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Sauces and Dressings: A Review of Properties and


Applications

Marek Sikora a; Neela Badrie b; Anil K. Deisingh c; Stanislaw Kowalski a


a
University of Agriculture, Poland
b
Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
c
Caribbean Industrial Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Republic of
Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Online Publication Date: 01 January 2008
To cite this Article: Sikora, Marek, Badrie, Neela, Deisingh, Anil K. and Kowalski,
Stanislaw (2008) 'Sauces and Dressings: A Review of Properties and Applications',
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48:1, 50 - 77
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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48:5077 (2008)


C Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
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ISSN: 1040-8398
DOI: 10.1080/10408390601079934

Sauces and Dressings: A Review


of Properties and Applications
MAREK SIKORA,1 NEELA BADRIE,2 ANIL K. DEISINGH,3
and STANISLAW KOWALSKI1
1

University of Agriculture, 30-149 Krakow, ul. Balicka 122, Poland


Faculty of Science and Agriculture, St. Augustine, Campus, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
3
Caribbean Industrial Research Institute, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Republic of Trinidad and
Tobago, West Indies
2

This comprehensive review of sauces and salad dressings covers the literature over the last decade with respect to physical
and chemical properties and the applications of these products. As such, texturizing and structural systems (especially
hydrocolloids) are described in detail and the application of polysaccharide thickeners as texture providers is described.
Microbiological aspects of sauces are covered with relevant sections discussing the factors affecting microbiological activity
and microbial spoilage and/or enhancement of a range of sauces. In addition, the use of carbohydrates and proteins as
emulsifiers in many sauces is described. Quality aspects are given prominence in this review with sections being devoted to
rheological and textural properties, chromatographic approaches and sensory aspects. Healthy sauces such as those having
low sodium, reduced fat and cholesterol or containing inulin or microcrystalline cellulose are reviewed. Finally, for various
sections the trends of the main findings as well as suggestions for future research are presented.
Keywords emulsifiers, health aspects, hydrocolloids, microbiological, properties, rheological, salad dressings, sauces,
sensory, texture

INTRODUCTION

From literature searches it was concluded, that no study has


summarized the state of knowledge in the area of sauces, dressings and mayonnaises production. In this work, possibilities of
application of different thickeners, and thickening systems, basic
properties of thickening hydrocolloids, dyestuffs and flavorings
applied in sauces, emulsifiers for sauces, dressings and mayonnaises, quality control of these products - microbiological, sensory, textural, rheological, the healthy aspects as well as future
research work on sauces are discussed.
This paper could be also useful for students of food science and food technology, as well as for the people working
in research and development departments of food companies.

Sauces, dressings and mayonnaises are commonly used in


the everyday life of many consumers. They are usually packed
in easy to use, small, disposable containers of different shapes,
made of light materials and thus could be regarded as convenience foods. The other advantage of sauces is their ability to
improve the taste of food. For example, hot sauces add piquant
taste to different dishes, meats, vegetables; sweet sauces grant
attractiveness to pancakes, rice, desserts and ice-creams. Sweet
and sour sauces find application in meat dishes and are very often
applied in Asian kitchens. Dressings of different taste are commonly used in American kitchens, bringing greater attractiveness to meat dishes. Mayonnaises are used in numerous national
kitchens, for many purposes; they are mainly used as binders for
salads; however they also increase attractiveness and tastiness
of such products.
As application of sauces, dressings and mayonnaises in our
everyday life constantly expands, their nutritive significance and
economic importance has been growing as well, especially for
last twenty years.

TEXTURIZING AND STRUCTURIZING SYSTEMS


Hydrocolloids and Their Origin
The structure and texture of sauces, dressings and mayonnaises is endowed by thickening and gelling agents as well as by
emulsifiers. Stabilizers are used optionally, and usually depend
on desired shelf-life of the product. The most commonly used
thickeners and gelling agents belong to the groups of polysaccharide and protein hydrocolloids. Generally food hydrocolloids are

