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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Digital signal processing has many advantages over analog signal processing. Digital
signals are more robust than analog signals with respect to temperature and process variations.
The accuracy in digital representations can be controlled better by changing the word length of
the signal. And DSP techniques can cancel the noise and interference while amplifying the
signal. In contrast, both signal and noise are amplified in analog signal processing. Further-more,
the DSP systems have high precision, high signal to noise ratio(SNR), repeatability and
flexibility. The two important features that distinguish DSP from other general purpose
computations are real time throughput requirement and data-driven property. The hardware
should be designed to meet the tight constraint of the real time processing where new input
samples need to be processed as they are received periodically from the signal source. The
second constraint is data driven property in which any sub tasks or computations in a DSP
system can be performed once when all inputs are available.
The goal of digital design is to maximize the performance of the system at low cost. The
performance is measured on the basis of amount of hardware circuitry and resources required,
the speed of execution, which depends on both throughput and clock rate; amount of power
dissipation etc.
The FIR filter is one of the fundamental processing elements in any DSP systems. FIR
filters are used in the DSP applications ranging from video and image processing to the wireless
communications. Sometimes the FIR filters are able to operate at high frequencies, sometimes at
low frequencies. Parallel, or block processing can be applied to the digital filters either to
increase the effective throughput of the original filter or reduce the power consumption of the
original filter.
For many years, numerous efforts have been made to reduce the implementation
complexity of signal processors, which is measured by the Area-Time, or AT product. The two
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main aspects of this complexity is that of computation and communication. For computation
complexity efforts have been focusing on minimizing the number of necessary operations,
mainly that of multiplications, and efficient implementation of such operations, which is
represented by signed digit algorithms such as modified Booth coding and CSD coding
algorithms. Although CSD coding algorithm has been proved to be optimal as for reduction of
the non-zero digits, it has found only very limited applications due the coding complexity and
the varying operation delay. For communication complexity reduction one attractive solution is
to use bit-serial architecture, which is distinguished by the efficient inner and inter chip
communications and small, tightly pipelined processing elements. Various bit-serial multipliers
have been built based on modified Booth algorithms.
In the 1970s, logic systems were created by building PCB boards comprising of TTL
logic chips. However, one the limitations was that as the functions got larger, the size of the logic
increased, but more importantly, the number of logic levels increased, thereby compromising the
speed of the design. Typically, designers used logic minimization techniques such as those based
on Karnaugh maps or QuineMcCluskey minimization, to create a sum of products expression
which could be created by generating the product terms using AND gates and summing them
using an OR gate. The concept of creating a structure to achieve implementation of this
functionality, was captured in the programmable array logic (PAL) device, introduced by
Monolithic Memories in 1978. The PAL comprised a programmable AND matrix connected to a
fixed OR matrix which allowed sum of products structures to be implemented directly from the
minimized expression.
The early FPGA structures comprised a Manhattan style architecture where each
individual cell comprised simple logic structures and cells were linked by programmable
connections. Thus the FPGA could be viewed as comprising the following:

programmable logic units that can be programmed to realize different digital

functions
programmable interconnect to allow different blocks to be connected together
finally programmable I/O pins.

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Thus FPGA is an integrated circuit that contains many large number of identical logic
cells that can be viewed as standard components. Each logic cell can independently take on any
one of a limited set of personalities. The individual cells are interconnected by a matrix of wires
and programmable switches. A user's design is implemented by specifying the simple logic
function for each cell and selectively closing the switches in the interconnect matrix. The array
of logic cells and interconnects form a fabric of basic building blocks for logic circuits. Complex
designs are created by combining these basic blocks to create the desired circuit. Conceptually it
can be considered as an array of Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs) that can be connected
together through a vast interconnection matrix to form complex digital circuits.
Recent development on Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, has presented a user
programmable, regular, register-rich architecture with abundant local and global connection
resources. This architecture is very attractive to bit-serial and bit-level systolic processing.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is used in numerous applications such as video
compression, digital set-top box, cable modems, digital versatile disk, portable video systems,
global positioning systems, bio medical processing transmission of systems etc. The field of DSP
has driven by the advances in DSP applications and in scaled very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI)
technologies [1]. For the past decades many efforts have been made to reduce the
implementation of the complexity of the signal processors, which is measured in Area-time. The
two main aspects of the complexity is that of computation and communication [2].
For computation complexity efforts have been focusing on minimizing the number of

necessary operations, mainly that of multiplications, and efficient implementation of such


operations, which is represented by signed digit algorithms such as modified Booth coding
[Homayoon Sam et.al] and CSD coding algorithms [3]. Although CSD coding algorithm has

