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( 8) ~rfJUJ ~ to ~ 6lJ8j61r UJfTGlJ w S;(£Js;fiff 6l/ W fD@tf/6'(f)6lJUJ{l5JUJ tt ~rn QJ Q UJ W U fDJ ' ~ 04l QJ r:!!jw j,iJ tb Q s; tt (!!J QP m {D UJ Lh rfD 6fu L(!:P W 8iL!J)J6l1iJG1ffl W /f)J Q ~v;yf}QlrrtiJ ~ tDJ UJ uu(f;Jtb.

W6ir(§6llffQ6tiJ Jl@&~jJJQJ6lT wtpJ6lJjJJ,lD6ir @6If6TffffiCl§ffn-&61r 1L&ir(f56JJ(J(TfT LD@IQlITJ] @@@Q)~#Ji; Qtbff(!!J;8Jl

6"T GirTW W CTr[b rjit;T LbO! virr mw 6lJ fTtLffimfJ FFmr(£/ 8J s;QJ~ 8;9)~{D$8) It». @ffiJffiJ6WW :9JuSl$i> uruQ)fTtb!Drr~w ~mwo51!Dth~ GWfT¢JUlfTILJW, ~6lJ Q !D¢JlLlw iJ (!!>LDfT6iJQ /DpS! tLf Lh .J!JIT UJ{hu51 JP LlJ;'DffiJlhW fT'4 t1J @@uu6lJW ~uSJ y; Q U tr .{DJQJ ¢J U fT L_UJ-tb®~ ~8)rr {/J G1 WrT ¢JQUJ6&T 9)J tlJ6lrGJr iJ UL_LL5Jdr~t.b {huSJ$j)rT ~rfJlLJrfI~t.b ~fTY:>!f,fh6lJQ(J~.!f)J QaifTwGJru U L_LtiJw~ w, {buS} (glw {!juS! ¢JW8I6JUJ(!JJw @y;>Lll.51!D®I.b c!)/ ¢J u Oltb®w @L~rrtlJ @tb~!D# ~J!)J~wUJmLIf,.t!»rofrG1Tm. ~1!r5}Gl/w ~fJ rrtiJ# ~lLfw W1818) @8;CJjfTQ)::6iJC:Q}~w, ~u5J IPtt G'61 y5J j,Q {h@Jj.{fJJ {hW (yJwC:61Trrrt !Elrn6lJmUJUJmLUJ (yJUJGUrufTf}Tr8i. (Q~m-QLDrr¢J Qc!FULwUfr 1959)

61" <!J)6IDLD

OT®6lflW - QJ. Q~r;rt.bu

@rt - @® - @®rnw = c$@S>l.D. @®rnw - ~®~LD - o;rf}UJ LDrrLl1I-QT Lb.

W, 6"T(lJ>L1), 41· grtG>w, QJfi. fiT9l1C!:P, &, OTWG)W. (6lJ.fOlJ. 98) Q"Q)Q)rfl

ur6UQJrff- QJ~ 8f"'QJ!f (jh)

6T6U,,-,ri1 = U6f)/Dfi1JA>& "QJ6UQJ" QUJQx;urfl" (LD6lf)Q)LJ@. 10). (Q).6lJ. 98)

6l6U6lJfT

.

U IT 6l.I rr QOT IT

17

6I"6b600

~ooUJu5J(J rT6M ~, IT, M1J r sr f ~ 6T ~~Lb @UJ{iJ6m8i GJ{!jl1l-(;5H;VIf;~t1J GBl6YfI UJ6t»CF a;w tt SiLl U UJdr u(j)1th. ~$fJfil)rT6iJ 6'5I61fIILJ ®U rr 8i ~6lf)LDUJ W. @6lJ{b911rolr, fF, 9W! 6T~~W @17m-r@W QU®LbUrr~LD, (!p6t»{!JaUJ @Clit;f 61J!Ii fJ til a;6Yf/ roM t6 LLLD tt 8i c: QJ u5J ®ci;~w. et QJ 6l/ uS! fJ n u5J ~ tb, c:~ UJ6?f>LD Q)/ 6lf/QUJW'iUrT t..b Q !D11I-'iUfT a;C: GlJ ui1 ®~~~ 8iL@LiJ.

661Qf1UJ6"6)c!F Sir;;,." c!:p'*'wrna: 016isTraT61f)5 crest @®QJms;uu@w. '~' ~W~UFUJrr 8i QI(!!foll$J~G1J. "5J' '~' @(Jmr(];Jw (y)(oir~mCFUJrT r!1i6lJW U1~ Sf 6"6)q: UJ tt 9ifilJ W QJ(!!>w.

et -(f}I: 6J. er (yJC!!)8)rT! er lhffiJ OiW! ((yJriiM 6'6161fJ ) 6J ~mrC:(Qm! rOJ ~fJ(],g:! (@®~6mQ) ~gfJ) r;fJfTC] UJ! $LGlfGrorr! (tiJ ~ roil rotfl )

tjl. ~ SJUJfT! ~ GumrC:~! «(!JJ6ir6UJ61fJ)

~ LDrrGr{!jrr! <iP W~awrr! (@C!!J~6m~ 6'6161fJ) c!J)/ W(] LDfT! ~~a 6"6JT rr! (U1 at- 661 c;;yfJ)

@mlf QUUJQt;JfT(£J a<!FrTth~mp5J{h {l>~~~W tifTUJW fi'Q/W UJ8jt;J Q wtiJQ UJ rr(J1 8iLl1/- Gl1l6lfJ UJ61flCF UJ rr r!J) QI ®W.

6T-@: fiJuJ! @tfiJ(]8) eutr. (~jJ)JQJ(i6)I]"UJW @~t6a~rr6"6)IJUJw C:~rr 48i}J; 8n.jf)lQJ~. @~ @(!!>UfT{bc;,UfT~.)

@~ '6]"' 6TViisrjJ)Jriu ®.!!)J®w. ViT-(£J: 6J! C:UfT.

fYUJ! 6Tr6JCla; C:urrUJ{DrT? (~/J~ ~LQJm'7 a!DrrJ;~# a:{iJ.!J)J wi' u u tr aid; r!h.JJ)J QJ .f!Jl ).

@4» Q~ rr[bQtDfTL.tT cy.>fiifrwiiMJI5Ju U16isT~w QJC!!Jw. 6T-@: @ffiJGo; urr(!!Jw fFtiJ!

@.ff!U GQJUJ - c: QJ 6T m .[J)J ill @rfllLJW.

iJT-(b1: 6TGir;oMG6lI! @UULq-Q Qq.rr.oUJpjtt?

c;, U UJ rf tb J!)J f} 8)rr fJ 6llJ gfJ UJ 6'5>0: fiJ t!Jj rr fJ 6l1J 61f1G UJ tt (EJ @rn.-m 1b ~ Lb ~8ifTlJ ~fOtfIQu.J"@ 9n..L1I-UJw QJ(!!Jw.

6T-(j)1: ,J)IwC:wC:UJrr, ~~mrrrC:QJrr.

, ~ C:QlfT' @m~61lJGTfJ ru8ifJG'lwtUUJ@i.Ju ~ (!JJrdlrr@. WiT-(61: (FfT l>~fTCJQJrrfiiu.

@fiJ)~ fJ(I!j 4mLQ Ill" /Jt!P, ~ SifT fJ QJJw 6l1JGYfIlLJ LiJ fOl)CT.f7 GLDtiJUJ~~:fU ~6U ~61lT tf/Qr9)Jf @C!!J urr!b®w QU"~QJfT(~W.

~iU fiTWU fDl 6T6lJ - 6TQJQ) - 6TQx;vfT fiTvtr jJ)J i)tfJtf,4JJf ~c$U G'lUfT<'!JLGa=uJ'4L8)61f16b j)(!§U tt tb G UfT!!p tii&6YfJ UJrrtU QlIJ>t6J®u).

]8

6l6V6tJ1T

(!IJ61J/f}uQUl11tf LD@dJliltf; Q&(!jJ/b6nChU QUfftpJtiQtrrrm

Jl61U;U~@tf) LD[JLSkin @@615iJlf)/ (!lJlf}ibrJt§. (Qlbrrru. QUIT. Qurr®. 26)

@.f!JI, 8iJ YJ6lJW g;, y;;/J@ u rr ffiJa:,~ u tt ffiJfiJQUJwf§)J (!jJ6ID£DU (;) UUJfJTT $Jill Q c!T IT 6V U tb{l5J u UJ {D thfEC8;flirT IT 6lJ @ ~rornLDJi5:J W {D gp.

@~~ QUrT(!!jw:- QP~£DU QUUJrflLrjJ§JJ @® urrtb@jw Qurr®!f,@w ~®iJ6l>UJlLJ~L11J 6TGUQ)fT Q6lJW~~QCFrr6iJ, L/6UGJw¢J QJYJ8i~[b«!ftJUJ (yJ~{DmLDu1JriilfT fTa w es @<OlJrrClifT ffJI, ~ rochfr U tt [b®w QuVilirT U tt tD® w ~u U ELrfJ UJ ~rTliJ QJ jprfit@jW er 67rr [!J6lI tt J!)J ~

"Q c!J)@{!j6'l»8J" tOT 6irr [D~ffi fTC: tiWT, ll>f05HiVGUJ lLJ tlJ c: {EJrT y5llLfw ihrnQJ6lJ6'4l~ ci anp5lUJC:{!J QU(!!jwUfT~mLD QUJ6M!J)JW, ~6n)Q)Qjw fhmQJroE/mUJUjw U IT ffiJ a; rn 6M I1J rfu CFn9)J ~ GiJ ~ .f!)J U fT Qg 61f) LD QJ @QJ fOID LD W Q UJr;;M .f!)J Lb, Qa:,{fW 8).

(~-Lb)

dPlJ/rf6&dJ ullJ. Q,!!J@ciciJ 6U,rb Qlbm LDC56in(]W6W (!jJJlrfy, 6litrr (!p6TJ6VQUff@1D C:6JJJjQ)ff6lit!r (!/J#9J u.;Jlrf5,fh ~ti&;tJ6ir GMfT6dJL (JUJffQ}JUU Q611/lrTQJgfj ;tJ6irpJlftiJJ Qt!F6iJ;

~dJ(Jlli6iJ6Vff (8j~. 81)

er ~ :9J 1h foGHilJ Q)} ~;5)1L1 i> ~ blS) Q)QJ ~ @ y5l th ~ 8; C1n. JD.6J ~ QJ @6lI tt

UJ Gri)LD[fJfl>~ .

(ifQ;Q)ff J

(YJ6ir66T /JID/T Q6dTffmlf)/ r.§.ofJlitbfftiJC:ulftiJ lhffL.lq- 65J61T ,tilti! 66f}6ir 61SJL n: c!PI Jl1J)6iJC:UfftP pflrf/!§(!!; eu«

QlJ.J6ir6N QutpfTt5fo "/bar (CGM. 61)

67 W::h G ~rr y5l ~6n>6lJ6lJ6ID6M ~~ ii!bl J; an.{D~~ QJ@GlJfTUJ6IDwJi>ll>ff». "67Gi>Q)(f 66/o~Q~rr i>cJhrm" ($661.61) ~~ut!JJ QLJromurrGiJ GLD6lJ rOlJrh:!h§;J. iiI'iiID GM UJ 6)iff> ff» y5l r!h r!Jj tt ~ s: ' Q U tr .{!JJ cF Q CF tt ru' sr Qg [!J {h 6?fT tt (J 65T 6T 6U6lJfT 6T 6lJrT 6T Q.,Q) 6T iJJ1QJ GT rn- 6lJ t.h (;) <!lifT 6Yr 8).

"6T§JJJQJ ~fOrr~rt" (@j.f!)J~. 129) OT~ <ilI~'ffi~.

lLiff6TJ(T QllifJlJ6JJ lLJrrC:(T (JD.IDr6l00 6m. 395) 6T~?iT ~ th6'5)ru6llrn6M {h a 1[JfT y5l <!TrL{l5Jm tt w.

~iWro6J QUJmu~ urr~mrrT~{lj~r;;M ~r;rfTUJuuL_rr. ([br!T81mrTltJ; ~~UJrt lL61r>IJ).

@6lJGlf(jG)1J u5J {b 81 fit) an {b g)J 9,cnrOTr G U fT@{h{ljrr6"6) ill ~ {lSI C9 It 8) mr@ G;) a;rr 61r s:

" Q U tt 4JJ ~ Q ~ tt 6iJ " et roisr .!J)J W , " !ElGID 6lJ <!i; ® rf) to IJ' UI <05f} (!!j 611 tb J!)J (!JJrfI "a~" 616isT $).Iw, G>f!jrr6U8irr uU/ UJIT an.{l5JUjQr6TTmLDUJfT ru, er Q)6lJfT

.

urrGlJrT6mfT

19

6T 6irr u §P ~ 6ID 6U Q/ ~ ;!D 6"5)fiV ro5J UJ!r @®6lJ(!5W tf} (!!j 6)J fiG) '7Q UJ rr (!!J6lJ fr GUlGTfl Jj®W @®urrtb Q U fT ,gp #GJIF rrGiJ et Vilrr u gp Q ~<iffJGlIrr w.

Q ~ ~ ffiJ liil tOV ~ r$ IT t;J 65J 6'1fI # Q ~ tt 6iJ UI c;;ir QI ® ui IT .f!)l

Q8ifTGlr~t.D.

~u5J - ~iJa flirT ~t;J 6DJ 6'1fla;®w (yYii~r Q)J ~UJ6"IDIF. rgyrfl - @y5J £6<] ~fT 6mt;T r;;6jGYf] a;@jW (YJ~G'5J 6YfJ UJmr!F.

6}"uSl(TfT f;rfJQl1J6irUff6fr fiT,tb§JI~kJ- 61JWJlQllJ6irUff6iT

(c$rr6TT(_l})&1Qj ~~uurr)

~ 6l15J - LD 'ffi 6aT fi5J m UJ ILl W @y5J Ii> ~ Q u ~ iJI- ~ '7 UJ Lb 6llJ UlfJ 9i ® w (ifJ<iikr ruJ ro7lLJ~)'!F .

'ij)t;;6) IJ - uSJ 8i @ ySl ~G~rr 6lf>17 r;;5J G"tfJdi®w (!pGiT ro5I61fJ UJ6~UF.

• • •

6J 6lJ - cOT 6l) - 6T Gt)Q).

6T~ 6Tr;;tr~8Qa:rrGiJ 6lJy>a;~fDt6~~; @Q}8i~UJ(y)Lb @flJth~Ul· I ~. 6T~Q) - 6TGlJ6lJfT. @~ aLDtbCTn_{!JUUL_L~.

6TruQ)fT =C:;'hrr~. "8i~LLD~ u1JW@jt;T6U 8}rr~Qum a;rrmr 6TGlJ6VfT" (8?/ruu. 20:3). 6TGUQ)fT - 6TruQ)fTC:6lJrT = (]~rr~ "6T6U6Urr(]QJfT 8JfT{hfilJ{b c!hrr~~C:6Urotrr" (filfit)u. 18:11-12).

6T6U - 6TQ)G", = G{DfTySlmUJ ro5Jm:J8;®~ Qr!FfTcDiJ.

Q6ffkJ.W Q'6irQ6l1Tf§IFW c!!)I6lJ"m6ir(;!fJ ~L&@LiJ g6i;(]QJ

(~QI. ~®QJrrti.J. 5 : 3:5)

6T6U - orGbC:GlJfT = mJUJU4w @'7B;c!h(YJW f!.L6mrT~~W @6lJ)L5 G,) r!F rroiJ (Q p;6iJ6lS)Q) QJ !J)8J«!j).

6T6U - 6TQ). ~~ ~uSJ ySltOiJ GlJ y;>48»{iJ{D:f!JJ.

6T Q) - eteotr. ~tpJ6>J t.b {huSt y5JfiiJ fiJJY;>8;8i{btD §JJ.

676lJ,- 6T6UfT 6T6lrrWLb @® Q<!FfTPJa;w, ~®urrtb G'tUfTf!» 661~ 8i 6Tf rr 8i dJ Q ~ iJ)J r!it r$ rfJ ~ L GlJ Y' r!iJ iJ QI ® QI (!j tr a; # Q 8= tr rio 6lJ U U (j)J

8iJokr!D~'

6T6lJ fiiTm-u~~Ujwl ~{h~ ~rfJUfTgr U1GlJ QQITtD8i6lS>WirrIL[W u{iJ{!51, ~ {iJ[DGlJ c$(i(g ~ L .dJI8)fJ (yJ~6'6J O1~QJC!§LDrr J!)J 8n.J!)J i:lm-{lJ §JJ.

&. 6T6lJ (ela) = g"LL6isru(£J{D6l>6U8> ®{!518i(t5w fPrT ~rnL_#Q9"fTQ). &. 6T6l)Qa; (elage) = Qumrlll-mt;T GfilGtfJJ;®® QCFfTGU.

&. fiTGil)(J6lJrr, 67Q,c::6lJfT = filJ.ti6JuS/8;q, ofiIUJUUJ6'OlLcF Qa:rrtDa;Qr .

.s. eteotr = IDmru61nt.l ~6iJfilJ.{f)J GJ ~®riiJ5J U u y;5JUJQJfi(f)fJ 6'5Jotf/8i(f!Jc9 QgfTQ).

20

&. 6TG6V, 6TG6lJ = sreotr.

&. 6TG,)",G)8; (eJege) = UYl8ilUJ QumrUJ-~fJ 6'6Jfii1fJJ;®~ Qa:rrGiJ. &. 6TQ6UfT, 6T(]fiUfT = eteotr.

6T6lJ - et jJ)J - er ~QJ - tOT ~QJG1fr = c: {hrT y;>6tr. ($JQJ tr.)

6T §J)J6lJ~ - et ~QJ6U = a~rr y;>dT. "c:ff)J fJQ QJ (gJi) UJ Q 8irr liJ-UJ (!jJmLUJ<iill Q(QM iJJjVilljJ)JU/' (urn)" {b. ui)mfTfDfTw. 28).

tOT §)2J6lJW - 6T §W6lJ (Q)}Glf](]6lJ')

6T iW 6lJ dr - er §)2J m QJ = (] {h IT ¢'I. " ZL 6M J; Q 8i §JJJ m 6l.J UJ tr ® GlJ Q ';1J Gmmr6m'w" (urrlJ fh. ~rr@a;fJ!A. 33).

6T~QJW - 6Ti)JJ611/ = C:~fT¢'I. (Q~fT6iJ. GUfT(!!J. 26, [D#. 1L6"6l(J.J

6J60 - ~6lJ, 6JC36U = UJ!J)JQJm~UJw @¢'ImC:{hrrm67fTlLfW 6'6I~8;®c§ G)CTfTru. (;)/D.ru.)

67Gb - 6J6lJfT = 1. LD~tii6f~t;;IDUJ ro6J6"1fI8i«!J®QCFfTGU. (8i@rt. eu.) 2. a~rrlPw C:1DrqflUJ~'7 6'6Jfi1fJJi@j<f§G1e:rrfiiJ. "®fD6lJW LDcnw fTm~ an.C:{D6lJrr an.G{D" (urfJurr.8:69), "6JfiVrrQ)/f!Jl c!J)rr~rrQUJ6M" (8i!h$lJLl. cmc!F(yJi:Ju. 12).

6J6t> - ~y>; 6JQ)fT - 6JYJrT = ~fTY:>ii~uuLC:LfTtt LD~(illQ)}rotfJUJ ro6Igft r!i,@j~ G) a: rrru. (Q {D.6lJ).

GJIJ) - 6JL = C:{hfTYJmrozrrlLJw ~rr~{hC:{hfT~~lLJW G11I6YfIJ;@Jc9 QJfTQJ. 6JL - 6JLW = 1. G~rry;rotr. (lLlfTY,. ~CJi.). 2. ~l.!I-UJrrw, Q~fT(gJwu~.

6jLtfl»61J6IT QIJ.J~~ wn6lJiJr@Q&ffoidrL 6J511LJQ;UpjJ6lJffff (~®QJrrg. 43 : 4). 6J L (66J GtflC: QJ.) - c: 1h IT Y' ~ ~ lLJ W {h rr ~ If, (] {b fT m 61fT U.f t1J Q)/ 61fl r!i,@5<§ QCTrr~.

en:« 6lJ¢/LU QQ)(!jJ,mtilb QlDff6TrerfftU (LD6JOfl. 14 : 12) 6J(]L - 6JLJT

OJ L - GJIJI- = c: {hrr ¢'ImUJ IL/w @¢'I the: {hrr~~lLf W m;ti1f}ct,@J8 Qa: tt GU. (g}Q)u. 17 : 28, ~mfJ).

6J liI- - 6J1J!._ (6JIJI- G'JUJm-U:!b~ tCLLIOlJ).

6J L - Ln. bTL, er Lrr = U/ .!!)1QJrntiirT lL/W @¢'I{i;C: {hrr ~6M ILJ t.b 65JGYfJ 8;@j~ Qa:fTru.

· o· ,

Ln. ert.: - 6TL6'5T = 8-1J!)JV;U~, muUJ6W.

!D. 6T l11- - et is: = i1 J!)J uSltOri>UJlLJ t.b @¢'I [he: ~fT~W IlJ W 6l1I GYfIBi®<9 Q~rrroi>. er L - et L - ~ L = 1. UJ.!J)J QJtOri>~u..Jl1J @¢'Ithe:tDrT6"5>WIlJLb 6l1JfiffI a;®«t9 Qqrr6iJ. ~L uUJ(]fitJ! 2. s;!fi6'5lfJ cl;s;w u{b{l5JUJ @6mLt!F Q9'fTGU. "~L G a; @QJ rr IiJ U Q) G ~ tt !fi §JJJ uS} (I!) J; 8; 8; c!J) 6iJ 65J UJ ~ c9i Q LD wC: fD a;!b.f!)l66J LLfT UJ {l5J 6'J5J6iJfitJrr LDfIlJ" (u lSJ-8;a;rr 8TU 4Q)QJ It. {h6"6f) U U tt .)

21

~L_ - ~Lrr, c!J.IGL, ~C:Lrr = €R!f)JQJrn~lLfW @y5J~(g~rrGID~ILJLb 6UJ GTfJ c!i;®w ro6J ~ aisfr.

~L_fT ~Lrr = ~LLrr (rg;rr @1]'t9>a> r;;6}UJUL/9;®p5]UU!fii{f)LQ Q(FfTGiJ). ~ L - ~ liJ- = ~.!!)J u5J m UJ lLJ W LD 6m ViM roBJ rn UJ lLJ LD G ~ rr y5J 6"ID UJ lLJ W @y5J{iJC8{ljrTl5ID6lTlLfW 6"6Jcl15,«!Jc§ Q a: tr 6lJ. ~ Lq.- e!:Pifil! 67 ar w Q5tU ;fIfTUJ?,

ID,tbffi 61165f ibJl<16V1T (Tff6idrkf - ~6lJ6ir

/D/T6lJ1T[!)J WIT IDWff0~ (§1l.J6lJ6I'J65T (]QJtNr"l-li Q&/T66br@ 6lJJb~"Q61TIT@ (]t61T68U1I;- - c:!}I6IJlD&

9in../b/blTltJ-lE 8in..1i~1Tkj- U C:UffL0J61JLtb Ibff ~kj.. (6) ~:ffirr u rrLQ»

• • • •

ZL~ L~ ~fT 601 + dP/ lSI- = 91_Jiilf>Lflj ~fT fiilfrT '-'/-.

{)T6R65Tltf. ,0/T6irQu/iJPJ wffi/mt$ ~Qor G1rnTrrLDQS)Q) Q O"Llq..Wrrrr a;rrGlJ ~6 61!i>~)

et LLfJ- Iffi roiJ su liJ-!

~l1I- - ~~ = (~l11- 6T6iirU;2j<DirT !BLLW). ~LfT - LJr - fJIT (Q{Ij.).

liTL.6I{Tff @rflQl1J6irU/Tfir {.g;fTQT (!p&1ru)

@8ic$fiW)L QJfTLfT = Q~. @8i8iL trmttt. ~aL_rr - ~a!JfT - fJ)(/!J e!::P6£lL ~ma:9 Ga:rrGU. ~uSJQ)ffSl1 wr:crlT

lUlT CEff aPJUlf!JlE f»r:(JffC:Uff WIT $(§W

c!!JIdrflJlTW ~ITWt5IT6ir c!i)6iTgp$6iJr j!J66UFQLOITg)/ (!Om. 441) ~aL_ - QJ • .dP/GIJ. ~GL -(]L - QJ. C:t;r.

QI. ~alJ ~C:IJ - ~C:crC:r;r - ~CTC:CT.

LDfT AfJUJ Ir .8Qj.61v WBi r!F LD[bUJC!!J~ - ~ri»5J6U ~8i1J (yJ~6l5J ~GIJ, ~r;JG1J, .4)/C:fJGIJ, alJ fiTm~!h iJrf]Qa:rr[bo:,6rr utbp5]u UJ~QJ®L.Drr jJ)J ®p5] Ji ~ Qr !DtfJ}.

dJjG" - indo interjection of calling (Vajasneyi Samhita ). ~r;Ja[f - ind. a vocative particle (expressing haste) .. L.

~af}GIJ - indo (repetition of are) interjection of calling to inferiors or of call ing angrily (Lexicographers).

all - indo a vocative particle (generally used contemptuously or to express disrespect, often doubled) - Kavya literature; Kathas etc.

ind = indeclinable.

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22

hallo, halloa, int., n., and v.i. lot. calling attention or expr. surprise; informal greeting; (n. and v. L) the cry' hallo'. var, of earlier hollo.

halloo, int. inciting dogs to the chase, calling attention or expressing surprise; (n.) the cry 'halloo'; (perh.) var, of hollo; (v.i. and t.) Cry , hall oi', esp. to dogs; urge on (dogs etc.) with shouts; shout (t. and i.) to attract attention.

hallow, v. t. and i. Chase with shouts; incite with shouts; shout to incite dogs etc. (ME).

halowen prok. f. OF hal/oer. hello, n., and v.i. halloo

holla, int. calling attention f. F. hola.

hollo, int. calling attention; (n.) the cry 'hollo' . (conn. w. holla.

hollo, hollow, holla, holloa, v. I, and t, shout (i and t); can to hounds (a') prec).

hullo, hulloa, int. used to call attention, express surprise or answer call. esp. on telephone. of halloo

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26

QI Gil@!;6lJrt an_{l5J u5J (!!jUU'{fjrT §W W "fiJ!DU 4j Q t!F til pjG1J" (;T 6ifT~w QJlPJ,(C!j6ffl6lf)UJUJrT~Lb UlW6M~~ uS1@jQufT®d;~w ~{l5JUJu u(j)J W. 65J@ - ~ JPfT, G Q/G1T 6l1JalLJ 6llJ@wt.5J# GiCF tiJUJU U@6lJ:ftjJ. a~roYrroUJQUJfT(jjJ Q5tUUJUU(E)W G5Jy;>rrJi8i<iltT, ~®G)UUJrT (yJ~!Duil6iJ aQJw66J QUJ6MUQUJ)/W.

