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FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
REPORT
SUBJECT CODE

BFC 21303

TEST CODE & TITLE

LAB 1 – IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS AND
MINERALS

COURSE CODE

BFF

TESTING DATE

3 JANUARY 2011

STUDENT NAME

MUHAMMAD RIDHWAN BIN KAMARUDIN (DF100038)

SECTION/GROUP

SECTION 1

GROUP MEMBER NAMES

1. MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018)
2.MUHAMMAD ZAMIR BIN SAMEON (DF100065)
3.MUKHLIS BIN ADAM (DF100080)
4. MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI (DF100093)
5. HANISAH BINTI HAMZAH (DF100052)

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/

IR. AGUS BIN SULAEMAN

TUTOR NAME
REPORT RECEIVED DATE

17 JANUARY 2011

MARKS

ATTENDANCE,

/15%

DISCIPLINE &
INVOLVEMENT

EXAMINER COMMENT

DATA ANALYSES

/20%

RESULT

/20%

DISCUSSION

/25%

CONCLUSION

/20%

TOTAL

/100%
RECEIVED STAMP

1.0

TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1A)

1.1

OBJECTIVE
To familiar with the physical properties of minerals in laboratory by hand.

1.2

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Students should able to identify various specimens of mineral by physical testing.
Students should able to identify minerals content in rock formation.

1.3

THEORY
Each mineral possesses certain physical properties or characteristics by which it may be
recognized or identified. Some are subjected to certain simple tests. Physical properties are
useful in mineral identification.
A mineral can be defined as a natural inorganic substance having a particular chemical
composition or range of composition, and a regular atomic structure to which its crystalline
from is related. To study rocks, it is necessary to know the rock forming minerals.

1.4

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
a) Minerals from Reference Set
b) Hardness Pens Set
c) Information & Hints
d) Eye dropper bottle with dilute HCI (appx. 10% solution)
e) Mineral Identification Chart

1.5

PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples according by doing few
physical tests and tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1.1 attached for:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
1.6

Name of mineral
Colour
Luster
Hardness
Reaction with acid
Others/usage

RESULT AND ANALYSIS
1.6.1 MINERALS NAMES
Refer to the samples prepared (Mineral from reference set).
1.6.2 COLOUR
The colour of the mineral is that seen by eye. Colour may be influenced by
impurities in the sample, the light in the room or strong reflective surfaces.
Therefore, colour is a general rather than specific indicator.
1.6.3 STREAK
Streak is the colour of a mineral in its powdered form. We can observe streak when
we scraped a mineral along a roughened surface such as unglazed pottery
(porcelain slab – streak plate), that mark left behind can be a characteristic feature
of the mineral. The streak is not necessarily the same as the colour of the mineral.

g. whereas they typically contain several different cations. the amount of light is a function of the state of the surface. Metallic Like polished metal Submetallic Less brilliant Dull e. This property is determined by rubbing the mineral to be identified against another mineral of known hardness. hydrogen sulphide is produced. This classification has been successful because mineral rarely contain more than one anion or polyanion. 1. An anion is a negatively charge atom.6. particularly on the anionic element or polyanionic group of element that occur in the mineral. chalk Viterous Like broken glass 1.6. Luster is described in terms of the degree of brightness.6 Relative hardness Minerals Mineralogy 10 Diamond Carbon 9 Corundum Alumina 8 Topaz Aluminium silicate 7 Quartz Silica 6 Feldspar Alkali silica 5 Apatite Calcium phosphate 4 Fluorite Calcium fluoride 3 Calcite Calcium carbonate 2 Gypsum Hydrated calcium sulphate 1 Talc Hydrated magnesium silicate REACTION WITH ACID When dilute hydrochloric acid (typically 10%) is capped on to some minerals a reaction takes place.5 HARDNESS The resistance of a mineral to abrasion (scratching) is termed hardness. . On calcite (CaCO3) bubbles of carbon dioxide are produced.6.7 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION Briefly describe and explain two (2) classifications for each type Mineral are classified on their chemistry.1. 1. called the Mohs scale developed by German Mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773 – 1839) which assigns relative hardnesses to several common and a few rare and precious minerals as given below. and a polyanion is strongly bound group of atoms consisting of a cation plus several anions (typically oxygen) that has anet negative charge. One will stretch the other (unless they have the same hardness). in some iron sulphide ores.4 LUSTRE Luster is reflected from the surface of a mineral. Geologists used a standard hardness scale.