been proved to be optimal as for reduction of the non-zero digits, it has found only very limited
applications due the coding complexity and the varying operation delay. For communication
complexity reduction one attractive solution is to use bit serial architecture [4], which is
distinguished by the efficient inner and inter chip communications and small, tightly pipelined
processing elements. The Bit-serial architecture offers a great advantage in comparison with bitparallel architectures as regards area minimization. Bit parallel designs process all of the bits of
an input simultaneously at a significant hardware cost. In contrast, a bit serial structure processes
the input one bit at a time, generally using the results of the operations on the first bits to
influence the processing of subsequent bits. The advantage enjoyed by the bit serial design is that
all of the bits pass through the same logic, resulting in a huge reduction in the required hardware.
Typically, the bit serial approach requires 1/mth of the hardware required for the equivalent m-bit
parallel design .
In synchronous design, the performance of these architectures is affected by the long
lines which are used to control the operators and the gated clocks. Long control lines can be
avoided by a local distribution of the control circuitry on the operator level. The non-zero digit
is avoided, because each nonzero digit of the fixed-point coefficients costs an adder, many
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researchers try to minimize the number of nonzero digits in the coefficient design phase [5].
Multipliers are expensive functional units to implement using FPGA technology, so virtually all
of the methods employ techniques that avoid the requirement for a full multiplier [6].
High-speed digital filtering applications (such as, sample rates in excess of 20MHz)
generally require the use of custom application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), because
programmable signal processors (such as DSPs) cannot accommodate such high sample rates
without an excessive amount of parallel processing. And for dedicated applications, the
flexibility of a filter with high-speed multipliers is not necessary. A new high-speed, CSD
coefficient FIR filter structure is presented by Zhangwen Tang, Jie Zhang and Hao Min et.al.
Through studying CSD coefficient filters, Booth multipliers and high-speed adders, we propose a
new programmable CSD encoding structure is proposed [7]. With this structure, we can
implement any order of high-speed FIR filters, and the critical path is almost not proportional to
the tap number. The New Synchronous pipelined Architecture [8] has the peculiar feature of
being self-timed and comprises a fully interlocked pipelining structure which aims at controlling
the different computational paths of a system design. The paper shows how useful this approach
is in terms of chip area, low-power design, and speed. Furthermore the architecture allows the
mapping of different dataflow graph into one graph by including router in the graph and routing
information in the data packet. This offers the freedom of reconfiguration within the
implementation and supports also rapid system prototyping. For the design of embedded
systems, to be applied for control purposes in mechatronic systems, this new architecture
represents a novel approach, especially as regards the distribution of controllers and data
information. The implementation of the platform is done on the FPGA. The FPGAs are
increasingly used for a variety of computationally intensive applications, mainly in the field of
DSP and communications. Due to rapid increase in the technology, current generation of FPGAs
contain very high number of CLBs (Configurable Logic block). The high NRE (Non-Recurring
Engineering) cost and long development time for ASICs make FPGA more attractive [9]. A
serial data stream of data has better match with the structure of an FPGA [10]. Thus in an actual
implementation, the speed of the full-serial circuit have lower cost in area, runs more faster than
the need of the application.

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CHAPTER 3
FIR FILTERS BASICS
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DSP
The processing of analogue electrical signals and digital data from one form to another is
fundamental to many electronic circuits and systems. Both analogue (voltage and current) signals
and digital (logic value) data can be processed by many types of circuits, and the task of finding
the right design is a sometimes confusing but normal part of the design process. It depends on
identifying the benefits and limitations of the possible implementations to select the most
appropriate solution for the particular scenario.
ASP and DSP each has its own advantages and disadvantages:
3.1.1 ANALOGUE IMPLEMENTATION:
(a)Advantages:
high bandwidth (from DC up to high signal frequencies)
high resolution
ease of design
good approach for simpler design solutions
(b)Disadvantages:
component value change occurs with component aging
component value change occurs with temperature variations
behavior variance between manufactured circuits due to component
tolerances
difficult to change circuit operation
3.1.2 DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION:
(a)Advantages:
programmable and configurable solution (either programmed in software
on a processor or configured in hardware on a CPLD/FPGA)
operation insensitive to temperature variations
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precise behavior (no behavior variance due to varying component


tolerances)
can implement algorithms that cannot be implemented in analogue
ease of upgrading and modifying the design
(b)Disadvantages:
implementation issues due to issues related to numerical calculations
requires high-performance digital processing
design complexity
higher cost
3.2 DIGITAL FILTERS
A filter is a circuit that performs some type of signal processing on a frequency
dependent basis. These filters can be realized in both analogue and digital circuits. Digital filters
receive one or more discrete time signals (signal samples) and modify these signals to produce
one or more outputs, and filters will pass or reject frequencies based on their required operation:
1. Low-pass filters will pass low-frequency signals but reject high-frequency signals.
2. High-pass filters will pass high-frequency signals but reject low-frequency signals.
A filter is used to modify an input signal in order to facilitate further processing. A digital
filter works on a digital input (a sequence of numbers, resulting from sampling and quantizing an
analog signal) and produces a digital output. The filter coefficients which represents the impulse
response of the proposed filter design. These coefficients, in linear convolution with the input
sequence will result in the desired output. The linear convolution process can be represented as:

( eq: 3.1 )
Here, y[n] signifies the output of the filter, x[n] is the digital input to the filter. The impulse
response of the filter is given by f[k] and the operator * denotes the convolution operation. It
can be seen that the extent of the summation is governed by k, which denotes the extent of the
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impulse response of the filter. Therefore, if the filter has an infinite impulse response, the
summation extends to infinity and the filter is said to be an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter.
A filter with a finite value for k is said to be a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. It can be
inferred that the output of an FIR filter remains dependant only on the inputs and the coefficients.
Therefore, the filter detailed above is an LTI filter. Equation (3.1) can be re-written as follows,
for an order of L, as follows:

(eq: 3.2)

Fig 3.1: Schematic of an LTI filter of order L.