®~ Q <!F rr tb p5l rfl6lf (yJ~ !D8imm ILJ w (y){bU L ~ {l5J th!!llQ8jfT Gtr 6fT ~ aQJ~@t.b. 6T-(fjI : ®® @){l5J6iJ !ftC!!> G1[Dl1I-6lJrra;i> iJrfliL/W 6T~~W $Jrfl6lf (y)6'6)!DUJfT~, ~a;QJ - ~6i> (~c!:p~ar{l5Ju UL@W ~6lJLDfJLb), QJ row ffiJ ® - 6lJ tt ffiJ ® (yJ ~ 6l5) UJ W G1/ Lb; L 8ifJ t.b, fJ lhfJ LD tt 8i i> ® rfJ tLf W 6T~~W i)rfl6lJ (yJm[DUJfTGlJ, UL61JfT - U(fQJrT, ~Lil-t!i~ - mJrfJJ:~ (LD61fl{DQU fT®rnGTf Q6lI61fIuU@{h$fJOUrrVi5T urra,a;i>.flJJ ~rfJc!F~)

(!JJ {lj Vi6J UJ W 6lJ W, YJ 8i!J W L c!/) fJ us IT 8i i> $I rf11Lf Lh et 6¥ ~JI.b $I rf1 fiilJ (yJ61fl[!JUJrrru, 4y>fiiJ - 4L~ (L/y;m61J - 4 L(,1) GlJ) , ®YJ6lJ - @)L6U (yJ{ljtii6lUJ6lT6ljw '®Q)' FF.f!)J ~@ ®J!)J(,1)LDU Qurr®LU/wG)(i6f rr L~ 6T ~ U tDfT 6i> ~ Q {DfT LL!J- - Q jh fT LL!l-G1J, @jLq- - @jt.q...6U (!JJ~Gl51 UJ~ fill w,· ~w IT.ff)J ~(!!j Qu®mwu Qurr(!!jL UJ~Q6JTfTL_@ 6TmU~fT6iJ, w$J - ill iI UJ W «(lj)@LDiI), !fjJ ~ 6lJ - t&J m 6lJ UJ W (!jJ {lj 6'61 UJ 6'6T QJ LiJ ,. ~9) fJ t.iJ .dPIa;fJ LDfT CliiJ $I rfJ lLf w. $I rfJ GlJ Qj)rn{!JUJ tt fiiJ, @j(f)llhLj - 8i@w4' ~ 61f>fJ - [D~[T (Q6lJ ~ ~UJ) (!:p{hr06l UJroaT rolJw; !!LaJr; tJ§[! ClifTfJ W (!:pm[Da UJ ®9it;T FF8ifTfJLDfT 8irj ~rfJI1jLb. $lrfl6lJ (!jJm{lJUJrT6lJ LJfJ~mL - U1"rdlrmL, ~6fu@ - qi6tflfT@ QPtDv;61UJ~Qj LD; GU161TffiJ®~GiJ 8irr~ 8i.

Q~{h~u5J~# Qa:fT6lJ66JUJ6U G{D{l5J (!J>m[D8i@!Jw (Principles of Etymology) Q~rTJiJp51rfl6'lJ (yJrn[Dc!J)@!Jw (Modes of Derivation) 6T ~1!PfiW}r;;m-aUJrT t.seo.

(1) ~661(YlA>!Dg Ql1rr6\>6\Slw6\) (Sound Etymology)

GT-(£1 : UrTfJfT@!jLDroM.f!)J - parliament ufTfJrr~Lf)~.f!)J ~roirru!!J urrrt ~@!jLb LD6lfT.[!)J 6T6M~W (!JJ#Q,g: fT{bQ{lJrTLrt. Parliament 6TWU ~ parler (speak) OTQr~W t51Qf7c88i# G'I§rrGiJ~Lb ment 6T~~Lb ~ffiJ$}~)J ~®iJlL/w Gt!Frt{h1D '9Gcr G1c!TfTQ).

(2) IL6irrRflu4~ Qlflf6\)6\SlW6\) (Guessing Etymology)

tOT -@ : ~~ 6iJ = c!)I Y;;@j (c:!)/ y>$J UJ 6lJ rf18it01r) n: 61lLILJ ~. ~~ = ~Y!®' aJ~W = 8iGUG1JrTtD Q,g:iiJUJUULL.:[!J.

cg6)jff,~ = QQJ~wUJrrtiJ .::!)Ii)5JTfJc9 Q~ ~ii.J!JJu6lJrolrr. GQlW = G6lJ{!;1hw. (3) ~¢lQIIT <!>6\)8: Qe:rr6i>6\Slw6\) (Pedantic Etymology)

fiT-@ : ~6lfJ = ~61TUU.tfJl (C:U8iW u!D6'6>QJ)

LD~ = LD~UU,ff)J ({fJrr[b!DcYJ6ri)LUJ~)

·

urrQJrT6tmTrT

27

(4) ~tq.UL.JL..L Q~rrro6\SlUJro (Popular Etymology)

6T-@ : JP!TolJ (4iJ~<hw) = @m~~§Ww fiTtD.f!)J JjJTiJJJw C:urrbbQJ~. (5) ® p51.i.C5R L Qs:rr 6\>6\51 UJ6\> (Tendentious Etymo logy)

~-@ : If!UJ6M < ~rf1UJ~ (diJ,rTUJ)

~#r!ft;;M < c!)f8slfS (U1r;rfTfil®~w) < ~rtUJ

QGlJJ!)J9J6mCb (Q~GlJQJLb) = Q6lJ.J!)Jr$a;uu@6lJ!/Jl.

(6) 6lJ~ILU u(!>L.t4B= Q8R'6\>6\S1W6\) (Malanalytic Etymology) et -@ : r!F IT U U tt ® - 5 tt QJ ~{iJ@j bJ ~fiilI tt fiilfT.:lJJ (<!F tt + u rr(£J)

(7) ,ffi6lD5WITL...(bl6: Qe:R'ro6\SlUJ6\> (Playful Etymology)

et -@: c: {hfT~ c!F @®QP6l>ID 'rn~' et ~.f1).J fflfi6l U u ~. G{hfT (lL(!!j~) = @[T~@.

@rfu ® Ch tr L LU U L_@ 6ir 6TT 6T@.jJ/!Jl a; a; tt L_@8i 6l> 61TQ UJGlJ w tt Lh LD.f1)J 5,9i6lJ W 66J ett 5,ClirolJ t.b 48J 6ir rul rfllLJ LDfT ~~ <OM o::!)J 6lJ tb ff)/m [Drr W 6mdh LDL_@ill FFIiilW LfT (J tt til c!T 51 #, Gil c!1i@{t.t!»ciQa;rrm6lJru.

(1) ~roWJ6V. ~~ = GlJrf/, 6l.Jrf/6"G)(F

~61rnf) - ~~ ru = (!j) /!Jl $/6b eYYiilufl r!h6"IDGYT lLJ~LUJ.gp.

(2) C:QJ~~rn : C:6lJuJ~6V = C:WG1)~{hGU, (Y)lJ1-@jj@~GiJ. aQ/tU = CZ6l.JUJ [AGtfjfT r.m - C:6lJ ~~t;;ig = (yJlJ1-UJ~ '4 W 9LrfJ~LDILfGtr~ c: <!FfJ I c:~ fT y;>, U fT 6'iMlJI-UJ (!96Yr 9C!!;QJ,ffi. C:6lJGir, w6iu fiilfTru, c: a;rr, C:GlJ t5fhdT 6T ~ ~ t.b {!j tt rio QJ m a; UJ t;J r!F rT Q u UJ C!!> Gtr, a QJ ~ flj W et ~ u:ff» (!P UJ- UJ ~ tLf W g}_rft mWlLJ Gtr GYT eyl:8ro1J t5~rT di>(]a; G LJ tt !b16lJ tt dh6lJ rfJ UJ fljrr W. @6lJGlJrfJ6lnLf) ~ tDI ii g» 61f 8; ® (!jJ {b u L_ L <!Ii tt 6U G LD 6U su rr t.b m a; UJ tt G'fT U r;, U {b .JJ)J GlJ!h {!j ff» .

Q a;rr ~ mID a 6lJ ~fhG"irr (~QJ roirr) or r;;W u gp Q ClifT ~ 6m!D c: eu uj d;CJ fhfT W fiiTw(]!D G)urr®roiru(EJ~ru 8irT~a;.

GQI d>J!J 6T W ~ LiJ u rr~ [15J6iJ6lJrT U U ~fOlJLq-6lJQ.Pw G6lJ t5~6'M et w.!J)J Qu tt Q9GiT U@6lJG;!h; Qa=liJ~ OTm~/I.h QJ min.) fT L_(j)J ~6mfiiM, C!:PtD.{f)J W ~~Q) (lUfTwjJ)J.

(3) ~6YfI, UJGtr6'6>W : 8:1,," - ~GirGtf] - ~~, 5/w - 8ilw~v;rr, ~6ir~~GiJ = 8Q.rfl UJ e!;P8;8) tt GiJ G,') a;rr /J f!)J ~GiJ. LDt;J rill,g;gf} §JJJ orr w srr til r9)~ 8itrn6YT ci; g, 6tr 61fJ VW>6lJ U u.f[)J [i16"1f1 t6J tOfu @UJ6iJLf· u!J) 8i tr rJh 8iJ v;yf} ~ UJ 9 (!9 6lJ W iSliil-uurrm-rru11ffi, ~L_a~ ~8iUULL lL.!J)JumuJi o;fTUJUUL QJ~~fTuJ8; G,)8)rr t>~Q)J@LiJ '~~ Q8ifT ~iJm uy>w' or~u~ QI/:pJi®. CluarLb @U16ULJ ~6'ffJa.~rumQ). GCFfTfii><06J8i QClifT(J1~~6'tj)~ Q<!FfT6U §Ww ~UJGi>au ~;{htb®~@. "G;)a:fT6lrrtillm;fJ8= Qa:rrQ)Sllw ~61f1u U/6tr6tOW" fiTrmu/p U yl;'JwrrlJ1. Q<!FfTGirwm~ Qa:rrru.8Jjw iJ!D~iJob I ~6lfJt61~@J i1f!Jth~~ HfiS)QJQUJfi5T ~tDl9i·

