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PLASTIC ANALYSIS

Bambang Prihartanto;

Noorli Ismail

Zalipah Jamellodin

6.1

INTRODUCTION

Generally, the plastic analysis is an alternative method to analysis the

material of steel because of the ductile behaviour.

The characteristic stress-strain diagram for a steel material is shown in

Figure 6.1. In structural analysis, the steel structure passes three distinct

stages in the stress strain relationship as shown in Figure 6.1. When the

applied stress is proportional to the strain, a material is said to obey

Hooke’s Law. There is a linear relationship between the stress and strain;

the steel is in the elastic behaviour. The material will return to its original

undeformed shape if the load is removed. The slope is called the modulus

of elasticity, E or Young's Modulus.

In the second stage, as the stress increased further the plasticity spread

inwards until an entire cross section of structure has yielded at point 1 as

shown in Figure 6.1. The yielded section creates a plastic hinge and lost

all resistance to rotation. At this stage, the steel attain its maximum

possible moment capacity called the plastic moment, Mp. The

development of the hinge caused a redistribution of the bending moments

across the structure. The redistribution enables the structure to carry more

loads after first hinge has formed.

The second plastic hinge forms at the next most critical stage. On further

increase in stress, the bending moments at the section of the two plastic

hinges remain constant at their plastic moments and it keep increasing

until the third plastic hinge forms. The process of the formation of

successive plastic hinges continues until collapse of structure. The

structure has now become a mechanism.

1

**The purpose of plastic analysis is to determine the collapse load or
**

ultimate load. Plastic analysis considers the behaviour of structure in

plastic limit before the structure collapse.

Stress,σ (sigma)

Yield stress, σy

E =

σ

ε

Strain,ε (epsilon)

elastic

plastic

Strain hardening

Figure 6.1: The stress strain relationship of steel

**The advantages of plastic behaviour;
**

a)

b)

**Reduce the risk of failure due to the additional load or calculation
**

error.

Give the additional safety to structure.

**The theory of plastic analysis based on;
**

a)

b)

c)

Stable structure.

Steel in ductile behaviour.

The main point in plastic action is the bending neglecting the

influence of any shear force and axial load that may be present.

**Two methods can be used to solve the plastic analysis problem;
**

a)

b)

Graphical method

Virtual work method

2

6.2. PLASTIC MOMENT, MP

Consider the beam with the cross section (b x h) is subjected to bending,

M due to the point load, P.

P

b

σy

σ

σy

Fc =

Fc

Lever

arm

= h/2

h

Ft

σ < σy

Ft =

(b)

(a)

(c)

(e)

(d)

elastic

plastic

**Figure 6.2: Stress distribution diagram
**

Where;

(a) beam cross section, b x h

(b) stress distribution for entire cross sectional area in the elastic

stage.

M.y

I

= bending moment

= bottom or above distance to neutral axis

= moment of inertia of cross section

Bending stress, σ =

where M

y

I

**(c) outer section achieved the yield stress (σy). bending moment
**

due to yield stress called as a yield moment, My.

3

σy =

M y .y

I

=

M y .h / 2

=

M y .h

I

2I

3

⎛ bh ⎞

⎟.σ y

2⎜⎜

2Iσ y

12 ⎟⎠

⎛ bh 2

⎝

My =

=

= σ y ⎜⎜

h

h

⎝ 6

= σ y .Z

Z = elastic modulus of the section =

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

I

y

bh 2

6

πd 3

for circle cross section; Z =

32

for rectangular section, Z =

**(d) As the load increased further, yielding spreads inwards from
**

the extreme fibers until the cross section become half plastic.

(e)

**The entire section has become plastic. At this stage, the
**

bending moment known as a plastic moment, Mp.

Mp

**= load x lever arm
**

= F x h/2

= (σy .bh/2).(h/2)

= σy . bh2/4

= σy .zp

**where zp = plastic modulus of section
**

for rectangular section, zp = bh2/4

The plastic hinge is created.

P

4

Mp = σ y ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Mp ∴λ = M = 1 . σb = pemissible stress in bending = σy / 1. d3 πd3 Zp = .5 = 2. bh 2 /4 o For rectangular section. S The ratio of the plastic moment to yield moment. S AND LOAD FACTOR. M. Z= 3 32 ⎛ d3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ S = ⎝ ⎠ = 1.5 ⎛ bh 2 ⎞ ⎟ Plastic moment.6.15.2. 6 where.7 . b) Load factor. For I section the value is 1. Work load depends on the value of I and Z while collapse load depends on the cross sectional shapes. o Load factor is based on the cross sectional shapes.3 SHAPE FACTOR.1 and 1. S = Mp/My = Zp/Z This factor based on cross sectional area and always more than 1. λ a) Shape Factor. S = 2 = 1. Resistance moment under work load. o Consider the rectangular section.25 5 .5 x 1 .5 bh /6 o For circle section. λ o The ratio of the collapse load to maximum applied load. bh 2 M = σb . where d is the diameter ⎛ πd3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 32 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ For thin-walled section normally takes a value between 1.