8 CONCLUSION Base on our result. there have its significance of mineral samples in construction industry. tunnels. As a result.as the dominant polyanion. from the experiment we can identify the physical properties of minerals where it is very useful in minerals identification. These minerals are generally can be classified as :i) Oxides and Hydroxides ii) Carbonates and Sulfates iii) Halides 1. of which some 60% is feldspar and 12% quartz.  Silicate classification is based on the following types of linkage :i) Single chains – pyroxene ii) Double chains – amphiboles iii) Two dimensional sheets minerals – micas. engineers must be able to evaluate and distribute natural minerals present at site to incorporate during the design stage and chemicals characteristic or minerals and rock that make up the Earth’s crust. chlorites & clay minerals iv) Three dimensional frameworks – feldspar and quartz. It is necessary to study the minerals before get to now rocks. In these minerals the Si4+ cation is always surrounded by 4 oxygen in the form of a tetrahedron. Minerals and rock are important especially to civil engineers because in designing any new structures or underground works. opencasts and excavation.  Approximately 30% of all minerals are silicates and some geologist estimate that the crust has been about 95% silicate minerals.  Because Si and O are the most abundant elements in the Earth. this is the largest group of minerals and is divided into subgroups based on the degree of polymerization of the SiO4 tetrahedra. .Silicate Mineral  A group of minerals contains SiO444. Non Silicate Minerals  The non-silicate minerals are those minerals that do not contain silica tetrahedron.  Silicate minerals are complex in both chemistry and crystal structure but every silicate minerals contains a basic structural unit called the silica tetrahedron with crystal structure. knowledge of minerals is essential for engineers who deals with earth materials since minerals are partially responsible for the physical and mechanical properties of rock and soils encountered in mines. Beside that.

1 STREAK PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS IDENTIFICATION LUSTER HARDNESS REACTION WITH ACID NAME COLOUR Copper Ore (Chacopyrite) Gold Olive Grey 5Y 4/1 Submetallic 5 Graphite Silver Med.TABLE 1. Light Grey Metallic 2 Garnet Dark Chocolate Brown Pale Yellowish Brown 10YR 6/2 Submetallic 9 Hornblende (Amphibole) Black Greenish Grey 5GY 6/1 Metallic 4 Zinc Ore (Sphalerite) Dark Brown Greyish Yellow 5Y 8/4 Metallic 3 SKETCH .

Iron Ore (Hematite). Ferric Oxide Grey Silver Moderate Brown 5YR 4/4 Submetallic 8 Iron Ore (Limonite) Orange + yellow Dark Yellowish Orange 10YR 6/6 Dull 4 Talc White Metallic White Submetallic 2 Microclime (“Orthoclase”) Peach White Submetallic 6 Aluminium Ore (Bauxite) Light Brown Very Pale Orange 10YR 8/2 Dull 4 .

behaviour on weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is igneous or other types of rock.4 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS a) Igneous rock from reference set b) Igneous classification chart . identified and observed distinguishing features of igneous rock specimen in the laboratory. aphantic High feldspar or ferromagnesian content Absent of stratification or fossils Description Physical characteristics Structure Colour Massive – rock is uniform in appearance showing no banding or other structural features Pegmatite – the rock is very coarse grained Vesicular – the rock contains many cavities Crystallinty or degree of crystallization Holocrystalline – wholly crystalline Hemicrystalline – partly crystals and partly glass Holohyaline – wholly glass Texture Granularity. one should proceed from the general to the particular.0 TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK (LAB 1B) 2. prophyritic. but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class. 2. b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of igneous rocks for civil engineering application. phaneritic.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to recognize types of igneous rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide. The outstanding characteristics of the igneous rocks is given below. the size of crystals Fine-grained when particles are 1 mm or less in diameter Medium grained when particles are 1 – 5 mm or more in diameter Coarse grained when the particles are 5 mm or more in diameter 2. nothing firstly its colour.2.1 OBJECTIVE To recognize. massive structures Texture such as glassy. 2.3 THEORY a) Criteria for distinguishing igneous rock In describing any rock. c) Students should able to understand igneous rock forming on the earth. Rock Type Igneous b) c) Characteristic Interlocking grains.