28

(4) c!)Ie#a:6M

~/J~~ - c:!)/8:CFQr (~~UrTQ)) ~ff,61fJ~

~~iJ - dJl8:liJ (QutiWUrTQ;) r7JrTUJ, ~J;m8j. @6l>6lJ ~UJ ~ufJJ:P9 Qa:rrtDO)GTr. ~ - 5 : C:urr615J. ~. (l!DfT. : U1iitD~ - t5J~a:~.

~~~rm, ~J:a=~ fiT~UfiM (YJQl{DuQuUJrt.

~rfJU1~ 6T~Ugp 9® LDr9;a;61f/wu QUUJrT; ~j,~L~ ~rT ~rfJUJq Qt!FfT6lJ.

~~{!jVikr, ~q a:fiiirr 6T fiir U b5T6lf t..b ~ ii~ dJ)/#UJ er WU fii1IT 6lf W (!pm{DG UJ ~ fiii5r u tt fiV !DfT c$6lJ W Q urom- U rTru FF!D rr 9i6l/ W 6T om 6ffi1 {D ~ {b Pi uSJ!) iJ Q U UJrt a;rotf/6iJ Q 1hrr'*r J!)J Q ~rr L@ 6lJfj)tfiJ8iJ 6lJ(!987JdT pm.

fiT-(EJ: 1JjLLJTj,i), 6lJ~tQWrr~iJ,

a;roiTm1#liJ, C:6lJL@QJ#UJ - Qu~urr6iJ.

J)/fJr!F~ 6T6kr~Lb Qa:rrGiJ(:Q) QJL{6rrL.__L!J-~ ~~~ 6T~~W t5J fJ rr ~ ®tD# Q cfF rrbU6lJrT C1i QJ(!!j~~ JDQ ~6isr Cli.

(1) uruQwrryS/8iw ~w(!jJrfrr Q~rrLrt4 Qa;fTr;;iuliJ-®uu~rr6iJ Qt!F fTGU"'fTlJ rrtiJ#s:J8i® QLDfT yS/UJfT(J rnuqg,Ujt.D C:QI~@w.

(2) Qa:rr{b8i6lT ®@wuw ®@wuwrrtiJ ~UJ6iJGlJ~rrru, ~QJtb~{lJj, Q;fJrr(!!!J/J~ C:{Drr a;§;JC:UJ fYJQ)rfiJa;fT~{hfJJ C:QJ~@Lb; YJTGirrWl W ~® Q {DpSl C!P~!D8j~6lT lLJ~rt j,:ffP~[b®, 9® G'lc!.FrT!be;, !DfT(E!J~~UJ FF~QL@I>.{bJ& 9JrrL@QJfTw.

(l106I)6\)wllffw QiOl ~6Tfli1lQr 6TT ~lhlY>';: Qs:rr!i>aem 9® ctI6\) : (r!)6lJ6lJ - L. curvo, to bend, E. curve

(!!)r:rffiJ(!!J (QJ6f)w6lf, G)e;fT8i~), ®!Dffi1@ (Qd,rTs,&!) .. D. kring, krink, a curl bend, crook

E. crank to bend, wind and tum

E. cringe A.S. Cringan, Crincan to bend with servility.

<!n{lJffiJ(f!J (G)Hi~6TT6l/' QjLLW, 8jrr{bprTllI-' 8itpbU) - A.S. hring O.H.G. hing Ieel, hringr, G. ring, D. ring, Sw. ring, E ring.

Sw, kring, about, around; Icel, kringer, a circle,

Prov G. krink, kring, a ring, circle.

®fJ6'(S)6l} - Gk. choros, a dance in a ring. L. chorus E. chorus. ®®6tr - D. krullen, Dan krolle, E. crull, curl,

®®® - A.S. cran, D. kraan, G. krahu, kranich; Icel, trans, Dan trane.

Armor, karan, W. Garan, Gk. geranos, L. grus, E. crane.

,

Urr6UrrQM'fT

29

Q9jrr8;~ - A.S. hoc. E. hook. D. hock, Icel. haki, G. haken, O.H.G. hako,

L.G. hake.

Q8ifT(!;ui;® - Icel. crokr, Sw. krok, Don crog, O.E. erok, E. croog, Dan crog, D. kruk, W. crwg, Gael, crocan.

O.F. croc. L lJ. (]urr6l5J. ~.C:!Drr : ®L.@j - coorg, ~~L8:,8irTliJ - areca (]a;fT6lflfTw - Gk. Gonia, an angle.

a8ifTL~/_ - L. cas/rum. E. caster.

c: w[b9jfT LLq-UJ G ~GirQ c!F tt {bo;@!Jw, G W61f)Q)UJ rr rfI UJ cF Q e: rr tD8i@!Jt.D, Qc!F rr6U<OlJVJtTGl1/6iJ wL@LDW p51 ~l.!I_J.ju®iJu51 §J»w ~6l5JlLJt.h Qu tt (!!>@!Jw 9~iJ(f!jUU6m~J; 8irrr;;m-rurrLh. ~QJtb.fl)J6b" e!j)Q)w 6T6'5)QI, iJrfh.J orrnQJ 6T roifr!f)J ,g:,~@t5IlJI-fi,~{b®, ~q QCF rr tDa/;;'w 6UfiOrT W 6T tb Gl LDfT y51 u51Q, tep@ffiJ(]8i QJ y51 (ljJ 6'6l fD~ Q {hIT LIT LJ tb.J!)J ~® ® (6J W U LD IT 8i QJ y> ffiJ UJ QJ®~~{lJ6?iT OTt;;Gr J!)J 8iIT~~6U C:QJ6fu@th. ~Qf)QI 5T t1JQWIT y51u516U 6T ffiJ fliJ~ W QJ ~rliJ8iJ QJ ®516M pJrnG6lJ rr ~ w G WIT y51<l UJ ~QI {bJ!)J J; Q CliGU"->1T L.b e!j)6UW 6T WU ~ (yJL1I-[t,~ (!jJUJ-u tr ®w. iseo @LffiJa;61f)6iJ ff}(!!j LOfJ ~iJw @Q)Q)lLf Lh ~ GlJ t1J 8)fT H..f W 8itii5fllLJ WfT gJUJ U16WrOU a;(]w !i1~{lfI8;~LJ-,®LJ)rruSJGir, ~mQJ ~mrmLDt6JC:6lJfT, C:CFuJ6roWu51G6UfT a, 61r 6TT ~ (f!j UJ fJ ~ ® ~ 6krC: {D U [l5J c9; c!h i.J u L__ Lq- ® ~~GiJ c: QJ~ @w. @{h{b® LDfT {DfT 8j, ~ # q] 6l>bST 8)6Tf1b61 ®t1>C: {D dPI Lh LDfJ tb QJ ~~G,):!h~ .J!)J QI fi6J U U f!JJ ZLj, iJ J; (:!J W Q_ mr 6"4) wcii@jw G U fT (!!Jj, ~ tr ~ (i)@ w 4 8J an_tbflJ rr (t!jw. f}rT ~ rfl5J» 6frGfT LD8;Q)roir Cl ~ tb J!)JT rt Q 5 6ifT.!J)J QJ fT y51 m, Q~rr~ .!J)JQ~fTL@ ~ru~y./7rrC:(J 6TWj, :!DW~LD# (;)lFrr6iJG15]c9i QQ)fT6Yr GYT (yJIJI-Ul tt §J. ~ ffiJ ffiJrn t.iJ Qa: 1T6lJ jJJJ f!j{b®~ Q ~fT ~ .!J)JQ rfhrr L_@ QJ(!!>W lfL~flJUJ~, ILflJ rDlJ, [bL4' ~ 1lJ6lJ (y>{!j6l5J UltOll tD"'!Da; OirrL._@ ~6iJ (]QJmr@Lh. aLD{be;rrLLfl-UJ ~rf1UJ# Qe:rrtbe;6tr GWA>WlJ Gwrry51 a;6lf1Gi> ~ riuClifT ffi/(3c!h 9GMrOI!7 ~ LfT 8;5 g, rfhp51 #, !iJ L..iJu~,fiQJ UJ65r p51, ffJu5Jy51{bClurrGiJ LlJt;T4~ (;)~rrLrt4{b{D ~® ®(E1wuwrra; ~6iJQ.):!/J/ ® su LD rr CJj QJ y,> ffiJ 51 QJ C!§QI fiM GlI Q>6l>. ~ rfJ UJ Q LDfT y51 a;fi1f] 6iJ J§JT {b J!)J 8; 8i6lfrf 9;o;rr~ ~'-9-UU6mLcF Qs:rr{b8jroTr Q§rr6ix;urr .!Ww, Qu tt C!!foTTrr.§J)J t.b Q {!j ~ Q a= tt tb 8i fii6) {J1T ffl {h ~ @ u u ~ fT 6iJ, c:!JI fill tb 6"6> pJ ~ ~ tb G'1 ~ UJ fit) tt a; G{DtT ~~ ~U4rnLD9iQ6lT05T j, ~GtrWJv;5JL6l/ W (!jJL!J-UJ tt !l)J. ~QJ [bp5165r ZL~rnLD~ Q{!jfT Lrr~ucii tfhfT L._(§J~{b@j Qwrr y51 J§JTQ6l)rr@ 6lJ(J61Jrr.!J)J

C':P~fO£l UJ OJ!D CF tt ffi .!J)J tfh@J(!JJGYT.

c: UJ tb 8) rr L.._ i1I- UJ G,) a: IT {b 8) L_ Q $ru f)l) rr w fY> 6lJ W G $6 6M Q LD rr y51 C UJ 6T W u.:!!Jl, J51GkrQl(!!>LD Q!F tr [bQ {DfT ®iJ UJ fTGU ~ {l5l UJ6lJfT@)w.

~'" fiTGifTu~ 6lJ~'H;TfQJU G;)urr®w 1O@w ~® GQJtT#Qe:ITru. ~~~~ J!)J, 6lJmGTf6l/, GaJ{Tt;;Slff6lJ, 6lJLLW, QJ61f)GTTUJw, IL(!!JLg],

iJ 1;J LUI, ® y> tb 6J, lIT y> th UJ, & tb!D GiJ, @}Y' col> (!:P~ G"6J UJ U 6lJ !L{D fi5I UJ {b (/;@i>f!»61rGlT utburu Ga=rr[iJc!hw Q{DrrLrT~/!jJ ~m6Tf ~~fftrGTTm.

30

dPlm 6lJ tiil1 (!!Jwrr.f!).J :

• ••

®GlJ - @jViVfT - @j6lJQj - @j6lJrr6lf. ®6lJ6lJ $h6l) = 6l/filf>GYT tjjro.

@j.u - @jn- - @j1J - @jr;TW = GlILLwrrro ®~6"6)1J ci;@j6'frLDLJ· @j(J6U = QJm6YT[t,~ i)mGMa,a;i)tt.

®f7 a;w = 6}jrn6YT!h~ 8)@~gp~G1T !BtTUU!D~QJ.

®f7 ffiJ ® = 6lJ rn 6YT 6lf ' Q (J)fT a;.$J. ® fJ ffiJ@j{ljGU = <OlJ 6'ID6lT ~Q). «!J17 ~6lJ = QI LLLDfT en JElw flJrT @rii1 an_~,gp.

@jfJ1~J® - ®£Dffil ® = Q Birr a-, 5:/ .

• •

8)!D ffiJ a; 6lJ = fiilJ filf) 6YT fJllI-.

ZL - ~, i) rfJ 4· ~.C: !Dr, : (!jJLJID® - LDLriv@j. ®(J;lI·.nLf - 8i(f}l wLf· ®[D® = QI~W Jh~ a;@ii./fJ/61rfii1f aiC!!J65I.

®ru - @j6bT - ®~ 67if rr. ®W6lfT tt ~$liQ] = iLLWLJ a;,_G"6f) uC: U IT pj6U.

®oo, ®~~~ = 6lJ6'ID6TT:;t)Q" 6lJ6mffiJ®~ru. ®~ULf = QJ6m6TT~~rr@r5J an./J§)J.

®~N!!>, ®~®~GlJ = a;(fj1<9 ~rfI uUlfiiJ 8LLW4 QJ61f)w;fj6iJ.

an. AT ru = 6lJ6l»GTf 6lJ, (yJ /!Jl ® <iilJ06lGYT fOl/. 8n.~ = ru6lf)6TT £610 g) tbt6J {DfT GiJ. an.mw = an..~GirGTf a;fOrT {iJq tt 6iJ.

®6iJ - @j6lflG1T - @j6YT6l1J - G;]8ifT(fj18i@j6lrW C:~roaf. (!!j6Yfl ma; = lJ)®tf,.:%lI(!!J~ 6'ID L, 6lJmw fDIJJ-, iJ IJ"I.,:_g) .

• • ••

@)y>OlJ, ®y>~~Q) - r!Ii(!!j61f ~6U.

@jQ) - ®fililfT - @j~@ = lL(!!)rdMQ)L, lL(!!JLUt, iJ'7LUJ. ®td5r1 iD = ilL®~@ iJt;JmrL uwt6J. ®~LGir = lL(!9mr(SJ iJ'7~L6lJro. ®~(£Jt!f/' I q = ilL®~L 51' I q ®fiililsTLJT = ®~@q,' I q . «5,",6mL = IL@~@ i)'7~L a;rrmGYT, ®fiilRrT(6Ja-:LLlI-. ®mrL61JW = GllLLW, &W 6?fT Lb, ®fiilRrT LfT 67if a;rr;fJ~.

@j~ - @j~ - @j61SlT~. @j~®~ru = QJ6mW{h6U.

• •• •

@j~ffiJ@j. ®~ffiJ®~6lJ = QJGlflW ~6lJ.

®G1f5T c9;09 = 6lJ~6YT 6lf. @j6m' 6~H;lJ = lLL6U6lJ6m6YT 6lJ, 6lJm6'fT!A ~rr (f;J ffiJ

8'n..-?i!JjJ .

®~ = (yJLL.DfTW/tU. ®~ci;® = a;rriJw~lLJt.b ZLC:Q)fT8) QJrn61TUJW.

•• • •

@j~C1)®tD6lJ = GlJ6mGTT ~~6lJ.

@jG1r - (t!JL@ = QPL6tf)L. (Q1hiWffiJ®cJ Q<!TfT~Q)rrm ~ruCFqQ9rriv) ®LW = $!}_(!!JL...~UJrrW!!Jl' QJ~'""Glf· «9L = 6lJmwtA1h·

U £T6l.J IT 6'm' IT

31

®LGlf' ®LGlJ~ru = GlIGWGTT;2)6V. @jLci;8)W = 6lJ(Olf)G1T6l.J, «!;L#,&i/ = 6lIrnGTTQJfT~tbJ. «!jL8;§JUJm = an.6MGM.

. .' . .. . . .

®L.J~J®, ®l_ffi1 ®~ 61J = 6lJ6IDGYT {ljCiV. ®L!b;fl)LD = 6lJ ~6YT 6l.J, GlJ~ c!1iCJiW,

QJ tf! U tt (£I. @jL{t 6m th = eu 6'ri'HiifT Glf· ® L tr = 6l.J ern 61f QJ tt rJT .ftU. ® UJ- ;:: (6l161n6YTt6~) Lf®~Lb.

@jG1r - @jti.J - ® UJ W = 6lJ tiW>6lT ~{h ~ rfJQJ tt 6fT.

@jW - anm - 8nm; = 6)JrnG'TT~;:fJ @jfT~Y;>uuYJw. an.6i"r - 8fl_@ = @)LLUJrTGU Q{!j{iJ a;GTTr8i7UJw. @jG1r - Q BifTroir = riil1~6TT th {fJ 8ifTu5t ~ rirr 6YT a;fTrOm Lb.

Q8ifTSrr - QairTLLj = 8T!;Ptb 81 , &{b.!IJl~fOiJ. Q8)fTL® - G)8)fTL®1D6U = aT {b jJ)I {h6V.

(QaifTL8J) - (8)rT r48iJ = Q/Grfl6YT~~ LDfTL(f;t.JJ)JULJ.

(Qa;rrL'_®) - Gdh{T d;@j = 6lJ61fHiff[h:;{ll 8i@~:/!Jlrotr61f ~(!!j tCrtUU!D~6lJ 6lJm8i.

G:J8irT 8;61n8i = Q8irT ctlil.

Qa;fT L_(£J = Q [IJ{ban(£1. Q sur LLrT CT W = 6hG'fT 8~ UJ CYJ6Tr GYT JE16V W.

Q 81fT L_ m L. = gJ_C!!J mr al L. 6lJ UJ- 611 Lb. ZL ® rmr@ iI (J mr L r;;5l rrn.pj,

• •

1LC!!J~<imL'!J r$J6lf)Q)ILJ rn~.

G;'L$rr(];J = eu mGTT ~~. Q al rr@LDfJLb = ro6I ~.

(;)airr@8>@j = 6lJ6IDGlT~~ (lj)rftr@!jjJ)JuLJ. Q81fT@9J8lm = G$Dm. Q8irr@J;@ = G~LQ8ifT@8;8iJ (9([9 G)a:Lf/-)

Q8irr~ = 6lJomw/h!fh ~mr(f;161rw G)s:U/-

Q8ifTl1J-jJ)J = ®tD@, ®!D@ C:ufTViMtD QlfTUJ6lJ@.

@j6V - (an.ru) - (Q8Jrr6iJ) - (]alrrGU = ~®~@ i)[T~l_ Qa;rrwL/.

Gc$rr!bQ{DrrllJ- = wr;rmrL 6lJ6l»G)}TUJ6lJ, Ga;rr66J = ~_®~6GlL.

Q CIi tt 6iT - c: a; tt 6iT = a. (!!j tiilW 6ID L UJ tt 6ru' (~ GiJ 6lJ .:fU & tb [l51 QJ ® t.b ) 6'5Jtd5rW6M. C:8irrmw = ~@,ffirmL_. (JClirT6'fT'rr = !L@mrm/_UJfT~ ~ tb.[!)J~ L!f- 6lJ~8i.

(]<!hrr6TT W - c: <!hfT fJ L.b = GlJ Lli/-bV (6lJ LLLDrT W eJ)'iVW).

G a;rr 6ir - (] r!1i tt 6i5r . C8 alrT ~:fh bV = 6lJ 61f) 6lT ;2j6V , r!F rnll ~6iJ , Ga; tt ~ W = c!F rT,uGl/, ~ rTril [h ~ ey:>61HiV. c: 8jrr~ rob' = an.w W. c: c9)fT ~ GiJ = ~ tt tUrolJ, r;, [b ~ QJ . (J 8) tt m bW = a: tt UJ fDlJ ' t.5J f!J !J> 6lJ. a 8) rr 61f) 6m UJ m- = LD if UJ[DY>!h~QJvNJ ®;!!i(!!Jcii8)6lJrT i).

a srr Gli1rr -' c: aJrr@ = 61Ui~ en 6lJ. c: a;rr@{hGU = 6lJ m61T r=?iGU. a 8)fT L_6U = QJ6l> GYT6lj , QJ~GYT{h{!j @~@Gtr6TT 8ifT{h~Lg. G9>fTlJ1- = QJ~rorrGlJ· a8ifT~l_ = 8irrt5;'hSrr.

32

C:<!J)fTl· I I h = QJfi5)rotTGlJ. LDi)GlJfT {b (§y;> U U LL a 8>fT u5I coiJ, @rurr6"ID<OlJ# @y> If, ~ !D611 fr a 8) tt G1r. a CJ) tr L_ L W - a CJi tt L_ L c!1i Lb. a a; fT L_ rn L_ = 6lJLLLDrTrJT Q!D{bBi61T<§UJtlJW, wj;J6lJrr{iJ (!!!;ifJUULL @LLb, JElQ)fT 6ID6lJ a: @}[p!h;'h ~61fI <OlJ LL_W.

@cii ®® WU :tGID~# a CF tT!A{b U! [!J Q r!F tt !Dr!1)@Jc!:pVi1T. ( ~uS1 Y;i.JQ U tt ySlru aLD. 1956.)

• •

6T~lDU4

FF a; tt fJ .j, iJ r05fJ ffi Jl)J raJ a; IT fJ C!:P W , !!1§H a; tt fJ iJ if tiiaf) ~.!J)J fjJ a; IT fJ (!jJ W C:LDfT61>rou th iJrfl6lJrT 8)~ (]{bfT6M¢'J~.

(yJfh{bCll<iiffl Q [!JlJJ-6V tt BiG GlJ c: {ljrT Qr p5] UJ ZLuSJ IT CIlGlr UI W 6a1 rt Ji ®{l5JrurT CJiq, @).!J)J a;, ~.

~ CliIJ (yJ W @8jr;rCYJW c: <IF tt IhffP 8J 6T6U.!J)J LiJ, ~ 8i'7 (!jJ Lh !L CJir;r (YJ Lh C:<!Ffr~~ 5JrOfT 6Tm.!f)JW @® L/fiimGJr;rfT~8i6tr (Diphthongs) fiiT@[t,{Dw. ~6m6lJ ~fi61 UJfii1T6'6IGlJ (YJGIDfDaUJ ~uj, ~ru 6T~ ~~th'!i6W. (~.@.6l.J. (!JJ~WJ6~)f7 .)

6J~

cy;~~ c!:p~Q)fT8) wa,a-,m ~~LD~~:!J UL fiT@~a;2j. 6T~iJ.:!Jl 6T dT ~ w Q CFfT 6iJ (!jJ~1iiM (}jJ{ljfiVfT 8i rg;6UI UJ$6mf!jGUJ ®[l5J ~1h.gJ. @w.f!)Jw U L_ Q LlJ @ ~ '!i ru et rOirr W1 Lb fii1J Y; rJ, Glf) a; 8; 8i fT cOi5r s: '~~ rOM U 6l) U 6lJ 6T(g>tji,ff)J t&J~6U LD~LUW' 6TW~W Urf)UfTL6V ~liI-u1IcoiJ (19:53) 6T@d;ffP 6T G!r u:f!;iJ 'i?ro5t UJ:f,rrn {l> £LGDT IT ~i) {b.9)1.

"~65IUJrOirr 6m 8J6l1Iromw au ttea et @~u U (j)J6lJ ~ ZL(!!j Q fii1J @~{ljrr «!ju/' 6TrOirrullJ UJfTuu®ffi)aJ61) 6UJ®i>j;J (]wtb(le;rrw. @~ .JWtburr~~w jJ)J (!ptbCJirr61)~i1(!!J[h~ fljuSJQJj)@/J!!Jl UL_G'J6lJ(g>~G{lj (HierogJyph) 6T~.f!)J ~~UJ6lJfTw.

6I"~

6T(gJ~4» (8)rrLLrrfilJ~lJ)6lJ{ljrriJ)1w, (yJw~®~~ is}~ ~ruQ).&fJ GLD6"8®[t,§I flfp @@j,C:~ @UJoUurr$ {DL@JiC:<!1irr@ 6lJ~r;rUJu U@fiilJ~fTiWW, ~@~:!htb 8)®/JiJfib 67@~~tb 5,(!!);iJ./bI,jJ G~rTmp5JtbjJ)J· (] 8> tt lJf- @ ~:!h tOiJ or W W1 W eu !J) 8> ® @ UJ 6iJ u tt CJi 8; a!Jj rr@ 9; .!J)J W it~a:mUJ !!l_Jii"W!r ~§JJt1J.

~~ -- @Q)@j - ~6l)J;® = (6T@~~, Qa:rniiJ, JblT6iJ) @61)a;«!j~~ = ~@IijJ)J 6lJ6lOfJ ~Ql, QJ6IDfJ ~Gi>, 67 @ ,guflj~.

~C:!T6IJc!h uSl6Vt!E@c$ (Q)6QJ6. Qurr~. 274,)

~ru8;® . ~6lJ8i~UJw = JjfToU, ~{bG{Drr®~.

~Q)Ji~ - ~6lJ8;8)v;mLb = jJ)JT~GJLDrrySl G'JUJfT(_gJffiJ(;!JI ~m~,J; aQ.!f)Jw

JjfTrolJ.

33

®fiU8;@j - ®6l) S, 51. ®Q)8;~~~6iJ = QJ6IDfJ~""

~6iJ6l/@6l/ QJD(§QeliiriJ)/w ilg)Ju5l6ir C:w6I5J@,tb JlQJ~liJ~~ (66lJ6J. 180) ®Q)8;@j$liGlJ = fiT~~!!hru, ®pJI~~GU.

®ruc$(5!j = ®p5}, ®pJlft~ ®LW, ®LW, @jp51uQurr®~, C:~fTJ>8iLb. ~ruJ;® - ®QJ8;e;t.b = fiT6iM@jpJI, ~mr.

~@ - ®@®. ®~fhQ) = ~@$h~th f!JLGlf;'!J6U, ~L6l/1lJ6iJ.

@(!g - (®(g)~) - 67@{!JJ - fiT@"~ = Gl.JmfJfil/, fP~UJtb, GlJrfI, @fil)8;~ ILl Lb.

6T~.{l)/t%~ = @@j,~ QJ6U)fJ;'!JQ), 6)J6lf)fJ~6U·

fiT(!:Pgp~6iJ 6T~~t.b QUfT@6YfJob, ~Q)8;® 6T~~t..b Q~rnQgfT6lJ 6lJ L Qwrr ifi1 u510iJ 6l5J J; er ~.!J)J iJ rfllL/ W.

®6l)8;«!, 6TQr~t.b Qa:-rrru uSlBJU umYJmwUJrrrn-~rr~~fT6iJ, ~~rofg u®iJ @6lrTJ!)J @(!jJthtDtD r!h®~~~ QfM61fJuu~LUJrrli.J f!_~rt I>~ Gll)Q,tllOQ). @jwrf//Drr@W G~rrm~~Lb UfilJ u!;j>@J G'JCFrrtb8)~Lb LD6tf)!D~i[)J c: u tr 6lfT AlLDILfW ®fD{b~& 8>rr 17 tmr LDfT W. ( (!jJ.~rr.)

6f~

'9([5 8)(1 ouJJ$J fJU (§fTQ) tElQ)u u~iJ OJ @ <!hmr t___ffij 8;t;;rT rr 9iGlJ Lb @®~s!h {DfT8i~ Q$6rf}~~!DD' ~~QJ 9roiTp5}GwrrrnJ!)J jrtthiJ®t6{hmLDUJrrGiJ SGlJ8)61r 6T~UULLW. (Slt6l/ - iriilJ)· dPlG"5>6lJ Qu® tElQ)uu®i)8)t;;rTfT {h Q)f1GV ttGllW orGlsr Jl)Jw GCTfToU~UU([;1w (f,6lJ - if,QJw).

6T~

t6J Q)6lJ~~ ~~ (;'!Jrr QJf}" w), !Err eutt y>GlJaT, I2§JUT Gl.J~, U (D6'4)(il), G'8/Q)r6J ®, LD8>C1i6lr, a{hliilJrT 6T oiTW ib tOT@QJ6'4la; OJ!D U UJ ~ W i>UJrn6lJ ~mr LfT ~muf!)J tSJfDuUlrOir QJ6r)r!J) utiJpJllLJw G{ljfTa>ai utbpS/'4w Qurr®!6~fT rnLDu5Jffi 61@W9;a;L_ Ul/DuufTw. (~.l.D. 70.)

6T6ir~

6Tfir(!!§/OQ)/T6U~ umi. tb~fJHtiJ /.t.6TJ(TUJff@IOiJl1W QetiJUJff6TJw.

6Tro@?j~6iJ 61~~W IL61TQlJrn~, @8i~fDfiVfTfi]UJ 6lJrrlilG5Jm6MmUJ UJ W Lf [Da,e,6WfI i>~Q)rr &! UJ Q 51i.J6"6I G"5>6"5T rn UJujilJ tD@Gl/ Lb. (®{DGTr. 752 [fLrnCf )

6f6M fLQ)5sDa; @~B, ~ 6l116lD6TTlUm.:.(B

~ Q;) QjJQS)f!J : @®U.:f!lJ 9J J!)J u)J UJ rt (] U tt ViiJ ~ ® 63 L(f;I (IJJ{b {D 1iJ$I GiJ QJLLLDI7$ Q~®ffiJ$Jt6J@!h~/ !D@QJ~ (rnwUJw) G£6fTJifi]ci; a;fTru!C LUJ- ~C!!Jf,iJ urr ~/JG~rr(fjJ 9®/J~ urr .pj~m1hq aa:rt dittP ~QJ~1!J, fpfOiJG)QlfT(!!)/JiJUJw @® (lj)y>ffiJalr!hUJrT~W @® Q)1 fit) tt 6ri) 6lJ ILl W @ 6'4l L 6111 L rr ~ dPI UJ- i>!!U 8; Q 9) tt roiM@LiJ, " 6T 6M

34

2L6lJ8J6"5)8) ®di~8; ®;iJ~, ~8;r!JjrT ~6lJ8;m8j d!hrn1D&®U (lUff" tOT~.[!)J LDLj,$j LDL$~U UrTUJ-a;Qr$rrrmr@w, QW6UGU QW6V6VU QUUJrt/.6~

artb{lS/dc artb{lS/ ~UJIiiJ8iJ8;Gl8irr~L a1J®uurr. J

~ L._@~ c: {hfT tb JDW : {f,W$ m a;4 Q CJi tr m JJ)J W {hffiJ fif)8)8:, G a;rf~ .!J)J LDfT 8)8-, ®tD1 8;8)U U L_L FFC!!J~J;m8i8i@96Tr, {hL£)8;~<fJ)uJI6N ~ c!F t6 J, {!j4® 6l1J {bU61f>tQ5T ~fT ChU GUfT 8i, {Dr5Jmmrn f!Jl ~ffiJ§J U(] u rr6'5T i)67ffrnoiJ / ~QJGrr LD!iJ~#8!lGUJfT@ ~~WfT6U «!JiJi)m Qt!FUJmou, ~6iJ roUJ66)GtTUJrTL@ Iff! ~W6lJ sn_rt 6UJ J:,§J6iT {lJ flU G u rr ~ wI ( flj.[Drr.6l1J.)

'§T' 6TfiiJril)lt.D I&J!, (J6lIrT 8=bltfrTJi>56ir 611• (~6isrQDtnU QUUJITtq.)

~QsrQDwiJ (O)UllJfflliQr (c!p~'" Ji;>A)QJ)

6T61I1

ufiiig ~LD : 'J ib 6T t.b

~t;T L61f> LU U r;;tr 6m LD : ( OJ ffiJ Cl)GYr ) et r!iJ 9i6Yr

~QJ[bjJ)JW, '((iJffiJ!J)fitr' ~6irru~ OJ6IDGMuJrf}L~/!J ~f7LmLU U~~Wr$ Q9irr~~ QJ'-9-C:QJUJ~{lS/, ~QJdJ~{!JU GLJrTGU ?2_UJrT6l/ @jp5J i; {h ~ 6kr J!)J. ~ f!jJ G1f W ~ lSI- c: UJ tt (£J QJ YJ 8i 0; tb [!J ~ . "er GirT t '6;J L.b ' ~fJ mr@ W ~Qr.!J)J Q U UJ IJ rr BiQJQr {lS/ ~ ~6irr({)IDlJ) 6"51 (ii{f)rOlf (!J>tbtB [!J rr a;C:GlJ 6lJ y;>ffiJ [i} GlJ@5Jdrtom.

et -@ : Ql£h§jJ + OJrn = GlItbC:{DQr QJt6~ + rifJW = 6lJJi;C:~Lb

~Qj 68.fI)J e>rfrr t5J w;VQJ (!!JLDIT.!!)J i) rflll.f W.

• • •