Zp Shape factor. Mp Plastic modulus.25 ∑ Ay ∑A 12. σy = 250 N/mm2 Permissible stress.Z Yield moment.25x106 = 245mm 50000 6 . PART 1 AREA (mm2) 200x50 = 10 000 y (mm) 50/2 + 400 = 425 400 x 100 = 40 400/2 = 200 000 Σ= 50 000 2 y= = x (mm) 0 Ay (x106)(mm3) 4. S Load factor. My Plastic moment. σb = 175 N/mm2 200 mm 50 mm 400 mm Determine : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Elastic modulus. λ 100 mm Solution: Determine the centroid of cross sectional area.EXAMPLE 6.25 0 8 Σ= 12.1 Given.

. M y = σ y . Z= 2) I y max 963.93x106 mm3 ………. Ans 245 Yield moment.Ans 7 .33x106 mm4 1) Elastic modulus.Z = 250(3. Z.33x106 = = 3. PART AREA (mm2) bh 3 12 6 (10 ) (mm4) 200x50 = 10 200(503 ) 000 12 = 25 400 x 100 = 40 100(4003 ) 000 12 =533.33 Σ= 50 000 Σ=558.A) 400 mm 2 245 mm Reference axis 100 mm Second moment of inertia. My. I.5MNmm …….200 mm 50 mm 1 205 mm Neutral axis (N.93x10 6 ) = 982 .33 Ix = 1 2 d (mm) Ad2 (106)(mm4) 205-50/2 = 180 324 245-400/2 = 45 81 Σ=405 ∑ I xx = [Ix + Ad2]1 + [Ix + Ad2]2 = 963.

Mp Notes: Neutral axis (σ = 0) in the elastic analysis pass through the area of centre. 200mm 50mm Fc 150mm x1 = ? E.75 0 1. This is called as the equal area axis (E. PART AREA (mm2) y (mm) x (mm) 0 Ay (x10 )(mm3) 1.875 8 .A 1st : Find the centroid of upper part.A.y1 ) y1 = 250 mm Upper part.A. Neutral axis = Equal Area Axis 200 mm 50 mm Fc 200 mm x1 = 115 mm Equal area axis (E.A) 400 mm x2 = 125 mm Ft y1 = 250 mm 100 mm The equal area axis with the distance.A). y1 from bottom of section : 100(y1 ) = 200(50) + 100(400 .125 6 1 2 200x50 = 10 000 150 + 50/2 = 175 100x150 = 15 150/2 = 75 000 Σ= 25 000 Σ= 2.A. Neutral axis in the plastic analysis divide the cross sectional equal area. For rectangular cross section.3) Plastic moment.

2 nd : Centroid Fc with the distance. ZP = M P 1.19 175 ………Ans 9 .875 x106 = = 115mm ……change y to x1 25000 y= Lower part. Ans 4) Plastic modulus..5x106 6) Load factor.5x109 = = 1.S. 3rd : Centroid Ft with the distance.A x Z = 250(100x 250) x (125 + 115) = 1.53) = 2. λ λ= σy σb x (S) = 250 (1. Zp.53 ………Ans M Y 982. x 2 from equal area axis : x2 = y1 250 = = 125 mm 2 2 Mp = force x lever arm = Ft x Z = σ y .5x109 = = 6x106 mm3 σy 250 ………Ans 5) Shape factor. x 1 from equal area axis : ∑ Ay ∑A 2. S= MP 1.5 x 109 Nmm …….

A. Mp. y from the bottom of cross sectional area.EXAMPLE 6. 125 50 25 hole 50 25 150 25 50 Solution. 200(y) – 150(50) = 55000/2 200y = 27500 – 7500 y = 175 mm 9 Lever arm length. Z = x1 + x2 10 .2 50 50 Determine the plastic moment.000 mm2 9 Equal area axis located at the distance. 50 A y Ft E. All units in mm. Given : σy = 250 N/mm2.A x2 50 25 hole 150 x1 125 B 50 25 FC 50 25 50 9 Total area = 50(300) + 50(150) + 200(200) – 50(150) = 55.

A.0625 Σ= 1.A 4 125-25 = 100 mm 50 mm 25mm 5 25 50 x2 = ? Ft 25 11 . E. x 1 from equal area axis : y= = ∑ Ay ∑A 1. 50 25 25 50 150 1 50 mm 2 50 mm E.A 3 Fc x1 = ? 25 mm The centroid of upper part.A.5 0 0.5 Ay (x106)(mm3) 1.375 3 200x 25 = 5 000 Σ= 27 500 75 + 50/2 = 100 25 + 50/2 = 50 25/2 = 12.A) AREA (mm2) y (mm) x (mm) 1 300x50 = 15 000 0 2 150x50 = 7 500 0 0. (the reference axis is located at E.934x106 = 70.934 PART Centroid Fc with the distance.A.Upper part.33mm ……change y to x1 27500 Second part.