Textural terms can be used to differentiate different intrusive phases of large plutons. Textural criteria are less critical in classifying intrusive rocks where the majority of minerals will be visible to the naked eye or at least using a hand lens. Explain the igneous rock classification according to the texture and chemical and mineral composition. Chemical classifications are preferred to classify volcanic rocks.magnesium content (example gabbro and basalt) ultrabasic igneous rocks with less than 45% silica. greater than 63% SiO2 (examples granite and rhyolite) intermediate igneous rocks containing between 52 . porphyry stocks and subvolcanic dikes.63% SiO2 (example andesite and dacite) basic igneous rocks have low silica 45 . the magma cools slowly. Plutonic rocks tend also to be less texturally varied and less prone to gaining structural fabrics. Igneous rocks can be classified according to chemical or mineralogical parameters.2.1 attached.5 PROCEDURE Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the igneous classification charts and tabulate the results observation in the Tables 1.6 RESULT AND ANALYSIS a) Rock name b) Texture c) Colour d) Mineral composition e) Chemical composition f) Origin g) Sketch / Others 2. Igneous rock are either formed Intrusive and Extrusive Rocks.52% and typically high iron . and as a result these rocks are coarse grained. Mineralogical classification is used most often to classify plutonic rocks. (examples phonolite and trachyte) . Briefly explain two (2) types of igneous rock There are various ways of classifying igneous rocks. 2. Surrounded by pre-existing rock (calledcountry rock). (examples picrite and komatiite) alkalic igneous rocks with 5 . Since the rocks cool very quickly they are fine grained. example "olivine-bearing picrite" or "orthoclase-phyric rhyolite".15% alkali (K2O + Na2O) content or with a molar ratio of alkali to silica greater than 1:6.2. Extrusive Igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks. for instance porphyritic margins to large intrusive bodies. Chemical with total alkali-silica content for volcanic rock classification used when modal or mineralogic data is unavailable:      acid igneous rocks containing a high silica content. The mineral grains in such rocks can generally be identified with the naked eye. The most significant are mineralogical and chemical composition and rock texture (geological environment). with phenocryst species used as a prefix. Intrusive Rocks Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet. 2. Extrusive Rock Extrusive igneous rocks are formed at the crust's surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle and crust.7 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION 1. magnifying glass or microscope.

The geologist and the engineers working on projects have to determine the origin of the igneous rock and the mineralogy of the rocks. granite is coarse rhyolite and gabbro is coarse basalt. The nature of the rock depends in part on the rate at which it cooled. or remained below ground as an intrusion. Igneous rocks are also classified as acid or basic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. normative quartz classifies a rock as silica-oversaturated. an example is rhyolite. These have diverse properties. basalt).8 CONCLUSION From our observation of the igneous rock in the laboratory. . A rock which originated as molten magma from beneath the earth’s surface and subsequently came to the surface as an extrusion.An idealized mineralogy (the normative mineralogy) can be calculated from the chemical composition. 2. For instance. or low (e. This magma can be melting is caused by one or more three processes : an increase in temperature. leaving little time for crystal growth. an example is nephelinite. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization.g. a described. most of them having formed beneath the surface of Earth’s crust. granite). Thus. depending on their composition and how they were formed. it is also having significance in construction industry. according to whether their silica content is high (e. either below the surface as intrusive ( plutonic ) rocks or on the surface as extrusive ( volcanic ) rocks. extrusive counterpart. a coarse-grained. enough time elapses for large crystals to form whereas extrusions cool quickly. as intrusions of magma slowly solidify. and the calculation is useful for rocks too fine-grained or too altered for identification of minerals that crystallized from the melt. A normative feldspathoid classifies a rock as silica-undersaturated.g. intrusive igneous rock has a fine-grained.