'V - 6T~ - d!)fr;;JT - ~~.

6T-@ : 6lIthQ{DfikT, 6lJ~:!DQ6'6Tm-, 6lI®QJ~, QJ®QJGU.

6JW - 6TW. W. fOJrotr,· &. 6T~, fOJ~, 6;JQrn, et: G,)~. ~, ~. fiT-(jj) : 6lJ~Q:!Dt.h, Qlt6{DQgrW. Ln. ~w,· &. firQf, fiJfiJ/, ViJG'JOlJ,· Q{Ij. (!jJ, uSl.

(i'1161ArrWfLi> ~QD6\)

• •

OJ~ - UJfT~

t.

6TQiT

• •

fiJ io - UJ tt LD

OTW

•• •• • •

OJ f'!iJ 8i61T - ill tt ffiJ 8j VifT et ffiJ 8) 6TT

UJ. v;rr5JffiJ6Tr Q)fi. 6J~, er: &. UJrTQr, ~6isr.

UJ. <9fT~8jW; Q{Ij. ~(J:P, Clw(!p,· &. ~LD, ~GlJ.

~, . .

6J 616M .BlJCO ...

.

UJTQJITQm"fT

35

UJ J, l}llJ Q LD tt ySI (!P {!j c;, su ~ ~ $V m 6m LD UJ tr ~ Li> r 6T 8i fJ ~ iJ tb ® Lb UJQjr;T ~iJ{b®QJJ6Tr,," Q{D®r6J~UJ Q pjrTLttt5Jrmrr SJIw, 2 ~w {6l~6lJ QJ UJ- 6lJ 8i@!J W (yJ ~ 6iJ til m su 6lJ Ill- Glf 8i Gtr ~ i> c: $lJ (] QJ tb .!J)J m to UJ L9- G!c!hrr~LGM.

6T@QJ"1LI

(tylQn-![)ruo j161)Q»)

<1Q1 dJ J!)JQDLDUJ l1I-

• •

UJrTW - {Drrw

• •

UJfTLD - {DfTLD

[DLD

•• •• • •

ILHT ffiJ c!hW - fD tt ffiJ 8)~ !D f1iJ c!Ii en

ui. C§rr61rT,· &. ~rr~, [brr; Q~. G[bWl' G{D.

Ln. [Drrw; G[Drrw; {Dwww; &. ~fT61J;' Q~. LlJOlfT(yJ.

~ 6lJ tb J!)J 61r; {h W ()T ar ~ w (j QJ tb g)J 6tfH.D UJ lJ1- ~ {b m {lJ ~ ~ uS! ySlbiJ 6lJy;>J;~ [D~{h:ffJI. ~!fJJ Q$lJ~ffiJ®, CfjmroMLW (ljJ~6'6IUJ ilfJ~L QwrrySl a;GlflGi; ~W.fl)JW 6lIy,>r6J@j5:Irotr[Dff». ~./!Jl ®LSJ-_(]UJ{b!DU C:urr[b¢1ufTuUlw (Colonial Preservation) urrtbu(£JLiJ.

~tb6if)!D QJ !J)c!i8:J6b @~GlJrTfD u lJ><9Q 9 rr[bQj@!;W GCF fT6l> QJ l.SJ-6lJ c!h@!JWI QP@~iJGurr6'5T ®L.Drf18;8)~L iJ_Ql)8i6lJ~a-,~§WLh @[D!A~UL_L ~6UJ;8;JUJ QJ~,9;~§JJJW ~®!6~rn 'iT6trrfD¢1{h6V C:QI~@W.

{DffiJo;~ gWU§JJ @{b61DfD ~GlJJ;~lLJ QJy;>J;5:J~ 1!LmmffJI·

,lbr5JCG6Tr acSlf6ir 6lJ&(JIb6lJ6in Qu;jJpflt;vC:6lJT (~6iJ. QU(!!)lJ)rrm. 7,3) jbr5JCJj6Tr 6lJlfl6lJQJ61T UJITUJr5J &ffC:"'ff (~GiJ. ~®QJlTuJ. 8, 2, 1)

an.rt wi) 6lJ tni) /hfh @LDrfl8>8imrLU Q U tr /!Jl W8;8i61r, UJ 8>17 (yJ~GiJ {D8ifJ (JJJ rjj ()l) tr $/J ~ rfJ ~ fh !K1 Glf) ~ rn UJ U U UJ 6irr u @ ~ iJ, u Gil 6G) LD 6lJ 4- 6l1J ru ~(O}JQ)I(!!J (!JJ~~,9;@W OJQgfO)J([!jU>fT J!)J CJQJ.!J)Jurr([;l o;rr,' '9 iJ tjiuS/6'Cf)/J)[j umr u@fhi:JUJrofrGYTmrT.

UJ tr t..iJ, uut ffilq,v/rr = ~~ ~ ~wa>UJi.J UW 6mL1J c:!PIGU6U,gp ULrT 9;~8i UJ6TT iJ U tt L_(£I r{iJ ~6kr 67f>WU U W 6?» LD.

{DfT Lb, [DfT ffiJ8iGW = (!pfiifir mJ61S)G1J lLJ61T U U IT L_(j)I/J ~Vikr ~ LDU uGil6'lSlLlJ. @8i9)fT6V 6lJy;>8i!i1ru, 'UJfTffiJa;6iT' fiT6ir~Lb Q5rr!b®u U8iI7WrT8i ( U ~~rr si), 'ff,rrffiJ8i6Tr' 5T dT u,gp ;fJ6lI£DfT a; 6lJ!J)ffil iJ GlJ®§;}6irr!D~' ~fhtb® UJ tt 6lIll1- <tGJ 5 tt 6iJ QI!p Ji 8iPJ.f!)J U c: U tt ~C: to Q) rr fJ row tb. ;fJ GiT 6'Cf) 6rT UJ W $hffi<l61ff tt Lf1-(f!>8;~tD UI !D"'f]" '4 W LDL@W at!F It tEg» a; ®¢1 UU t!U ;![>tOafl th

• •• •

{btQ7JT (i5) LDU U cOM 6W WUJ fT to.

19fT W 67 6isrWl w Q UUJ rf)oo6kr J!)J , ~i.D ' "'-;.!!)J a~fT Ii1fr ¢1lLfrotrw ~. ~ ffJl , dJI W' 6TW J)J @.f!)J8)GlJ~ GlgtUILfW. ~QJ6UJ t;T~@ Lb ~6irr~LDQUJ fT@ (!JJQrr ~ 6lS)Q)6tS)UJ g}JiilT U u@/Jf!jJLb.

36

<OT-(J;J : fDrrw 6lJ{6{hfTW, {DfTW 6lJt5{hw, JVfTLb 6lI~{h61ITw. /

'~Lb' FF Jl)J ''i?W' 6T~ Jl)JW i)rf7UJW. @~ QCFtiJlLJ6Yr 6lJy;8i 6U U L fr r$ m r!1i rn UJ tLf th, a: Q) a; eu y> J, liJ 6iJ (yJ 14M 64f) 6m 'it) U L rt· 8)

u5lfJroigmLlL/w, ZLWUU(j)JiJ/lJ/W. "

GT-@ : UJfTW (f!jfT~W ~6IJ~W, f!jfT~t.b ~6lJC!!iW, UJfT(!jJW ~~W'

UJ tt (yJ W ~ QJ (f!J W) 611 th G 1D tt Lb - Q a: til ILf 6Yr 6lJ y; J; ® w li1- 6lJ CJi

, . ~:

6l1YJ8i(t!jLD. /

l

{I>fTLD (!Drr~w tBtLfW, !DfT~tb $®W) 6l1!6G;'hrTW - ZL6V8i QJy;;ri~.

"

;

~tiJr::$ W ;;r6irU61f (!JJ6iraf/61J6V UJff61JITlLfW 6TW6}"W fj>wfW61J6lJ uc.ti. &(6)t!b UJff61J(TllIW J!LLiJ~rf r!bL/bflJ (iJ@Uff 6Vff6O>!TlLfW

jb6irQ65Tff@ u@t!i(§W 1D6ir61JLDU U66r61Ji£) (JD6irr. 332)

" ~ W!J§l! rt 9)L;fJ flJ" (® Lb, @w, ffP W, .[!JJ t1J ) . fiJ CT. tt IJ 6lIl4-u1J ~ Girr .f!)J (J ~fT Qr!D tres. LDUJ rrill @ffiJ®a; ®tDl8;8)U U I· I qQ).

e 2• (6ilQf11l' 8:Q91r 6\)6\)'4- )

6J = ~~~. 6T-(JJ: 6J~1r = 6Tth~~Ir. @~ Q{hs»rilJa; 6lJy;;Ji(r!j. @U QUUlQfJ cFIF QlifJ8;® @tb~pJ~ {ljuSly)lru ~{b!D/!)J,

, 6J' (of tb.f!)J 6UI m tt Q6lJ@iJ1DrTr!1iGljW 6lJ ®W.

ror-@ : QJ/h{l)rTC:m = 6l.ItA~rrfii5TfT.

er § = 1. 6T,gp. 2. 6fUUUJ-8; !iJrnLiJ~!bI·

• • •

COI - fiJ QJ6'5T, «iJQJGYT, (iJ Gll tr, rDJ /!)J, 6J rDCf>ru.

6J~' = 6T~6N a;rTf7r0r5Tl.IJ utbtDl & .. , Ln. '!Jw.

• • •

ViJ - UJ tt. UJ tt = UJ IT euea, UJ tteuett, UJ fTQJ tr, iU fTfiilJ:f!JI, UJ fT m6lJ.

• • •

UJ fT = UJ tr rmtOll. UJ treutt - UJ (TTT - dfJ, rr. UJ fTQI.:f!Jl - UJfT.:2Jl.

Ln. turT6lJW, UJfTQ./t01r, UJfTQJrt uuntr, ~fr), lLlfT.t§J, UJfTQJ .

& .. UJfTQ/,@)/, UJfTQJ@JJ, uuttr, UJfT6lI:!fJl, UJrr6lJ6lf.

Qfh· 'iiT6lJ@, rOJi), 6TQJ(!!j, ~~, 6_lQ)J,

UJrr - UJrrriil(;!lj, lLJrr~@ = 6Tffu@j. UJrrffiJ@j - UJfTffiJ8j~. & .. C:~Qai G;){!j. 6JL.

UJ rt r!v® - UJ rrffiJ8JtiiU W - UJ tt rfiJ ffiJrJr W - UJ tt ffiJ ffiJroirr

UJrT - ~ - fP· ~6l/t.b jjJrolJw FFJD.ff)lG'5Jwrr QQJ@~t[)JJ;(Ji6fr. 6T-(JJ : ~QJfiMfT, QJ~~rrfii5Trr

~6lJGwrr, QJdi!fhrr(]~rr

'~67 f;c::!!JIW (!jJ6ir!fJIw 6l5J6lfTff~" (Q~rrGb. 32) 6J - et = orIAfIj. 6T -@ : er a;a;rr6Vw, et UU l1/-.

" . .

6J 6167IT jI)JCD ...

.

UfT6lJfTQUTIT

37

1£., fir us; 6J

sr - 6Tt.b~LD = 1. 61 Gil Gl/Q)a;LiJ. 6TWQ)Lf) '46Vc$i>~tiJ (n>rTQ)tq_. 132) 2. tOTut5!fDuy.

enba: l1Jti ciJlbWff lh (8; t.b U fJfT. 6 L fTl116l.t uSl IT. 99) 6T GilQJ 4P (=67 QJ6lJ tr .f!)J)

or - 6T{lj~.

6T!A{DfT, 6T[i;GjDfT, 6T?ifT, OTC;~rT, b7G~rrroTr, 6TC:{DfT~ = 6Triu®. 6TffiJ®, 6fffiJ<]81 (where) 6TffiJrrnai8J® (whither) Ln. OTffilfIil.

6T ffiJ@j - 6T riiJ GIi~ , fir ffil@!J - or ffiJ 51 L(J;J.

I • • • • • •

6T ffiI ® - tOT ffiJ 8)6M" LD - et ffiJ ffiJ61T u: - et ffiJ f1ilW.

•• •

et LDUfT = 6T ffil(:!!j.

Q"wu@uSJ6irGlJlIJu.5J6in (Qu®rFu. JI>Q'QJ IT Qm'. 2: 13)

• 0 1""'\ &;:') •

fiT./!Jl - fiT fJ.:1J1 - 6Too§JJ. VI'{Ij .. 6T ~'. w. 6T{b~

• •••

6T6lJ = 6T6lf)Q.}. ~QJW = ormm-f!)J, 6T~fiiM.

6T QI m, UJ fT.:{JjJ or W ~ t.b @® G a: tt tbq,~ 6Yr, (y)6kr OM gp (yJ {b.!J)J W ~ {lSI UJ tr U Q U fT (!!JGfr u tb {l5I H.f W, OJ ~ <OM ~ if {l5I:fD {l5I !h {h QUIT ® W u [b {l5I UJ W, 651 ~ rr QJ (nu 6l.IC!!Jw.

et -(1)) : OJrT IJ tt l.f)~ 6T cOifr U §JJ or QJ ~ J

@u uUJ.!J)JQ;@!;6Tr 8ifTIJITLD~ fiT~ugu UJrr~?

Iiln-(J/D6lJ6ir 6T6irfPIW 4J, u5J@ ct76TT6J5JlLl'i) c::!)/p5IUJffU QUff @6Tr6lJu5J6ir Q5JillLl~ C:t5ff6lirguw

. .

c::!)/ QJ flJlJ)J at.

lilffQ/b66T 6lJl!YILW 6&66Tff6J5Jdr &Jm6& c:!PIpjltiJlJ gUff@lirQJu5J6ir !BUJffi In IDtiJ~t5

Qt6tfllb/5 t!i)6fr65/ UJff/Di)!I (!prfJ~r.:15 (Q{hffru. 514. 515)

( 1J_UJ IT iJmmT )

} ~oo,,{l5Im6W.

1. et tbusn tl>1hw

2. 6T6isrfill!!Jl (~®rnLD)

3. 6Trnrn (ufiiMalw)

6T tfJ@j - 6T ffiJ ®tD6'in!D = fiT roiIGUJ LLo. 6T ffiJ@}(iJ6mflJ8i(:!!j = er GilGUI Li;iJ dJ®·

6TtiiJ@j{iJm{lJ - 6Trfjj®iim~ - 6TffiJ~j,6'4)~.

ti1ID&J!666Jjb& e;6irwQwQ)fTc€ft QlFtU15ffSUW (81. 81.10: 6)

38

'6J' 616lfr jf)JCb-*.

•• • •••

51" ffiI ®f!J6"(f){D8i® - er f!il ®{!j6tf)~e;@.

;;r1iJ@/56OJ1bt!E(§6 QlFl)JJuSJp rujJ(J61Ifn: j.6wJ.5J. Jl@/OIT. Jl@ (l6lJ. 5). 51

• • •

6T6lJ - ~QJ~ = 6Tf!iJ(:!!j.

•• • • •

6T6lJW" - 6T 6M = fiT.ftjJ, et tD5TfiJT .f!Jl, et ~ ar, to. 6T ~m

6Tm- - 6Tv;irrrn~, 6Trolrr(]QT, 616irrGmrr.

6T 10M - 6TW rn- 6l1Qrr I 6T WtarQJ6lr, 6Tm rn <OlJ rT, 6T Qr6'5T :!JI, 6T rOirQffmW. fiTWW6lJro!r = 1. UJfT6lJw. 2. 6T /Jr7Jme;UJ6irr.

g66r66Tm GT6iJ6J5JLIiI6Qr <fj)U@j. LUfT Bj. 90) @'6ir6N6l1'; t6t6J&L (]&f!Jlw (Bi!b~y· &11J~~. 4)

6T6tr6"5T ~~rrm-=. et ci;(!!Jru{t~fTQg (6lJLfTtT J;a;rrL@ 6lJY',9;(!!J) ,8

•• •

{)frOM (DrUT = UJ tt 6lJ tt.

~@,riJ Q15rrmL8 6Jt5J7{11.D~{j/f)61T QIli6ir6lJ1{l/T t1J6TTJ/Jt6pf/UQJff <iv®. ~8;@j. 196) 6T~W®W = fir !tJw, 51{l51/pw, orfM6lJUYr6l/w.

~6ir6IT@rE.t <»@l6ff6ir <Qu®rfu. J!)IJQlrrQOT, 2: 41)

6T~arurr®Lh = 1. 6T~fD~mLDC:UJrr®Lb. 2. 6T6UQJfT@W. liT6irC:6ITIT@LlJp5Illi fiT@~~66'J!T~ I666rP <y. QQJ. 9:6. G8irT(@J))

6T~QT/!J/ - 6T~.fM =. 1. 6T6Mm-.

c!!IIQID;b~C:6lJ (~®6Urrlf. 29) QfIj., ui. et Ih~

2. er 6lJ6lJ tt .f!)J.

Qa=UJ6lJrrLb 6lJy>Jwtb Q{D£/jC:t6rr ({h~~&uLJ. t51(JLD. 4)

• • •

W. 6T [f>:!J. &. 6T ~~.{!JJ

@~, 6T /!;1 - et ii/bJ - fir £/j/!;/ et 6ir !!)J uut W 6T~6M~ - 6T{b.!J)J (6T~ + !fJl - 6TWW) 6T{bjJ)J0;®. 6T6ifrW. M. enna,

6T ~ fii5T - 6T W tOdTGru tt - 6T rolrr me: LDrT. 6T~TjJ)J =. (ifUaurr~.

• •

Ln. 6T~.!J)J. &. 6T~gp

6T eDiT .f!)JT ySJ =. 6T ~6m flJr!i;®w.

39

• •

6T (()tOffiQJW = UJ tteuea.

bT66J66fGlJ /TffuSlf!)J (Qu®ffi.J. QJ:2>~6l.I. 3: 22)

#j'iiifT rom LDU Q UUJ [T llI-UJ W 6>5J ~ rr.# Q CF rr6lJwu l1I-H.f LD tt fi6T 6J u5) 1J 6W@ ill, ~UJ IT 61J Lb YiT (!per 81 UJ ill @jpSl th ~ fiiJ Q UJ~ i§lJ L.b m_rfJ r!tQ c!F tt GiJli£]oo vJir .!J)J a ~fT ~ p5} u5l (!!j8l 8)61) If Lb.

(ij"Qupj pJff@!jW (Q{bITru. 788)

®pSlULj : 1l>~~lIJU QUUJrf}w riiJ 8ifTfJQlLlJ- ~mrGIDLDa: r!liL._Lrr~ (OF 8)fT fJ iJ $I r;;irr jjl rfJ U IT 8iGlJ W, 6UJ ((JT tt #G tF tt ViiJr;;6/ ~ ~ a;rr fJ fOlJ Uf- et @5fiJ ®pS!~tb fOJ surrtunt aifiil/w {iJ®J>airurrw. (C:GlJ. s.n. 1)

~ lDrTlJ 8=8rt:..(6

( 1 ) 6T ~61DM5<!!> ~fPlm IL WIJ\$8i<!!>~~tb.

G7 = 6T@, .2._UJrT, G)u®. L., E, ex, Gk. ec. ex, ex 0, Fr., Sp. - es, out (Pfx). up, out. "6"J9l~ GU@8ia;u/', "er Gu{iJ{lJfT®u/' '6J8l8i@tb1l>w' ror~WLb 6llYJ8i6ma; GflirT 8;®8J. 6J r$Clirr61Tw - er 8; 8ifT 6YTW.

6J - OJ~ - fiJ@· 6JJP - 6TQ:P - 6T@GlJ· 6T@6lJ~GiJ = ~~mUJ 6T@ULJ1l>GiJ. 6T@ - 6T@WL/.

rOftP - UJrTY:> = ~6l5lQUJ@uu6iJ, [iJmCF, U~, {f>fJuLilmCF8;ai(!!jro6!. 6T@ + ~Gi> = ~!J>rrru = UJfT~ 6llfT[i1UL/, ~C!!J u!D6'5>fOlJ.

6T@ + [iJ6b = ror~6lJ = 6T@58=1, ~~®.

6T~Q) - bT~r;;5J = awQGilJ@~.tM Gs:6iJ~w GLDaiW. 6T~~ - 6T~~ = aUJQru@{.fi~ Q<!T6b~L.b 5)6"6)'1.

6T@ + ~ = 6T@(J§:J = tii1@6m8i. f!L6fr6YTrJ,8i/rD'1TfT#U1. L. elate, lofty, E. elate. to raise; elation, pride.

6"JYJ = 6T@6lfW {iJrn<!F. 6Jy, GT~~th 6Tmr. {iJ61fl~ (arvw) 6"JYJfT1l>blJfT6U ro;-y;rrw rOT~ ~u QUU_IfT QU!DfDlb1.

fiJrT = 6T@~a;, uuiJfr ~GJf1jrr~6iJ, ~6l)U61f)U, d'JIY>®.

!OJ rT ~ <OiJ = 6T @ ~ 6iJ. "c2_ '"" Bi QP6lJ U LJ QJ 6lJ a W tT 4 j) rfJ ~ C!!/' «(!jJ (!!J.1 ) u t6l iT u ct rom.!F a; rDlf"irr et @ U L/ W 2L!J) GlJ ~ Q r$J tt ~ .§J)J ill ~ {h tb ® rfJ UJ 8i(ljG'6JUJrr!iJUJ a;Q)u~uUJL.b 6JrT 6TmUuLL6N.

L. aro, Gk. aroo, Ir. araim, A.S. erian, E. ear, to plough. E. arable = that can be ploughed.

u u5l rt u dJ Gro ~ ~ Y=' 8i rr till r;;6) QJ . LJ) ci; 8) 6Yfl §W Lb u u5! rT U # 6l> c!F u5l §W tb 6lJ 6YT fr !A rpj !E16ID su u5l vii> 1h rr 6M ~ YJ ® a {D fT 6M J!)J t.b. ~. c: !D tt: ~ QJ Lb = 8i,"" ur.w>U, d')/ y;>t!). ~ 6lJW + <!Ii rfl = ~ 'iUriu a;rf1. 8irfl U 4 = u5l@ji). a;@ - 8iiJI- - <9)rfl. c9)rfI + c:J)I W = aJrTf7 W ((!p1h~ 6m6lJ $I rf}!h:!D Q ~rr ~ {bQ U UJ rt).

~.a!Drr : urfJ + ~w = t.mrub, uL9- + ~t.iJ = UfTLW.

40

~~ili-~~~-~~®-~w®-~~~

6J~ - fLUJ(JLD, 6Jrmr - 6;JGW1 = C:WC:6UtD.ff)Jr6J &@G5I.

'iiJ.m - 6J6'6>~ = @jy>[t,fi6)~mUJ 'iiJ!h/PIW G'J1DfTLlJI-Q).

6Jmr - _ C:<!f~ = fLUJr;W, QJrr~6lJ@j, §)fTfJW, aa:a~rrr;h - aLD ~6TrC: fii'1T tt ~, C:QJ thtD~ (~thi";r roil- ).

6J = QU(!56mLD, ~UJt;TW. "6JGu{b[DrT(f!JW" (Q~rr6U. 788),

• •

OJ6lJ;fJ6U = fi'T@{lJ6lJ .

OJ - fiiJ6lJ = ~UJIJ LD.

G. heben, A.S. hebban, E. heave, Goth. hafjan, to 1ift.

E. heaven, O, Ice. hifinn. A.S. heofon, the air, the abode of the Deity. Lit. the 'heaved' or 'Ii fted up. '

6J6'thrr ~ UJfT <Ofu - UJ tt finT W - UJ tr ~ rt = (iT@#UJ, 4 ifP6ll C!!J6lI rrtiJ.

UJrrtDWr - UJfT~ = 6T@#g" ~Y'@j. "UJfT~Ji8iGV/WfTtb" (Q~rr6U. 865) OJ 61hrr - Gt!.Fmr - (](F@ - c: (F L!J- = c: LD66J LW I 65J<9rne:UJ~@j. c: a: I1J-UJ rt = 6VJ~6'5>CFUJrt. Gr!FLfT - GCTLW - QgLLW - QCTr!Fa:W.

6JW = "9LUJt;rw, UfT §Jje;rruLj, ~~uLb. rePC!!JQ/roM ~@ v;B}6VffiJ8iI[b®1i ~ u u a QJ mr (:bH;) LD 6isr {lJ tt GiJ LD (T iJ ~ ~ c: LD.§JJJ Lb , U 6"ID 8i J; ®~ ~ U u c: 6lI r;;m@Q LD Gifr tD IT 6b W iJ 6lJ LD rn 61J LD t;;6) GlJ 8; a 8i rr L rn L (yJ '!i 661 UJ 6)J {b{l5'lw c: LD ~ W 6J pSJ c!i;Q airrGiT @!J~GiJ ~UJruLf. "@jWC:{lJpSJ UJ ire» ffi U aUrTrT 8irom-L.!DflJrr6iJ" (®{D6Tr - 758) 'iiTwua>~'4w C3/DfT9,®c!h.

fiijt.D - OJ"mw - UJrrrnw - ~rnLD = urr ffJ/8JrriJufT6lT ffl@61rfifT~.

6Jw + ~fr = fiJLDfTrT - etuur (~6iJ6lJ.f!Jl) 6Jw + sutt = 6JW6lJfT - fiJIDfT. 6J WfT ~tDru = ~6lsr LJ.f!)J ~6U, LD9J !);?i6U.

• •

~ u: + LD tt JJ)J = rOJ WIT JJ)J - bJ LD tr. (iJ LD + c!PI.f!)J = (iJ w.Jl)J - fiJ LD tt =

urr !!»a;rruurrm, ~pSJQ)JYJ!hf!21 C:um~uu@.

OJLD - fi_JwL/ - 6JLDUGiJ = w!iJlP58J.

sni: + ~w = bJLDW = UfT :!Pairru4, ~~uw.

liJ1fJW aJ6lJlD QQ)tiJ$6iTflJ" i)lJ6lJC:t!Jj (®w. 1)

6JLDW > aa:LDW > C:lhIJ1ww tea.), ~.C:!Drr: 6J~ > C:a:d5r.

fiiJ.[f)J = c: w(] blJ.J!)J. OJ!J)J - 6J tD61fl!D = rJ pSJ U Lf fiirn (!!Jw ~ ~ 6l1I61J1iiJ ®. OJ.JJ)J - OJ tb!f)J - 6J tbflJw = JEG1nt;T c: w(101Jtb ff)J W /lJ/6l)fT.

6JtbfDLD = C:LD~C:LD6U 6T~~~6iJJ ~~~6iJ.

67JPflJW jl6TJ6IT61jw §)J6I8fI6l/ LDIT@W (Q~rrQ). 821)

OJ - aa: - Cia=GlJ· a~ = a>fTalGYT (~65Jdr ClwC:61J.f!)JGlI.{!JJJ.

.

urrQJrrQUTfT

41

C:S:6lf - (C:g®) - «(]s:8i®). E.jack, the male.

fill' - (fiJ It ~) - er ®ffJJ (~68 Qg aLDa~ J!)JQJ.{!JJ). ~roJfJ~ 67rT (o;6lJU~u) - 6Jrt~ - WiT®~ 6TGV.f!)JLDITW.

• • • •• • • •

tfl!J)J - OJ pJ.f!)J = !fLUJ IT ~ffJJ ~ LJ a.y,>. fiJ ~$!Jl = 9LUJ fT t/D!b1 ~ 4 r!Jjy>.

OJ!h/bJ = 6lD8i tLUJrr,J,iJdi ~"ffiJ®. fiJIA.ffJJ + ~6U = UJtJ;~Gb.

•• • • •• •

OJ{lj~6lJ = !DfTLmL{h ~rrffiJ®LD ~fJc!F~.

fiJ6lJ = mc9iC:UJ~~~ Q)a;C:UJthiJ 6lJfTr!iJ®~ ~fTrfu®~ GLD[bU(f)J~ C!PffJu@. 6J6U (t€l. BiIT. ~. et) = (yJoirrt05T~rrlhl A.S. oer, E. ere, before, Goth. air, soon, E. early, from oer.

fi/IJITtOM = ~® aQl~6TTt61Q) u6iT6lfJJi® CYJ{h6lJITQJ_gu QJ~~QJ~. OJ!Do; + 6T 6lfT = OJ tbQa;6lfT - fiJ dJa;fi6T·

fiJffiJ® = ey:>J:6lJ)t!FQUJ@uL/~ Qu®e!P#&~@, ~rn~{lJ {iJmfW~f!P QI®t61!»~ C:u(JQJIT 8;Qc!JjfT6tr~ CliQl6ID6lJUU@.

E. heave, to lift up, to force from the breast.

o;JffiJ(!!>QJ.{[JJ fiJ t9;a;w. Cf E. anxiety, anguish.

OJ ffiJ@j{hGlJ = ~ lJI-QJt6J dJ{l5)6Sfl6iT.J!)J c: LD(;)Q)@~Q tfjfT Gl5J ~~6lJ, ~6l51 j,1fj~. " 6J ffiJQ a;rT G15'l tC rt (9rT ViIJ.jJ ~ (!!JGTT !JJtb.f!)J t.b" ({hmr LfI-. (J w!i>(]e;rr g, .)

~ ffiJ ® - @UJffi1@j - @UJ8i® = fft6l51, 'ill IT iiiJ UJ.JJ~~ fPv;6/·

OJ - @UJ - @UJLb = tf}bt5JJ GCFfTGlJ, 6lJfT ~i)UJw. @UJQJtT = eutt iJiJUJ8; 8JfTfJrr. @UJw - @UJW4 = ~66J, Qa:rrru.

OJ - @UJ - @61lUJ - @~c!F _ ~6'61.

6]"w - riiJW'_' - (]1hwL/ = 6j"ffiJ®. (l:!hWUli> (]~wt.51 UJ@~{lJfT6iT bTfiiffTWlLD fiilJ~8;6m8i GIDfT a,®8i.

fiJ - C:<!F - Clc!FuJ. C:~dJmLD - ILUJI7W, ~CTw. GwG6lrrT 8;liJUJ G~rr6ID6lJ ILUJI7 (!pw ua;9iW a {6rT J;,$} UJ G) {DfT ~6lJ .:!JfT (J (!jJ WIT (r!jw.

6J6lJ - 6T6U = C:wQViIJ@W @!jrfiUJar, ~mJJ G16lJG1r6lf>GYT, ~J Qa:W6IDLD. 6T~ - 6T~J).I = @JrfllUWiM, ~. OT~J!)J + !W!y> ::; Vi1~!)JTfP'

6T m.!J)J - tiiJ6U.f!)J - 6J m-r@ - UJrr'*'@ - ~ ~@.

6TQ> - ~Q)@j - @""® = Q{.6@uurrGiJ XLC!!J® 6T6bT!f)Jwrrw. ~.a[Drr : Zl...® (G1{f>(!!>U4) - SL®(:!>. 6Tru® - bTo~® = 1J_®cii®.

67GU - grf) - 6T® = c$fTtiJJh~ 51T,",W. 6Trf] - 6T(f!> - 6TC!!JUL/ (G{!JJ = ~QJU4· 6TGU - 6Ttt - 6T6U > @"" 6TrT > .@rr.

