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SUBJECT: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (EEC-602)

CLASS TEST: 1

Q1. What is ROC? State the properties of ROC in context of Z-transform.

Q2. What is the relationship between Z transform and the Discrete Fourier transform?

Q3. Compute DFT of 4-point sequence x(n) = { 0, 1, 2, 3}

Q4. Compute IDFT for the frequency component X(k) = { 60, 0, -4, 0}

Q5. Perform the circular convolution of the following two sequences.

x1(n) = {2, 1, 2, 1}

x2(n) = { 1, 2, 3, 4}

Solution:Q1

ROC: The z-transform is an infinite power series; it exists only for those values of z for

which the series converges. The region of convergence (ROC) of X (z) is set of all values

of z for which X (z) attains a finite value. The ROC of a finite duration signal is the entire

z-plane, except possibly the point

. These points are excluded because zn

(when n > 0) becomes unbounded for z = and zn (when n > 0) becomes unbounded

for z = 0.

Properties of ROC:

1. If x[n] is of finite duration, then the ROC is the entire z-plane (the z-transform summation converges,

i.e., X(z) exists, for any z) except possibly z =0 and/or

.

2. The ROC of X(z) consists of a ring centered about the origin in the z-plane. The inner boundary can extend

inward to the origin in some cases, and the outer can extend to infinity in other cases.

3. If x[n] is right sided and the circle |z|=r0 is in the ROC, then any finite z for which |z|>r0 is also in the ROC.

4. If x[n] is left sided and the circle |z|=r0 is in the ROC, then any z for which 0<|z|<r0 is also in the ROC.

5. If x[n] is two-sided, then the ROC is the intersection of the two one-sided ROCs corresponding to the two

one-sided parts of x[n]. This intersection can be either a ring or an empty set.

6. If X(z) is rational, then its ROC does not contain any poles (by definition

dose not exist).

The ROC is bounded by the poles or extends to infinity.

7. If X(z) is a rational z-transform of a right sided function x[n], then the ROC is the region outside the outmost

pole. If x[n]=0 for n<0 then the ROC includes

8. If X(z) is a rational z-transform of a left sided function x[n], then the ROC is inside the innermost pole.

If x[n]=0 for

Solution: Q2

Let us consider a sequence x(n) having z-transform with ROC that includes the

unit circle. If X(z) is sampled at the N equally spaced points on the unit circle. If X(z) is

sampled at N equally spaced points on the unit circle.

We obtain

Expression is (2) identical to the Fourier transform X(w) evaluated at the N. equally

spaced. Frequencies

If the sequence x(n) has a finite duration of length N or less, the sequence can be

recovered from its N-point DFT. Hence its Z-transform is uniquely determined by its Npoint DFI. Consequently, X(z) can be expressed as a function of the DFT {X(k)} as

follows

When evaluated on the unit circle (3) yields the Fourier transform of the finite

duration sequence in terms of its DFT in the form:

This expression for Fourier transform is a polynomial interpolation formula for X(w)

expressed in terms of the, values {x(k)) of the polynomial at a set of equally spaced

discrete frequencies

Solution:Q3

By matrix method:

Solution: Q4

Solution: Q5

SUBJECT: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (EEC-602)

CLASS TEST: 2

Q1. What are the advantages of FFT algorithm?

Q2. What are the differences and similarities between DIF and DIT

algorithms?

Q3. Compute 4-point DFT for the sequence x(n) = { 14, 16,14, 16} using

DIT & DIF FFT algorithm.

Q4. Explain 8-point DIT FFT algorithm using butterfly diagram.

Q5. Explain 8-point DIF FFT algorithm using butterfly diagram.

Solution: Q1

Advantages of FFT algorithm: Fast fourier transform reduces the computation time.

In DFT computation, number of multiplication is N2 and the number of addition is N(N1). In FFT algorithm, number of multiplication is only N/2(log 2N) . Hence FFT reduces the

number of elements (adder, multiplier Z &delay elements). This is achieved by

effectively utilizing the symmetric and periodicity properties of Fourier transform.

Solution: Q2

Differences:

For DIT the input is bit reversed while the output is in natural order, whereas for DIF the

input is in natural order while the output is bit reversed.

The DIF butterfly is slightly different from the DIT butterfly, the difference being that

the complex multiplication takes place after the add-subtract operation in DIF.

Similarities:

Both algorithms require same number of operations to compute the DFT. Both

algorithms can be done in place and both need to perform bit reversal at some place

during the computation.

Solution: Q3

Using DIT algorithm:

Solution: Q4

Solution: Q5

In DIF N Point DFT is splitted into N/2 points DFTs. X(k) is splitted with k even and k odd this is

called Decimation in frequency(DIF FFT).