125 Centroid Ft with the distance.27mm ……change y to x2 27500 Mp = force x lever arm = Ft x Z = σ y ..A. Ans 12 .7 500 Σ= 27 500 175/2 = 87.A x Z = 250(27500) x (70.938 5 Σ= 2.015 GNmm ……….A) PART AREA (mm2) y (mm) x (mm) 4 200x175 = 35 000 -150x50 = .The centroid of second part. x 2 from equal area axis : ∑ Ay y= ∑A 2. (the reference axis is located at E.33 + 77.125x106 = = 77.5 100 + 50/2 = 125 0 Ay (x106)(mm3) 3.063 0 -0.27) = 1.

e. The equilibrium condition – the system of bending moments must be in equilibrium with the applied load.σ real Strain. (∑Fx = 0 . d. σ bending >>> σ axial σ bending = My P >>> σ axial = I A 13 . ∑Fy = 0 . c.6. The relationship of stress-strain must be considered. My. The cross sectional area are assumed symmetrical about the major axis so that plastic moment takes the same value whether the bending moment is hogging or sagging. b. a. The yield condition – the bending moment may not exceed the plastic moment. 6.ε c.5 ASSUMPTIONS IN PLASTIC ANALYSIS a. Neglecting the influence of any axial load or shear force that may be presented. A cross section is assumed elastic and rigid until the plastic moment is reached at which point a hinge forms and the rotational stiffness becomes zero. Mp at any point. ∑M = 0) b. Obey the Hooke’s Law if the moment is not exceed the yield moment.4 THEOREMS IN PLASTIC ANALYSIS Three following conditions must be satisfied by a structure in its collapse state. The mechanism condition – sufficient plastic hinges must have formed to reduce all or part of the structure to a mechanism. Stress.

(d) Then.6. Collapse load or ultimate load. Pu or λP and bending moment at C known as plastic moment. MP.6 COLLAPSE LOAD AND COLLAPSE MECHANISM Consider the statically determinate structure is simply supported with point load. (b) Bending moment diagram (BML) (Mmax < MP because its still in elastic condition) (c) As the load increased further. 14 . Pu/λP with λ is a load factor which is the ratio of the collapse load to work load. P in elastic condition. At this stage. (a) P A B C ¾L ¼L RA=3P/4 RA=P/4 (b) ⎛ P ⎞⎛ 3L ⎞ 3PL M = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = < MP ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ 16 Pu = collapse load = λP (c) θA θB θC Plastic hinge (d) Moment plastic Notes: (a) The beam is subjected to work load. the plastic hinge is created at C. P. the beam achieved the collapse load. Mechanism is an assemblage of members or parts which undergoes large displacement due to even a very small load. the beam will fail and can be as a mechanism.

Normal hinge is located at the pinned ended or roller ended support and no moment.7 THE LOCATIONS OF PLASTIC HINGE For statically determinate beam. MP and existed at the following locations. At point load. Plastic hinge have the moment plastic. P 1 plastic hinge For statically indeterminate beam. Mp = 3 2.6. 1. But for the continuous beam. The plastic hinge can be found in these locations. Mp = 1 15 . At fixed ended support. the plastic hinge is located at the continuous support. 3 plastic hinge 2 plastic hinge Generally. there are two types of hinge in the beam structure. only one hinge is needed to ensure the beam is in mechanism condition. at least 2 hinges are needed to ensure the beam is in mechanism condition.

Mp = 2 5. The plastic hinge is created at the weakest member or at the smallest cross sectional area. 16 . a) At joint of the structure which is have two members. the plastic hinge is created in the member itself even the cross sectional area is bigger than other members.3. At the centre of uniform distributed load. At continuous support. Mp = 3 4. b) At the joint which is having more than three members. At joint of portal frame. Mp = 6 The additional prediction in plastic analysis are.

Mp and the value of P required to cause collapse using graphical method. + (-) (+) ⎛ 2P ⎞⎛ L ⎞ 2PL M max = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 9 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ Moment combination diagram. P Mp A B L/3 + 2L/3 L/3 VA + VB = P + MA = 0 ⎛L⎞ P⎜ ⎟ − VB (L ) = 0 ⎝3⎠ P 2P VB = . P B A L/3 2L/3 Solution. VA = 3 3 Mp MP ? = L 2L / 3 2 ? = MP 3 ? Draw BMD.8 PLASTIC ANALYSIS BEAM USING THE GRAPHICAL METHOD EXAMPLE 6.3 Determine plastic moment.6. M = (-) (+) Mp 2Mp/3 2PL/9 @ 2PL/9 (+) /9 2Mp/3 17 .

4 Determine the value of P required causing collapse using graphical method. Mp → − M − 2 M P + 2 PL = 0 P 3 9 5M P 2 PL =− 3 9 ⎛ 2 PL ⎞ 3 6 PL MP = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 45 − Value of P → − M − 2 M P + 2 PL = 0 P 3 9 5M P 2 PL =− 3 9 ⎛ 5M P ⎞ 9 45M P = P=⎜ ⎟ 6L ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2L − EXAMPLE 6. P P C D A B L/3 L/3 L/3 18 . − MP − 2 M P 2 PL + =0 3 9 Plastic moment.From the moment combination diagram.

