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3.Sieve Analysis

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Govardhana

Dept of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering

National Institute of Technology Warangal

To determine the optimum size of the feed to

the process for maximum efficiency

made on the results of the laboratory tests.

Precautions

Small quantity of material was used for sieve

analysis.

It is essential that the sample is

representative of the bulk material

materials

Sieves are usually agitated to expose all the

particles to the openings

Particles were passes through sieve only when

they are in favourable position (irregular

particles)

Presence of "near-size particles which cause

"blinding", or obstruction of the sieve

apertures, and reduce the effective area of the

sieving medium

Blinding is most serious with test sieves of

very small aperture size

the amount of material put on the sieve (the

"charge") and the type of movement imparted

to the sieve

If input charge is more then more time is

required for sieving

The sample must contain enough particles to

be representative of the bulk, so a minimum

size of sample is specified

In some cases, the sample will have to be

subdivided into a number of charges if the

requirements for preventing over- loading of

the sieves are to be satisfied

which is the same as the number of square apertures

per square inch

75 m and greater are plain woven, while those

in cloths with apertures below 63 m may be

twilled

(b) twilled weave

aperture sizes smaller than about 20 m

Micromesh sieves are available in aperture sizes

from 2 m to 150 m and are made by

electroforming nickel in square and circular

mesh

Micro plate sieve

Fabricated by electro etching of nickel plate

The apertures are in the form of truncated

cones with the small circle uppermost

This reduces not only blinding but also the

percentage open area

Used at where high degree of

accuracy is required

Aperture size

Pitch

Note : (a) In general, the sieve range should be chosen such that no more than

about 5% of the sample is retained on the coarsest sieve, or passes the finest

sieve.

(b) Sieves can be procured in a range of diameters, depending on the particle

size and mass of material to be sieved. A common diameter for laboratory

sieves is 200 mm.

1.

The sieves chosen for the test are arranged in a stack, or nest, with the coarsest

sieve on the top and the finest at the bottom

2.

A tight-fitting pan or receiver is placed below the bottom sieve to receive the

final undersize, and a lid is placed on top of the coarsest sieve to prevent escape

of the sample

3.

The material to be tested is placed in the uppermost (coarsest sieve), and the

nest is then placed in a sieve shaker which vibrates the material in a vertical

plane/horizontal plane

4.

shaking, the undersize material falls through successive sieves until it is retained

on a sieve having apertures which are slightly smaller than the diameter of the

particles. In this way the sample is separated into size fractions

5.

After the required time, the nest is taken apart and the amount of material

retained on each sieve weighed

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The weight of material in each size range, e.g. 1.32 g of material

passed through the 250 m sieve, but was retained on the 180 m

sieve: the material therefore is in the size range -250 to + 180 m

The weight of material in each size range expressed as a

percentage of the total weight

The nominal aperture sizes of the sieves used in the test

The cumulative percentage of material passing through the sieves,

e.g. 87.5% of the material is less than 125 m in size

The cumulative percentage of material retained on the sieves

plotted graphically in order to assess their full

significance

There are many different ways of recording the

results

Important plot cumulative undersize (or versize)

against particle size

It suffers from the disadvantage that points in

the region of the finer aperture sizes tend to

become congested

It is not necessary to plot both cumulative

over size and undersize curves as they are

mirror images of each other

curves is the "median size" of the sample

median size : This refers to the

mid-point in the size

distribution -50% of the

particles are smaller than

this size and 50% are larger

particle size are S-shaped, leading to congested plots at

the extremities of the graph

The two most common methods, which are often applied

to comminution studies, where non-uniform size

distributions are obtained, are the Gates-GaudinSchuhmann (Schuhmann, 1940) and the Rosin-Rammler

(Rosin and Rammler, 1933-34) methods

In the Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann method, cumulative

undersize data are plotted against sieve aperture on loglog graph paper

As with most log-log plots, this very frequently leads to

a straight line, over a wide range size, particularly over

the finersizes

than it is from a curve

Plotting on a log-log scale considerably

expands the region below 50% in the cumulative

undersize curve, especially that below 25%

It does, however, severely contract the region

above 50%, and especially above 75%, which is

a major disadvantage of the method

The Rosin-Rammler method is often used for

representing the results of sieve analyses

performed on material which has been ground

in ball mills

below 38 m and below this size the operation

was referred as sub-sieving

The most widely used techniques are

Sedimentation

Elutriation

Microscopy

Laser diffraction

sample characteristics and conditions, and with size

where the distributions are not parallel

For spheres, many methods will give essentially the same

result but for irregular particles it is difficult to calculate

Some approximate factors for a given characteristic size

1985; Anon., 1989

sized is dispersed in a fluid and allowed to

settle under carefully controlled conditions

In elutriation techniques, samples are sized by

allowing the dispersed material to settle against

a rising fluid velocity

Both techniques separate the particles on the

basis of resistance to motion in a fluid

This resistance to motion determines the

terminal velocity which the particle attains as it

is allowed to fall in a fluid under the influence

of gravity

velocity is given by the equation derived by Stokes (1891)

V=

V = Terminal velocity of the particle (ms-1)

d = Particle diameter (m)

g = acceleration due to gravity (ms-2)

Ds = Particle density (kgm-3)

Df = Fluid density (kgm-3)

= Fluid viscosity (Ns m-2)

= 0.001 Ns m-2 for water at 20 C

non-spherical particles will also attain a terminal velocity,

but this velocity will be influenced by the shape of the

particles

Terminal velocity can be substituted in the stokes equation

and diameter of the particle can be calculated

Stokes' law is only valid in the region of laminar flow

Reynolds number

in using Stokes' law is not to exceed 5%

40 m dispersed in water

The lower limit may be taken as 1 m, below which the

settling times are too long, and also the effects of

unintentional disturbances

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