The coefficients of an FIR filter, as mentioned earlier, denote the impulse response of the filter. It
is imperative for any system implementation of such a filter to use a number format that
represents the coefficients to as much precision as allowed by the resource constraints.
3.2.1 INFINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE FILTER (IIR):
The infinite impulse response (IIR) filter is a recursive filter in that the output from the
filter is computed by using the current and previous inputs and previous outputs. Because the
filter uses previous values of the output, there is feedback of the output in the filter structure. The
design of the IIR filter is based on identifying the pulse transfer function G(z) that satisfies the
requirements of the filter specification. This can be undertaken either by developing an analogue

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prototype and then transforming it to the pulse transfer function, or by designing directly in
digital. Fig.3.2 shows typical IIR filter architecture.

Fig:3.2: Typical Architecture of IIR Filter

3.2.2.FINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE FILTERS (FIR)


The finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a non-recursive filter in that the output from the filter
is computed by using the current and previous inputs. It does not use previous values of the
output, so there is no feedback in the filter structure. The design of the FIR filter is based on
identifying the pulse transfer function G(z) that satisfies the requirements of the filter
specification. This can be undertaken either by developing an analogue prototype and then
transforming this to the pulse transfer function, or by designing directly in digital. A nonrecursive filter is always stable, and the amplitude and phase characteristics can be arbitrarily
specified. However, a non-recursive filter generally requires more memory and arithmetic
operations than a recursive filter equivalent. Fig:3.3 shows typical FIR filter architecture.
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Fig:3.3: Typical FIR filter architecture

Here, the filter input is applied to a sequence of sample delays (z -1), and the outputs from each
delay (and the input itself) are applied to the inputs of multipliers. Each multiplier has a
coefficient set by the filter requirements. The outputs from each multiplier are then applied to the
inputs of an adder, and the filter output is then taken from the output of the adder.

3.3 DIFFERENT OPERATIONS IN DIGITAL FILTERS


There are different operations for increasing the performance of the digital filters, they
are :
1. Pipelining transformation
2. Parallel Transformation
Pipelining transformation leads in the reduction of the critical path, which results either
increase in the clock speed or sample speed or to reduce power consumption at same speed. For

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parallel processing, on the other hand, multiple outputs are computed in parallel in a clock period
It can also used for the reduction in the power consumption.

Fig: 3.4: (a) Original Datapath (b)2 level pipelined architecture (c) 2-level parallel processing structure

Consider the fig: 3.4(a) ,where computation time of the of the critical path is 2T A .the
fig:3.4(b) shows the 2-level pipelined structure ,where latch 1 is placed between 2 adders and
hence the critical path is reduced half (TA). Its 2-level pipelined architecture is showed in
fig:3.4(c), here the same hardware is duplicated so that 2 inputs can be processed at the same
time .thus the sampling rate is increased by two.
The another type of transformation technique used in the Digital filters are Unfolding
Technique. The unfolding can be defined as the transformation technique that can applied to the
DSP program to create a new program describing more than one iteration of the original program
,ie unfolding a DSP program by a unfolding factor of J creates a new program that describes J
consecutive iterations of the original program. It is also referred as loop unrolling.
For example consider the DSP program,
y(n)=a y(n-9)+x(n)

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Replacing the index n with 2k, results in


y(2k)= a y(2k-9)+x(2k)

(eqn: 3.4)

Similarly, replace the index with 2k+1, results in


y(2k+1)= a y(2k-8)+x(2k+1)

(eqn: 3.5)

Eqns 3.4 and 3.5 describes the 2-folded version of the eqn: 3.3 of the DSP program. It is also
noted by the equations that the unfolding operation is equivalent to the parallel operation. The
parallel operations can be classified into two:
1. Word-level-parallel processing
2. Bit-level parallel processing
The bit level parallel processing and digit-serial processing can be obtained from the bit-serial
architecture .Similar transformation can be done for the Word-level parallel processing.
(a)Bit-serial processing:
Here one bit is processed per clock cycle and complete word is processed in W clock
cycles which is shown in figure 3.5

Fig:3.5: Bit serial processing of the wordlength W=6

(b)Bit-parallel processing:
As per fig: 3.6, the one word of W bits is processed per clock cycle
(c) Digit-serial processing:
Here N bits are processed per clock cycle and word is processed in W/N clock cycles.
The parameter N is referred to as digit size.( shown in fig:3.7)

Fig:3.6:bit-parallel architecture

fig:3.7:digit serial architecture

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CHAPTER 4
NUMBER REPRESENTATIONS

Fig:4.1 Survey of Number representations

4.1 REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS


All signal processing applications deal with numbers. Usually in these applications an
analog signal is first digitized and then processed. The discrete number is represented and stored
in N bits. Let this N-bit number be a

N - 1

. . .a2a1a0. This may be treated as signed or unsigned.