@6lJtl>6lf)~ = G> t!F Lhu Y;C!:P6lr fiifT g,J. @(J ~iJ = @iU[hm;11.

@r;TrreJ ::; i7QJJ61!J C:.$~QJ[T~. ~t;rrriJ (Gfh) = QIFWLj. L. oeris, copper.

42

@6V - ~6U. ~6lJ~~8)W = Qa:WU<88iQ, (!!jy;>WLJ.

@,.; - ~fr. dPlfJfh1hw = ~QJULf' ®®$J. '~IJ~fDiJgt.iJ ULLJT~L'. ~IJ #,® = UJGlI!i~fJ)J. ~rf16alTW - dP/(!!foBTW = ~6lJULJ· dJI(!!foffl~ = 8fl~6lJ# Q5ffiJ8)i)fJQJ~.

~fJ #i1hw - (J Pi~w - (J J;r7J teu.). lee. raudh, Ger. roth. Celt. ruadh rhudd, Gk. rythros, L. ruf, A.S. read, E. red, blood like colour.

6TGlJ - @~ - @ru - @fiilJ@j - @ruriil®. @Q)rfu®QJ~ @6VJ;a;w. @6lJ®~6U = Gl1I61TffiJ®;l>6lJ. "~GlJC:6U u5Jru8>r5Jt.b" (QfhrT~. 754).

@6lJ@j - @6V8;(c!j = 6l1J 61T 8;!fj~ fi) {b®rfI UJ Q U tt (!!JGlr, 6T ®dJ.J!» 8;o;rr L_(f;I, ®p5J, @LW.

LDrn~t6J 6lJ8l@j = LD~HilJ(J U tr 6iJ 6UJGYT ffiJ S;9, ClrL4-UJ Q U fT ®m. Cf. E. Illustrate, from L. illustris - il, in, luceo. to shine.

@6lJciJ® + ~w == @6tJ8;a;w. ~Q)8;@j + @UJw = @6lJci;~UJt.b > 6lJ~UJt.b (Q./.) - Gl1I61Ta=,CIi,Jii){b®rflUJ Qurr®~J ~(£1~guJ;9,fTL@, ®p)l, @I 10, Gfbrr ciJa;w.

@6lJ~@j = @LLh. L. locus, a place. @~af]6iu g)J locus, local, locate (yJ{lj~UJ ~riiJ$J6lJq Qa:rr{ba;vJr U1{D&(!!jw. fj)rT @L_fhrn~ @fiU8;® 6TrOisru4JI Q~W~(TL._@ Q}!j)c$®.

6T6U - 6T66J = QQJ6trQGlT6l5J. ~G15I x a;(!!>umu = 8)(TQI]r;;6/.

6Tru - 6T6V6IDGlJ, 6TGlJmc$, 6TrumQJ == ~rflUJWfTGiJ ~tbu@w S;(TQ) ~rDfT 6l/, 9irT 6lJQ6lJ6V6'106l), @LG)QlibmGlJ, 6T 6i>m6lJ.

9.C3{Dff : Qurr@.J!U = @;rflUJ~, 8;fTOVW, 8)fT6lJG611GU61>6lJ. 6T<OU - 6JQ> - C:QJ ru - c: QJ 6lf)6lJ - c: 6l16lf)61T.

C:Qjru - GQJ661 = 6T6b6lf)6lJd;~@uLJ. C:QJti6l- C:GlJ~ = G6lJbl5J UJ61nL8;®W (yJw, aGl16lJWr;Tw. C:QJQ)Q) = tffi6lJQQJoiJrn6lJUJfT~ r5JL~.

676U - Gk. he/ios, the suo.

et 8i® == QJIDl{b.fI)JuufT 8l/Jm{!j C:wQfit)QJJULf.

6To~® = 6£tfiiJrurTdJ u@mc!FQUJ@uU/{ij ,gliJmw Qc!FtU. 6Tg,?r = 6T@WLJ.

et cT& - 9LcTa:W. Q~cTc!F 6iv;2JrrtiJ == 1L<Ta: tElmru.

~c98T == Gw{bu@, uS/®, w[f,i)®. OT~& + w~ih:!§uu~.

• ••

~LD - fiTcfFcfFLD -

~t8& + @ru == tOTJ:&:Iru = wth~ 6lJ~6lf1 91 .. _t.n1y;!Crr, fiTe98iGl1:ii1 6T#&. et # & = W {6{h 6lJfiiW <OlJ, QJ tt tU [Err U LL_ rtil/ fi'6'5T Qj, QJ tr tiJ IE IT.

6T#a:W = u!DmQJ .:!»ULfQJ~(;UfTGiJ @@Lb LDGlJW. QujJG{Drrrt @flJJh~UJw w!h$J@O;®w t5JGb"m6TTa;6ir.

.

UfTQJfT Q1JTrT

43

fiTL._@ = lLUJt;J tf;JoiJ, !fJJTt;J tJoiJ, mCJjILJILJIT~i1fi; Q{!jfT@. fiTL@ = C:LDm C:LD~ ~QJc9;®Lh 8)fT6l)iJI-~ .$!)IT IJ tho

6"T@ = GwQfJV@, JtJTa;®, &6lIrT ~GUQ)§lJ 8iLU/-Lt.D 6T@U4' G6lJ6'1flu u@i>~, {6c!i;®.

6T@ + S? = {)16"tOL.

et (£I U Lf = gJ_ UJ fr tOlf, QJ 6fT rT U 4· 8iJ !j) ffiJ Q a; (£I ~ {!j fib (y)(ifrr Q et (£I II {!j ru (!jJ~fi6JUJ QJy>8;(:!!J8)GiT QQJ61fluu@~1D{b QUfT(!!J6tSlGYT& ®p5I~{lj6iJ

a; tt tilRf( s:

~ffi.J~6l)~~6iJ, elevate, erect, edify, educate, elicit, (yJ{!j66lUJ QCFrTtD8i@!JU, e, ex (!fJ;'lJ G6J UJ (y) ~ Q m tr L_ (£18) @!Jtl>, 678) r;r c!p ~ ~ m fit} lim UJ & Q a; tt 6fu @ , c: LD {iJ U @ j, ~ ru 6T @ ~ 1l> 6iJ Q 6ll G1fI U LJ @ j, {!j 6iJ QP {!j 615J UJ Q U fT (!!J6fr 0i61)(Q1T tLf afT IT ~$?>6b 8ifT <Oi6r 8).

Cf. E. - Gk. epi, Skt. api, L. ob, on.

fiT~ = GLD6iTC:W6U {6J6mar, C:LD~C:LDru Q{hrr~c!1iu51®. «t ~tfJl = awa 6M tt (j,8iJ aL6W;2j, ~ WIT tb.f!)J.

• ••

or rflj/lJl - or {lj~rn- -

• •

et /1)4 = et @LDLf·

",6iiGl/ = fiT@W4' ~~, {!jfTmr(6J.

6T {!5J = c: LD GiJ G'6J @ . 6T tb.!J)J = et j, ~, {ffI WI rt j, §JJ. c!1i @ ~ {h '4 m {!j U 4 (] UJ a OM IT J; 51 UJ {D tr {h fi6J Qg er {l5J {!j ~ 6T Qsr JJ)J Q r!F fT 6iJ fit) i.J u @ 6lJ ~ rf!j C3{bfT c9;®8).

fiT6tT = C3~LD{iJ QCFrr~, G)eTr6V.

et ~ .[!)J , et ~!D tr, 6T m tr , 6T'i6T 6T 6iu ~ W 6J9 6"5HilfrG UJ # 5 61lJ rn L_ cF Qt!T tt tD8JGir et Qflrrf!P).l ~tb Q u rr ®6lf)Q.> 6lJ ®{lJfOm6lJ c: ~fT 0;(:!!J8).

Q{htOir~ = C:LDC:rnfTcJ;~u QUUJtT, G{DW4 = Q~rn~.

Q UUJtT = fl~®u U~rpj aw{bu@/J!J)J! Q6lJ6YfJUJfT 8;®, @LW wrr.!J)J, QUUJrT - C:urt.

QIDG1r - Q!b@ - Q{6L@ - Q£bLmL. QW6lr - tffim- - !Em - tE@· $Glr + ~ = tBLUJ.

!&JQr - !E1 rt - [fI tr. it fJ j, ~ru = uS} ®flJ6U, r!1ifil)~;'!iru. tf;J fJ - {€JIJ Lb ~ tf;J fJ w4· J$1lJ - tf;JmfJ. [fIr;r - (tKJ{D) - !EJ~£D. [fI6iT - rffJ~L_fT (Q~..)

iliff - tEJ6iJ· ffiJtb!D6U = Q!DL_@c9;~®j,:2iru. tBJru + ~tb = {ffiouw. t6Jw + aJ = £6lrmGV. t6J6U - tf;J ~ - tffi §JJJ6m6lJ. tf! iJJI - {f;I j})J - [fI6"6>{D. rfJ §JJJ~/!Jl - cffJ 9)J fh f!Jl. Iff/./J)J - tf).ff)J6lJ. $l!J)J + 6a)QJ = !E1.!J)Jm6lJ. f;J.!J)JI>~fiiJ = tf;Jtbt.5J~{hoiJ, {hfJrTmr!F !fJ(bt5J~/!Il VTalL UfTtT ~lDGU.

44

t6Ja>GlJ - t5l~~. !ffi4)~"iM~~GiJ = LD6Mi)~ ~(!!j Qurr®rrnfiifT tf;J.D)J/J?fJQJ. Q{D@ - [D(j)J - f_6L(jj1 - [DfTL@. G{6L@ - [DL@. !D@{h~ = G!DL@Ji® mQJ~~6U, IffJ{bt5Jii~~.

fiJ - C:w - (]LD6U. C:LD6V + @j = C:w{b®. (lw + @j = C:wci®. awtOiJ - C:LD~. (ltD - QwtiJ = l!_LWL/, aiLL/G1J6MrrW m__LWLJ C:UfT6lJ ZL~6T))LDUJrrfiilfT§)J. Cf. substance - substantial = true. aw - Gw_gu = C:LD6lJ LD~<iim7@. (lLD~ - C:w§JJJ - C:w@ - C:WIT@. Gw® - aLD~L - C:LD6O)~. 9. G{9fT.: ULW, table; uL~uS1, table land

C:w - C:LDtiJ - GGlJtU. ClU) + a;t.b = Gwu;w (GwSJ/6Tr6'fT tErr). ClLD - C:w6lf = C:wtbu@, Qu rr®[!,!!V , 6l1J®wL/. "£6WLf C:wlOlf !p~~UJrr®t.bC:UJ". (Q{hfT~. 812)

c: LD - to - uS] ®. uS}@j - u51 rrnCli - u516IDc!F (C:woiJ.)

W - WftJ - wJl)J - s3.!J)J. wf!J - uSJ~ = tBttC:wtD UJL- uSlpju4 ::;; Q~C!!>8;®. u5JmQ) = ~6'IDOUC:LD6V<iim7. w.ffJJ - QW/J§jJ = C:wtDU@, GQJ6lJ. Gwiigp - Q LD/J()5)~ = c: UJ~1DGTT tb, c: wfiitSfJ m6lJ, C:LDGl5J@t.b u ®<!F r;;m~. Q L1J~.tfP

- Q LJ) $Pl. Q to ~ 61J = U @jc!F rrn 4Jm' c: u rr GiT f1J Q LD ~ ~ 6"lfHiV. Q LD lIP

- wW®§Jl( QJ.).

A.S. smoethe, E. smooth, LG. smoedig, G. schmeidig.

Q w.&!J - G) LDru = Q LD /!)J 61J, Q LD fBQJ rr@lj, GkD 4»QJ(T ®wuL!I- U"''''fTGU ~mfJ·

E. mellow, soft and ripe, A.S. mearu, Dut. mollig, L. mollis. Gr. malakos, soft, E. mollify, to make soft, to calm, L. mollusc, one of those animals which have a soft body, E melt, A.S. meltan, to soften, to become liquid.

E. mill, A.S. miln, G. muhle, L. mola, a mill-molo, to grind. SkL mrid. to bruise.

u5J8i6U - uS]J;~roJ(Q$D.). Goth. mikilis, Ice. mjok, A.S. micel, O.E. michel, muchel, E. much.

W - u5J<98i - 6l1Jc§8i. uSl«t!Jar + dPlw = uSJ#a::w; u5J<§Bi + @6iJ = u5l#q~. uSJ me: = uSJ c§~ UJ6?f) ~ 9L 6fu, ZL~. "uSJ J: &R6iJ u5Jma:: QI fT~ 4~il)l1J" (®fD6Tr. 85).

Cf. E. mess, to eat. O. F. mes, F. mets.

Qc!FQJGl/& &(I!)~!!jI : er = GLDtDU(j)J, GLD[bQs:6U, c!JI6'f)~, Ga:~, QUfT([!)/Jff», ~mL~ d}/[!5J. 6J - @UJ - @UJ6U. @UJ -@UJffiJ® - @UJci;CJ)w. @UJr6J@j = .dPIm~, Gla:-ru. @U18>8iW = ~~h!F6lf, Qa:6U6lj, 8iJGTTrTgg} , @U1 - kiJUJGlf = QCFGiJ~W 6lIifi/. @UJ = ~m<!F, Q~ru. @UJf4l/ - @UJ61Jm = 6l1ifi/a Q,g:iW~~w BiLQ/GYr. @U1oU = (651.). ~mr!F, [DL, t6J$Y>, Q(FuJUJQPUJ-, GJc!FtUUJuu(f)J, a{hrr~g)J; (Qu.) !9L8;f5'6)a;, ~@,9;8iW, {h61T m to, ~ 6!r 6l) Wfitf> UJ a; an..!!Jl t.b JjfT [iJ u ~ i), C::!f>rr tb!D th, @UJ{b6lS>CIi.

U fT QJ fT 6UO'Hr

45

~UJ6'iJ - ~UJfiiJtOlJ - ~UJ6iJ4 = 1f>,m6mLD, ~UJ{iJ~8i. ~UJ6iJ + 6lf)C1) = ~UJtb~C1i· ~UJ6iJ - 6J6U = {ffi8iY>, Qa:uJUJ(Y)L!I-. '!JQ) + U@ = ViJ{bU@ = !KJ8)!p, a~rTv;lrr!J)J, ~64)W. fiJJDu(f)1 - ()J{iJUfT@.

~UJ + ~Lo = ~UJW = <Jfhrr{bfDw, C:~rrtb[Dw ®pSJJ>®w Ff.!J)J. @UJW - dPlW - W. 6T-@ : U~ - U~6lf5f]U1W, rpjrnu - ;'DrTUJW. ~~rf1UJ6i5T - ~5JrfJlLJW (~(!!j QJ61f)8)UUfT). cYJ~f!»QJ tituub QfhfT6lJ8ifTuU}UJw (!jJ 1f>6l51UJ .1M" [b Q UUJ (,- 8)~Lb '~UJLb' Ffo.!J)J Q u tDfD6ID6l1G UJ.

6J = Qa:-Q.l. ~ - lLJfT - tlSfT - ga - go. UJfT + iJ6IDt;J = UJfT ~i)61f)t;J - UJfT ~'7 IT - elrr~f7fT. (~J 'i)GG1fJ' '5'® Q;f!jrrySltbQuUJrt GVJ®i).

Dan, A.S. gaa, gan, E. go, G. gehen,Skt. gam.

6J - ~® = Q8"6U. ~ - 'iJ6lJ = QCF~iJ:!!Jl, /!JIT~(f;I. 6J = QCF§w#i~w dP/LoLj. 6J - et ds = ~t.bOtnUq QgiJJl~:!!Jl. 6TtU{Drt - 6Tu1lmrt = c?}JwQutiJUjUJ aWL-IT. 6Tt6JGiJ = ~wQutiJtLft.iJ wiJ6iJ, wiJ6iJ.

er - filjtll = Qurr®!hgu, ~uurr®, ~~mLJ) C:UfT6lJ# Qa:rrfii>6l51 fiJ LlJ tt tb .f!)l. ~ I1J = Q u fT@thfh, au tr 6l'J (ZL 6l1m LD UJ (!!j Lf ) . 6J - er til = G)UfT@!h§JJ, ~mL, @jpSJ. "~t.iJUJrrmLDC:UJ ~p5JUJrr~LDC:UJ" (Q1hrr6iJ. 825) erds - GTtiJ~ = ~mL. OJ - ~UJ - ~6"6lUJ - ~rnCF - @6l5>6m - t5J~mrr, ~rnc!F = QUfT®tb~, 9uurr«!j, ~romriu®, Qurr®iJ.{!JJ.

CF - 6lfT - 6-ro C:urrtD6l. 6T-@: g6"Cnr!F - ~mQ1. Clurr@ - A.S. potian, L. positus - pose - pono, to place. ~61S)6m - ~~rt = Q8irr~fbJ.

{hQgfil)LDU QUUJIT : 6J = !f}_WfrGlJ. (brrw 6Tru~Lh c!PIs,ffiJOJfTlJW LD tr !b ~ ~ ci, ® ~ UJ 6iJ U fT 8) 6lf mr m LD UJ tt GU, (!JJ tfj @ W 6iJ {h uS] Y,H;!rr ~dJG1 U@jGmLDUJW {Drotrr 6"5T fit)(!pw u tb pSJ 6J s.n '7 # a; LLrr 6iJ {h~ 6"0) GM J; ®PSJ /J{hrT Gtsr.

6Jr;;kr - UJrr6iT - [hrrffi (~C!!JmLD). 6JW - UJfTLD - [hfTW (U6irT6mLD).

6/iQf1fT u(;J uUJ" : ~® Q u tt ®61f)tQfT et ;ff)JGJ6lJ~.{!)J Q);~Glf t.b au IT !!p, ~® an.LLLDfT 61fT Q U tt (!!jGlr al6'tfJ~ teptiiM 6lf) [D c: wG,16l)@iJt!JlOi 8ifT LL5 Qc!F tt GlJGlJ ~ au tt ~®q,~{!J ~. ~{h~ fT GiJ, 65JfirT tt c9; 8)®j,~ 6T (g>67J) 8)# aTLL9-GiJ c: 1l>rr ~ J61 tb J!)J.

6J = bT[6{h (((if~, ereseu). OJ - 61.

fOJ f!P - or ~ - 6T {lifT - 6TGflJrT - 6T(]{hrrGYfJ. 6T i[)J - 6T ~ru. (iJv;M > ~6lJ6M > tOT QJ ~. 6J W > (iJ6lJ Lb > 6T (@jw. 6J 6trr - 6T W - et ffie: rar - 6T ~Grn6"5f.

• • •

6J - 6TGlJ. 6TQJ61T - 6TQJ~.

• • •

et QJ 6lT, tOT euetr, 6T 61HT, fiT.t!U, 616lf)QJ.

fiT~ - 6T w- 6fT = fiT /J{!jfii6)8jUJ. 6TQr - or 6lf)m = et QJ6lJG1T 6lf. or m- - et [h!lP -

• • •• • o· •

6T ~{h - 61 fh rpjrr. ()T W - et LJ)fi{f)LD. 6T "-' + ./!JI = er 00 f!lJ. 6T fit) + ,g» = et gr !J)J.

46

676V - 61"->60 = 6Tm6lJ. 6TGUQ) + HLW = 616V6lJ6l/W - 6T6U6UfTW. ~. (3!Drr:

• •••

uut + u.u: = UJfT6lfLD = ~Q)~rrLD.

6T6VQ}fTw. A.S. eal, G. all, Gael, uile, W. all, E. all.

@~, ~6i>ru + ~W, = ~6iJ6lJ6lJLb - ~6i>6Vrrw - 6TrolJQ)rrw 6Tar.!J)J usub. tfj.(]!DrT : ~rQ6)W - ~rnr06Tl>/!)J - ~m6b1iJ~Lb, ~ru6lJrrLb 6T6&7"j[)J [DrTL([;!U 4 f!J QJ y>8i®(y)~(j;J.

6J - uut, UJrr ~ (~.) uur, UJfT'-llf)QJ (t.r), (~tid6T(£l) - lLJrrrdrr®. (u;-ffiJ®) -

• • •

UJ fT GlJrOM, UJ rr ruG1T, UJ rr QJ tr J UJ fT6lJ fl)l i UJ rr mGlJ.

uuttt - ~tt. UJfT - ~ - ~. ~.C:!Drr : Q/{5{DfTW - GlJ!i>C:~rrm. OJ - ~ - f} Ff {b jf)J ro5I r;;M rr QQJ@!>/!)J8)G1r.

GT -([;1: QJ ~{DITC: 6W? GlJ !f,~fT attr? QJ [A{ljrra GM tt?

f? Clirr fJ th IL UJ (J ~ ~;fJ q, ®P5J ~~ tt iW tb, ~ {D 61fT Lfl-UJ tt uJ f} ® roil 'iirT tt c# Q (F tt ru iJ» t.h UJ fDQI fT m LDuJJ ~ , ~ firj) ~ UJ rrGUJ dr (:!!jaJ (DUJ IT ~ UJ ~8JrrrJ ~iJw i) rflGu~(]!D Q9irrwfjff C:Qlrmr(];Jw. "~(J6lJ treutr ®w QUUJ(!!J wrr®v;rr(J61/' (QfhfT6iJ~ 680) (&.6l1I.)

911»"[1' QlQI)ujQBrT6D

OJ = ZLUJtT, (]LD{bG,)a=Q), Q~fTLtT.

6'1@i1a;(:;;'a;rrmrGL(]urr = go on writing. rtParG{lJ8ifT6U = one and a quarter. C:WGlJ or6kr.!J)J QUfT@61ru(J1w on 6TQrr~W QS:fT~ ~rfil~6tJ~~6lJ G~fTLrT #~ ®p5J:f,~6lf)Q)8; 8)GlJ~8;8i.

''.:='/ fJ (Fe: m ~ roir (y> m!D UJ tt til !D L th ~ rr Gb ~ rf1 LW Q (F tt 6b QJ ffJl" 6T6iu~t.b Q/fT8;liJUJ~i)ruJ fiJlhfTfJW ZLUJtTGl/U QUfTC!Jjw @p5J~fD/!)J. ( 8i.~.)

.

§JJlLD

OJ~w : ~mfD/JfD6b = @j6U)60~~6iJ, G6lJL@~GiJ, ~lP'iJ~roiJ. 5Jm~ - i1~ (QJ.). ~m~ - C:~{hw - fiT ~t.b = C:8i@, ®tb!Dw. C:<!F{hw - ae:~ (QJJ. (i).w. 738).

91J1

OJ~ - QI. c:~~ .

W - fiT61f - ~8i - 6J6·

fiJt!li{DGlJ = 6J<DlJ~fio, G1S:~~t!Jl~Q;.

Q&IfWQ)W c:u#} (a~Qlrr. 380 : 6),

6J 4)1 = 'J 6l/al8i, fJjIT6W@;fJ6U, 8ifT[f 65JfJUJw. fiJ:ffJJ - C:<Oll t6~ (fill J

urrGlJrr~rr

47

er /l)J Iff! a;(p ~ it = 8)([!jLDriu c$~ tt 8iJ UJ aifT '7 6"m rill ai61r flJ;?;rJ5W U UJ 6l5) fii6T 8; Qc!J)rr@ii1h1b[iJ®iJ a{!irr~ g)J~a;.

67§JJ ,ri}c!DUJ9!l Qllitilrftb~6fT IDff~6l576ir (LD~. 3 : 4)

•• •

6J!!Jl - 6J {ljrDM = fYJ(OI)8) a;rr fJ rotr5r rn IT ~ CEL6lf ett.

67 t661'J65[ C:UJ{buSJQJa- 61f)61>LO (JiLlfflf Qt§ff (!IN.]; C62J156TJ65! (a~61.HT. 471 : 3) 6lJLA;l1rT 6lJLQ~fTtb®c9; an.!!)Jw aQJrTuG)UfT®~W ~ViW@f!J6iJ 6TffiuC:~. ~~tb®$ 8)fTL(§JLb C:QJrT ~6lJ{htb QUrT®@!Jww ~

• •

et 6'5T U {hfT 0!Jw.

8il.!J)J/b 2WCFffl5 (]QJfo@ I56fJQJuun(iJ (Q~O'ru. QuO'. 207)

6J ~@ = dhfT IJ fiim" uS! L_(£I~fJ ::h~6U

§TLDU46lD6lRJT

tiiJLDU Lft;;?f)fiimUJfTru /fJI, !D@a;8)L66JGb 8)UU6U e!PIP0!JW au tt 1[)J alQ)6lJrT 6JpSI~ {hULJW ()JLDUUL@j (Life-boat). 6lJfTlP8;6ri)8iB; CJjL(iilfHiV9; cnL8J®W ~6iJQ)fD~{DfT iT c9;® ~@c9;C1)~ e;fTru~@(/v ZLr!>6'5J c9; 8)fT c9;®W ~ 6'lfT :f,{hfT rt 6J LDU LJ 6tf>r0tr5r UJ rr rt . t5J {!J 65J c9; c$L ~fiU8; a; Lc9;@)Lb :f!JJ fD6lJ uu5J 6V6lJ tt rt a;®1> $'lJ6lJ c: fill tr 8iriu a;61fliU {!iGlJ J!)J c: {5fr ~~ ~6lJrt (;)a;@w tfjJ ~ 6l)u5J GU ~ 6lJ(i~){7 iJ i) @~~ ~tb.f!)J u U (§J iiifP W (!JJ@ ~~ [DQJ rT 6JLDu,-/G7f>fiiWUJrrfr. (i). !.D. 176) .

.

§JlDLD

6JWLD - QI. G8iJIf1LD (~.C:QJ.) s: - ~ - 6T - 'iT,

6J = 1. 9LUJrt#!Tl. "()JQucbfDIT®W" (G~fT6iJ. Q~lTGt>. 305). 2. (]wC:wrr9; ®rn<9i.

c$ffrftffJ6nar,ffJ Clbifb@W LOu5Jj;(§yJffW (6QJ8). 87) 6J c9;8)(g>:iJ{hW = {D61D6l.)QUJ@U4·

6Jrnr, er dJ~, er ~f!»' fiJU u Lb, 67fT 1 6J6lJ 1 <OJ 6lJ I 6J J!)J (!:P~o6JUJ Go: tt {ba;rotf}v;&r 6J a; tt '7 (yJ ~ ru , V>T @# UJ ~ 6U su !tJ ZL UJ rt 8: 51 J, -Bi (f!j ~ 6'lf) ~ ~ $lJ IT ffiJ ~ (6J tDfD6"G>Q)UJ Lb, 6T 8)" CYJtjj §JJJ tlJ ~diJ ffi} rilla LD U6l) Q c!F rr tD8)6YfJoiJ JfL~ rt ~@ {6J{b!D61f)Q)UjW, G{DrT c9;®r!h.

~(!!j@rn~ UJuS! rfI CJj@!jLn, G'J fD(!9ffiJ [i;) G1J tEffJ U 1iW)8)c};®w U6"'f) 8) 611fT a;®Lb fhUUJGUJfTL!J-u UfT ~8)ITuL5Jrb®iJ C:~@6l.i~1 Qu@wurriJ)Jw LDrnfD 6l1l1 ID ~roUGtJ~ S2...UJrfJLGLD. ~rutb.f!)JL t5Jm~~ u5J9J# YI[Duuirw.

~ rfJ WrT 65J tb®~ lfJu UJ WI}" ~ ~fiiTC: we: su JT)JQJ ~ LD dPI (J ~ !b(:!Jrh {!iu t5I LD 6?fHiU t6J w a LD c: fil) .Jl)J QI ~ Lb I ~ W ff)J t1J 6lJ Y' 8; 8) Lb . ~ tb!D 1J c!F ® w Q s.tt GiT 6'6> ar i> ;'h G"aHitJQI ® W u mr frn La; 8) rr fit) ~ @6iJ LlJ m Q.UJim <itTC: UJ ~1J ~fT 8i9> (8)fT6~TlJ"-C!!Jf/j;'brul{. ~;:hWfT~, :!LUJtT cF81~UJ$ ®pSlci;®w

48

6JWW

fiT Birr (J /JG'6l~ dPllSJ-UJ tt 8)8; Q a;fT ~@ U tt ff» SIfT U LJ 8i C1>(!!jrj}§c# Q cfF tt [b UJ{lJ~1D~.

fiJ - Vi)"W = 1. 9JfTuLj. "67<§UJUJ Qurr®drc$6lJ)~ "J(!fl!D f6fTl1/-" (®C!!J(!.pC!!J. 97).

2. @QuuLh. "fJ(IjJ!D @~i/ C:67fTfTwUJ (CliwUllrT. ~tfL. 114)

• • • •

er l./) + IL.!J)J = 6]" cYJ.!J)J. er (!JJ.!J)J ~6l) = 8jfT U U ~LtDGlJ.

6}"W + fij'(w)LD - uureou: = Utr ./fJJehfTuurrrn- 'iP®6TrGTT D6TJ®u1Jrfl. umaua QUJ@tb~ $!J)ItblDtPf!Jff6V (6jrul~. 94)

unreeu; - ~mLD, ~.C:!DfT.· uursees: - ~m~.

6JW - UJ® = bJ'LD([!j. fiJLD(!!J{ljfiO = 8ifT 8;QiUU(£Jf!Jru. ,@Iq-UUff61JfT u5)Q;Q)1T1b ~LD{Trr wm6IT6ir (®!Dm. 448)

• • • •

fiJLD - eruut, fiJwrr~~GlJ = ~r:r~rr~Q).

@lUtiJum($ QQJQ;(§IJ)J6lJIT6ir 6}10ITUU (!JJ6irCl6IfT (uW' 306) "'(!J'6TJLD'4 (]WllJITU 4(1)L~g <(!'lDQr. 126)

6JW + ~Ft = 6JLDfTrr. fiJLDrrrtl>~QJ = QJ§J»i.Ju(£J~~Gb.

!FQ)~/bffjJ QUff@£irQ6tiJ C:~1J)fftft6~1iJ (@jp)m. 660)

6J W + LD fT.ff)J = OJ LD IT J)J. 6J LD tr !f)J ~ flo = 9) tt U U ySI ~GiJ , 6lJ <f!, iF} J; CIlU u@~6iJ, fiJ LDfT jJ)J - 6J LDIT{b.f!)J (UJ.65I.)

fiJW - 6JLDW = 1. 8ifTU4, utt ~a;rru4· "6JwueJue!§rr" (Q$bfToiJ. 983). 2. c$fT6lJoV.