Biotite. Most Covite. even or porphyritic Light < 25% mineral dark Biotite – Granite Medium to coarse phaneric Light < 25% mineral dark IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK MINERAL COMPOSITION Hornblande. Most Covite. Quarts Hornblande.2. Biotite.1 ROCK NAME TEXTURE COLOUR Obsidian Aphanitic. Quarts Hornblande. Most Covite. Orthoclase.TABLE 1. Orthoclase. even or porphyritic Light < 25% mineral dark Rhyolite Aphanitic. Orthoclase. Biotite. Quarts CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ORIGIN Asid > 65% Plutonic Asid > 65% Plutonic Asid > 65% Volcanic SKETCH .

Plagioclase.55% Volcanic Basic 45% .55% Plutonic . Augite.Hornblende Syenite Medium to coarse phaneric 25% . Magnatic & Ilmenite Intermediate 55% 65% Volcanic Basic 45% . Plagioclase. Magnatic & Ilmenite Hornblande. Orthoclase. even or porphyritic Park minerals precominant Gabbro Medium to coarse phaneric Park minerals precominant Hornblande. Olivine. Augite.50% dark mineral Basalt Aphanitic. Magnatic & Ilmenite Hornblande. Olivine. Plagioclase Biotite.

IGNEOUS CLASSIFICATION CHART .

c) Students should able to understand sedimentary rock forming on the earth. chert carbonates. identified and observed distinguishing features of sedimentary rock specimen in the laboratory. If the rock is uniform. b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of sedimentary rocks for civil engineering application.4 Colour Massive. gypsum. bedded or cross bedded Note whether grain is uniform or uneven.0 TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK (LAB 1C) 3. Grains often rounded. The outstanding characteristics of the sedimentary rocks is given below. ripple marks and mud cracks. 3.3 THEORY (a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock In describing any rock. but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class. To be uneven.1 OBJECTIVE To recognize. one should proceed from the general to the particular. Presence of fossils. Presence of minerals of chemical or organic origin. Rock Type Sedimentary Characteristic Stratification and sorting of grains into layers according to their size. behaviour on weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is sedimentary or other types of rock. 3. such as halite. Fragmental texture. there must be marked contras between larger and smaller grains. Absence of easily weathered minerals such as biotite and augite.3. but may contain fossils. (b) Description Physical characteristics Structure Grain and constituents 3. EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS a) Sedimentary rock from reference set b) Sedimentary classification chart . Structures such as bedding. it is usually fine in grain and does not show definite fragments.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to recognize types of sedimentary rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide. nothing firstly its colour.

iv. Fortunately. 2. The environments include continental. calcite or limonite. carried by water seeping through the pore spaces of tight grains. deltas and oceans of all parts of the Earth. Cements are commonly made of quartz. This sorting is according to both size and composition. and fossil assemblages are developed in each environment. However.3. marine and shoreline. chemical and biological conditions that exist at the place of deposition. List the characteristics that distinguish sedimentary rocks from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Compaction and Cementation transforms the loose. and geologists actively study rivers. Transportation is done mostly by running water. .2. The weight of continually accumulating material helps compress and compact the buried sediment into rock.6 RESULT AND ANALYSIS a) Rock name b) Texture c) Mode of origin d) Composition of clastic rock e) Composition of crystalline rock f) Sketch / others 3. although their activity is somewhat restricted to special climate zones. Distinctive types of texture. Sedimentary rocks form at the Earth’s surface through interactions of the hydrologic system and the crust. Sorting that occurs during transportation is an important factor in the genesis of sedimentary rocks. Deposition occurs in a specific sedimentary environment.5 PROCEDURE Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the sedimentary classification charts and tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1. This process can take place chemically or physically. unconsolidated sediment into solid rock. Weathering is the interaction between the elements in the atmosphere and the rocks exposed at the Earth’s surface. Cementation occurs as mineral matter. Sedimentary rocks from by accumulation of sediment grains or by biologic or chemical precipitation from liquid water. ii. glaciers and wind can also transport sediment.2 attached. iii. composition. This environment reflects the physical. Explain all the genesis of sedimentary rocks. many of these processes are in operation today. is precipitated. and the entire sorting process is referred to as sedimentary differentiation.8 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION 1. 3. No magma needs to be present for metamorphic crystallization. This research indicates that the genesis of sedimentary rocks involves four major processes: i. Igneous rocks from by crystallization of a magma. internal structure.