(-) + MP y = 1 L 2L / 3 2 y1 = M P 3 (+) ⎛L⎞ M max = P⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ MP y = 2 L L/3 1 y2 = M P 3 Moment combination diagram. At point C: − MP − At point D: 2 M P PL + =0 3 3 The value of P. P P A Mp B C L/3 D L/3 + L/3 L/3 VA + VB = 2P + MA = 0 ⎛L⎞ ⎛ 2L ⎞ P⎜ ⎟ + P⎜ ⎟ − VB (L ) = 0 ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ VB = P. M Mp = (-) 2MP/3 (+) C (+) D PL/3 2MP/3 MP/3 C D PL/3 From the moment combination diagram.Solution. P = 4M P / L 19 . P = 5M P / L − MP − M P PL + =0 3 3 The value of P. VA = P Mp y1 y2 Draw BMD.

the mode failure should be considered. 9 Consider the beam subjected to concentrated load.5 Determine plastic moment. Mp and the value of P required to cause collapse using the virtual work method. P A B C L/2 L/2 Mp M=0 θA θB=? B h h Mechanism θC Mp Assumes tan θA = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) ⎛L⎞ ⎛L⎞ θA = h / ⎜ ⎟ = θ . EXAMPLE 6.6.9. P.1 Internal Virtual (subjected to plastic hinge) 9 If more than one applied load acted on the beam. h = ⎜ ⎟ θ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎛L⎞ ⎛L⎞ ⎛L⎞ θB = h / ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ θ / ⎜ ⎟ = θ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ θC = θA + θB = 2θ 20 . P. External Work For The Beam Undergoes The Point Load.9 Plastic Analysis Beam Using The Virtual Work Method 9 The principal of virtual work. External Virtual Work (EVW) Work(IVW) = (subjected to external/applied load) 6.

External work = Internal work P (h) = ⎛L⎞ P ⎜ ⎟θ = ⎝2⎠ ⎛L⎞ P ⎜ ⎟θ = ⎝2⎠ P Mp(θA) + Mp(θC) Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) 3Mp(θ) 6Mp L = or Mp PL 6 = EXAMPLE 6. h = xθ x h xθ = θB = (L − x ) (L − x ) xθ θC = θA + θB = θ + = (L − x ) θA = External work W (h) = = W (xθ) = (Wx)θ θL (L − x ) Internal work Mp(θA) + Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) ⎡ xθ ⎤ ⎡ θL ⎤ + Mp ⎢ Mp(θ) + Mp ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ (L − x ) ⎦ ⎣ (L − x ) ⎦ ⎡ 2L ⎤ Mp ⎢ ⎥θ ⎣ (L − x ) ⎦ 2L M P or W = (L − x ) x = Mp= Wx (L − x ) 2L 21 . x from A. Mp in x using the virtual work method. W x B A L Mp Mp C θA θB h Mp h θC Assumes tan θA = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) h = θ . Determine plastic moment.6 The beam is fixed at both support and subjected to point load. W with distance.

θA MP hC MP MP hD θA θb θC θB hC hD MP θD Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism AB.EXAMPLE 6.7 Determine the maximum P at the propped beam using the virtual work method. L L/2 L/2 P A 2P D C Mp θA hC θC θA θB hD θB B Mp 22 . 2P P A C B D L L/2 L/2 Solution.

h D = 2 ⎝ 3L / 2 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ Lθ ⎞ θB = ⎜⎜ D ⎟⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = θ ⎝L / 2⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ Lθ ⎛L⎞ hD = θ B ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝2⎠ θC = θA + θB = 2θ 23 . h C = Lθ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ Lθ ⎞ θB = ⎜ C ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = θ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ Lθ ⎛L⎞ hD = θ B ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝2⎠ θC = θA + θB = 2θ External work = Internal work P (hC) + 2P (hD) ⎛ Lθ ⎞ P (Lθ) + 2P ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2PL = Mp(θA) + Mp(θC) = Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) = 3Mp(θ) 3Mp 2L P = Mode failure 2 – Beam mechanism AB.Assumes tan θA = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) ⎛h ⎞ θA = ⎜ C ⎟ = θ . L L/2 2P P A Mp D C θA hC hD θA θD L/2 θB B θB Mp Assumes tan θA = θ 3L ⎛ h ⎞ θ θA = ⎜ D ⎟ = θ .

External work = Internal work P (hC) + 2P (hD) ⎛ Lθ ⎞ P (Lθ) + 2P ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2PL = Mp(θA) + Mp(θC) = Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) = 3Mp(θ) 3Mp 2L P = * Maximum Load. Mp. Use the virtual work method. Determine the value of P required causing collapse using the virtual work method in Figure 6. A continuous beam comprises three equal spans of length.1 [Ans: Pat D = 6M P 3M P . 2. Pu = 3M P 2L EXERCISE 6. Pat E = ] L L 24 .3. L and has a uniform section with plastic moment. Find the value of P required to cause collapse. Determine the value of P required to cause collapse. It carries point loads of P at the centre of the two outer spans and 2P at the centre of the middle span in Figure 6. Use the virtual work method.2.1. 3. The simply supported beam of length 6m and plastic moment 150kNm carries a concentrated load P at midspan in Figure 6. 2P P A D L/2 B L/2 E L/2 C L/2 Figure 6.1: 1.