(iTQJQ)/T 62/u5Itf &(§W enoiot: &JIJ.J <YJDi.b. 1. 11) 6)W (lfJITlFLD {;)(jJ'(JllJ6lJT (ljJJP~& <Y!J)t.D· 3:3)

3. mQJuL/q Qr!Frr j,~ (i'QJrr.J

4. urr 4»r!JifTuurrgr @l7rr&8irrruw, {hQr6TfJIJ6lJ, @'7fT.

4f!JtiJ&ffLIq.. (]Q)w,m (]/Dfflf)/ LDJPQ)tr@{]1J) (<:{hQJrr. 965:7) 5. @wuw (i/QJrr.)

6JLDW - ao:wtb. ~.C:{Drr: OJrnr - Go:mr.

C:o:ww = UfT6&fTuL/, {DfiUW, @wuw, {DiUQJfTYJ&1JJ ~'7~, §1(ilf)!D# r!F fTAl&1J, 46tn~G'J u tt ®w, 8iQJ L1I-8;r$L@, c$QJIF t.b, 0: 6)J8;c!lirr U LJ.

<:a:IDtD = QJ. <:..tID (jl.<:SU.)

{Dffil @{h(i4)fit) ~6iJfit) gp ®UJ-t61 ®1A~6J)fil}J; ®tDJ 8;~Lb '1hI{J' ()T ~ ~ Lb (Yl~Qf} 61fHiUQ) UJ QJ LQJ IT e!PfiU LD fT s;8i &rr L@QJ.:fJJ Q u rr ®/hflj fT a> LD &rrAJrc!h. (QJ,QJ. 99-100).

6TJ~

49

9lDfTrT~

(iJ LDWrrrT j,~~ fiTWU./!JI 6J LDrrrt iJ~GiJ fiT~ ~ c$fJW Qt$L_@ tfJdr [Dgp. ~WW - UrT!!JI9;fTUL,. ~tt~GiJ - Qurr®/h/!Jl'ffiGlJ. ~1t~;?i4iiJ - Qurr®~gJ~oiJ (~!DGfr. 660)

~

U~~L#' 8irr6lJ~j;J~ (y)6Um6lJ tffJ6U~iJ66J®!A1D ~lLlrfJrnL, bY.!J)J ~@Q)J LD~ uuC:!1> ®6lJWfJ urr 0; ~®!h~ QJth~,gp· fYrT ~UJrr UfT lJI--u1J1Oi> ~Q>61Jf!P a<F rfii610iJ I ~® GuQfar ®lPt&rn~ O1!D~;'D6lJLw ~~6ir QUUJ(f!Jr$«!j §>@ (J~r!it8)GirO?f)!Di.J QutbG{lJfTTr ~!!Ur$!iJ rn6lJuurT. ~8; 8)~ 6lf)!D& t!];fTUJl1J--UJ fTLO ~ W, C:6lJmwul)", 6lJUJ8;Q;rr LD §JJJ LiJ, G'J 9ifT@j>{!j ~ L_ L_ ffiJ Q 8) tt ®~ ~ 8i Q& rr t1J 4 g G'5I4 8'n.fJ" tt 8; ® 6lJ fr. c?ib rom @ a ffhrr g)J W I @j{l51 /J;'D ~fiiirr ar rr6lfl6iJ, LD~ U U (!§6lJ LDGtnL/h1h LDrillm<!hUJ tt 8i ®rf1 UJ S;rT ~H,IT c!Jj6tf) tJf Q lU "" 6lJ tt L.b 9® Q ~rr @QJd; iJ ~ ~ OS) L~.:!Jl 6"tf)Qlj,/IJl, ~QjG>QJrr ~!Drr a,~ iJ!D~.{!jJ G'6I@rult. LDdi8;Q,- ~IJQI tt t;J ~m~ '4 W fiJ .f!)J c: c!J) tt L u m!D (!p u> 8J 8; -Pi 6tf) ~ ILl W I s; mr@ w c: q; L__@L.b1 LD®~Lrr@t.h ~GiJQQlrr(!!J Q~fTQ)C:GOtb(i6)!DlLJw LDrr~UJIJ'TT6'M ~UJ ~6lJ)61T ~tt tSJ 111-~ ~ {i;I.f!)J d;~' (yJUJfiuQJ It. UQ) rt Q r!hrr ",Cro jJ)J &"" fT tb @iiiiJ8i Qa;rr6bQ.)uu@QJ4JI(yJ~@. ~® Q8;rrQ)(J6lJtD61JljlJ 6TQlar

UlUJ-rJ,~Lj,8iJ !6J.!J)I ::h~5JfiM!DrrC:wfT ~QU;5r ~Qj 67tb{l51 Jb®rf1UJ ~ ILl LJ)8)fif)QT LDfi51TUUrrW. (;'D.i'J. 4)

s. gar

Qg;@ti.JaAIIT6. 5QDLOU4 (lLuiQf1<!9~~ 12) ~ - dJI ((]s:tiJmLDc9;8TL(Jj))

FF - ~ (~6lhrr6'G)LDqa;.L@)

tl§11 - 3L ((yJ6iT~LDq&L_(6J)

~t.b eyJwC:/D c!p~ar (!JJ~fio uxt !6{hw QJ rrt61 ~ Lb ~u5J U:'Qr fiilJ rrt6J ~ L.b U1!D!&~ ILt6JGr;r@/J~&Qr. ~mQJC:UJ, c:tirfJUJQwrrySllh QQTQ)Q)fT QJ{b{l51 ~(yJwQr 8i-L@t!t Qq:rrtb<Jj6'ffl~ ~Ul-C:QJtr 8iw.

~ - er, ~-6T.

till - fj). IL - 9.

~ + ~ = ~. ~ + IJ... = 9"".

!B, f)6TT ~r;rdrr@tb L/fiiWGr;rrr.6lOiQr (diphthongs)

c!PI&!J t1)&(Tw tBt!bff(T LDff~J.iJ (Q~rrru. 21) c:!JJI&fllL&pZiJ @6ITt!b"{T LDff(§W (Q~fTQ). 22)

cf1,FF IlI1IlY !B6' @61T6TtlJIW

c!JJIUUfftiJ Ii)" (!JJw

FF(T6TT t.SJ6I)66~tiJ "/bL. QLQJJIi Q~6iru (Q~rrQ). ""@~iI 4)

50

@61S>QJ (;) tbrr 6U8irT LII.51 UJ IT fi))J ®{ii'1J6'5T QJ 6V6lJ. "J$T ~ WI}" 4" (if wW LD @UJ{iJQuUJml}" G{brr r!i;®a;. "QLDfTySlWfJL/", "'Q~fTrn8JLDfJ4" 6TffiWLb @UJ[b{DmruuLfa;r;;mtD'ITlLlw C:!h1T a;®8J.

" jp1 ~Tl.D(J LJ' c!::p;9)GlJ "LDfJ OJ UJ ~ , 6lJ 6lSl17 Q {OfT ~c!1)fT U IiJ UJ Lh (l:P@ffJJLh. (!:P{hfl)l!$l6lJ Oimr@ (y)(i6)!DUUL 6T ~~ U LJ6lJtbQ~fT®1h;!Dm6lJGlLJ.

!:B6JS)lLJU U,,~W (G~ITQ). Qs:rrbU. 385)

FF(T67T UJ61J6ci(§w @IP1Jlu5J §JJu5J(]{T

c!iJ, uiJll.JW jJ6I)QJILjr6J lbffQ)/6 ~fT§)JiJJ c!)I61TQU6fJL ,rf}6lf)Q)'4tiu &ffQ)j IbffiJ)/w ~~~mL~~~/6~~~@~~~~~w ~61T(JQl6N QlJ)ff#,U QUff@6irC:QJ!J)J u@l06V

(§pflut.SJoir 1i)64Jt!FlL1fTQr QJDp5JUUL~ Glbff6irIJ)/W (Q~rrru. GtHTQ). 766)

(C:e:~fT. 1LGWI7 ) "~6lT §lfii'IT QQJ rr ®QJ~ {DQJ®Qe:liJ~QJ rr.fl)J et r.otr{lJ6lJySl 9 s:J (D U 4 ~ a ~rr m .!J)J Li:J. §> ® G;) ~rr ySl Q; G q liJ Q/ rr", fW1 ffl6TT ~G1T G5! 61fJ j r!F fT iJJl Lb er W pJQJ ySl LDfT.,[f)J U rr@ c: ~rr ~ .ff)J Lh ~GYT L Qru rr ®QJ 6"6fJ IJ QjfiUtT c9; fl£h{DGlJ tt !f)J, 'fjrorT IL 6llJ~Q6l1®iYTQJ et 6V6lJ w; ~GrTQJQJ~ (!j)UJ~LDrr.!J)J, ~G1Tro6JmJ~ ~L_@ULJ6mLUJ6u fiTOMG1JW," ~G1TQu®~ ~w ~GYTQULfT!PIth QJ~1D QJySllLJw. ~i.JQUfT ®ti/tr (llDfTroir[l5JUJQJfT 9)J 8)~(6JG'l8ifTg, c!1). @~6"G)6lfT @8i8)fT~~§J 7}r!1ifT fJ WfT 0; QJ lJ)r6J ®u."

@~WIT6i>. (!!)LDrfl{fJrTL_@ 6lIY'8J(r!!j8if/rr LDL@w6irp5), @{iJm(D~ ~u5ly> ~fTL@U U~~L 6lJlPci;~Ch@9w UQ) @flJt6Q~ITySJtb~W ~6lT ~ {lSI Jh!!JlQ 8ifT 6ir s:

QJLQJrT, @jL.D1J + FFdFrill" = ®wGIJ a:~. ®()l) + lL~fIUffiJ8j~ = ®(]fjlJ(f ~ .:!Jl rill c!Jjr;;lrr rOT v;ifr W1 W LJ ~ rt ,j UJ 8J~6YT UJ L!I_J~J U ~ LUJ tr 918; Q CbfT ~ @ , 6J s;rr fJ tg;8)/T fJ ffiJ 8Jm<ii1TUj W 4 QWGJ fJ tt ~ <J)6"f{ tt 8)9, Q a;rr m 6lJ rt. ~'ii6)f;il1 Ffot!hrT fJ Sl§1l8irT fJ /J i) rfl Lf e;(J 6fT UJw pS1 U 4rn;rQ fJ tt ~8iGTTGbfil) .

.. @~, !Eairr fJ fflGYT 8JrTfJ ffiJ aim QJ L_ Q WrT ySJ u5I ~~.!J)J fhL.6J@8J® QJ !A'ffi6M

{" QQlm-.!W 8n.JJ)Jw ~u51~u 4Q)Q)®W SlLGTTrT. @~ U6ri>y>U1 urrmrL!J-UJ~ ~u5J y> 8i cny> 8i W c: u tt roir flJ ~ rT ~1!z5} 6lJ fJ ~ QJ u5J ~ a $D ~QJ Gm UJ a UJ 6lJ6l5J ;1Jrr li.J a. GW rT iJifP 5J ro {D /IP.

c: Q/ >fJ ~rfl UJ rfJ~ c!:p~G rn- rrlr et @~~f!5J UJrT ~ (YJ6UG1S)6l) {hfT a;rf18) l_D9;ai 6fT tt tlJ @ t5 ~ UJ tt 6l1! tb ® L 4 (!J[!, {b (i6T fr. (!JJ~ W (yJ~fil) rr 8i~ a ~rr 6isr p5J UJ

J

~rfJ UJ @6U9,8i/UJ LDrrffi ~®cii® ClQJsf> LDIf,iJt;r ffiJ <!Jj61r, 6T ~~rr ci; ~GTr 6'6J

UJ fT 8i (g 6lJ Q r!F ro6/l.1JfJ U tt 8i .IB ~ La; fT 6V Lb 6lI YJ ffiJ ~ 6lJ!B tfj est. @ ~ rn tii5T # ar®$J (GCJ)<01rQ)/) 6T6iJr@lw aCCilJ~U QUUJar;r Q~rfl6"6lr$®Lb. ~rfJUJU g dF IT rfI UJ rT fh ufJ yl:;) 17 tr (f;1 Q ~rr LrT 4(;) s.n c;m (j)1 c: QJ ~G LOfT ySl 65J rfI (UJ 61nLff,fh UJ~, ~u51 Ji;> Q ~®ffiuJjViffl8irnc9)U U1tDATu tb{151UJrnwr$9)u U LL_ ~rfJ UJ 6lJ~ 'im wrrrn6UGUJ fT@ s: LDcb~®PJ[i, G:flJfTQr {151 tb.fl)J.

61,6)67J

.

UfTQ,UTQUTIT

51

QJ L G'lL.DfT ~ 6lJ~ f4lfOT LDfT (ia)6lJ tJ]~ m LDUJ ~. ®{l5J ~ c!.ii®c!ii 8i1J # CF rr rfI rnUJIL{ W, Q !Dl1I-~ r$«!>8> s;rr (J # c'F rrrfl ~UJ'4 W, ~dhrr[T ~tiitT a;rr fJ r!uc!JiL@j8> a;rrrrn- c!FfTrflrnUJU{w, QLDujQUJ(gJ~iltb® ~a;(J# dFrrrf/6ri>UJlLlw (~) ~tiJ~Qt;;)j@~iJ{b(:!j ~o~C:di~8= s tt titesnuuub, thu5Jy5J(]Q)<]UJ a;1JfT m p5J6lfr,

QJ L Q ill rr ~ u5I {iJ (J) tt m- a= tt rfl6ID UJ ILl Lo ~ 0 ~ a 81 row J: r!F tr rfI ~>l1J lLI W @wtOmGlJ; c!hfTI]"'# e:rrrfl6'IDUJ6'5lUJ8J ®p5J~J;®ffiJ Q8)rr(f}uurt. ~u5J~6lJ "{DlTu5'I~,gp t5J!D9>®W ~.$rrfJ [98jfTfJ"W" (Q~fTrOU. t5l{1JLJ. 11) 6T~ J!)J Q r!F uJl1J6'ff} 6U @6lf)<fFt@61S>{DJ;a; QJW p5l, C:GlJ J!)J QJ 61S>8it6J 6iJ eu fJ tt f!P.

L, LL_, 6m rOT6ir~W QJ(1J>QLrr6l518i@!jW (Linguals or Cerebrals) WaifJ(!jJw QJLQLDfT~ {lJu51y5J~m-$)l $L~ Q8)fT~L_rnQJ. @~6lJ ~rf)UJ QLlJfT~8; ®@tiJuiJiltb ®rf1UJ~6))6UG1J.

t5J er tt iI IF rr 8; 8iI UJ ffiJ c!J)6fr 6T rn ~ fill 8iJ m GYT c: QJ ~ ® 6lJ 8; ai4Jm riiJ a;@!Jw, eJfiji/ fJ LD et oM WJ t1J 6lJ L_ G LDrT ~ (y)~!bau rf/(;t)9;8ifOlW (y)W, ~u51 ~ 6lJ8J (Jjr;;m~m{hu liJwutbp5J G)UJ@tb1hGmQl(]UJ. ~[hiJfJw {hu51yUli~~G6UC:UJ a~rrwp5Jdi ~uS1Y;>8i~iI(]Q)C:1LJ ~~th~~rr 8Jii Q~rfl~6trfD~'

L{616r6lJbflllJ 9/TQJ6IlffW Oun. (!!J~~61fI [TRuSler

6J5)6lN6WT6lJtT CJc!bffLDff6W 6l9J(!JJ/PfT QQ)tiJ§6J5Jtf (11:98 -9)

rOTW~W 5J~uuiJ9)fTfJ ~UJ-J,r;;1r 8)GlJffiJ8;8i~ ~#'0i6M.

~Ji,iJ!J /JiJ tb® c!pIhiJUJ II» ~r!J)~ilUJw 6T~~ w (y)~~uSJy5JGlJ$8ifiWtiJ. ~8ij,i:JUJC:'7 Q:!D6M~ rr(j)J 6lJ ~{fJI ~u51 y> a;{iJflJ (y>t}jru ~rf}UJrT. ~QJrT QJ tA~ ailT roviJfiJ 6iJ LDC:a;{hi/er Lh tOT ~ ~ w tofTe: 6lJ !6fhLDm~ 8)L_6"t51GiJ QP@£/ci; liJ L{h:!D/!Jl. ~ f!JJ @jWrfJlLlfT.f!)J G::hfT Qsr p5J UJ W6W6lJUJIT u5J ®thw C!§9;ai6UfT Lb. ~8i/J~lU rt J>® (IJJ!fiiJUJ a;rrGUG) uxoeomb fD6"6f1~::huSl ~fr 8irrvilJQ LD~ J!).I Lh, ~QJQ(Jrr(f;J Q.pjrrLr6Jq;,UJ~ ~rfJUJth Q~fTLIrLJ 8jfT6lJQLD~.fl)JW ~ p5J 1hw a6lJrnr@Lb.

~ ai fT t;T ~ 6fT 8j rr IJ ffiJ t!Ji ro- {h ufJ jj ~ tffi 6iJ 6lJ tt ~ Q ~ rr rio SJ1 jJ)J U U fT ai QJ ® Ill:: U tt ~ I CYJ 6"6) {D c: UJ dPI tiJ dPI Qj et GirrQ {DfT 6l5J iJ ~ th {h 6lff1 {h ~ rorsf} ~rm {Dmf}" ustr ~i)67i)t;T G;)8ifTGlr@!Jw.

c!JIc!btT/b J]wuti UJCE(TU 46irefi'4w

~g6ir Qjb@c§8J61JQT QwtiJQuPJIb {l/bff6NIJlIW (QLOrrbPl. 23)

r:::!!J/CJ;/T tb jltiJ u,; 6lJCJ;lTu Lf 6ireflll.jw

fjJ6fTfiT«r QJb@rtft#l61J64T QwtiJQufOiJ <1l5ffm[J)/W

aJOifTfJW Qo:rr~6'6lmLu51Q) UJs;!J~m~ UJ(f)1~fJU 6lJ(!!JwC:urr~, ~C!!J wrr/Ji)fiID fJ ill tr 8jfi1/ ffiJ ®.fl)J ®w.

fj}/T6IT Uff@W /ilLlf!)JLDff @ailrC:L

r:t§@d1 c$ff6l)Q) QWfffIJ6lluS1 6lIfff6lJT. (Q~fTQ). QLDrrbP1. 24)

ViT-(f;J: @rnLUJ6M, ~Qj)t;rUJm-.

52

{huSJ ySltb C:u IT GirG!D t5J fDG'l LDrT ySllhG'1fJ SJl W LJt;;"6lfTG'l fJ f16"6J$6Tr 1L6lT. 6TuKlfJtLJLD (Hebrew) - ai, au

~r;rt51 (Arabic) - at: au

~6lJtf,~~t.b (Latin) - ae, oe, au, et, eu, ui

~(]fJ ci;r!1JW (Greek) - ai, au, ei, eu, oi, OU, ui ((!JJ(~l:;'~@t>.ffJJ8> ®(l5Jru)

- ai, ei, oi (<!p~Q6lJ(!jJ~~ G!l>l4-ru)

~LDtb~®~t.b - (6J.~). §1. ~G1T.

U 6G) lPUJ IT ffiJ €i] GlJ t.b

(Old English) - ea, eo, ie, io (®!J)JwL/(ifflQ(TrT6'6I)

- ea, eo, ie, io (G,)!D@W4~QlJrr6151) ~ffiJ9JruLb (English) - i (ai), U (i+66) - ~®Qllf1u LJ~QIJJTr;;6J9)61r)

- oi, ou - @®QJrf/u Lfii~~QIJTro6Jr!Jj6Tr.

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UHil5HilJ u5I fiiJ ~ ffiJ 8iI6iJ 9i 6fT §) ~ G f!J rr Q L tt ~.D)J a!2J uJ QJ {lj m tt ~ w, ~a;~(ljJJ;~8; q,tiJa;6lf)GlT ~Girra!DrrGLrr6isTJl)J C:<tJtiJuu~mfT~W S SL61f5r Lrr!iJ!D /!Jl. ~J;a;6IDL c: 9jfT6lJfT6lJ Q /D®U 4mr LfT a;®w QJ ifiJfi5)UJ ey;ffiJ $I iJ)J f7 ~~ Su u tDjJ)J QJi)6l5J (!!JJf,/!Jl J dJ)IQ)filJ ~ a;6lJ6tOru8: Q 9 ~8i®w c: u tt ~ ~ uG;) U tr p5J c: ~fT Qr if)J fill i).s; ®[!, c: {b, (y>{h<OM WfT!h {hrt c!Ji6W@ liJl'SI-~@®8;8j G@J~@W.

Qurr®w 8)6Tr atjjtUQJ~rrGiJ 2L6WLJT~ GJ!f>C!!JU4, Gf!jtiJ 6TQfTUU1· I f!Jl. G{!jtU - G'fhlLf (QJ.).

C:;2J1iJ - G{h - ~. ~. GtDfT.: c: $h6kT - G ~( j,{l>L@) - ~(ill u rrGiJ). C:;fJ + n. = a{htU6l/ - (]tD6lJ· GtDtU6lJ - Q{huJ6lf. GJ{hIiJ6lJ + ~w = Q{DuJQJW. (]{hGlJ + ~~= C:~QJ~.

·

UfT6lJrTQUTIT

61

LDfT ~$fJ6"5T rr6iJ fYJ~ rokT c!:p~wiu 6lJ;;;m- ffiJ 8iU U LL.f!U ~UJ tt ~Q)rr bU I ~ $fJ6M QUUJITa;w t51{ba;fTfil)~ Q~ujQJffiJa;LQa;Q)Q)fTW Qurr,ff)/u QuUJ

(JrTu5Jm. ~QJtinT8;8i(yJtlJ C:uuJ 6lJ~#,r$(!j)tb (JS:rT!6C:~I C:5aUJrr~ 6l)(Offl8;a;W (yJ{hW (ljJ~v/u G fhrr 6irr [lSJ (b.!f)J .

Q~tiJ6)Jtb, a~6lJ, a{b6ll~.

Skt. deva; L. deus, Gk. theos, god; Ice tivi; W. duw; Gael, Ir, dia; A.S. tiw; E. deity.

f;J fDiJ I ~ 6iJ UJ et m- U 6"5) 6lI a rjj 6lJ ()T ~ U {lj W $I rfI G u UJ tr {D su rt fiiJ I iJ Gil 67 ~ um{DiJ Q ::DtUGli U Q u UJ IT 8;@j tyJfiilJ LOfT 8;,$ <!lifT L._([)J6lI §JJ ~(iil/ {DfT@jw. @ riu f!iJ ffi W (yJ {h ~ (lp {D {b 8i tt L_ iJ1- UJ.tfJl 6lJ L Q LD tt ySl UJ tt rfI UJ It. f,}j L QWfTySl4@ju OJ{DQwfTySlmUJ eyJ6VWfT c!1i8> a;rrLLci cm_LrrQ~rm-Ua{D dPj6lJ rt a [1j tt ci; a; tb. ~ vnn c!1i UJ tt 6V I ~ 6lJ rt 8iL {b ~!D U t5J W u tb.!J)J a 6)J fT QIJ t4iJ~rr WI ~uU!UJm QWfTySl J$T~UJGUmu8: QeFQ]fQ$)VilJUJrrlLf6ZfM(J tt fr. 6lJLQwrrySl Glly>a;e;{b{D GJWrTySlUJrT {D~m, ~{h6M Q<!Frr[b81L@jU Q U fT C!!; ~ If!j U LJ 8) fiU6U ()T WW W (y)6?f> {Du5J Gb , or (iG') {h lLJ W e!j)6lJ W rr 8J J; 8JfT LL61JfT W. er ilQ u rr (!!J6UlW ILJ t1J tyJ6lJU Q u rt (!!JGTT rr 8Jc9; &t.{D6lJfT Lb.

~ UJ fT W /fJl Q u tr (!!J m- a; rn W d!)/ ySl i> ~ 66! (J;J 6lJ {h IT fib ~ (~!)'!F ~ ~& 8) /!JI ; ~ 6tf) LIJ UJ iJ)J ciJ®w ® 6lfl rT Ih J; 8i 6lJ t1J a, {h 6lJ 6lJ {b tr 6lJ !D W 6m LD Q g UJ 6lJ /IJ/. ~ q q (!JJ th !D fiilrr m UJ u au J!)J c: UJ I (yJ {D W (yJ {h oiJ Q {D til (O)J (O)J ySl U fT@ C::1>rr 6irr [lSJ UJ fh tb®a; 81fT r;T mT W.

fl,QJrmT a;a;w u~@ fiTGUOlJfT~rrLl.!/-~ uSl ®!h{h~. @fiiT.!!)Jw, 06JGTT ciJ® 6lJ L9-6'l1IGiJ ~"'~ ~(i(f)LUJrrrotTW @®m~6lI@8iJm-{lJ§lI.

( 2) Pirr 8;QJ 6IRSl Nth

@{i5i)UJrr6'5J~rotr61T 380 rum8iu urrwLj8i@!Jm/ ~fJa= fDfTaiW (king cobra), pjQ)Q) tstrtbt], G5JrflUJa-r (yJ{JJroJUJmQl QU(!!J fDr,§armLUJ61lT. @rutOg)/G1r, ~ (J r5 [DrT a;w 1!_Q)a;{A~C: fiUaUl u5J 8iJi G'18irT li/-UJ.{tU. [D# oru urrwL/8i@!Jw u®w~~Lb @~GQI GJurfJUJ~. @fDtba;@:t$fJa~ Q~~ ai~Lj,~j)JJGtrGYT GJ5Wkt{hUUfTwL/ (giant brown snake). @QJ{b[lSJm- tE 6YT W Cif.>6'm{Da UJ 18 ~ L1J-UJ W 12 d)I L1J-tLf usn ®w.

~ t;r ~ fD tt aiW c:!JI <!F tt WI u rT LDfT I Q ~rn 8! m- Lh, wC: 6lJ UJ tt , t5J ro6J urn L1 6ifr ~6lf e>Gtr (!jJ~o6l UJ @LffiJaiCOJfJ§WW QJ i) §:JGir {D.:f!)J.

urrwL/8i@!Jw uSlc!hu QurflUlm6lJ Q~~ ~QLDrflci>8)rr~~tiiYrw ~6"5TJiQa;rr6i5rLrr6lfw (anaconda) @th$lUlfTro5I§Ww LDGfiVUJrr611l~ c!:p~fiiff urr!h{lJ@!jC:w (python). @61f)QJ 30 ~L!J-a-,® C:W{bULL6lf>QJ/ UJ fT [i, fli 6"6> 6"5T UJ Lb 6l1I QJ ffiJ ® 81 a> 6fT UJ W t5i4- ~ ~ ,J: i1 {!fI :f1jJ iJ [lSJ {h tr tlJ Q)}@ffiJ@jum6lJ.

a;L.{bufTwLf8)~W, .dJ)IfJU/a;a;L6U, @ffiiJUJu QU(!5ffiJ!hLfiiJ, ~61f)LDiJU GU(!!JffiJa;L6U ~ 5/UJ @LffiJ8i61fJGiJ~rr6ir u51 (t!JiJUJfT tiJ QJrry>51~{Dm. ~~r§jUJrr6iJ, @jwrflf6rr@ urrw4 @m{1J!A~ @LLDfT®t1J.

62

~ ®G'J [h6lJC:Ql6l518i Ga;rr I· I ma;u1}w 9,y,u u tr a;{f,i)ru I ~~ JJ)J Lb I pjGlJ'lJ u tt LbUlm tr jJJJ Lb Q)J rfJUJfi51 tt j)}J W &l1I-lLfmr@ W&c9>W ~1J1-8;a;UJ- ui1 [Dc9i 51~!Dm-fr. ~ G6)r!nUJrrfieJ, ~y>fr {1jfT r!hf,mf!j QJfim"ffilgJfiM6"6)l.D 651UJuu~!f)J.

~~.!J)Jw r$JuSI{p{IjrT'· '9 SJlLD LDOIDQ)UJfTm ~rTL_LlJ-~Lb ~Q) r;;8®s;,*,6b [DfT dJifillfiiW 8;9iW ~@th~ 6lJ®~W!D!!JI.

• •• • •

[fJc!h(1QJgJ {DrT (J)W. [D6»rT - {DrT (J)rT - {brT &W.

E. snake; A.S. snaca from snican, to creep; Ice. snakr snokr; Dan. snog; Swede snok; Skt. naga.

{fJ8)iJi16b (wQ)61)u11 GiJ) z:LQr GfT §JJ f!jrr a;w et ~!J)J 6lJ LJ91TfiVfT tt CFn..f!)J 6lJ ~ t!F rfI UJGir .!J)J. {Drr sub - snake ((!pf!jflb661 rfl - prosthesis).

fl @6lJ a; /J iJ 6iJ U tr !h ~ 6tr uS! ® ~ UJ rr u5J (!!j U U ?'D tt 6iJ I §l ~ et Iii1fr u t;;ID f!j .JJI1lJ- QUJw.J!)J {6J6Wi"5T iJ,ff)JJ;Q&rrGli5T(JJ, '9rrQ)~~tba;t.q.JJ5IfiiJ ~i)C:r!F LW (=(!:fJ~[b urn.iJ4) ~®t6,gp{DfTffi.t®6lJ1Jjrra;8; ~JDI~tt utj)rorJ)WlLJtT.

a!li;J!DfT Ll1J-"-> {DfT (J) QJ~ &&W u5l ~~ UJfTuJ/@£h~mLDUJ,,! GiJ, LiI tiJa;fT QUI> ~6iJ ~mf!j8 ~g6lJ~f;J5JJJw i)(!!jLDrr66JUJ/Ji)~w ILLU@~~ GQJ6lf6r IJI-, fDrr sub 5lQlQ u (!!jLJ)fT~ 8i® ~6lf6fJ UJ tt 8i6lf Lb iJ ®LDfT §JJJ a,®u

• ••

U fTUJQ)fT r!hGlfffiJ an..!DUULL~.

61QJQu ®LDfTar {DfT o;~rn {lji; ~rnQ)u51 Q)6lf6fJ th~ C!!>U U~fT a;a; 9n.!J)J6lJ JfJ/. !DfTa;QJ69T8;a;"'~W u~mLU GJU(!!)Qf)W6J)UJ8; 8irrL_(~1Lh.

U~61>L et ~ u~UJtfl6tr {fIfT 8i QJ6W a,9)(!:pw I Q&G'1T -61 Gir - ~~Q f!jtOtJr (Khou-en-Aten) 6TQg~th fiT5Juj;JUJ QJfJtfFW {brrq,6lJ®~QJ~ ~roirr C!Pl1I-uJJfHJmLD:/i{h/!Jlw (The Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen. p. 96) ~r!iJ® fJU4(J{DfT &a;~{lJ&q,QIT.

~fT @8irr QI'ilT /J.{/JJ ey>dJQltT ~QJG U<!9WfT6krC:W!D tut W67J)uGUJ6'5I UJ ;fJ1T && 5iLJ!)JQI ifJJ- uY;>6G>wq,a;L._@.

(3) (JUW6lJAlrul.b - (Demonolatry)

C:u fJTWU~ ~,tq/'i16l1fT6iJ ILW.f!)JW 96'61. Guw = ~#r!Fw. (lu/Dnz.D IL.((JJW6rQT 61J(!9ILW &JGlT6lf)

c:!!{J,(!JJG1JJD (!luinlf)1t..D c!!JI9t'FU QUIT(!961T (SLrfl. 69)

OT~u:ffP Q~fTfiiJChfTut5JUJLh.

C:uGu fiTW jJ)J tLW J!)J5I{DfT6M OT~U.:!JJ QJY;>.i®. 9.G£Drr: E. babble. Gu-aUtll. 9.Cl!5fT: E.fay; Fr.fee.