Address correspondence to Marek Sikora, University of Agriculture, 30-149


Krakow, ul. Balicka 122, Poland. E-mail: rrsikora@cyf-kr.edu.pl

50

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

divided into exudates, extracts, flours, fermentative or biosynthetic, and chemically modified (Glicksman, 1982, 1983).
Exudates
Hydrocolloid exudates come from various geographic areas,
and from different species of plants. They exude in the form
of teardrops or flakes and after harvesting they are dissolved in
water. After heat treatment followed by spray-drying they are
usually protected against any harmful microorganisms, which
allows them, after grinding to meet the food grade standards
(Glicksman, 1982). To the most popular exudates belong: gum
arabic (acacia), ghatti, karaya, and tragacanth.
Extracts
Seaweeds and/or algae are obtained by water extraction, then
purified, dried, and ground to powder form. This form (powder)
is the most convenient in food production. Seaweed extracts are
represented by differentiated forms of agar, carrageenans, furcellaran (red algae extracts), and alginates (brown algae extracts).
In similar fashion (aqueous extraction), the other polysaccharide hydrocolloids are separated, e.g.pectin from citrus peel
(Glicksman, 1983).
Flours
Some gums, e.g. starches of different origin, guar, and locust
bean gum are separated from tubers, cereals or plant seeds. This
separation involves mechanical removal of hull, grinding to a
fine powder, purification and clarification, followed by filtration
and drying (Glicksman, 1982).
Fermentative or Biosynthetic Hydrocolloids
As a result of secretion of some bacteria form gummy, slimy
polymers. For commercial applications many types of pure polymers are produced by controlling the biotechnological parameters. The most important food-grade gum include xanthan gum,
which finds a variety of applications in food product development. Many other gums obtained in biotechnological way, useful
in industrial applications have also been developed, e.g. dextran,
gellan, curdlan (Glicksman, 1982).
Hydrocolloids Obtained by Chemical Modifications
Natural gums have properties which do not always satisfy the
sophisticated needs of food producers and consumers. Thus, on
the basis of chemical modifications and derivatization of gums,
some very special functional properties can be achieved. There
are several natural polysaccharides modified by chemical reactions, which are allowed for use in food industry. To this group
belong: cellulose derivativescarboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, cellulose microcrystalline, some modified starches, pectins, alginate propylene-

51

glycol, guar derivatives, etc. (Glickman, 1982; Swiderski and


Waszkiewicz-Robak, 1999). Readers interested in chemical
modifications of starch can check the paper by Tomasik and
Schilling (2004).

Properties of Polysaccharide Hydrocolloids


Such functional properties of polysaccharide hydrocolloids
as: aqueous solubility, thickening ability, gelling and gel stabilizing ability, emulsion stabilization ability, interactions with
the other hydrocolloids, resistance to microorganisms and enzymes, as well as sensory creation ability play a main role in the
production of sauces, dressings, mayonnaises, etc. (Kolakowski,
1992). The most important functional properties are described
below.
Aqueous Solubility
The definition of solubility describes it as the ability to
form dispersed or colloidal systems in water as well as to
form the aqueous solutions. High molecular weight polymers
have the ability to form so called molecular colloids, which
represent homogenous systems. Solubility is depended on the
polymer size, its specific configuration and electrical charge.
Guar gum, locust bean gum, xanthan gum have relatively high
water binding capacity and high viscosity of aqueous solutions.
As a consequence they swell quickly, producing so called
fish eyeswhich need more intensive treatment. The others,
such as e.g. gum Arabic or carboxymethylcellulose are easily
soluble, even in cold water. Contrary, the native starches are
insoluble in cold water, but swell in warm water and partially
dissolve by hot water treatment. Modified starches, depending
on modification show differentiated properties (Swiderski and
Waszkiewicz-Robak, 1999).
Thickening Ability
Thickening abilityformation of suspensions, solutions and
blends arises from the fact that solutions or colloidal suspensions of polysaccharide hydrocolloids are non-Newtonian fluids
and have the viscosity, depending on shearing stress. Thickening properties of hydrocolloids are exhibited in the form of viscosity of aqueous solutions or colloidal suspensions, at defined
conditions of concentration, pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc.
Polysaccharide hydrocolloids seem to be more efficient in thickening ability than protein ones and thus could be used in lower
concentrations (Swiderski and Waszkiewicz-Robak, 1999).
Gelling Ability
There is a multitude definitions of gelling process. In general under term gelling such process is understood, which leads
to the transition of sol or high molecular solution to gel, or
colloidal system, losing its flow ability, as a consequence of