9.2 External Work For The Beam Undergoes The Uniform Load.2 P 2P P L L L Figure 6. External work for the beam undergoes the uniform distributed load. q.3 6.P A B C 3m 3m Figure 6. q : External work = w x area of mechanism along the load = w x (1/2 x L x h) w B A L Mp θA θB h Mechanism θC Mp 25 .

Determine plastic moment. h= θ 2 ⎝L/2⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ Lθ ⎞ θB = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ =θ ⎝L/2⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ θC = θA + θB = 2θ External work = Internal work (1/2 x h x L)(w) 1 L x θxLxw 2 2 wL2 θ 4 = Mp(θA) + Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) = Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) = 4Mp(θ) = wL2 16 Mp EXAMPLE 6.9 26 . The uniform distributed load can be changed to point load and it is acted at the centre of the span. w/unit length A B L Solution. w A Mp BB θA θB h Mp Mp θC Assumes tan θA = θ L ⎛ h ⎞ θA = ⎜ ⎟ =θ. w.EXAMPLE 6. Mp using the virtual work method.8 The beam is fixed at both support and subjected to uniform distributed load.

24 kN 8 kN/m A C B 6m 2m 3m Solution.Determine the maximum of plastic moment for this beam. MP θ θ hD 1st Failure Mode θ MP MP θ nd 2 Failure Mode θ hE MP θ Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism AB. 3m 3m 8 kN/m A D θA hD θD θA θB B θB Mp Mp Assumes tan θA = θ 27 .

h D = 3θ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 3θ ⎞ θB = ⎜ D ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = θ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ θD = θA + θB = 2θ B External work = Internal work (1/2 x hD x L)(w) 1 x 3θ x 6 x 8 2 72 θ = Mp(θB) + Mp(θD) = Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) = 3Mp(θ) Mp = 24 kNm Mode failure 2 – Beam mechanism BC. h E = 3θ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 3θ ⎞ θC = ⎜ E ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 1.5θ = 2.5θ External work = Internal work 28 .5θ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ θE = θB + θC = θ + 1. 3m 2m 24 kN B Mp E θC θB C hE θE θB θC Mp Assumes tan θB = θ ⎛h ⎞ θB = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ .⎛h ⎞ θA = ⎜ D ⎟ = θ .

Given.25P kN/m A 3P kN 29 C 70 50 .10 The beam is subjected to the uniform distributed load and point load as shown in the figure. 100 kN 30 kN/m A C B 8m [Ans: 16. Find the value of P required to cause collapse using the virtual work method.σy = 250 N/mm2.6 kNm From two mode failure. 50 1. Mp = 24 kNm EXERCISE 6. indicated that the maximum of plastic moment. Determine the failure mode and plastic moment that might be occurred in the beam.5Mp(θ) Mp = 20.5θ) 3. a) b) Determine the uniform distributed load that can be acted in the beam.67kNm] Mp(AB) 5m 5m = 120kNm.5P kN 0. Given the unit of cross section is mm.(P x hE) 24 x 3θ 72 θ = = = Mp(θB) + Mp(θE) Mp(θ) + Mp(2. Mp(BC) = EXAMPLE 6.1: 1.

x2: x2 = 150(50)(35) + 100(10)(5) = 31. Upper area (UA) = Lower area (LA) 50(50) + 100(70-y) = 100(y) + 50(150) 200y = 2000 y = 10 mm 9 Lever arm length. the centroid distance.A.18 mm 50(50) + 100(60) • In the lower area. y as shown in the figure.47 mm 150(50) + 100(10) 30 .A) is located at the distance.A. x1: 50(50)(85) + 100(60)(30) x1 = = 46. Z = x1 + x2 • In the upper area. 50 FC UA y LA 50 25 25 x1 70 E. the centroid distance.A 50 x2 Ft 25 25 9 The equal area axis (E.Solution.

75 m 2.5 m 2m 1m Mp θ hD hE 1st Failure Mode θ Mp Mp Mp 2nd Failure Mode θ θ Mp θ 4m Mp θ hE 3rd Failure Mode Mp Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism AB.A .47) = 165 kNm .9 Plastic moment.75 m 0.25P kN/m 3.25P kN/m A D θA E hD θD θA θB hE B θB Mp Mp Assumes tan θA = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) 31 . 2m 1.18+31..5P kN 3P kN 0... Ans 1. Mp = force x lever arm = Ft x Z = σy .Z = 250(8500)(46.5P kN 2.