C:u-C:ud>~. C:utiJ, GuIh/fJI 6T~UmQl ~mL8QgrrfiiJ6l)rr 9i6ljw 6lJYJriu®w. er-sur: (JUUJu(luUJ (fil1Iy518;~flJrrroirr). GU!6;fJU C:ut61h ( 651 y51,J,iJ (Orr VikT).

C:utAtII : 9·C:!6rT': Ger.feind; Out. vijand; A.S.feond; E.fiend.

o

Un-Elliff 6im" IT

63

C:~tburt ~8if7rTi1t61Gi> AoSo/eond, pro p. of/eon, to hate fiT~JJ)J 8n..flJu UL@W-GTT~; feon fiT~U1Dtb@j ~c9C1i- 6T6MUa~ ey>ilJU QurrC!!JGrTrT ui1 (!98; 8i6lJ tt Lb.

GutiJ == dPl8=~w. dPlcir!J~vrn1D.j, ~®Lb ~65J Guill ~6MUUL_L./fJl. au liJ 8)vftr ~a;TT 6ULDfT til @fD!6C:1OrT rfl6iT ~ 65J a:,QW6M !!)JLD, ~GlJ [bp)J tb U Q) 6lJ~r$lLJViffiQ Lrn .f!)J w GJ,g: rTrufit)U u@UJflJf!Jl.

(]UuJ8i~61T LDG"MGlf!f)JiJUJfT{iJ OiL(£JUU@/JiJ, dJlQJPJf!JfT{b uUJm Q8irrGYrQJ!J» LD~iJt;TW. LDfAilt;Tw, LDfT[t,i;JrfJaiW, wrrthiJrflBiw 6T6irrum C!J> ~ f!J a UJ LD Ii> ~ fJc;., LD tr ifJI c!T, @jill 6>1J 6m 6lT 8> @)w mJ m ~ cgWl c9i@jW 6lJ y; ffiJ ® ill Q u UJ IT a:,61r . L£) th i1 CT W 6lJ fT wG LD fT ifJI or W ~ Lh Q U UJ IT c!Jj ~w, (!jJ~ ~ f!Jl 8iL"'Ivirr C:uuJ @CTrdMrnLlLfw u {iJp)JUJ /!J/,' UJ~67iT gp 8iLQj~61T(]UJ u{iJp)JUJ§JJ.

au tiJ s. ~ 8i ®::6 ~ em 6U Q)} a:, tt 61fI UJ fT {D 6lJ tt 6iJ, ~ 6lJ 6~HiTT QJ ~ U (f;J {D6U a3 {hi) m(Q5M c9>@jW Q U fT /!jJ 6'l/ W LDfT t6~ rfl9iIT a-,®~ ~ {D U LJ Lb~ u5J tb.f!)J . LDfT~iJrf}8itt c!JIQlrnGT{ QJrrm6U (== @61S>6YTUJGlr, 8im~) 6TWUfr.

8)L@6WrolJUUJ~~6iJ, (]QlQ)<OM QQJP)/UJfTL@, a~filJr;TfT~~, a{DQlr;T tt L4- 6T fiirr U61f) 6)J LDfT!hi! rfJ sub u{b {!5J UJ U!J)ffiJ ®p)J U Lfr:9i6YT tt ®w.

GUuJ8)6lf/ru 5'®QJ~a; ~~w. g~w G)UC!5c§G'1O:UJ6U Qt!FUJQl6Ufit)~. a:, tt 6'81 rfJ u g w u L._ L!I- ~ Ih it 6"6l ®!A {D ~ ffJj8; en U kJ,;2i ii ~ ~ u u [b pSI 9= U/6lJUuj;J8>fT(J ~i1{b 8irr~ s:

g{DfOlJ fii6JT J;aiW U rdtrr m L_ 8;8ifT ~ j, ~ fiiJ ~ (D U U rr u5J ®1> ~i) fill fTC: 6Ua UJ , UJQJQU(!!JUJfT~ ~;1)t!1i~ffiJa;@!JJ;®~ ~~ruQJtt et WUULLfTrT.

g1JjW 6TWWlW QUUJrT Qu®mLDU Qurr®GYTffJj. Qurr~Gurr/fJJ (@'7L6"5)LO; &:J6YTG'5J). GJurr !!JldJ(:!!j, Qurr~~ 6Troifr~w G)CFrr{b8imrorr a{DrT cii@!j8i. QUfT~~ - Qurrthlhrm - QWfTt6:!h6irr. ~.a{DfT: ~ -mIl., QUfT i!JI - (LfffP) - Jd,~. @®WU.:!P - @.f!)JWggJ. ggJ + ~w = Jd,~w. (luuJ 8jGYf/tb QurfJUJ/lP ~~w. m_~~m- §jwQu®ffiJ 8>(!!J66Iu Qurr®Glra;w

• • ••

§j LD Jd,{!jUJ 6T61fT U U LLfQM.

@tAj;lUJrr, et ~U/!)J, g<arw ~liJUJ {IJrr(j)l8iGYr u~mLJ; 8JrrQ)~iJGb WfT fBi) rfl8i~ j;J tb i!J!D!Ai) ®~{htii5T.

au tiJ CJ)6"6lGYT ~ Q {h tUQJ W 6T tiM U ffJl, @®QJ61»c!J) QJ Y1JJ§J iW th G) 1!JfT m JJ)l Q{hrrL® @~ J!)J611~(lUJGtTw~.

(4) ,ffi@56\> Q~wQl1n

tEffLcfJ ~ff6iJC:<fbfffir ;irfilu6()L /D@CE6V

,Iff /6/b(!!; LD{Tt5Jj; QU@WU6f)L 6lJrrfiJ~tb6iJ h-HD~. 5)

6T6trru~ Q{hfT6lJ8ifTut.51UJw.

to .tfJI4)lJ) r;r ru r;T ~, LD rr L r!F rruSJ, efT, (!!J U U ~ tt uS'! (!P Pi 6'81 UJ "' GlJ f.6@a;Q) (;) {DUQJ ffiJ 8;(; 6YT.

64

(5) 5!D4~ Q~uJQJtD

lhcom 6"ffl' UJ QJf7 Q)fT.f!)J lhrT tdlrT s:

(6) Q~6isry6\) ~"rr IT 6lJ6lRST NUl - (Ancestor Worsh i p)

U~~L:i> ~uS! y;){t, @fD0,gpGurr6"6T ~Lb C!:fJ6irGw fT~(J rj) Q'#iroM '-I6lJth flj fT rt et roM.f!)J Q u UJ rfJ L (f;J 8: <IF 6*6l ill UJ W tClJ rr til 8; ® Lb (] u tt Q ~ 6iJ 6V fT W 6lJ Vim ffiJ UJ GlJ tb th mfr. @ ,gu (IJJ ~ c: ~ tt 6""6> IJ rf;J (i~H,6T <iilJ r!Fn_ rt 6lJ ~ ill QurflGUJfTtTa;®# Qo:ti.JlLJW wi)UL/wrr®w. @J!» ~~!fJrrLL9--ru uS} «!jiJ fL) rr r$G1J6Tr 61T f!jJ.

Q~6lirLf6Vfolbfftf Q{b06lJW 6l5J@,rb Q/Dff tEtG6V /bn{d66T6irjJJffr5J 6IJc$t.iJLf6V~/bff G/f}ffWU6iJ jb66"J6V (®p)Gfr. 43)

6T6M[DfTrT $/(!!jQlw@!J6lJrT.

(7) !iJQ)rr 6lJ 6AT 55tO

[ffI6lJfT6lfw ~(!!j r$(TfilJi>i)@ GlJ~ffiJ8ii.JuL_Lmfhu 'OJQ)[DG;1JfT@ G 8i~!D6U' lOT ~ ~ ffiJ a 8ifT~QJ{h f!jJ~{lJUJ tt 6lJ{l51 UJQ) tr W.

~rr 6\>CQ.JQr 6lSl

C:6lIGYr + Q.1J = GQJ6YrruJ. G6lJLL6lJ 6l1J®wuru. ro5I('!JuuiJ(:fljrr(j;l LS!!D~fJ UJ~t5Juu~ G6lJ6iT6l1J.

i@61J6n t§~(1)66bT tt QjbWUQ/bff66T pflWbOJQ) 6lSl(!§,rbJl6ir !PI61JfN{ ~1Pl6n6lf6T C:6lJ;ir6lS/u UlLJ6ir (@)!Dm. 87)

67 ffi ~ ffiJ «9{lJ<OYA 6iJ, 6"61 ®rB(fiCf) 1h~ it ®@J6Tr@!JGlJrt GQJ6lr 6UJQ UJg, flJ iQ5)W

C:QJ JB{ljrDM, 6lJ tt fJ rDm' <iifu c!:p;:h6UIG UJ tt rt 4®# Q r!f uJ14 W G ~QJ a GlJrolr 6>5J lLJ W J au uJ 8iL(!!j8: G c!F til '4 Lb kt1b G <OlJG1r 6'61 UJ t.1J, (yxowG 6M IT rt a,@ja: G CF tiJ UJ W Q ~ 6tr 4 ruiJ ~rr rt (] Qj rirr G'SI up.n, 66J (!!JIb@ m- rt 8i@j# G1 IF til lLf LD LD tt Il> ~ rt ClQJ6Yr r;;5JlLJG'1 LDroOl #i {huSJ y;>rt Ge:tU /lVfilJIf,flj (]6lJ61t 615J fDrr r;;irr ®. @6l1tbQturf® W{)ID{DaUJ tt .f!Jl rfh~6UU "J! fJ WUJ tt c!J)l.b et ~.[J)J C:r!f rT ~§;J, Ur§Cf Wr!J)rTUJ 8;C§W 6T~!D6CfTrt ~rfJUJrt. @~Gir Qurr®!6~rr~LDrDIDUJ ~p5Jr8rT ~c61~. fJfTtB «!jUJ Lb J ~ 8iQJC: W#JLD (!jJ fljr;;6}UJ ~m ILl G6lJ6lT 6>11 a;tirr '/hu5'l!prJ- J>®rfJ UJ t06)QJ UJG1J6lJ. cJjuSJ!;PrJ r!F rT ~/GlJ [bGlS> {D G GlI LL f!P t5J [b s.n GULDrT ®,iJ, (~. G1 WIT . .iflJT )

mJi>t16ID6DtJrI.JbluUJrT @6OW

®~

®p5) = <:~ 67J)l_lL} f tea Lb, s.a 6VW, dJ)/ill 6lJ, ;:ljL COID6lJ.

®{l5J - ®{!5Jr§~ = 9® u6iJ6UfT~(])Jci;c$rrQ) ~6'ff~@J8i ®c61$({!jtb &L' c:JJ/ U JJLJ J:d, 8i®w Q ~ H/_, ~ J: Q CF t.q- @UJ tb ~a;UJ tt c!J) QJfii1T ®w W6lf>6V, LD~Q), LD~6UlLJL.b LD~G1J s:rrrT!6{l) @L(YJW, wroro6lJ[5rr(£J.

.

UITGUrrQUTIT

65

~.C:!Drr: Q{Drft - GJ~rfle§§} - G{D<!!Jr8£iJ.

(] ClifT ~ L8;8JfT fiN 6iJ WGtf)ruu1J s» t.b IE Q) LDm6lJuSJ ~ Lb t!..6Tr 6fT (!!Jp5J r8~'# GJ,g: llI-CJjw, uwd fJITmrlJl-:b Q8)rr ®Cl::P~[D kL a;~r;;M[1Jm. tEGlJ LD~Q)u5J §JJJWGTT G'lfDfT I!»GlJtT (a~fTL_rt), @jp51~~ gBi®t6 ~LmQJmUJ8i Q a; tt ~ G L ~ W ~ 8J fiilJ) QJ 6m UJ J; OJ 6'5rT 81 fit L_ (]}I 6lI ~ {lj 6M rT . ® LD rfJ fbrrL__(£Ja; ®p5J~q; t€JruQJrr~®Lb @ffiJ/JiJr;;u(]LD Qt!FuJiJ@~~6lJ C36lJ6liM (j)1 Lb.

~ffiJ ~G61JUJ/t, ~!A~UJrr (ljJ~ gp(yJ61rm ®tDJ@jUJC#Gj)c!FUJ-8)6tSlGYTQUJoiJ eort L1J ~ tiJ ~ifJl, ~{l5J~UJ QJmc!Jja;6iT G) LDfT $6~w 46 or ~ J!)J W, ~1DID6lJ Jd.,8i®tb 8JrTGlJro5I6mLtD (£I rg}(JfT~(J;1 (YJ~~ 16 ~ ~(j)JrurnlJ ufObC:6lJ jJ)J ~6TT 6lf U LL Q ~w ./J)J t.b, a;fii?hrr Lp5J t!~ ®#.~~ !D~ fr. ®wrfJ fDrT LUJ-G1l et /J{DmGMQJma; uJJ®th~~C:GlJfT ~p5JC: UJrT Lb .

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(yJ6U - (!JJ~ - (!jJmw = OiJrmLD, 8iL6'6l!b®W tC6i5r@Qq6iJ~w anrf/UJ tEJ6lJU u®@.

• • ."..... " (t.:."I • 4 78) 2 ...C!

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rfJ~v;vii$J 61fl<Om UJ.f!)J U 4· "@mm ~rr Oi (yJ~ LDfJ ffiJ Q s.tt 6i;a;" (®{DGTr. 879) 3. 91§!1~. 4. ueon 8;8irnU (y)'iW>fiWT.

(!JJ W - (!fJ 6ID etr = an.rfJ UJ (!:P m rn. "cYJ ro-@J[lJ(P (yJ"' ett Q UJ u5J tb.fJ)J .. , (a;66Jj,.4).

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an.rt~LlJ6mUJq ~[DuUl/Jj;J®~~ru c$rr~8i. 6"lJ>QJ an_frmw.

urr6lD6\')

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LD6U = QJtOfTw. "LD{b.!J)JW.f!)J LDfTWfiVrflL@" (~(f!JJiaa;fT. 178)

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LDQ> - LDroUtOblQ) = filJGTT Lb. "LDoUmQ)u U y;>67iT /J§JJ" (u ~Q rn tr. c:::fJ, <!!!J6lfV ~C!!J6lJQ)rr. 8).

W6U - (WIT) - LD®~ = ~{iJ{Drfv9)61f)(1'4W G1urrliJ~a;8;a;6l>'7fL1w c: u rr~!D tC rT6lJQT ill uS] 8J8i [iJ Q)~iJ 6i> fiilJgr ®w LDfJ W.

§>.(J/DfT: QQfGU - ~6iJ - (GUItt) - Q)]®~ = QQJtbpflq Ylarmw.

U(!§Jl ..... 6J5)@~ (;lJ)tbQ&ff6litJr@Q)ffW (ku6IfJ6iJ (s;LbulJfT. ~rrL(8). 5) LD(!!J~ - UJC!!>~Lb = Qurf/UJ LD(!!J./!Jl, w®/P, LDC!!J{!j LDf;TW 6lJ~@Lh $rtQJ6'fT [iJ6lJW, 6lJ UJ ~ W QJUJ6lJ a: tr rT If, ~ @L(y)t.D, rC tTQJ61T (!jJw rf;!fiVQJ67T (!Jnn uS] a, a; ~9i!hrr@.

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62J1LlfJ!J661U; w(!!JJ'6ir QJffr5J~#J6I)66T QjQJ&(§W

Qu@JOiiV lLJff611lrrfl6ir .... (Y.IDLD. 52).

QurrliJm& (;wliJffilD (J96iJQJtf) /bff6IJ(;T (]~r5JQ&rrlil1ifr LO(!jJlm y, r59/61J6bT (!p6TJmu5J6ir lEffLD@ &ff~6J 6(§IhW

6j"lfJ<§6ff6V #/p;ut.5J6lflu U6rJ6MT/bW ~t;J. (LfJDtD. 351)

w@§J/lLllfffi (l/bffrivt!B/LJ 6J5Jrf/l:jw (Ju@ffi~m!J) (mffiJ. 33) &61Jp(:t!Frf Lf)@1b (:L06l5J .. , (mffiJ. 74)

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c;, u tt til m 8i ~ UJ ILl W GlJ UJ ~HiU '4 (] LD ~(£J ~ ~ (!!j~ f!j ~ fT 9) 8i

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u rr QJ rr 6tRITfT

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{D61r - {D6lfJ. {Dcotfl ~6'iJ = 1. Q 9 p5J f[JiiJ. "!D6'ffJ th.:t!J U6UTr QI y>ffiI <!hrT e Q 0: U U £Ij ~~u51m-" (LD6lD6UU@. 197). 2. 5'/J{hQ). "[DfTL {IJ61fIUJ !f>@IiiJa; fDrh{lj" (Q{lJrr~. 1232).

~m - Q{D6fr - Q{9tU. Q[lJIiJ~GlJ = 1. Q~rr(J;J~{lJroiJ. "Q[DtU{DaJ)QI ~9;IJ," (urfJUrT. 19:80). 2. ~6lDLt5J6MWI~Gi>. "Q{DUJlLf ~mr~6U" (f/QJ$. 3019). 3. 9L@tfj6lJ.

Q {fJtU ::: ~L._®w G'I U IT C!!JG1T fT ti:J UJ i1L®8ii:Jru QQJtilf6rGrQffltiJ. "!Err {DfT ~ Q~tiJQJy;>ffiJ[i}lLJLn" (4{!Jw, 166:21). 2. QQJ~GJfiimuJ. "G[DuJ®6tf>L ~u5lrfJ WJ6'ri)r;rGJUJrr(j)lw" (urflurr. 19:3). 3. 6TmrQ<mTuJ. "Q{IJuiUJ~ wUJ8>8JW" (G1~fTGi>. Qurr. 146). 4. 4~® Q{fJuJ. "mLDu51®rfu c!1nt6{hQ) Q!6IlJlu~ w[!Juu" (U1Q)u. 4:56). 5. C:~6isT. 4'Q!DuJOi8)~ ~!Drr ~6lJ" (8)6l5J. 42) 6. ~'7/J~w. "Q{DtUUJtfI u{bp5JUJ tBGJ[J"'fTW" (t£lrrffiflJ8;. 51). 7. Qa;rr@uL/. "Q[DuJUjmr@" (c9i 6U eon. 71). C:WUJw, {DLL/. "G{DtiJG'JUfT i) Qf!j~g,w LD6iT~rT" (flQJ8i. 3049).

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QJ : Q9) LLfT DjJJJQ;&rr !

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&6l.I 61'fiU j[)JCD •••

Urr6lJ IT QlJTIT

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t5U)o; : G6lLUJfTL<::Lr;;M- LDiJJl8illirr !

fi) ffiJ ffil roM W aL {D Y> fA fPI m IJ UJ tt U/-UJ UJ m-, "~L@ 8> <!.Ii p5) lLJ W c: 9 fT .ff)J Lo 1D®8i1G{D6N,6'5I1 I fT /lJ/§))Jc!i;a;rr!" 67~J!)J 6lIrfl~a: (yJ~6V1 anp5JUJ<iilfL~, UJrn[DQa:WUJUULL_ U1Gir61Jl6YT 661(J1{!j(ilf)GlJ Qs:tlJUJuu@Lb. ~a~fT@ 651 GW at U1 tt L_(f;I (!J>L!J--tLf W.

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UJ(JUfTLD.

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6TwQwrrifiJt6JiJ)Jw &@ Qurr®L@jU uruQ5rr{iJa;r;;lr @®LJlS]W, ~6ri)QJ UJ rT@./LiJ u@uQu tr (l9tOtfJGl.> ~Jij;J ®u J5t ~ LiJ jJlfiilirnGJ U tt (!!Jfiffl6b '€}1h f;J t;f tr. ~ r!J) c: 611 ~ fft@ Q u rr@L U 6lJ G t!F tt (b diG 6YT "'61) rr Lb J§J ~ GUfT(!!JGlr (g6lJ.!J)JurrLmLUjmLILlfii6T. (G>§(fQ) 38)

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'~' 6I'6lJrtIDILD <J6lJrT~fTQ)

S'''' (Q UIT ®!i; fl)!D 5C!!>~!aI C6l.Jir)

• •

~QJ - 9QJ·

~ru~~6b = Qurr®tt:!»{DGU, 'f)1>~6U, ILL6lrrU@~GiJ, @UJ~~v;V.

. .. .. .. .

9fiV ~ [lJrT = fIJ~ U tt. ffl()l)'ilJ tt tr = U firi)t$(Q)J tr.

•• • •

~GlJ - yj}fT = ~®. ~fT - ~"TrffiJ®.

~rT - repIJrr6irr. ~(JrrQ~rr(!!J = fiJa{DfT ~(!!j, a certain. ~rT - ~rfI. ~rfJ i> {h6U = ~tb .!J)J~UJUJ rr u5J C!!)/>;fhGlJ.

~rT - ~®. &. ~rT, UJ. ~C!!J.

88

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96lJ 616fT M)JCD •••

fY® - 9(!!J8>@j· ~®&®$D6i> = §>Qrr .!J)ll<!FTr ~1DQ).

9®Ji® - 9([98;8) = ~®(yJm{1J, 9~.fl)JC:urr6i>, fiTGb".f!)JLD.

• •• •

~(8)® - f)(!!J8)8)LD = ~® ~WrnLD.

~® - 'tftC!!JrID(:!J.

tf}C!!J + ~Ji~W = 9®6l1th~w (9C!9~6tOQ»)· f}C!!J + c!Ii~ = 9®8;a;v;OO - 9(!!jc9;a;61fJ·

fJ® + IrrfJ = 9®#<'Frfl - ~®lFrfI.

tfJ@ - 9(!!j~fjw. @jQ§. ~It/J.

'f)@ - 'f)(!!j/Jil· Q~. 9rT ~il·

~® - 9C!!J~f!Jl = LDrnG6l1rr(jJ)67JlLDUurr(f;J. fJ(I!);fJmou = lL.!!)Jil, C:~!bfDW.

tf)® + u@ = 9®uu®.

9@ - ~®",LD. LD. ~(!!Jl.D, Q~. ~rflLD. ~®~LD - 'f)®u57. Ln. 9@u5J·

f)@ - ~C:IJ. 9® - 9(Jr;rrr. ~a(JrrQQJfT® = fiJa~rrQ6lJrrC'!J. ~rT - ~rt. fPrT}Zi'" = a:L{iJ jJ)l<:: £ljfT 8;@j~'i>, ~fJ fTlll ~oiJ.

fPrT - 'jpIJL@t.b = 6T6'OQ)fTW.

~rT - fJfJrrGirr. fPf7fTGl105TrT(f!J = ~C:~fTG)6'lJlT®.

• • •

fPrr - fjJfJ tr LJ) = C!:PrfD6lJfT Ln.

fJrf - fj)frm LD = fYtb jJ)Jfi6>W, ~~fOl/ .

ffltT6'UlW - &fru51. fflrtuSJ~~QJ = L.D6M~~,___uU@~6iJ. tjptru51 - ~rtLDt.b = Wfi6T ~j1LW, ilLfTrflJia;w.

'iPtT - f}fJrrriv® = 9®Cl<'FIJ.

fj)rT - ~1Jt.b = Qurr®~ilUJ U8;9JW, fJC!§U8;c$W, 6"51r07WL/U ua,a;w. LD. ~IJW, Q!h. fj)fJ, &. fjr;J.

~tt - fj)mf}" = r;;5!mrww <!JnJ:_LLD (j)t;TrriJ)

• • • • •

tiftrr u UJ-UJ rTGYT - fJfT U U LlI-UJ rr GTf

~GiJ - ~~, ~~~~Q> = G)UfT@th/!Jl~Q>.

•• •

9~rarrrrr = UmChfii1Jrr.

~W - ~dr.!J)J. §lw .[[)1~tiiiJ = c;,urr®th~lOQ)·

•• •

fP~!Drrrr = Ufilf>c$<ilIrr.

&. 9{h~, (;)$fj. §)QSTC!!J.

~ ., . .

§)6lJ 61QT il)JW .••

UrrQJrrQUTrr

89

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'tY~ ,g)J 8i® (@L8;a;f}"L8;a;'iiJ) = Ul.!!)J 18Ft a;y518;8).

'tY~!!)J - ~~t61. ~~#:i>:2JGiJ = QUfT®th~1D6i>, ~tbjJ)J~wuu®fhGiJ. '€}~# == {ljGtJf}61S)LD. &. ~tDhTL_l1J-J Q~. 9~(j)J.

• • • •

96M!J)J + ~LD = fjtD.J!)Jfii6lw. ~w.f!)J - 9tDm{lJ.

fflGtr jJ)J - 9 dJ .!J)J . fY tb.f!)J {fJ DiJ = QUIT ® dJ $lJ 8: c: c!f It ~ ~ Q) ~ ~ GlJ §jJ

• •• •••

~rra;®~ru, ~GUfiI)~1 UfTIT;?J{h~.

Q~. ~i>~J iii. tf}~~.

~{iJjJ)J - ~!b[D~.

• • •• • • • • •

'€}flJ.ff)J - ~!D[!Jl lD. ~tD.ff).J - ~~~ - fYt}!j~LLlJ - fY{Dfh~w.

G~. ~{ht7JL(yJ, &. ~iJ{DL.

•• ••

'€PflJ.!J)J - 9~jf)J == ~mLf)(T, ®!J>GlJ.

~{b.fl)J - ~tbt61- ~{bt61~{DQ) = 9tDm{DUJrru5J(!!Ji>1hvio, ~tbJ!)J~LDUU@{DGlJ. f}{btDIa,~f}"LUJ- = ~m#tb~fJ6fu@.

9{bpf/ = QUfTC!!J~~ O4l6lJ9.®W ~mL6lf.

fYGlJ - ~G1r - ~rotr. ~61r@!J{lj6i),== Qa:tDJ::v~. tn. ~Qr~. ~~ - ~ro-fitT6iJ = Q!f>®8;r!1)W.

• • ••

~61T - ~rorr - ~GTT 6lJ. ~(j)ff fOJI {fJ.-v = CJj~{D{ljGlJ. ~tiiTT 6lJ - dP/61TTT QJ.

dPl61T{h~6iJ = 1. c9i6Vii{DoU. 2. dJ/6fTGllG1TrTGlJ{hblJ (BiGU6U/T. 18 : 36) 3. ~6'IT 6111 (£J $h6U.

LD. ~tii1T, &. ~tiifT. ~"" - dJlroTT 6l1J.

~r;;rr - ~fiirTtDlJ. LD. ~6JTQjJ lIi. ~~,¥J §II. ~6l). ~6'IT - ~6TTrnQJ.

c1J.I6fTGlJ - ~GYT4 - rdPIfoVQU6'6lL.

~Gir - (~uJ) - ~UJo1J = ~C!!J@j, U8;o;W, LffDw4. Ln. dPlUJ6lJ.

• • •

~UJru - ~GfQ) = 4flJwLJ.

~Gir - ~rofii1T. ~ 61010lT {fJ6l> :: diQ)~~Q) I c9rLL1I-t6J(f!j~{!jblJ I cfI,';-QJ(;LOff L6TJer{j) (Q~fTQ>. Qurr. 146)

~tOir - ~fiffJ. ~<Otfl~6iJ ::: a;Q)~~Q>.

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90

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~6lJ 616lfT §!)JW •••

~Gtr - ~mr - ~rom~. ~~~1DGlJ = ~L_(J1;!hru.

~~ - ~mr6WLD, ~~~6'O)LD, ~~6lS)L£), ~~61S)LD. ~romrr - ~~ (yJ. ~rom- (!jJ~6iJ = ~L._(Ji{hGiJ. dW6lhrr(!P - dPI~4 . .dPI~ - ~~tiilfr = Qurr(l!j{!~UJQJru-.

#(T6lf(ff6OJ66T (~6iJ. ~w!b. ,mrTQ'r. 67)

.dPI~ - ~mr6lJ. ~fi)ffl61f~GiJ = dPI~®;fjGiJ, f!J@6l/{lJ6lJ, {DL@{hru. ~~61f - ~6'm"rrGlf· ~~rr6lf~ro = 8iJL®~6iJ.

dW@cic!E6iJr l.D666rL 6Vtb t56fdTff6'l/W (a~QHr. 693:1) .dPI~ - ~~@j - c!)J~#'CliW = Gt5(!5a;Cliw.

~mr - ~mr;;rw. ~~~~6U = (].g:rT~ru. ~fiiID6W~{bGiJ = ~@6lJ~6iJ . .dPI~q;m = ~~~~CliL@. Ln. ~fim". lIi. ~G~ .

.dPI6tW - d)/~(j)J. ~mr@{lj6iJ = $1L..®~6iJ.

Q~. dJI~L._(j)J, ffjI . .dPI~L_@, &. dJ)IL@ .

.dPIGiM(£J - ~~t;jlf)L_ = u~CliW. Q~. ~~L, &. ~6i6rG'lL . .dPIGiM - c:!)I@. ~(j)J:iJ~rolJ = Q $®r!iJ«!J1h6lJ. Ln. ~@.

~@ - ~@rt,® - dP/@B>CliW = 6lJrflmc!F .

.dPI(f;J8i@j - ~(fjJc!i;CliGiJ = U B>5JW5lnru .

.dPI@ - ~LIT - dP}LrT :iJ~ .

.dPI@ - dPlLlr - ~LQ)} = l.Dt;TW GJCFp5Jt6~ 8irr(j)1. dPlL.._(o~ - ~L_1._6U1 (QJ.).

cm@ - dPI(f;JiJ~ (QU.6T.), ~@~J!Jl (6l1l.~.).

c!)J@ - dPI~L - ~mL6lf - cff).fL6>.J - ~L®. ~mL - ~6'IDLUJrrww. tfP6Yr - tf)rdM~. tf}~~$66lJ = Qurr(!!jt!~{hru.

rtPrOffl tii6lJTIT IT = Q u rt @~~fT IT, umaiQJ IT.

. ,