There are several ways of representing a value in these N bits. When the number is unsigned then
all the N bits are used to express its magnitude. For signed numbers, the representation must
have a way to store the sign along with the magnitude.
There are several representations for signed numbers . Some of them are ones
complement, sign magnitude, canonic sign digit (CSD), and twos complement. In digital system
design the last two representations are normally used.

4.1.1 SIGNED MAGNITUDE


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In signed magnitude systems, the n 1 lower significant bits represent the magnitude,
and the msb, xn bit, represents the sign. In the signed magnitude notation, the magnitude of the
word is decided by the three lower significant bits, and the sign determined by the sign bit, i.e.
msb. However, this representation presents a number of problems. First, there are two
representations of 0 which must be resolved by any hardware system, particularly if 0 is used to
trigger any event, e.g. checking equality of numbers. As equality is normally achieved by
checking bit-by-bit, this complicates the hardware. Lastly, operations such as subtraction are
more complex, as there is no way to check the sign of the resulting value, without checking the
size of the numbers and organizing accordingly.
4.1.2 ONES COMPLEMENT
In ones complement systems, the inverse of the number is obtained by inverting
operation.
4.1.3 TWOS COMPLEMENT
In twos complement representation of a signed number a

N - 1

. . .a2a1a0, the most

significant bit (MSB) aN -1 represents the sign of the number. If a is positive, the sign bit a N -1 is
zero, and the remaining bits represent the magnitude of the number:

(eqn.4.1)
Therefore the twos complement implementation of an N-bit positive number is equivalent to the
(N-1)-bit unsigned value of the number. In this representation, 0 is considered as a positive
number. The range of positive numbers that can be represented in N bits is from 0 to (2N-1-1).
For negative numbers, theMSB aN -1 has a negative weight and all the other bits have positive
weight. A closed-form expression of a twos complement negative number is:

(eqn:4.2)

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(eqn:4.3)
It is also interesting to observe an unsigned equivalent of negative twos complement numbers.
Many SW and HW simulation tools display all numbers as unsigned numbers. While displaying
numbers these tools assign positive weights to all the bits of the number. The equivalent
unsigned representation of negative numbers is given by:
(eqn: 4.4)
where |a| is equal to the absolute value of the negative number a.

4.1.4 CANONIC SIGNED DIGIT NUMBER(CSD)


Signed Digit Number is represented as tertary values {-1,1,0}. and having the canonical
property that -1 and 1 are always followed by 0 in CSD strings.It is very useful in carry free
adders or multipliers with less complexity, since efforts of the multiplication can be estimated
through number of non zero elements.
The following are the properties of CSD numbers:

No 2 consecutive bits in a CSD number are non-zero.


The CSD representation of a number contains the minimum possible number of
non-zero bits, thus the name canonic.

The CSD representation of a number is unique.

CSD numbers cover the range (-4/3,4/3), out of which the values in the range [1,1) are of greatest interest.

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Among the W-bit CSD numbers in the range [-1,1), the average number of nonzero bits is W/3 + 1/9 + O(2-W). Hence, on average, CSD numbers contains about 33%
fewer non-zero bits than twos complement numbers.

Conversion of W-bit number to CSD format:


An algorithm for computing the CSD format of a W-bit number is given as:
Let A = aW-1. aW-2 a1. a0 be a 2s complement number and its CSD representation is notation
is aW-1. aW-2 a1. a0. The conversion is illustrated for using following iterative algorithm:
Algorithm to obtain CSD representation is given as:
a-1 = 0;
-1 = 0;
aW = aW-1;
for (i = 0 to W-1)
{
qi = ai xor ai-1;
i = i-1qi;
ai = (1 - 2ai+1) i;
}
I
ai

i
1 - 2ai+1
ai

W
1

W-1
1
1
0
-1
0

0
1
1
-1
-1

1
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
-1
0

1
1
1
-1
-1

0
0
0
-1
1

0
0
0
1
0

1
1
1
1
-1

0
1
0
0
-1
1

-1

Table 1 :Example for the conversion of the number 1.01110011 to its CSD representation

CHAPTER 5

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PIPELINED BIT SERIAL ARCHITECTURE


5.1 GENERAL BIT SERIAL ARCHITECTURE
In a bit-serial implementation, each delay element of the filter is replaced by an M-stage
single-bit shift register, as shown in Figure 5.1, where M is the wordlength of the filter. If the
coefficient value is an integer power-of-two, the multiplier can be replaced by a barrel shifter.
There is a more efficient method, however, for implementing a coefficient value which is an
integer power-of-two. It will be shown later that moving the adder k places to the right achieves
the same effect as would be achieved by a coefficient value of 2-k.