N point DFT is given as

N-1

X(k)

= x (n) WNkn

(1)

n=0

N/2-1

X(k)

N/2-1

m=0

N/2-1

(2)

m=0

N/2-1

m=0

m=0

N/2-1

N/2-1

m=0

m=0

N/2-1

X(k) =

m=0

(3)

N/2-1

X(2k) =

m=0

(4)

N/2-1

X(2k+1) =

m=0

(5)

g1(n) =

g2(n) =

x (n) - x(n + N/2) WNn

a

A= a + b

W Nr

B= (a b)WNr

Fig 1. BUTTERFLY COMPUTATION

Fig 2 shows signal flow graph and stages for computation of radix-2 DIF FFT algorithm of N=4

x(0)

x(1)

x(2)

x(3)

w40

w41

X(0)

w40

X(2)

X(1)

w4 0

X(3)

Fig 3 shows signal flow graph and stages for computation of radix-2 DIF FFT algorithm of N=8

x(0)

A1

A2

X(0)

x(1)

B1

B2

w8 0

X(4)

x(2)

C1

w8 0

C2

w80

X(2)

x(3)

D1

w8 2

D2

X(6)

X(1)

x(4)

w80

E1

E2

x(5)

w8 1

F1

F2

w80

X(5)

x(6)

w82

G1

G2

w80

X(3)

x(7)

w8 3

H1

w8 0

w82

H2

X(7)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

SUBJECT: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (EEC-602)

CLASS TEST: 3

Q1.What is the difference between Direct form-I & Direct form II realization of IIR filter?

Q2.Write short note on cascade realizations of IIR filter.

Q3.What are the basic building blocks for realizing a digital filter?

Q4. What is the importance of Windowing?

Q5. Compare Bilinear Transformation and Impulse Invariant Transformation.

Solution: Q1

SL

No.

1.

2.

3.

DIRECT FORM-I

DIRECT FORM-II

obtained by cascading the realization of

H1(z) which is all zero system first and

then H2(z) which is all pole system.

There are M+N-1 unit delay blocks. One

unit delay block requires one memory

location. Hence direct form structure

requires M+N-1 memory locations.

obtained by cascading the realization of

H1(z) which is all pole system and H2(z)

which is all zero system.

Direct Form II structure has reduced

memory requirement compared to Direct

form I structure. Hence it is called canonic

form.

number of multiplications and M+N

number of additions and M+N+1 number

of memory locations.

multiplications(M+N+1)

and

additions

(M+N) as that of direct form I.

Solution: Q2

CASCADE FORM STRUCTURE FOR IIR SYSTEMS:

In cascade form, stages are cascaded (connected) in series. The output of one system is input to

another. Thus total K number of stages are cascaded. The total system function 'H' is given by

H= H1(z) . H2(z). Hk(z)

H= Y1(z)/X1(z). Y2(z)/X2(z). Yk(z)/Xk(z)

(1)

(2)

k

H(z)= Hk(z)

(3)

k=1

x(n)=x1(n)

H1(z)

y1(n)=x2(n)

H2(z)

y2(n)=x3(n)

Hk(z)

yk(n)=y(n)

Each H1(z), H2(z) etc is a second order section and it is realized by the direct form as shown in

below figure.

System function for IIR systems

M

N

k

H(z) = bk z / 1+ ak zk

K=0

k=1

(1)

H(z)= H1(z) . H2(z). Hk(z)

where HK(z) = bk0 + bk1 z-1 + bk2 z-2 / 1 + ak1 z-1 + ak2 z-2

(2)

X(n)

Y(n)

+

Z-1

-ak1

bk1

+

Z-1

-ak2

bk2

Solution: Q3

The basic building Blocks for realizing the digital filters are Adder, Multiplier and delay or

memory elements

A y[n]

y[n] x[n]

x[n]

Multiplier

w[n]

Adder x[n]

x[n]

x[n]

y[n]

x[n]

Unit delay Pick-off node

z 1

Solution: Q4

Ans: 1. The infinite

impulse response by trucating the infinite series at

But this results in undesirable

oscillations in the pass-band and step-band of the digital filter. This is due to slow

convergence of the Fourier series near the point of discontinuity. These undesirable

oscillations can be reduced by using a set of time limited weighing functions z e referred

as windowing function.

2. The windowing function consists of main lobe which contains most of the energy of

window function and side lobes which decay rapidly

3 A major effect of windowing is that the discontinuities is

transition bands between values on either side of the discontinuity

4 Window function have side lobes that decrease in energy rapidly as tends to

Solution: Q5

Bilinear Transformation

digital frequency is nonlinear, ie

=2/T tan( /2).

digital frequency is linear, i.e. =T or

=/T.

and distortion occurs in frequency

domain of digital filter.

sampling thus this method is suitable for

design of only band limitied filters such

Low pass and Band pass.

amplitude and phase response of

analog filter are affected but the

be preserved by selecting low sampling

magnitude

response

may

be

preserved by applying pre- warping

procedure.

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