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52

M. SIKORA

intermolecular interactions between sol particles (Swiderski and


Waszkiewicz-Robak, 1999). Thus, as a result of associations of
polymer chains, a 3D network with immobilized inside liquid
phase is formed, and a more or less stable structure is created.
In many food products, the gel network consists of polysaccharide or/and protein molecules. Such network can consist
also of fibers, built of polymers bound by hydrogen bonds, van
der Waals forces, ionic bridges, covalent forces or entangled
chains. The liquid phase of a gel usually consists of either water or aqueous solution of low molecular substances or short
chain polymers. Polysaccharide gels in some cases can consist of 1% polymer and can even hold 99% water (Whistler
and BeMiller, 1977). The mechanism of hydrocolloids gelling
is usually explained in terms of polymerpolymer, polymer
solvent, polymerelectrolyte ions (Ca+2 , K+ , Mg+2 ) interactions. In most cases such interactions depend on formation of
double helices from polymer chains randomly coiled in the solution. Gelling can be influenced by thermal (e.g., agar), chemical
(e.g., alginates), or thermo-chemical factors (e.g., carrageenans,
high methyl pectins) (Glicksman, 1982).
Structural Types of Mixed Gels. An example of mixed gel can
be described by two-component system, in which both components are usually soluble in water polysaccharides. As a result of
gelling of such systems different structures can be formed. Morris has described four basic structures of two-component aqueous gels, which are presented in Figures 1a-d (Morris, 1991).
In the Figure 1a, only one polysaccharide forms a gel network.
The chains of another polysaccharide are entrapped in the form
of random coils in this network. An example of such a situation
can be quoted by the mixed gel of -carrageenan and locust
bean gum (Morris, 1991). The second case takes place when both
polysaccharides form independent gel networks (Figure 1b). The
latter can mutually interpenetrate. In the nature such gels can
form at very low concentration of -carrageenan blended with
galactomannans (Fernandes, Goncalves and Doublier, 1994).
Separated gel networks can be observed when: -carrageenan
and starch (Tecante and Doublier, 1999), galactomannans and

Figure 1a Network formed by one polysaccharide alone with second polysaccharide entrapped inside (Morris, 1991).

Figure 1b Network formed by independent gelation of each polysaccharide


(Morris, 1991; Fernandes, Goncalves and Doublier, 1994).

Figure 1c Phase-separated network (Morris, 1991; Tecante and Doublier,


1999; Alloncle et al., 1989; Closs et al., 1999).

Figure 1d

Coupled network (Morris, 1991; Ediam et al., 1995).

53

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

starch (Alloncle et al., 1989; Closs et al., 1999) and/or starch gels
(Morris, 1991) interact mutually (Figure 1c). So called coupled
gel networks form, when both polysaccharides chains connect
in any fashion (Figure 1d). In the literature this case is represented by the systems consisting of -carrageenan and starch
(Eidam et al., 1995) as well as by xanthan gum and locust bean
gum (Morris, 1991).
Emulsions and Foams Stabilization Ability
Hydrocolloid particles are involved in emulsion stabilization
ability, when they form thin film coatings, and/or stabilize air
bubbles, and water or oil globules. Hydrophilic parts of polymers are bound by water, and hydrophobicby air or oil. In the
case of foams this leads to easy formation of air bubbles dispersion in water, and in the case of emulsionsto aqueous or
oil globules. Hydrocolloid film surrounding bubbles or globules
protects them from re-aggregation, as all coated drops have the
same charge, causing repulsion. The formation of high viscosity
networks decrease mobility of dispersed particles, and protect
contact and aggregation of bubbles or globules, thus stabilizing
the whole system (Morris, Rees and Robinson, 1980; Robinson,
1991). Emulsions stabilization is important in the food industry, especially in artificial cream production. Water molecules
are bound by polysaccharide hydrocolloids, which leads to enhanced viscosity of aqueous phase both in cream and in foam,
and protects the whole system against syneresis. Clumping in
creams is prevented by polysaccharide stabilizers, which are
also recognized as sensory impressions enhancers (Swiderski
and Wasziewicz-Robak, 2001).
Interactions of Polysaccharide Hydrocolloids
Synergistic Interactions of Hydrocolloids in Aqueous Solutions
Many polymers admixed to another had better functional properties than the sum of them measured separately
(Glicksman, 1982; Whistler and BeMiller, 1977; Kulicke et al.,
1996). Synergistic interactions between different polysaccharide hydrocolloids find application in food industry. In this way
some expensive polymers can be replaced by cheaper ones. The
blends bring about new functional properties and/or alter rheology of food products. The use of polysaccharide blends leads to
the solutions of enhanced viscosity, or gels. Such properties are
not easy to achieve in the case of one particular polysaccharide
hydrocolloid (Glicksman, 1982; Whistler and BeMiller, 1997).