Fig:5.1: General Structure of Bit Serial Architecture

Consider the bit-serial summation of Sn and Un to produce Vn, as shown in Figure 2,


where Sn, Un, and Vn are given by
M 1

Sn=

m=0

(m)2m,

sn(m)=0,1

(eqn:5.1)

(m)2m,

un(m)=0,1

(eqn:5.2)

(m)2m,

vn(m)=0,1

(eqn:5.3)

M 1

Un=

m=0

M 1

Vn=

m=0

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Fig: 5.2: Bit Serial Summation, vn(m - k) = sn(m) + un(m-k)


The variables sn(m), un(m)and vn(m) and do not exist for m < 0 and m > M -1. In Fig:5.2,
)

un(m) is clocked into a shift register, least significant bit first, and sn(m) is added to u(m- k) at the stage
kth

producing v(m- k). The adder is a single-bit full adder. Hence,

vn(m) = un(m) + sn(m+k)

(eqn:5.4)

The requirements for the existence of un(m), vn(m), and sn(m + k), and the possibility of a carry
being generated are ignored at this moment; these will be discussed in the next subsection.
Multiplying both sides of (4) by 2m and summing from m = 0 to M- 1, we have
Suppose that Sn is derived from an R-bit data word Dn, where
M 1 +k

Vn = Un + 2

-k

sn (m) 2

m=k

(eqn:5.5)

M1
-k

Vn = Un + 2 Sn-

sn(m)2 m

m=0

Vn = Un + 2-k Sn, if sn(m)=0 for m=0... k-1

(eqn:5.6)

(eqn:5.7)

Suppose that Sn is derived from an R-bit data word Dn, where

M 1

Dn=

m= M R

r (m) 2

,r(m)=0,1 and R M

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Sn = Dn, then it is necessary that sn(m) = 0 form m = 0M-R-1. Thus, if M-R

k, then Vn

= Un + 2-k Sn We shall refer to R as the input signal wordlength. Note that k is the equivalent
coefficient wordlength. Hence, if the signal wordlength plus the coefficient wordlength is
less than or equal to the internal wordlength of the filter, the coefficient multiplier 2 -k can be
implemented using (4).
5.2 BIT SERIAL PIPELINED ARCHITECTURE
A pipelinable bit-serial multiplier using Canonic Signed Digit, or CSD code to represent
constant coefficients is introduced. Bit-serial operation processes the input one bit at a time.
Therefore bit-serial architecture simplifies the hardware since all of the bits pass through a single
bit wide module. Moreover, bit-serial architecture can operate at a higher clock frequency than
bit-parallel architecture since it takes no account of carry propagation chain. In the case of
FPGAs, signal routing delay is significant factor and it is not too much to say that a delay
determines the system performance. Bit-serial architecture tends to have very localized routing,
often to only a few local destinations. In contrast, the bit-parallel architecture requires many
modules, so the routing resources often are insufficient (low utilization) or the resulting design is
to slow (large routing delay). The bit-serial architecture has more efficiency in a FPGA which
has limited routing resource. In add operation, two input data are shifted from LSB (Least
Significant Bit) at the same time. The carry is stored in register and then fed back to the carry
input of full adder. Unlike bit-parallel operation, carry propagation does not occur (carry is
saved). The output of the circuit is stored in registers.
CSD coding technique, similar to Booth coding, is a signed digit notation, in which each
digit is to have three possible values: {1,0, l}, where 1 represent -1. CSD code has the property
that it is unique (canonic) and requires minimal number of non-zero digit in its representation[4].
It takes a value-dependent steps of iterations to convert a twos complement code or any other
non signed digit code) into CSD code. This has been the main obstacle for its application in
multiplier designs. For fixed coefficient multiplication, like most appear in digital filters, the
conversion can be carried out in advance and the coefficients can be considered as a constant
vector of digit from the triple {1,0,1}.

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Assume without losing generality, that both the data and coefficients before CSD coding
are in n-bit twos compliment representation, as a fractional number in the range of -1 < x < 1, a
multiplication will generate a result of precision of 2n - 1 bits, out of these bits, only n Most
Significant Bit, or MSB, will be taken to represent a rounded production in a pipelined
multiplier.

Fig:5.3: Bit serial pipeline multiplier

The initial bit-serial multiplier to perform multiplication by a CSD coded coefficient can
be derived, where the coefficient bits are applied parallel in a Least Significant Bits, LSB, first
(to leftmost module and data in a LSB first stream, Fig:5.1. The coefficient bits are replaced by
CSD coded bits, as shown in Fig:5.2 for the coefficient bits to be l, 0 and 1 respectively.
Carry set/reset and sign extension, obtained with an extra flip-flop, are provided to allow two's
complement computation. On the k-th step, each accumulated partial product is truncated to k - 1
bits while the corresponding carries are saved to next accumulation. Rounding is obtained by
adding an offset 1 at the (n - 1)-th LSB and truncating at the corresponding step.