25P) + 1.25P) + 1.75θ) = = 4.5θ)(0.25P) + 1.5Mp(θ) 0.75θ) 7. 2m 1.25P) + 1.75 ⎠ hE = θ B (2 ) = 2θ θD = θA + θB = θ + θ = 2θ B External work = Internal work (1/2 x L x hD)(0.5P kN 0.5P(2θ) = 4.25P kN/m A E θA B θB Mp hE θA θE θB Mp Assumes tan θA = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) ⎛h ⎞ θA = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ .75 ⎠ ⎝ 2.75θ = 2.75θ ⎝ 2.5 x 2.587 Mp + 32 .5 x 3.75θ)(0.75θ ⎞ θB = ⎜ D ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ =θ ⎝ 2.89P (θ) = P = Mp(θB) + Mp(θD) Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) 3Mp(θ) 0.75 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 2.5P(3.5P(hE) = (1/2 x 5.5P(hE) (1/2 x 5.⎛ h ⎞ θA = ⎜ D ⎟ = θ .5θ ⎝ 3.66P (θ) P = Internal work = = Mp(θB) + Mp(θE) Mp(1.75θ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ θE = θA + θB = θ + 1. h D = 2.75θ External work (1/2 x L x hE)(0.5 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 3.613 Mp Mode failure 2: – Beam mechanism AB.5θ ⎞ θB = ⎜ E ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 1. h E = 3.5θ) Mp(2.

hF = θ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎛h ⎞ ⎛θ⎞ θC = ⎜ F ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.25θ) + Mp(1.25θ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝4⎠ θF = θB + θC = θ + 0.Mode failure 3: – Beam mechanism BC. the maximum load occurred at 3rd Failure Mode.7) = 23.25θ = 1.25θ B External work 3P (hF) 3P(θ) 3P(θ) P = Internal work = = = = Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) + Mp(θF) Mp(θ) + Mp(0.7 kN …….833 Mp From three mode failures.25θ) 2.58MP = 0.9 kN/m …….5Mp(θ) 0.25(95.Ans q = 0.58x165 = 95.Ans 33 . P = 0. 1m 4m 3P kN Mp B θF F θB θC hF θA θB C Mp Mp Assumes tan θB = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) ⎛h ⎞ θB = ⎜ F ⎟ = θ .

10 Plastic Analysis Frame Using the Virtual Work Method Two categories of mechanism in portal frame. there are three types of mechanism. the number of free mechanism (Me) can be determined by using formula.6. N = 4 d=5–3=2 Me = 4 – 2 = 2 (sway + beam) Total of Mechanism = 2 + 1 = 3 Combine mechanism 34 . Me = N – d Where N = position number of plastic hinge that might be occurred d = number of redundant (d = R – 3) R = reaction occurred R = 5. (a) Beam mechanism (b) Sway mechanism (c) Mekanisme g Generally. a) Free mechanism b) Combined mechanism For plastic analysis of frames.

3 = 1) Total of Mechanism = 2 + 1 = 3 Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism BC. 2.EXAMPLE 6.plastic hinge occurred at B. 10 kN/m 20 kN C B 4m 6m D A 5m Solution. Me = N – d =3–1=2 (R = 4 .5 m 10 kN/m B E θB hE θE θB θC C θC Mp Mp 35 . N = 3 . d = 4 .5 m 2. C and E.11 Determine the maximum moment plastic from the frame shown below.

plastic hinge occurred at B and C.5 ⎠ θE = θB + θC = θ + θ = 2θ External work = Internal work (1/2 x L x hE)(10) (1/2 x 5 x 2.5θ ⎞ θC = ⎜ E ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ =θ ⎝ 2. hC 20 kN B hB C өC өB 4m өD 6m D өA A 5m Assumes tan θA = θ .5 (θ) Mp = = = = Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) + Mp(θE) Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) 4Mp(θ) 15.5 ⎠ ⎝ 2.63 kNm Mode failure 2 – Sway mechanism ABCD.Assumes tan θB = θ (tangent is neglected because of the small value) ⎛h ⎞ θB = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ . h E = 2. θA = θB = θ .5 ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 2.5θ ⎝ 2.5θ)(10) 62.5θ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 36 . h B = 6θ = hC ⎝ 6 ⎠ h B = hC ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 6θ ⎞ θD = ⎜ C ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 1. ⎛h ⎞ θA = ⎜ B ⎟ = θ . θC = θD .

5θ)(25) 120 (θ) + 156. h B = 6θ = hC ⎝ 6 ⎠ hE = 2. θA = θB = θ .5θ) 2.5 θ θC1 = θB = θ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ 6θ ⎞ θC2 = ⎜ C ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 1. plastic hinge occurred at C and E.5 Mp (θ) 4. Mp max = 61. hB = hC ⎛h ⎞ θA = ⎜ B ⎟ = θ . the maximum plastic moment.4 kNm. 37 .5θ) + Mp(2θ) 4.External work (hB)(20) (6θ)(20) 120 (θ) Mp = Internal work = = = = Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) Mp(θ) + Mp(1.25 (θ) Mp = = = = = Mp(θC1 + θC2) + Mp(θE) Mp(2.5 Mp (θ) 61.25 (θ) 276.5Mp(θ) 48 kNm Mode failure 3 – Combine mechanism ABCD.5θ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ θE = θB + θC1 = 2θ External work = Internal work (hB)(20) + (1/2 x L x hE)(25) (6θ)(20) + (1/2 x 5 x 2.4 kNm From three failure modes. hC 25 kN/m hB 20 kN B өB өE өC2 E өB C өC1 hE 4m өD 6m D өA A 5m Assumes tan θA = θ .5 (θB) = 2.