A particularly important factor in the stability of sedimentary rock slopes is the direction and amount of slope or dip of bedding. manufacture of paper. For our forth sample is limestone where it is used mainly in the manufacture of Portland cement. crudely stratified layers. From our research. stable vertical slopes can usually be excavated in wellcemented. horizontally bedded sandstone and limestone. Bedding planes are zones of weakness sedimentary rock masses and failure may occur. fiberglass. we found that well-cemented sedimentary rocks generally adequate for most type of building foundations. iron oxide and etc. Used in the construction industry. damaging or destroying building constructed at the surface. Flatter slope angles must be cut for weaker rock types.3. It splits unevenly more or less parallel to bedding plane and may contain fossils. . lime. The soils and rocks overlying underground cavities produced by chemical dissolution may collapse into voids. For the third sample is argillaceous shale which it is well stratified in thin beds. glass and as the coating on many types of chewing gum. It can be a component of bricks and cement. we found the certain of their significance in construction industry such as conglomerate is a sedimentary rock with a variable hardness consisted of round or angular or mineral fragment cemented by silica. The most unfavorable situation occurs were bedding dips in down slope direction of a slope or excavation.9 CONCLUSION Based on our experiment for the sedimentary rocks. usually found in mostly thick. In slope construction. Special problems occur in lime stones and evaporate deposits because these rocks are soluble under the action of following groundwater. the production of lime. Tunneling and underground mining in sedimentary rocks are influenced by lithology and structure (orientation of bedding).

silty. carbonaceous and phospatic Clastic Rock Clastic Rock SKETCH . Calcareous. sandy.TABLE 1.2 IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK COMPOSITION MODE OF ORIGIN CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK ROCK NAME TEXTURE SHELL LIMESTONE Medium Grained 1 / 16 – 2mm Mechanical or Bioclastic DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE ( 1 / 256 – 1 / 16 mm ) Fine – Grained < 1 / 256 mm Mechanical or Bioclastic ARGILLACEOUS SHALE ( 1 / 256 – 1 / 16 mm ) Fine – Grained < 1 / 256 mm Mechanical or Bioclastic Quartz and feldspar Clayey. silty. sandy. silty. Ferruginous Not common Clastic Rock BITUMINOUS COAL Coarse – Grained ( > 2mm ) Mechanical or Bioclastic Altered plant material Clastic Rock Shell Clayey. carbonaceous. Calcareous phospatic Shell Clayey. Calcareous. sandy.2.

ferruginous calcareous Medium Grained 1 / 16 – 2mm Mechanical or Bioclastic Quartz Clayey. biochemical or chemically altered Siliceous Crystalline Rock Mechanical or Bioclastic Quartz and feldspar Clayey. Ferruginous Siliceous. sandy. silty. Ferruginous Siliceous. ferruginous calcareous ARGILLACEOUS SANDSTONE Clastic Rock Clastic Rock SKETCH . silty. sandy.ROCK NAME TEXTURE CHERT Coarse ( > 2mm ) Medium ( 1/16 to 2mm ) Fine ( < 1/16mm ) COMPOSITION OF ROCK CLASSIFICATION Hidrogenic. sandy. Ferruginous Not common Clastic Rock MODE OF ORIGIN CONGLOMERATED ( Breccia if angular ) Coarse – Grained ( > 2mm ) RED SANDSTONE Medium Grained 1 / 16 – 2mm Mechanical or Bioclastic Quartz Clayey. silty.

SEDIMENTARY CLASSIFICATION CHART .

Rock Type Metamorphic Characteristic Parallel orientation of mineral crystals. 4. identified and observed distinguishing features of metamorphic rock specimen in the laboratory.4 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS a) Metamorphic rock from reference set b) Metamorphic classification chart 4.3 THEORY (a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock In describing any rock. 4. Interlocking crystal. 4.5 PROCEDURE Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the metamorphic classification charts and tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1. one should proceed from the general to the particular.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to recognize types of metamorphic rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.0 TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC (LAB 1D) 4. Secondary cleavage independent bedding.3 attached. b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of metamorphic rocks for civil engineering application. behaviour on weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is metamorphic or other types of rock.4. has been the dominant factor. (b) Description Physical characteristics Structure and Grain Colour Decide whether the rock is best described as uniform fine grained.1 OBJECTIVE To recognize. The coarser grained granular rocks results from high-grade metamorphism in which great pressure from many directions. schistosity and slaty texture. Foliation. not from one direction only. but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class.6 RESULT AND ANALYSIS a) Rock name b) Structure c) Grain d) Mineral composition e) Parent Rock f) Metamorphism type g) Sketch / Others . 4. c) Students should able to understand metamorphic rock forming on the earth. nothing firstly its colour.2. medium fine grained or coarse grained. The outstanding characteristics of the metamorphic rocks is given below.