~~~ = ~~.!J)J.

dMrfhLfW 9J6l.J@lW 96Wt!J)J. d!}ftf/lLJIT /b6lJ6N 6lJffuSJ6iJ w67JiJrf!!lJ (U ~QLDrrb9l)

~~ - ~mr@. ~~@th6iJ = CFfTrT {Dru.

~mr®c$®LfJ- .. = ?ftL@cii®l.9-.

~mr@ - ffl~1.SJ- = {h~fiilf)LD.

. . . . . .. ...

~ 'iim" ill- UJ tt 6YT r ~ fim" UJ- 8) (J) fT IJ GriT , ~ ~ liI- t9i a; 61f) L, '8> ~ I.SJ- CF ~ l.!/-

C!:Pfhfi6llLJ 6lI YJJ>@j8)~6YT c: [DfT 4@j8i .

. '.

~mr@ - ~L._(j)JJ ~L....®~GU = Qurr®Ih!!Jl~6iJ.

Ln. 9L@, &. 9L@. tfJI. ~L(];1.

U IT QJ rr QSlJTrT

91

•• •

§>LLrrrr = U~r$QJfT.

~L_L = G!5®ffiJ8iJ 98>8;, ~L1I-C:UJrr@. 5!L@a;®'-'I- = ~mr®d;(8)I.!J-. ~L_(j)JJ;®L.b = (!Jl@/lJlw.

~LL6iJ = 1. Ga:rt;!b6U. 2. LL~urr@ (i/rufT.) 3. !!_GirQQ1Tr®ffiJ®~GiJ. "9Lt_tiJ 9ifiilJ Gtr" ((1 aifTuSI rbLJ. (DL./JIf. 30)

§)LL.u(]urr(bJ::oGiJ = ruu1!.!f)J §)L(£IlJJfT.!J)J i.u: '9 ~t61(f!j~{h6U ~6iJQ)~ @®Ji9i8: Qr!FtiJ~6iJ.

~L(£1 - ifYLt;;(f)l_ = ~~{lj ~8)fi6)filJ ~6bfil}.flJJ aLUJfJw.

• • • • •

~L.ml_ - ~l_6WL = §)<lJ~ ~8i6mQJ ~'iitJQJ.flJJ !!_UJIJLD.

@6lJW ~QJ(;JQfTrrL__rnL/ @QJ~ ~QJC:lii5TrrL_mL_ 6Tw~Lb GlJ y;J;@j9imGYT (] [Drr r!T,®r!1i.

~ L__@ - ~ Lt_W = ClJQJ ta fT L. 6157 6b 6T iJ rfllL/ L.W ~L_'-9-8; 87L.!J)J W

• •

U!D~UJLD.

~ L_(J1 - ~ LL_ tt '7 W = (y) {b an_pSJ UJ 61f) {D Q UJ rr L_ l!I- c:: UJ @.f!)J ~ QJ a> fJ LDfTtDrT ~ fffitbfDGiJ (LiJl1J-fDlJrr{Dw).

~L._@ = §)6M"G1Jl!DGJUJfTLllI-uiJ@t.b @}Qr (~m6m).

fj}L@ fiT)QJ/b(]lDtlJlw (lLDtiiJ6ufftflf ~®Lurr, 6, QJ®8;8iLDJTQ)Q), 89) ~L__@ 6Tmu/£Jl UJIDrT ~W6lJ)!D8= G<FujUJ6UJ@QJ6J)~8; ®¢1a;®w f!jIrnmr6'5J6lf)'iirr. @~ G'lu®wu rr.sYw er ~tTLDm!Dt61C:'iitJGUJ QJ@w.

et -@: ,§)IT rfiJ&G161JrT LLfTrT = ~rlit &661 LfT fr.

@i1biJ ~L@~6b OT6iTU~ ILGlTwQUfT®{6t!J11hm6lJ @mc!F~6lD6lJ fL~rt ~~t1J.

~L__@ - ~L._@. ~L_@~GiJ = ~L...@~6b.

§> - ~. f;LIl-/(J!9fT8;9j : G8ifTW4 - a;wLf, GlWfTmrtOtnL - LD~6"IDL, Q:!DfTmr6'6lLUJfTtT C:UL6DL . ~fiW6mLUJnlr GUL6lSlL..

J)/ L.. ® et m ~ Lb i1 rfl4 t.b ~?i Gil &J 0lJ LJ) fT firf 9 L_ (hJ et Gfg u ~ C:urrwG/D (~G~ c;,urr®G1fIviJ) §JJ61f)fiifirTv;6J~~UJfTw. ~u5I~J ~4P (yJdraflm'iitJ u5J L~i1 tb®rfJUJ LLGir u rr L._(j)I 6JQlGU Q)1 mWUlfT ale: ru QJ ® t.b. 9L@ et rob" uC {lJrr e!j)6UI L/JifJI W G'J u ®w U tt <OM GID LD et i1 IT LDm!Du5l~Lh UI.!J)JurrQrrGmUJ Li_QrUITL._lII-~w QJ@w.

er - ®:~QJm GlJ I]" L_@ = ~QJt;;{f)fOM 6lJ (Jro6J@ (~(I!>mL.D)

~-

dD/6lJm- QJI]"L@t.b = ~QJmfiJT QJlJfil1I@tb (uQr6lf)L.D)

~QlViiT 6lJ17 Q6lJfTLGLar, ~QJ6V 6lJfJ G)QJfTLJ':Lrrw - ~drmLD J)/QlW 6lJ17 GQJrrLLfTtiJ, ~QJW QJIJ G>6lJrrLU!.lT - (y)6M65f/6f)Q)

92

, . , . .

§l6U 616fT WJW···

~GlJGiT 6lJfJ Q6lJfT LLrrW, ~6l1W (iilJ(J G16l.1fTLLrr rT - U Lrt 4ma; ~QJG1J eutt G,)6lJfTL@a6lJ~, ~QJQsr QJt;TQ6lJ{fL(j))GQJrrW 6TWU6lfT !!LLrnLlfT@.

~1iiiJ - 9· ~.a!Drr: ~Q) - fh· Qurrv;b - Qurr. fD = a;6lJou. 6T-@: !b8ig"w. QUfT~~6iJ = ~~i5)fi;rr~tD6iJ.

~~rfJ6iJ = C:UfT ~~GiJ, QUrT(!!j£i,~~oiJ. w.'€fl.

f? - tf),9;8j = 9(!!Ja~!J, C:UfT61J, Ln. ~8;8).

~ - ~J;aiQj = @6'lfTW, @6lfT ~{hrrrt.

~9;8)6iJ - ~#,8)6l5l. ~8i8)Q)J ~~6iJ = @6'lfT .jJ~rr C!!JL Qr ZL{DQJ rr@:!b6lJ. ~8;9j6iJ = QUfTC'!>IhiJUJ U8;CJ)W, LD(l!JffiJ(:!J6iJ, @(j)1u4·

~c!i;8)QJ - 98;a;~Q) = @@U4·

~a-,8i (Q{D.) = 9C!!J·

9c!i;a; + @@ = ~8i~@.

9 - fj)/J:fbI (~.fiT.) - 9thf!P8iQa;rrw, ~{h.{[JJJ;c;;,cnrr@. 9 - f}~ffJJ- ~~1fjfT()lf)(F.

9 - ~fh~ - ~~@6l)8J = tfiJiJ§JJuurrrtBi@jw /DfTLa;U uuS/{b!iJ, 9/J~6"ma; - ~rj;iJ9,6lSla;·

• •• •• •

ffjuLf - ~UULJJ. W. 9UULD, ai. 9uu.

9uLf - ~UU!6:!hw Q{Ij. ~uu~1fJ(!P, &. 9uuf/,~, !!jI. fj)uuth~· fPULJ - 9uurrrfl = 9u,-/. &. 9UUfTrfI.

9ULf - fPuUJ~w = Qurr®1h1fJw. Q~. fPut5J~C!:P. 9uL/ - 9uuiJl- = ~.!J)J6lJmL. (;)t6. ~ut5J1JI- (Obbidi). ~U4 - 9uUW = C;h.D(!!Jg;,LUUL._L~.

fJuu6ir jl(!!;QJIiJ. t!E&rr6()j!J (S .1.1. ii, 7)

9ULJ - 9U4fJGlf = 9LUJrt[i;<::1!JrrG"rT QLfTtJjQtjjrT~airu. ~U4 - fPU4651 - ~uUJ.

~ULJ - ~uLJJiG)8)fTcoir, ~uLJJiQa;fT@.

9 - ~t.b4· tpw4tD~ = @6l$)Q~Q), i2-WW Qun{~!f,.:lJlfD~· 9 - ~6lJ6lJ. 96iJrov~QJ = f}~{ljQ), Qurr(!!jff,~ffJiiJ.

~ - ~ - fYGlf = U1/J~fJw.

@6ljf!JJP (J/D@€§&QJ'; (u&ltb· 68 : 17)

f}6l/ -fP6l1I = ~d;iJlJtb.

@oDIlDQ;Q)tTff (~6iJ. QurflUJ~. 2, 8. 7)

.

UrT61.HfQUTIT

93

~6lJ - ~6lJW = i1~~IJLb.

fj)6JJ;b /bdr"6lfT 6l/@QeE@ Q,m@,flJeEri (u@!fJ. 88:28)

rgj16lJ - rg;6l1l UJ to = ~ dJit ff w.

~L._(£1 - ~@ - tffl@· ~®~GV == ~~~Q), QUfTC!!JJA/tJl{hGU. rgj1@ - tgpLrrrtn- r;;6J - <gyLrT 65J = gJdJi) fJ dT,,g;fT r;r w.

~® - ~L._LLb = ~u4'

•• •• •

rgftLLLD - ~LLLD = 'iJuLf.

6T-@: ®fJffiJa;rrLL_W ~@&;J{Drrw. (a6lJ.Q~fT.9i.u. 106 - 112)

~ffi @¢lU4t.D 6le:n6i>uw

(1) ~~ci;®{l5IuLJ8jGlr, @~~6m~UJQ6lJ6iu.!J)Jt.iJ, @~~rna;w QQJ~ .!J)J Lb ~p5lUJUUL_fT6)J tt !f)J, 6I~~!D!h~~ '., u6iJi" !D~{hrn.

(2) ~v;6}~@jp5JuQuGiJQ)rrt.b @6lf>L#G>c!Frr6iJQ)fTw. G>CTrrGiJG)6t)m- J!)J 66J rjj!h f!jJ Cli- L L_ U G? u.!J)J 6lJ 'iilf{ Q u UJ ® w G'5I ~ 6U lLf l.D tr £J UJ @!J~aL. Qa=rrtb{D~61f)LD tff/lJwU!UJ G'l6lJrr~ Qa:rr6iJSJJw, Iffi (J W u rrQ fiill tr 6l5] ?} 6'6l r9;@jpSl U 4 W, ~ ® tb. LDGrflrr ~ t.b LD IJ (yJ tb au fT6U8; 8i®6l9 ff;Jm6lJu U L.._L~6lJ fJ)ro6l ri®[l5J i.J LJ 8)GYr; (t!jl_(yJw GULlSi-IL/W (gurrru8: Q5tUQUfT(!!JrfrT t6lm6l)UULL~6lJ Q a: tr [iJ r!nGYr .

(3) ~ G IJQ UJ tt 6l5l GJ GlJ 6iJ a 6lJ.!J)J Q IF Q)} d;(!!j G) QJ 6'iJ a QJ JJ)J 6lJ~8)UJ tt tiJ8i (g8jLU {hfTGU, <gj)rT fP~J;~{l5I u4 Q <OlJG;ilJ QJ.!J)J 6l.IlJI-6Ul ~ LD d')I~ WILl

'iVfTLD.

~-@ : ®{DL@; t§J{lJL@ a:GOc9;® - c!F61T r$ (!!j, c!F ett U LJ 6iJ rt riO rt; 6U t;T rr r;;{j [J tt

(4) ~GlJGQJrrG151<fJjGtr ~a '7 Q,g:f05/ a,® Gd)L._a;~rr Lb.

(iif-(£J : @jU, aTtlJ (Qa:rruj) == {DfT61f!uQurr~.

( ®{lJLrnLQUJfTroJ) Ct!»uQurr~) ((r!jY>GV1 a;{D Q {DfT 6J51)

• •

QJ~8jUJfTUJa;

~; lLQ.JrT - 8)c$diGJ6lJrr6l5J.

(~ - ~c!id)mt, rg;riiJr!hvMI,· ~QJrr - 9L6lJL@ - ~l.DL.._(£1 - ®l.DL(j)J) ( QJ Y)r!T) #iJ ru, ~ J; c!Ji 61ft ~ {h 6iJ et ar u fP1 8i r$ c!Ji ~ J; ® (y) [h i" UJ <O)J tr UJ ro5> ~ filS>6lJ UJ ill, m_LDL'_GlJ (@jWLL_CiiiJ) tOT t;;irr u.ttJ GlJ tt UJ rna: 6'5J {b ® (!JJ!hi" UJ 6)J u5J {b.!J)J rim rT 8: ~ 6IDUJ UJ W, @jp5J 8;«!JW')

( 5) U}fiV Q (O}j tt 6l5l c!JiW 6lJ tt UJ mL_~~ tfjJ 6ID6UuiJ6b r:p8>@j QI uS' u J.5J {D4®w ep#G1 q {r~ 9;611"(T ~~w, ~r;;rj)6lJ ~ rfI UJ tt til <€fl~G {hrr6l5J i>~[bc!JirfJ UJgf. J1rutbp5J~~.!J)J UJ{!JJ;®w ~6'6J8; ®p5JuLJa;~w Ga=rrjJr!h@9w, d}/QJ {b pSlw e!j)6lJ Q6lJ tt 6'6J r!h 6~)(Drr fP®l.D@ffiJCJ 8l ~v/uQ) gp @UJ6V{D ~6ff(]6lJ §>th~®B;®W.

94

(yJ 8; ® ~ Gb 8) ~ LD fT 6'5T G) u tr @j 6ir 8) 6"ID GTT rh .t!»T 8; ® Lb c: u tt ~ W / (!jJ6M riil ®~~ a:,@a[9fTtiluULLq-(!58J@jwCturrfMLh, tffi aiy>6lJ4iM.

( 6) ~6V Q@)rrv£J9J ®PSI u t5J ~ ~.ff)J t5J [Dti>~ G) 5 tt {iJ8)61r, fY)(oUQ(Q!l tr 6l5J u1JGiJ6UfT rjj or @~~r$JUJ Lb G8ifT~l1I-®8;®W.

9.a8i~tD1ULJ (;)a:rrw

fiT-(J;1 : §W~~~ / 6U61J6tlG1) @j6V6mGlJ / @j1lQ)Gl}

Ih6lf)L~ UJ rr WffJJ8i6lJ ~ LDffiJa;6l) 6'6J mtJr 8)6'ff1GiJ QJ tt UJ rrGiJ rfJ 8)y>~gp W fP66/ @'jru6Wfj}}.

(7) fP66/J; ®pSlUL/Si6'tfl{b Y:]Q) ~rraLD Qo:rr6U6UfT6lJm/ 5JQl) {hwu5J~rW jJ)J Qa:rrtDlh6mGYTu t5JIDUU/UUffi/o §16lJ @lJrom@wwtDJ 5>6l5JJ>®{6Iu U fT <!he: QJ tfJ w!J)J6l1I(£16lJ6TI.

~661&~tD1iJ4 QIFrr6U

°

1h(T8JLD

9"6U8i@j

@ffiJ @'jc!i; r!k{D U U LL_ f!j)66J UJ 6iJ 4 a;@!Jw LD 8i a; 61r Q!F UJ 6lJ rr GiJ G!D tT 6lJ W a QJ UJ ~ pSI, 5J 6l5! J; (!!j pSI U LJ 8> L_ ® @UJfibUrTCfjrolfrftUJW QJQ>Q). LDc9;8)61r G) c!FUJ6U ~ 6"6J 8>(:!!Jp5} LlL51fiiifT(] LD6U (QJ!bpSl 8i anfDu U LL Q~GtrrC:[lJ ~pSl8>.

~6lJ tf}615I8i ®pSlU48>6Tr t!Jlrn~~mwC:UJ{b!f)J tOl11rn6lTUJrr®w.

et -@ : " - V>c9; Q) 6lfI. roB fr (r;;3!f).J) - r;;3 rfI (£J (6li pSI (f;J)

(8) @®i'rn IiilRJT UJ t6J rf1 <9i(!!JJw @UJ6UU tt 9i,j; q,;/ifPJfiilJ ",~q, @jpSl 8i ®t.b ro5J ~Hi~ #GLg: tt {b a; m- / fj) 6l5J ~:fD GiJ, an_ u U1 ([;J 1h ru 6T 6¥ ~ W @ ® Qurr®L@jW ~tb®w.

er -@ : Cli/J!!JI ~v!u = ~Gl5J /J{lJru, 8nLJl.5J@1Jj6U. 8;6lOV {hGlJ = f}roJtj)f!j~, 8i1.U UJ@{h'iiJ. 8n.Glf f!j6U = ~ro6J /J{h6lJ / Cfn_U UJ@}1JGlJ.

6l1J 61fJ ~{hoiJ = ~r;;6] /J{h~, 8'n.U t5!@;9j6U. ~my>I>{lj6U = CJ)~ffJJ~ru, an_ut5!(6J{Dru.

@QI{b.f!)JL_ 8irncr, ~m!jJ et W ~~ Q c!F tt {ba;r;Jr ~ @;/lJ~HitJUJ ffiJ @jpSl8>@jw.

·

UfTQJrrQmTIT

95

(9) ~ uS! y;J ru ci; c!h ~ /J i) {iJ G 8i fT Gil QJ tt ~ G15I c9; ® (lfI u 4 8) Gtr Ii) 6lJ 8J

c$fiim j,i) dJ (]CJj[bu LDfT tbrouQ u.f[)J W.

(iT-@: QQ)rTL.@ - Q{fJrTL(];I, GlJQ)Q) - ::vouQ).

(10) ~~Q UJ@w G'61 ~HilIT Bi61f)6JT J; ®t6J ci>®w Q a: rr !Dc9iG'ffJ GiJ, Q WGlJ C:Q)fT6lf>!F lLf~rt "'fli Q LD~QOUfT66} QUJ@/J.tfJIBi@!jW QJ6VC:6l)rrm~ lL/~rt.j,~ 6lJ6lJQ6UfTv;6J QUJ~~~8i@!jw 6lJ(!!jw.

~-(j)J : 8ip5J-8it..q-.

$(lfI ~~~, G) LDQ)Q)c9; a;l!I-~1h.u.

(11) f?£IJ; ®{lfI U48iQ>GTT U tSJ~QJ(!!JLDrr!!)J ~QJ~8jUJ rrtiJ Qf@)8Ja;filJfTw.

Ql61D& g@:i8&&rrLQ;/

1. 9{bm/D5; ~GTr651 UJ~, usu.m), t:!hL8;@j

2. @fJL.mL9, i:/v;rrr05/ CF6lJ<!F6U, Q!D®Q!D®

3. c?JI@J;@j9; 5:twG6/ ~~~mr, a:6Uc'Fru, §J(6Jw!!J@w

4. et ~~c9iJ, ~GTTG6J G'I:9;ifTu4iii)u4, ~tiJUJfT u5'1tiJUJfT

5. ClwfT61f>rna; UJ6176))1 i:Jm-,gJJrt, LDLLDLfTrT.

9®QJ fr ~~6V,gp UfiilJrT GJ U tt ®6lf] ruOVfT ~ 6ll rru516b QJ ~;!DQJ IT .[!JJ aU8TQJGm~ILJW 8i~~fOlJ61f)~UJrfiJ ®p5Jfh~tb®, ~LQUUJC!!JW Q u tt (!!jL Q u UJ (!5w ~@J;@ja; fi:J GlT65I UJ tr 8j QJ (!!)QJ !!Jlroitrr(J;1.

61-(j)J : ~ (}6U g(l6U, srnott C:c'FfTwrr, air;;kr6MfT UlWOlfTfT.

(12) @r;r L~Lc$ @GTT 6l1I8iW ~61f)<!F tffi 615HiU8; 8ifT6lJ~®6U 1h~ ii.t!Jl w QJy>ffiJ5Irn. GfJfTLrT#~ @jp51a;a;aQJ ~fiW)6lI ~,J;8ifTfiViiiJ6U ~ (f}IJ; ®8i u;, 6TT 6610; <frr c: u it fii.> Ii) '7 L_ Lq- 6lff . ~ fi6) QJ 'IJ gfJ /J ~ QJ y;> riiJ iJ UJ J)/ mCF tKJ 6lD GlJ&a;rr Q)w c!liL!iJ~ 8iy;J UQ) ~Y;J r!f,GTT tt til Q)J LL61DWt616iu I ~rn6lJ llifi6fl/JtpJ QJ@~ ~~6IDW @Gir.f!)J~ r;r u UL6l116U6lD6U.

(13) @ru ~@8i®# Q c!Frrtbc!J)~t.b {h6lf1#Qa: fTtba;~w, 'et ee' ~Q)6U tpJ , et Gtr .fJ)l , et W ~ L.b Q CF fT tb a a: rT 8; 66) a; UJ fT GiJ , ~ Q)J 8i ® {l5J u 4 U c: U fTGU~ c: {ljfT~ .!J)J Lb.

et -(j)) : u5l~uS1~ GGillroir.!W u5J~W~{D~ . • f§If)J@1f)J ,fDLtb§JJ"

"tn-firQ6TTGinIf)J Q6lJuSJ6VUJ-t!ic!5JPJ~·" ·'QWfir(d6TT6IIT 6J5J6TTtf t§$6~. "

uSlWl et ~ u ffP uSJroir ~ 6T roir u 1h~ c;, ~fT ®iJ'7>oV. @jJJ)J er cOir U /!Jl ~.f!)J i:J UJ or L.__@m Gill ~ fh AHiU 8; (!!jp5J di @jill Q r!F tt ~. ar W et a-r U /!Jl ai@{h~HitJdi ®{lfI8i®w umy;>UJ 6'5ImwqQGFrr~. 'u5'I~u51~ QQJat- J!)J u5J~WJ~fDtpJ' ()f,*,u~ '~Uf-UJl1I-QUJViiT.!J)J ~LiJ-/J~"" 6TwiTu~ C:urr~!D GillYl8;8irr®w.

96

(14) U/6lJ ~6l5J8i ®PSI u 4 t!hroYr 8; L_ G Lrrro6JQUJ tt @rfiJ cfMil)th~6iT lifT Gi"5T. (15) 8?!6lJ Qt;j)J IT 6l5l4 ®PSI u 4# Q r!F fT tDa;61fld!6?ir!f)J ~ar.!W ill U61J6lf WrT (iWf 6lJ ~ (!jJ6'Cf) fDa; 8)(f!jj,~J: Ga: rr{baiQ,- UI !D8l®w.

et -(J;1:: Ffo - FfUJ6lJ - FFr!FoU. FF c: U fT 6kr {D!bJ (oF c!F roiJ.

~®6lI~ @(f!j6WL (JQJ61})61TuJ/6b ~® G~rT{b{Di>~~8; a;~@ ~lJmr(];J ®YJJJ)Jw ~6l5Ju5J~fiiirT.g)I, au ((]uc:u) 6T~WW ?}615J ci;®[!5J u 4 ~ C:~fT m {!5J tLJGYrGYT gu. a uGu 6TW.f!)J 9LG1T jJ)J li:J{D tt 6!T 6TrffiU1!Jl QllP 8:, (:!!j. ~rt ~iJ8ifTrfluSJLW ~.uQ}~ Qa;fTlJI-GUJrT ~LLb ~,*,~{lJ 1L0000fJ c9i@jwC:urr ~ §)®QJ~ ~~u, ®Yl.f!)J{hrtrnru tLJ Lo, a uC: U 6T roifr.!J)J 1L.rQ11.!!)J ~fiv 67 ~ u fr. ~ r!1l:: QJ, (J u Of r;Jn U ~ ~rt ~#r!FJ; ®{!5JuQurr661UJfT®w. @:!haiJar.f!)J t5}WQJ®@i Q CF tt tba>Glr (] ~fTrokr p5l tLf6lr 6fT ViM.

(]u-(Juw = ~#r!FLo.

C:ujOnziJ IL@QW67JT 6lJ(!9lLril &J6fT65J

c!!{b(!p6IJjJJ (l;P6irguw ~1i!FU QUff@6TT (ILrfl. 67)

6T6irrU~ Q{hfT6iJa;rruUJUJw.

C:u~Q) = ~~8;~6iJ. au - GuUJ = ~c9r!Fuu(£1w ~G51 ~6iJ'ilJ.fbJ (l1l>rr{bfDw,

au lit 1l>iU = ~~arf!j6b. 'C: U UJ uC:u tu Q1/ ~ 8i§;JflJfT 6irr' et 6irr U ffJJ .2_6U8i QJY;u,~.

C:utiJ - GuUJroifr = (JUlU UlIJ1-fi,~Q}w, c;uUJfT'-9-, C:utiJ Ullil-/J~GlJrrn6'5ru C:UfTw{lJ OJ~{h6V, UJj,{IJGm6lfTU (JurrwfD ey>LW.

C:u - Guc!ii® = C:um{lj, r:!j)LW. C:Uc9;~ - C:U8;9jW. GU8;~ - C:uJ;e;~. C:Uc9;8)GU + ~~Lq.._ = C:uc!i;a;6UrrtiiWUJ-'

C:u - (]u~ = (lutU t51LfJ-i>~fTtbC:urrw{D W(!!jW, LDUJa;a;w, ~ pSI UJ trenu: au $IJI + iL.[f)J = c: LJ.{6I.f!)J.

c: U :lJl.ff)J {!j GiJ = l.D UJ ffiJ ~ r!i 6iJ, G u ~ - au m 1li = tyJ LW, ~ p5I66I ro6I , Q6lJ~ 6m61T (r!lit01r G'ff uSJ fiJ5J) a u rm~ - fiT ~~.

au,gp - au~,gp. auiJf!P{h~ = ~C@~ tLGYT .!f)JrjjQJ, .2_,," !J)J~ru. C:ul>~ - (]u~.tfJI. au{!;~flfoU - ~~flfoU· 'C:Ut6{Du C:u~ 651~ci;fil[DrrGtr'

• •

et ro- U fJ)J n. Q)8) fiilI!J) r!1)@j.

C:LJ!A~ = (]utiJ. C:u[!>.:f[)J - C:u~{hfTm =C:utiJu u!hgp 6TtOfiTguW ro6IrnWUJrTL@.

au tjJ.tfJI - Lf j, ffJI· 'fY. a ~ rr: G 1l> <§,g; 6tS) 6lJ - ~ ~ ar 61rHoll. L1 i>.;ffJJ tli 6lJ = LG'fT !f)J {hViiJ, ~{bLJ 8i{p8: g] UJrTlll LQT.f!)J ?J6lJ.

L1 ~~ - U/JiffP· 9·C:~rr: ~w - iJ~iJ·

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