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If the modules are cascaded through so --c si terminals except the final stage(fig5.4),
where the final product comes out of the Is terminal, the multiplier will have a desirable n bittime latency, or wordlength latency but the performance will be degraded by the partial sum
propagation delay if the CSD coded coefficients has relatively more non-zero bits. An alternative
is to connect the modules through 1s -, si terminals to allow an increased bit rate, and insert
registers to both the data and synchronizing signal path to align the partial product accumulation.
This will also double the latency of the multiplier.

Fig:5.4: Bit-serial modules for CSD coded coefficient multiplier

5.3 OPERATION MODULES IN FIR FILTER DESIGN


A prominent property of FIR filters is that linear phase response can be obtained by
imposing symmetry or anti-symmetry conditions on the coefficients:
h ( i ) = h ( N - 1 - i ) i = 0 , 1 , ..., N 1

(eqn. 5.9)

This linear phase character has also the advantages in implementation that only half
number of the multipliers are required since the system function can be written, for N even and
odd respectively, as:

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Fig:5.5: a(x y )z

-l

operator

Fig:5. 6: a(x- y )z

-l

operator

Direct employment of bit-serial multiplier described above to FIR filter design will not
only cause some hardware redundancy, but also introduce some extra latency in the processing. It
is obvious, as can been seen in above equations, that most efficient implementation of FIR filter
will need a module to calculated a(x y )z - l, as Fig:5.3 shows. The CSD multiplier modules in
above section can ke further extended to include operation of 1 * (x+ y), 1 * (x + y) and 1 * (x y). An l+(x-y) module is shown in Fig:4. l*(x+y) modules are similar except minor differences
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in carry set/reset circuitry. -1* (x - y) module is not necessary since -1*(x+y) .= 1 * (y - x), the
operation can be accomplished by just exchanging the x,y terminals of 1 * (x - y) module.
Note that signal applied to these module has to be scale down by half to prevent overflow
of the addition, before the multiplication takes place.
Bit-serial multiplier can produce a 2N-bit double precision product in every N clock
cycles for N-bit inputs. Bit-serial double precision data is represented by two wires. In both
cases, the output is bit-serial, also with the LSB. This structure is suited for FPGAs because of its
routing to nearest neighbors with inputs and outputs. The number of cells is proportional to the
input data width.

5.4 IMPLEMENTATION OVER FPGA


Field-programmable Gate Arrays(FPGAs) emerged as simple glue logic technology,
providing programmable connectivity between major components where the programmability
was based on either antifuse, EPROM or SRAM technologies (Maxfield 2004). An FPGA is a
device that consists of thousands or even millions of transistors connected to perform logic
functions. They perform functions from simple addition and subtraction to complex digital
filtering and error detection and correction. Aircraft, automobiles, radar, missiles, and computers
are just some of the systems that use FPGAs. A main benefit to using FPGAs is that design
change(s) need not have an impact on the external hardware. Under certain circumstances, an
FPGA design change can affect the external hardware (i.e., printed wiring board), but for the
most part, this is not the case.
The architecture is based on a regular array of basic programmable logic cells (LC) and a
programmable interconnect matrix surrounding the logic cells . The array of basic programmable
logic cells and programmable interconnect matrix form the core of the FPGA. This is surrounded
by programmable I/O cells. The programmable interconnect is placed in routing channels. The
specific design details within each of the main functions (logic cells, programmable interconnect,
and programmable I/O) will vary among vendors.

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Fig:5.7: Generic FPGA Architecture

The high-density of current FPGAs make the construction of custom DSP (CDSP) singlechip systems possible. The advantages of this approach are multiple:

A higher speed with respect to the general-purpose DSP solution can be


obtained.

The FPGA reprogrammability can be exploited to construct reconfigurable


systems.

Future DSP ASICs can be fast-prototyped, different design options can be


emulated, and exhaustive or heterogeneous simulations can be avoided.

Off-chip interconnections and external components like FIFOs or RAMs can be


integrated in the embedded application.

Hard-wired DSP cores can be simplified and optimised for a given application
(data rate and precision, peculiarities of the coefficient, etc.).
A custom solution also allows the designer to select different types of arithmetic and

styles of implementations. In several cases, it is senseless to use conventional bit-parallel


circuits: they have an important cost in area and run faster than the speed needed by the
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application. In this way, digit-serial architectures become an important alternative to efficiently


implementing a wide range of real-time signal processing circuits. The digit-serial approach
allows the designer to select an intermediate area-time figure, situated between the bit-parallel
and the bit-serial implementations. In addition, a serial stream of data matches better with the
structure of an FPGA; thus, in an actual implementation, the speed of a full serial circuit is not N
times lower than the equivalent N-bit parallel approach.
The efficiency of the bit serial architecture is demonstrated by implementation on
commercially available field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), in particular the Xilinx
XC3100 series components. This approach is illustrated in Fig:5.8, where the interconnection
pattern for a typical filter tap is shown. Each block corresponds to a single configurable logic
block (CLB), and most data signals are routed locally. Control signals for implementing sign
extension are distributed using the horizontal long lines of the array (denoted by the dotted lines)
and are applied to the input signal in the centrally located control block. Automatic generation of
the FPGA configuration information starting from the specification of the filter response is
straightforward, as only the interconnection pattern of the adder and delay element inputs change
with filter characteristics.