Kulicke et al., 1996; Christianson; 1982; Lo and Ramsden, 2000;


Sudhakar, Singhal and Kulkarni, 1992; Bahnassey and Breene,
1994; Biliaderis et al., 1997; Rojas, Rosell and Benedito, 1999).
Synergistic reactions were observed in the systems consisting
of corn starch and xanthan gum. As a result of such interactions the decrease of gelling temperature and the increase of
whole systems viscosity were provided (Sudhakar, Singhal and
Kulkarni, 1995). Synergism between corn starch and guar gum
in gluten-free bread production was described by (Gambus et al.,
2001). Interactions of starches of different origin with the other
polysaccharide hydrocolloids are widely presented in the review
of Sikora and Kowalski (Sikora and Kowalski, 2003).
Interactions of Xanthan Gum with Galactomannans
(-Carrageenan with Galactomannans)
In the food industry the systems consisting of galactomannans (guar and locust bean gums) with carrageenans or xanthan
gum are used relatively often. Carrageenans and locust bean
gum blends gels have suitable strength, hardness, elasticity, and
keep endowed shape for a long time. The model explaining the
schematic mechanism of synergistic interactions includes fibers
formation of -carrageenan double helices, which after conformational transition from disordered helices bind to unsubstituted
parts of ordered backbone of locust bean gum (Dea, McKinnon
and Rees, 1972). According to Morris (1991), gels obtained
in the result of synergistic interactions between carrageenans
and xanthan gum with galactomannans can be divided into two
types. The formation of first type (I) gels is presented in Figure
1 a, and consist of non-gelling and gelling hydrocolloids. The
gels of second type (II) are model systems consisting of nongelling polysaccharides. Intermolecular interactions lead in this
case to formation of coupled networks (Figure 1d) (Fernandes,
Gonclaves and Doublier, 1994; Ediam et al., 1995). Examples
of both types of gels are listed in Table 1 (Morris, 1991).
Interactions of Galactomannans Chains
In the galactomannans gel structure presented in the Figure 2,
the regions of unsubstituted mannose backbone associate and
form interchain junctions. As a result of associations, the mass
of the whole aggregate increase, which can lead to precipitation of a suspension. However, hydroxyl groups present in the
branches of chains stabilize the whole system, due to their hydrophilic character. Hydroxyl groups bind water molecules by
hydrogen bonds, and highly hydrated chain branches become
Table 1
(1991).

Interactions between Starch and the Other Polysaccharide


Hydrocolloids
Interactions between starches of different origin and the other
polysaccharide hydrocolloids have been very intensively studied. In the literature, interactions of waxy corn, corn, wheat,
rice, amaranth and tapioca starches with the other polysaccharide hydrocolloids were described (Alloncle et al., 1989;

Examples of binary system gels of types I and II, courtesy of Morris

Type I
-carrageenan + locust bean gum
-carrageenan + tara gum
-carrageenan + gum konjac
furcellaran + locust bean gum
furcellaran + tara gum
furcellaran + gum konjac

Type II
xanthan gum + locust bean gum
xanthan gum + tara gum
xanthan gum + gum konjac

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54

M. SIKORA

association of further starch molecules at the sites where these


hydrocolloids are present (Ediam et al., 1995).
Bridging Flocculation
Interactions between starch and the other hydrocolloids are
explained also in the terms of flocculation mechanisms. In the
system containing swollen starch granules and xanthan gum,
bridging flocculation can occur as xanthan gum chains adsorb
on the surface of two or more particles of swollen starch granules. Sorption of xanthan gum chains leads to the approach and
connection of granules (Abdulmola et al., 1996).
Depletion Flocculation

Figure 2 Proposed galactomannan gel structure. Unsubstituted mannose


backbone regions associate, to form interchain junctions, while substituted regions are extensively hydrated, as in solution, and prevent complete precipitation
(Dea, 1979).