Pu from the frame shown and show all Mp for each modes. Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism BC. P P/2 2Mp B C E Mp Mp L/2 D A L/2 L/2 Solution. P B E θB Mp θC hE θE θB θC C Mp 2Mp L/2 L/2 Assumes tan θB = θ L ⎛ h ⎞ θB = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ .12 Determine collapse load. plastic hinge occurred at B. C and E. h E = θ 2 ⎝L/2⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛L/2⎞ θC = ⎜ E ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟θ = θ ⎝L/2⎠ ⎝L/2⎠ θE = θB + θC = θ + θ = 2θ External work = Internal work P(hE) ⎛L ⎞ P⎜ θ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ = Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) + 2Mp(θE) = Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) = 16Mp L P 38 .EXAMPLE 6.

θA = θB = θC = θD = θ . B. C and D. hC hB B өB өB өE hE C өC1 өC2 E өA өD A D 39 . D and E.Mode failure 2 – Sway mechanism ABCD. plastic hinge occurred at A. h B = θ = hC 2 ⎝L/2⎠ External work = Internal work (hB)(P/2) ⎛ L ⎞⎛ P ⎞ ⎜ θ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ = Mp(θA) + Mp(θB) + Mp(θC) + Mp(θD) = Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) ⎛ LP ⎞ ⎟ (θ) ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 4Mp(θ) = 16Mp L P Mode failure 3 – Combine mechanism ABCD. plastic hinge occurred at A. hB hC B P/2 C өB өC өA өD A D Assumes tan θA = θ . hB = hC L ⎛ h ⎞ θ A = ⎜ B ⎟ = θ . C.

13 Determine collapse load. h B = θ = hC 2 ⎝L/2⎠ L hE = θ 2 θC1 = θB = θ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛L/2⎞ θC2 = θD = ⎜ C ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟θ = θ = θ ⎝L/2⎠ ⎝L/2⎠ θE = θB + θC1 = 2θ External work = Internal work (P/2)(hB) + P (hE) = Mp(θE) ⎛L ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞⎛ P ⎞ ⎜ θ ⎟⎜ ⎟ + P⎜ θ ⎟ = ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3PL ⎞ ⎟ (θ) ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ P Mp(θA) + Mp(θC1 + θC2) + Mp(θD) + Mp(θ) + Mp(2θ) + Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) = 8Mp(θ) = 10. 4P E 2Mp D 2L 5P H F 3Mp G Mp 2Mp 2Mp B A L 3P L C 1. θA = θB = θ .67Mp L Maximum collapse load.5L 1.67. Pu = 10.Assumes tan θA = θ . Pu from the frame shown and show all Mp for each modes.5L 40 . hB = hC L ⎛ h ⎞ θ A = ⎜ B ⎟ = θ .Mp kN L EXAMPLE 6.

5L Assumes tan θF = θ = θH ⎛ h ⎞ θF = ⎜ G ⎟ = θ .75Mp L = Mode failure 2 – Beam mechanism FH.Solution.5L ⎠ θG = θF + θH = θ + θ = 2θ 41 . plastic hinge occurred at D. Mode failure 1 – Beam mechanism DF. 5P F 3Mp θH θF hG θG θF θH 1. plastic hinge occurred at F. G and H. h G = 1.5Lθ ⎝ 1. h E = Lθ ⎝ L ⎠ θE = θD + θF= θ + θ = 2θ External work 4P(hE) 4P(Lθ) 4LP(θ) P = Internal work = = = Mp(θD) + 2Mp(θE) + 2Mp(θF) Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(θ) 7Mp(θ) 1.5L H 2Mp 3Mp G 1. E and F. 4P D E θF θD Mp hE θE θD θF F 2Mp 2Mp L L Assumes tan θD = θ = θF ⎛h ⎞ θD = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ .

D.F and H.47Mp L = Mode failure 3 – Sway mechanism ADFHCB.B. plastic hinge occurred at A.5LP(θ) P = Internal work = = = 3Mp(θF) + 3Mp(θG) + 2Mp(θH) 3Mp(θ) + 3Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(θ) 11Mp(θ) 1. h H = 2Lθ ⎝ 2L ⎠ External work = Internal work 3P(hH) 3P(2Lθ) = = Mp(θ A + θ D ) + 2Mp(θ B + θ F ) + 2Mp(θC + θ H ) Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(2θ) 6LP(θ) = 10Mp(θ) 1. hH hF hD H F D өH өF өD 3P өA өB өC A B C Assumes tan θA = θ = θB = θC = θD = θF = θH ⎛h ⎞ θC = ⎜ H ⎟ = θ .External work 5P(hG) 5P(1.5Lθ) 7.67Mp L P = 42 .C.