usually micas that are barely macroscopic. Besides that.This texture is formed by the parallel arrangement of platy minerals. There properties must be curtained prior to construction of each individual engineering project. In construction industry. iv. and the dark hands are commonly composed of hornblende and hiotite. The parallelism is often silky. Other common minerals present are quartz and amphiholes. slate. The name for the rock with this texture is slate. There are foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks.This is a coarsely foliated texture in which the minerals have been segregated into discontinuous hands. ii. Foliation is common to rocks affected by regional metamorphic compression typical of orogenic belts. In an unaltered and unfractured condition. Light-colored bands commonly contain quartz and feldspar. . A rock with a phyllitic texture is called a phyllite. Some of the minerals that make up those rocks also change properties as heat and pressure is applied. gneiss is due to physical and chemical similarity between many gneisses and plutonic igneous rocks some are used as building stones and other structural purposes. The individual mineral grains are macroscopic and impart a striped appearance to a hand specimen. 4. Slaty Cleavage . From our observation of the metamorphic rock. Accessory minerals are common and are useful in applying specific names to these rocks. What is foliation? Foliation is any penetrative planar fabric present in rocks.8 CONCLUSION Metamorphic rocks form from heat and pressure. A rock with a gneissic texture is called a gneiss. Phyllitic Texture . with few limitations for foundations. In gneiss the foliation is more typically represented by compositional banding due to segregation of mineral phases. schistosity and gneissic texture. the significance of metamorphic rock such as some schist’s has graphite and some are use as building stones. Foliated rock is also known as S-tectonite in sheared rock masses. 2. or crenulated. tunnels and dams. The slatey cleavage typical of slate is due to the preferred orientation of microscopic phyllosilicate crystals. iii. schist and gneiss. Distinguish between slaty cleavage. the behavior of metamorphic rock mass depends upon the degree and orientation of fractures the weathering characteristics. These bands range in thickness from 1 mm to several centimeters. In a way similar to the igneous and sedimentary rocks.4. None foliated metamorphic rock posses similar engineering properties to igneous rocks. i. each of which is dominated by one or two minerals. This feature is a property known as slaty cleavage.7 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION 1. Rocks exhibiting foliation include the typical sequence formed by the prograde metamorphism of mudrocks. it can be divided into two types of foliation. Gneissic Texture . The predominance of micaceous minerals imparts a sheen to the hand specimens. phyllite.This is a foliated texture resulting from the suhparallel to parallel orientation of platy minerals such as chlorite or micas. phyllitic. The average grain size of the minerals is generally smaller than in a gneiss.This texture is caused by the parallel orientation of microscopic grains. they can be considered to be strong materials. Schistose Texture . Polymorphs of minerals at different phases result and thus some minerals are only found in metamorphic rocks. A rock with schistose texture is called a schist. A schistose texture lies between the parallel platy appearance of phyllite and the distinct banding of gneissic texture. and the rock is characterized by a tendency to separate along parallel planes.

Mudstone tuff Dynamic Limestone Contract of regional Slade Cleared Very fine Clay mineral. Quartz.2. Ferromagnesians PARENT ROCK METAMORPHISM TYPE Granite. Regional Shale. Conglomerate. Sandstone Regional Shale. Mudstone or tuff Increasing Regional Mica Schist Schistose Medium to coarse Micas. Feldspar. Minor.4 IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK ROCK NAME STRUCTURE GRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION Gneiss Gneissic Medium to coarse Quartz. Quartzite Granulose Medium to coarse Quartz greatly predominant Quartz. Detrital micas. Chlorite White Marble Granulose Medium to course Calcite of dolomite greatly dominant SKETCH .TABLE 1. Arkose. Feldspar.

METAMORPHIC CLASSIFICATION CHART .