elements connecting dispersed in water galactomannan with


aqueous, continuous phase, preventing precipitation (Dea, 1979;
Sudhakar, Singhal, and Kulkarni, 1996).
Physical Models of PolysaccharidePolysaccharide
Interactions in Aqueous Solutions
Classical Model. In the classical model starch, as well as
galactomannans, are the main components of the system. Starch
pastes are regarded as suspensions of swollen particles (amylopectin), dispersed in a macromolecular medium. The latter
consists of galactomannans and amylose within the continuous aqueous phase. Amylose continuously transfers to aqueous
phase upon heating. Thus, the effect of thickening is explained as
a competition between amylose, galactomannans, and swollen
starch granules (amylopectin) for water molecules in the whole
system. The volume of aqueous phase accessible for galactomannan steadily decreases parallel with increasing amylose
quantity and increasing volume of swollen starch granules. This
leads to an important increase of the galactomannan and amylose concentration within the continuous medium, and to the
thickening of the whole system (Alloncle, 1989).
Starch Matrix Weakening. This effect described by Eidam
et al. (1995), was connected to the above presented structural
types of mixed gels, particularly to phase-separated network
shown in the Figure 1c (Morris, 1991; Tecante and Doublier,
1999; Alloncle, 1989; Closs, 1999). The only difference
between these models relies on the fact, that in the first case
separated gel network form, and in the latter free, not associated
polysaccharide hydrocolloids chains separate within the starch
gel network, which exerts the weakening effect on the resulting starch network structure. Purely steric reasons prohibit the

Depletion (osmotic) flocculation usually occurs in the systems of very high concentration of solid phase. High molecular
weight polymers are unable to fill the zone between solid particles (starch granules). As a result of differences in osmotic pressure between the zones, the migration of a solvent to the zones of
higher concentration bring about an approach of solid particles.
According to Abdulmola et al. (1996) flocculation mechanisms
can facilitate the formation of the connections between starch
granules.
Properties of Protein Hydrocolloids
The physical and chemical properties that govern protein
functionality include size, shape, amino acid composition and
sequence, net charge and distribution of charges, hydrophobicity/ hydrophilicity ratio, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
structures, molecular flexibility/rigidity, and the ability to interact/react with the other components (Damodaran, 1996). Many
functional properties of proteins such as dispersibility, wettability, swelling, solubility, thickening/viscosity, water-holding
capacity, emulsification and foaming depend on water-protein
interactions. Proteins similarly to polysaccharides play a key role
in the structure and stabilization of food systems through gelling,
thickening and surfacestabilizing properties (Tolstoguzov,
1991). According to Tolstoguzov (1997), the macromolecular
interactions responsible for complex formation may be divided
into three types: interactions between the charged macromolecules, interactions between oppositely charged (acidic and
basic) side groups, and between other available side groups of
polyions. These interactions can be classified as weak or strong,
specific or not, attractive, or repulsive.
Hydration Properties
Hydration properties of protein-polysaccharides are related
to the interactions between complexes and the solvent, usually
water. These properties are generally considered by their effect
on solubility and viscosity because of their industrial uses, especially in food formulation (Tolstoguzov, 1986; Ledward, 1979;
1994).

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

Several environmental factors such as pH, ionic strength, type


of salts, temperature, and protein conformation, influence the
water binding capacity of protein (Damodaran, 1996) the least
hydration at their isoelectric pH, because of the increase in the
net charge repulsive forces, proteins swell and bind more water.
The water binding capacity of most proteins is greater at pH 9
10 than at any other pH. This is due to ionization of sulfhydryl
and tyrosine residues.
Solubility
Solubility plays a role in emulsifying properties, but 100%
solubility is not an absolute requirement (Liao and Mangino,
1987). The stability of a protein film at the oil-water interface is
dependent on favorable interactions with both the oil and aqueous phases, some degree of solubility is likely to be necessary.
The solubility of a biopolymer is based on the energetic difference between biopolymerbiopolymer and biopolymer-solvent
interactions (Damodaran, 1997). Such interactions depend on
a number of parameters, including the biopolymer structure,
the surface charge, and average hydrophobicity. In general,
high charge density and low average hydrophobicity favour
biopolymer solubility. Good emulsion stabilization properties
of protein-polysaccharide complexes are particularly interesting because emulsions are used in a wide range of applications
(Chappat, 1994).
Viscosity
The viscosity is a fundamental rheological parameter characterizing fluid resistance to flow. It is defined as the ratio between
the shear stress applied to the fluid and the resulting shear rate.
High solution viscosity is usually obtained for large-molecular
weight, highly flexible, and hydrophilic biopolymers as in the
case of most polysaccharides (e.g., xanthan gum, chitosan) and
unfolded proteins (e.g., caseins-type milk proteins). The reverse
is true for the vegetal polysaccharide acacia gum and albumintype proteins that display compact globular conformation. The
dispersion of the protein-biopolymer complexes after associative phase separation causes a sharp increase of the system viscosity. Viscosity (thickening) is related to the hydrodynamic
properties of proteins, which depend on size, shape, and molecular flexibility as in salad dressings (Kinsella, Damodaran and
German, 1985).
Emulsification
Proteins are amphiphilic molecules, and they migrate spontaneously to an air-water interface or an oil-water interface. It
has been shown that desirable surface-active proteins have three
attributes; (a) ability to rapidly adsorb to an interface, (b) ability
to rapidly unfold and reorient at an interface, and (c) an ability,
once at the interface, to interact with the neighboring molecules
and form a strong cohesive, viscoelastic film that can withstand