19Mp L 43 . h G = 1.5Lθ ⎝ 1.5L ⎠ ⎛h ⎞ θC = ⎜ H ⎟ = θ .5LP(θ) = 16Mp(θ) P = 1.C. h H = 2Lθ ⎝ 2L ⎠ θG = θF + θH1 = 2θ External work = Internal work 5P(hG) + 3P(hH) = Mp(θ A ) + Mp(θ D ) + 2Mp(θ B ) + 3Mp(θ G ) + 2Mp(θ C ) + 2Mp(θ H1 + θ H 2 ) 5P(1. hH hF hD F D G өF hG өD өF өH1 өG H өH2 өC өA өB A B C Assumes tan θA = θ = θB = θC = θD = θF = θH1= θH2 ⎛ h ⎞ θF = ⎜ G ⎟ = θ .B. plastic hinge occurred at A.G and H.Mode failure 4 – Combine mechanism. D. Sway mechanism and beam mechanism FH.5Lθ) +3P(2Lθ) = Mp(θ) + Mp(θ) + 2Mp(θ) + 3Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) 13.

5L ⎠ θE = θD + θF = 2θ θG = θF + θH1 = 2θ External work = = = 4P(hE) + 5P(hG) + 3P(hH) 4PLθ + 7.Mode failure 5 – Combine mechanism. D өD F 2Mp 2ө өD өE E өF Mp 3Mp өF 2өG 2Mp өA H өH1 өH2 G өC 2Mp өB A B C Assumes tan θA = θ = θB = θC = θD = θF = θH ⎛h ⎞ θD = ⎜ E ⎟ = θ . h G = 1. Sway mechanism and beam mechanism DF and FH.5 Mpθ P = = = Internal work 23 Mpθ 1.Mp L 44 . maximum collapse load occurred at mechanism no. h E = Lθ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ θF = ⎜ G ⎟ = θ .5 Mpθ Internal work = Mp(θ A ) + 2Mp(θ E ) + 2Mp(θ F ) + 2Mp(θ B ) + 3Mp(θ G ) + 2Mp(θ C ) + 2Mp(θ H1 + θ H 2 ) = Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(θ) + 3Mp(2θ) + 2Mp(θ) + 2Mp(2θ) = 23 Mpθ External work 17.5Lθ ⎝ 1. 4.31Mp L From five failure modes. Maximum Pu = 1.19.5PLθ + 6PLθ 17.

state which part of the beam is safe. Mp(BC) = 109kNm] (b) Calculate the plastic moment Mp for cross section as shown in Figure 7(b) if the yield stress for the material is σy = 225 N/mm2. Mp. (Final Sem2-2007/08) 80 kN 10 kN/m B C A 8m 20 kN 5m D 3m E 3m Figure 7a 10 mm 10 mm 160 mm 120 mm Figure 7b 45 . Calculate the plastic moment Mp for each member of the beam. [Ans: Mp = 62. The fixed support at the both end of beam and roller support located at the middle of the span. Determine the failure mode occurred in the beam and plastic moment.TUTORIAL 6 1.5kNm] (c) If the beam has a cross-section as shown in Figure(7b). 80kN 50kN 30kN A C B 4m 4m 3m 3m 3m 2. 50kN and 30kN. It carries point loads of 80kN. (a) A continuous beam ABCDE is fixed at A and pinned at B and D is loaded as shown in Figure 7(a). [Ans: Mp(AB) = 40kNm.

σy = 49.5kNm] (Final Sem1-2008/09) 30 mm 25mm 25mm 300 mm 45 mm 250 mm Figure 8(a) 50 kN 30 kN/m 75 kN B A D C 10m 4m 8m 4. Mp(BC) = 66.5 cm3. (a) A steel beam with cross section as shown in Figure 8(a). Determine the plastic moment for the beam. Zp.5m 4. (i) (ii) (b) Calculate plastic modulus.38 N/mm2] A continuous beam is loaded with various loads as illustrated in Figure 8(b). Define the following terms. Determine steel yield stress if plastic moment of the cross section is 150 kNm [Ans: Zp = 3037. Mp(CB) = 112. E (iii) Plastic hinge (iv) Plastic moment (v) Mechanism 46 . Name five(5) points indicator from 1 to 5.7kNm.5m Figure 8(b) 4. [Ans: Mp(AB) = 375kNm. (i) Hooke’s Law (ii) Modulus of Elasticity.3. (a) (b) Figure 9(a) shows the characteristics stress-strain diagram for steel.

63.33kNm.33kNm] (Final Sem2-2008/09) Figure 9(a) 45kN 50kN C 20kN B 8m A D 2m 2m 2m Figure 9(b) 47 . (i) Draw the Mode of Failure that might be happened. (ii) Determine the maximum moment plastic occurred at Beam Mechanism BC. [Ans: Mp(BC) = 48.(c) Figure 9(b) show the portal frame ABCD subjected to the point load acted at the joint B and two point loads acted at the span BC.

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