Fig: 5.8: FPGA Filter Tap Implementation

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CHAPTER 6
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

Table 2: Implementation results

All circuits exhibit a similar throughput (Fig. 6.1). The achieved sample frequency goes
from 6MHz in the bit-serial version to 25MHz in the bit-parallel one. The filter clock rates for
the digit-size 1, 2 and 4 bits are shown in Fig.6.2 and the main difference among design
operation is considered at small digits. The canonical forms always achieve higher frequency
than the inverted ones. Furthermore, maximum values correspond to the anti-symmetrical and
symmetrical canonical forms, since their occupation level is lower than it is in the other
structure. On the other hand, if greater digit-sizes are considered those differences disappear. The
higher delay of these global lines is masked for dense FPGA occupations. In that case, even local
wires can reach higher interconnection delay than global ones. The results shows the actual
properties of FPGA implementations: the smaller the circuit, the faster the clock rate.

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Fig:6.1: throughput vs digit size

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Fig:6.2:filter clock rate vs digit size

The relative speedup in each circuit with respect to its bit-serial version is depicted in Fig.
6.3. The speed increment achieved with the bit-parallel versions goes from 3 times higher than
the bit-serial one in the anti-symmetric canonical structure to 4 times higher in the symmetric
inverted topology. ie. the area is reduced by nearly a half when symmetrical structures are used.
In the small digit-size cases the canonical forms filters make use of less FPGA resources than the
inverted form ones. That difference in the occupation of the chip is mainly caused by the
registers used in the implementation of the delays. In the inverted form, the triple precision data
has to be delayed, and the number of registers needed are given by (P-1)*3*(M-1). Meanwhile,
in the canonical one, just the input data has to be delayed, resulting in a register count of 8*(M1). be 8 times higher. This effect is the consequence of the influence of the routing process in the
FPGA. In high digit-size circuits, a large set of paths exists, and each of them can become the
critical path after the implementation. The limited resources of interconnection in the FPGA
make it difficult for the router to assign a low delay value to each of these paths. On the contrary,
relatively few paths determine the delay in serial circuits.

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Fig:6.3:relative speed

fig:6.4:A-T vs Digit size

In Fig.6.4 the area-time product of the circuits for each digit-size is shown. The area is
measured as the number of LEs, and the time is the inverse of the sample period or throughput.
As can be seen the canonical forms are more efficient than the inverted ones for all digit-sizes.
Considering only the canonical form filters, those with 2 bits digit-size have better area-time
product than those with 1 and 4 bits digitsize have. If inverted forms are considered it does not
happen in this way, they are more efficient according to digit-size increases.
6.1 PERFORMANCE MEASURES
A DSP implementation is subject to various performance measures. These are important
for comparing design tradeoffs.
6.1.1 ITERATION PERIOD
For a single-rate signal processing system, an iteration of the algorithm acquires a sample
from an A/D converter and performs a set of operations to produce a corresponding output
sample. The computation of this output sample may depend on current and previous input
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samples, and in a recursive system the earlier output samples are also used in this calculation.
The time it takes the system to compute all the operations in one iteration of an algorithm is
called the iteration period. It is measured in time units or in number of cycles. For a generic
digital system, the relationship between the sampling frequency fs and the circuit clock
frequency fc is important.
In designs where fc>fs, the iteration period is measured in terms of the number of clock
cycles required to compute one output sample. This definition can be trivially extended for multirate systems.
6.1.2 SAMPLING PERIOD AND THROUGHPUT
The sampling period Ts is defined as the average time between two successive data
samples. The period specifies the number of samples per second of any signal. The sampling rate
or frequency (fs=1/Ts) requirement is specific to an application and subsequently constrains the
designer to produce hardware that can process the data that is input to the system at this rate.
Often this constraint requires the designer to minimize critical path delays. They can be reduced
by using more optimized computational units or by adding pipelining delays in the logic (see
later). The pipelining delays add latency in the design. In designs where fs<fc, the digital
designer explores avenues of resource sharing for optimal reuse of computational blocks.
6.1.3 LATENCY
Latency is defined as the time delay for the algorithm to produce an output y[n] in
response to an input x[n]. In many applications the data is processed in batches. First the data is
acquired in a buffer and then it is input for processing. This acquisition of data adds further
latency in producing corresponding outputs for a given set of inputs. Beside algorithmic delays,
pipelining registers are the main source of latency in an FDA. In DSP applications, minimization
of the critical path is usually considered to be more important than reducing latency. There is
usually an inverse relationship between critical path and latency. In order to reduce the critical

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path, pipelining registers are added that result in an increase in latency of the design. Reducing a
critical path helps in meeting the sampling requirement of a design.