55

thermal and mechanical motions (Damodaran and Song, 1988).


A critical event in the creation of stable emulsions during homogenization is the spontaneous and rapid adsorption of proteins at
the newly created surface. The rapidity with which a protein can
adsorb to air-water or oil-water interfaces depends on the distribution pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches on the
surface. The molecular factors are that affect protein-stabilized
emulsions are: The formation and stability of protein-stabilized
emulsions are affected by pH. Generally proteins that have high
solubility at the isoelectric pH (e.g., albumin, gelatin and eggwhite proteins) show maximum emulsifying activity and emulsion capacity at that pH (Damodaran, 1996).
The suitability of a protein as an emulsifier depends on the
rate at which it diffuses into the interface, on its adsorbability
and on the deformability of its conformation under the influence
of interfacial tension (surface denaturation). The diffusion rate
depends on the exposure of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups
and thus on the amino acid profile, pH, the ionic strength and the
temperature. The conformative stability depends on the amino
acid composition, the molecular weight and the intramolecular
disulfide bonds (Belitz and Grosch, 1999).
Partially denatured proteins are more digestible and have
better emulsifying properties than native proteins (Damodaran,
1996). This is due to increased molecular flexibility and surface
hydrophobicity. The rate of unfolding at an interface depends on
the flexibility of the original molecule. In the unfolded state, proteins containing free sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds undergo slow polymerization via disulfide-sulfhydryl interchange
reaction (Dickinson and Matsummura, 1991). This leads to formation of a highly viscoelastic film at the oil-water interface.
Heat denaturation that is sufficient to cause insolubilization impairs emulsifying properties of proteins.

APPLICATION OF POLYSACCHARIDE THICKENERS


IN THE PREPARATION OF SAUCES, BEVERAGES
AND SALAD DRESSINGS
In the study of (Sikora, Juszczak and Sady, 2003a) agar, carrageenans, carboxymethylcellulose and xanthan gum used as
stabilizers, thickeners and consistency providers, and their influence on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cocoa
syrups were investigated. Basing on textural analyses, it was
concluded that stringiness of laboratory prepared syrups was
lower than those of commercial syrups. This factor gave the laboratory syrups an advantage when evaluated by consumers, who
considered them easier to use than commercial ones. Rheological properties were compared by the use of Cassons equation.
Commercial syrups had a yield stress in the range 0.383.74 Pa
and a Cassons viscosity in the range 0.503.84 Pa s. Laboratory syrups had much more diversified rheological properties.
It was concluded that all hydrocolloids under study (CMC, carrageenans, xanthan gum and agar) were useful for cocoa syrups
production, although to different extent (Sikora, Juszczak and
Sady, 2003a).

