraction to addition


and add the additive inverse.

Keep the first number: 4


Change from subtraction to addition
Change last number to its additive inverse:
(8) becomes 8

4 + 8 = 12

AddingIntegersonaNumberLine
1. Startatzero.Lookatthefirstaddend.
Ifitispositive,movetotheright
Ifitisnegative,movetotheleft
Theabsolutevaluetellsyouhowmanyspaces.
2. Nowlookatthesecondaddend.
Ifitispositive,movetotheright
Ifitisnegative,movetotheleft
Theabsolutevaluetellsyouhowmanyspaces.
3. Theansweriswherethelastarrowends.
Example:

6+(4)=2

4
+6

10

5 4

10

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

ModelingAdditionusingChips
YellowChipsrepresentPositiveNumbers.

RedChipsrepresentNegativeNumbers.

ApositiveandnegativechipcreateaZeroPair.

=0

+
Addingintegersusingchips:

1. Representeachaddendusingtheappropriatechips.
2. Createzeropairswithanypositiveandnegatives.
3. Countthechipsthatareleft.

Example1:

(3)+(4)=7
7negativechipsaltogether.

10

Example2:

5 4

10

(3)+(+5)=+2
2postivechipsleftafter
makingzeropairs.

+ + +
Example3:

9+(5)=+4
4postivechipsleftafter
makingzeropairs.

+ + + + + + + + +

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

ModelingAdditionusingNumberProperties
Youcanaddintegersbydecomposingnumberstoformadditiveinverses
thataddto0.Forexample,toadd8+10,youcanthinkof10as8+2.

8+10

= 8+(8+2)

AssociativePropertyofAddition

= (8+8)+2

AdditiveInverseProperty

= 0+2

IdentityPropertyofAddition

= 2

SubtractingIntegersusingaNumberLineandChips
Remember:
Subtractionistheinverseoroppositeoperationfromaddition.
Subtractinganumberisthesamethingasaddingitsadditiveinverse
oropposite.
Therefore,wecanrewriteallsubtractionexpressionsasadditionand
modeltheadditionexpressiononthenumberlineorwithchips.

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

Rules for Multiplying and Dividing Rational Numbers

Multiplying and Dividing Integers


Same Sign

Positive Product or Quotient

Different Signs

Negative Product or Quotient

Multiplying and Dividing Integers


Same Sign

Positive Product or Quotient

Different Signs

Negative Product or Quotient

Examples:
(2) * (4) = 8

2 * (8) = 16

4 2=2

4 (- 2) = 2

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

MultiplyingonaNumberLineandusingChips
Example 1:

Model 2 x 4 using a number line and counters.

2 groups of 4 positive chips


+

+
+

+ +
+ +

8positivechipsaltogether

2x4=8
+4twotimeslandon+8
+4
10

5 4

+4
4

10

MultiplyingonaNumberLineandusingChips
Example 2:

Model 2 x (6) using a number line and counters.

2groupsof6chips

12negativechipsaltogether

2x6=12

12

6twotimeslandon12

12

Unit1RationalNumberSummary

Distance between Two Points


Distanceisadescriptionofhowfaraparttwoobjectsare.
Distancemustbeapositivevalue.

Foranytwointegersaandb,
thedistancebetweenaandb
istheabsolutevalueoftheirdifference,|ab|.

Whataretwoexpressionsthatyoucanusetofind
thedistancebetween2and6?

|2(6)|

10

5 4

or

|62|

10

Howwouldyourewritethesetwosubtractionexpressions
asadditionexpressions?

|2+6|

or

|6+(2)|

Sothedistancebetween2and6is4.