6.1.4 POWER DISSIPATION


Power is another critical performance parameter in digital design. The subject of
designing for low power use is gaining more importance with the trend towards more handheld
computing platforms as consumer devices. There are two classes of power dissipation in a digital
circuit, static and dynamic. Static power dissipation is due to the leakage current in digital logic,
while dynamic power dissipation is due to all the switching activity. It is the dynamic power that
constitutes the major portion of power dissipation in a design. Dynamic power dissipation is
design-specific whereas static power dissipation depends on technology.
In an FPGA, the static power dissipation is due to the leakage current through reversedbiased diodes. On the same FPGA, the use of dynamic power depends on the clock frequency,
the supply voltage, switching activity, and resource utilization. For example, the dynamic power
consumption Pd in a CMOS circuit is:

Pd=C V2DDf

(eqn.6.1)

where a and C are, respectively, switching activity and physical capacitance of the design, VDD
is the supply voltage and f is the clock frequency. Power is a major design consideration
especially for battery-operated devices.
In many digital system processing (DSP) and communication algorithms a large
proportion of multiplications are by constant numbers. For example, the finite impulse response
(FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are realized by difference equations with
constant coefficients. In image compression, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and inverse
discrete cosine transform (IDCT) are computed using data that is multiplied by cosine values that
have been pre-computed and implemented as multiplication by constants. The same is the case
for fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) computation. For fully
dedicated architecture (FDA), where multiplication by a constant is mapped on a dedicated
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multiplier, the complexity of a general purpose multiplier is not required. The binary
representation of a constant clearly shows the non-zero bits that require the generation of
respective partial products (PPs) whereas the bits that are zero in the representation can be
ignored for the PP generation operation. Representing the constant in canonic sign digit (CSD)
form can further reduce the number of partial products as the CSD representation of a number
has minimum number of non-zero bits. All the constant multipliers in an algorithm are in doubleprecision floating-point format. These numbers are first converted to appropriate fixed-point
format. In the case of hardware mapping of the algorithm as FDA, these numbers in fixed-point
format are then converted into CSD representation.

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CONCLUSIONS
For years numerous efforts have been made to reduce the implementation complexity of
signal processors. One of the method, A pipelinable bit-serial multiplier using Canonic Signed
Digit or CSD code, is proposed, which is to represent constant coefficients is introduced to
reduce the implementation complexity of signal processors, which is measured by the AreaTime, or AT product. This architecture has the peculiar feature of being self-timed and comprises
a fully interlocked pipelining structure which aims at controlling the different computational
paths of a system design. We have shown how useful this approach is in terms of chip area, lowpower design, and speed. Furthermore the architecture allows the mapping of different dataflow
graph into one graph by including router in the graph and routing information in the data packet.
This offers the freedom of reconfiguration within the implementation and supports also rapid
system prototyping. For the design of embedded systems, to be applied for control purposes in
mechatronic systems, this new architecture represents a novel approach, especially as regards the
distribution of controllers and data information. One example is the automotive industry where
performance, space, cost, size, and weight are of vital importance. With the architecture
described it is possible to implement different controllers on different hierarchical levels (e.g., in
cascade control) on one or more chips in a transparent way. In this seminar, it is shown that
FPGA architecture is an ideal vehicle for thus optimized bit-serial processing. Thus for the
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Communication the FPGAs are being increasingly used for
a variety of computationally intensive applications.

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REFERENCES
[1] Keshab K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing systems Design and Implementation, 2nd
ed., Chap 13, pp. 477-518.
[2] Shousheng He and Mats Torkelson, FPGA Implementation of FIR Filters Using Pipelined
Bit-Serial Canonical Signed Digit Multipliers IEEE Custom integrated Circuits Conference,
July1994, pp.81-84
[3] Jeffrey O. Coleman, Arda Yurdakul, Fractions in the Canonical-Signed-Digit Number
System, IRE Trans. Electron. Comp.,vol. EC-10, pp. 389400,Aug 1961.
[4] D.S. Dawoud and S. Masupa, Design And FPGA Implementation Of Digit-Serial FIR
Filters, South African Institute Of Electrical Engineers, Vol.97(3) September 2006, pp.216-222.
[5] Chia-Yu Yao and Chung-Lin Sha, Fixed-point FIR Filter Design and Implementation in the
Expanding Subexpression Space, Jan 2010, pp.185-188
[6] Chris H. Dick' Fred Harris, Implementing Narrow-Band Fir Filters Using FPGAs, pp.
289-292, Nov. 1996
[7] Zhangwen Tang, Jie Zhang and Hao Min, A High-Speed, Programmable, CSD Coefficient
Fir Filter ,IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2002.,pp
834-837.

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[8] Achim Rettberg, Mauro Zanella, Thomas Lehmann, Christophe Bobda, A New Approach of
a Self-Timed Bit-Serial Synchronous Pipeline Architecture, 14th IEEE International Workshop
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Signal Processing Systems, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication

[12] Shoab Ahmed Khan., Digital Design of Signal Processing Systems: A Practical Approach,
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Processing Systems, 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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Bit-Serial

Canonical

Signed

Digit

Multipliers

IEEE

Custom

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Circuits

Conference,1994
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