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56

M. SIKORA

The other study of Sikora et al. (2003b) concerned starchxanthan gum thickening blends and their influence on sensory,
textural and rheological properties of cocoa syrups. Three commercially available cocoa syrups were compared to the syrups
formulated in laboratory, thickened by potato or corn starch
blended with 0.020, 0.025 and/or 0.030% xanthan gum. Results of rheological measurements were presented in the form
of flow curves and in the form of viscosity/time and viscosity/temperature relationships. Ostwald-de-Waele and Casson
models fitted to flow curves enabled the syrups to be characterized as non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic and thixotropic fluids.
Decreasing pseudoplasticity and hardness were observed parallely with increasing xanthan gum addition (Sikora et al., 2003b).
In the study of Sikora et al. (2004a,b), sweet and sour sauces
(S&S sauces) with and without vegetables, thickened by modified starches such, as acetylated distarch adipate (ADA) and
acetylated starch (AS) as well as by combinations of potato
starch (PS), oxidized starch (OS), acetylated distarch adipate
and acetylated starch with xanthan gum (XG) had differentiated sensory, textural and rheological properties, both direct and
after-six-months of storage. It was underlined, that sauces thickened by ADA and combination of ADA and XG had the strongest
thixotropy structures.
Also influence of a type and concentration of oat starch
and various thickening combinations (oat starchxanthan gum,
oat starchoat hydrolysate, oat hydrolysatexanthan gum and
potato starchxanthan gum) upon rheological, textural, and
sensory properties of sweet and sour sauces were studied by
Gibinski et al. (2006). Every tested thickener offered statistically equally good penetration force, and sensory properties of
sweet and sour sauces. In sauces thickened with potato starch
xanthan gum blends, penetration force, adhesiveness, and
stringiness increased, and the same trends could be observed in
sauces thickened with blends of oat starch with oat hydrolysates.
In sauces containing either the blends of oat starch with xanthan gum or three component blend of oat starch with oat hydrolysate and xanthan gum these textural parameters decreased
on storage, although in the latter blends changes in stringiness
were negligible. Changes in rheological parameters followed the
same direction as textural ones under the influence of particular
thickeners.
Modified starches, such as acetylated distarch adipate and
oxidized starch were the other hydrocolloids tried as thickeners of cocoa syrups. The textural and rheological properties of
syrups obtained in laboratory conditions were compared to the
properties of their commercially produced counterparts. The textural and rheological properties of syrups were affected by the
quantity of modified starch added. All analyzed syrups showed
non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic flow and thixotropy properties.
Values of yield stresses, viscosities of Casson, as well as consistency coefficient of syrups prepared in laboratory conditions
increased with an increase of the addition of modified starches
(Sikora et al., 2004).
Maiolino (Maiolino, 2002) investigated starches of special properties in order to improve mouthfeel of sauces and

beverages. The author considered the importance of selecting the correct starch product for specific food applications.
Thus, functional properties of available on the market starches,
e.g., functionality of tapioca starches for beverages production,
modified cook-up starches of low viscosity, useful for sauces
and marinades, instant and non-instant cold-water swelling
starches for dry mixes and beverages, as well as further food
and beverage applications of starches of special types were
discussed.
Salad dressings thickened by Amaranthus paniculatas or corn
starches were compared. The preparation of dressings also included salad oil, fluid egg yolks, salt, sugar, mustard flour, vinegar, white pepper and water. Storage in glass containers was
conducted at 1214 C. Rheological measurements carried out
by the use of Brookfield viscometer showed, that dressings prepared with corn starch broke down much earlier, than those prepared with A. paniculatas starch, used as a thickener (Singhal
and Kulkarni, 1990).
Trends in Application of Hydrocolloids for Thickening of
Sauces
Different hydrocolloids and their combinations were applied as thickeners and stabilizers of cocoa syrups and
sweet and sour sauces. Hydrocolloids such as: agar, carrageenans, carboxymethylcellulose and xanthan gum were used
as stabilizers, thickeners and consistency providers for cocoa
sauces. Potato and/or corn starchxanthan gum mixed systems were also used for thickening of cocoa syrups. Modified starches, such as acetylated distarch adipate and oxidized
starch were the other hydrocolloids tried as thickeners of cocoa
syrups.
Modified starches, such as acetylated distarch adipate, acetylated starch, and oxidized starch of different concentrations
were also applied as the thickeners of sweet and sour sauces.
Sweet and sour sauces with and without vegetables thickened
by acetylated distarch adipate and acetylated starch as well as
by combinations of potato starch, oxidized starch, acetylated
distarch adipate and acetylated starch with xanthan gum were
tested in regard to sensory, textural and rheological properties,
both direct and after-six-months of storage. Also an influence of
a type and concentration of oat starch and various thickening
combinations (oat starchxanthan gum, oat starchoat hydrolysate, oat hydrolysatexanthan gum and potato starch
xanthan gum) upon rheological, textural, and sensory properties
of sweet and sour sauces were the subject of another study.
Starches of special properties were also used in order to improve mouthfeel of sauces and beverages. Amaranthus paniculatas and corn starches were compared as thickeners of salad
dressings.
EMULSIONS STABILIZATION
This section describes the characteristics of emulsions,
the different physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for

57

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alterations in emulsions, oxidative stability, and various emulsifying agents which are applied.

Table 2 Some physico-chemical properties responsible for emulsion


instability
Mechanism

Emulsions
An emulsion consists of two immiscible liquids (usually oil
and water), with one of the liquids dispersed as small spherical droplets in the other. In a two-phase emulsion, one liquid
is dispersed in another in the form of large droplets (0.3 m)
(Friberg, Goubran and Kayali, 1990). A system which is comprised of oil droplets dispersed in aqueous phase is called oilin-water or o/w emulsion and waterin-oil (w/o) is in the opposite arrangement. Salad dressings cover a broad spectrum
of oil-in-water (o/w) composition and some products are defined on their basis of oil content. Most salad dressings are
non-standard of identity and comprise of 1045% oil (Hoefler,
2004).

Surface forces

Physical

Droplet
aggregation
Flocculation

Coalescence
Partial
coalescence

Oiling off

Phase
inversion
Ostwald
ripening

Stability of Emulsions (Salad Dressings)

The review of the literature revealed the application of the


glucose oxidase-catalase for reduction of dissolved oxygen in
model salad dressings on lipid and emulsion stability. Also, it
was found that sage liposomes, which were prepared by microfluidization, had comparable level of antioxidative activity
to butylated hydroxyl toluene liposomes in salad dressings during storage.
In a study of (Mistry and Min, 1992), when pH increased from
3 to 6, the amount of dissolved O2 of the dressing decreased.
When temperature increased from 10 to 20 then to 30 C, the
amount of dissolved O2 decreased. When temperature increased

Gravitational
separation
Creaming

Sedimentation

An emulsion may become unstable due to a number of physical and chemical processes. Physical instability results in an
alteration in the chemical structure of the molecules, whereas
chemical instability results in an alteration of the molecules. Table 2 shows the most important physico-chemical mechanisms
which may be responsible for alterations in the properties of
emulsion. In practice, two or more of these mechanisms may
operate in parallel (McClements, 1999; Becher, 2001a,b). Fullfat dressings are considered as classic emulsions and their corresponding reduced-fat and fat-free counterparts are considered
non-classic emulsions (Ford et al., 2004).

Oxidative Stability

Static forces
Van der Waals

Electrostatic
doublelayer
forces

Destabilization of Emulsions

The term emulsion stability is broadly used to describe the


ability of an emulsion to resist changes in its properties over time
(McClements, 1999) and the inevitable process of separation has
been slowed to an extent that it is not observable in two to three
years (Friberg, Goubran and Kayali, 1990).

Type

Chemical
Biochemical

Lipid
oxidation
Enzymatic

Description
These forces are repulsive when the
dielectric function of the medium is in
between those of the particles.
A repulsive force is generated, which is
viewed at the midpoint between the
surfaces as an increased osmotic
pressure when two identically charged
surfaces in an electrolyte solution

Upward movement of droplets due to the


fact that they have lower density than
the surrounding liquid.
Downward movement of droplets due to
the fact that they have higher density
than the surrounding liquid

Two or more droplets come together to


form an aggregate in which droplets
retain their individual integrity
Two or more droplets merge together to
form a single layer droplet
Two or more partly crystalline oil
droplets come into contact to form an
irregularly shaped aggregate. The
aggregate partly retains the shape of
the droplets, because the fat crystal
network within the droplets prevents
them from completely merging
together
Extensive droplet coalescence lead to the
formation of a separate layer on top of
a sample
Oil-in-water emulsion is converted into
water-in-oil emulsion and vice versa
Large droplets grow at the expense of
smaller ones because of mass transport
of dispersed phase from one droplet to
another through the intervening phase
Off-flavors such as rancidity and
potentially toxic reaction products
Adsorbed proteins are cleaved by
enzyme hydrolysis, globular proteins
become denatures after being
adsorbed to the surface of an emulsion

Adopted from: McClements (1999) and Becher (2001a,b), Bergenstahl and


Claesson (1990).

from 30 to 40, and then to 50 C, the amount of dissolved O2 increased. As concentration of glucose oxidase increased from 0
to 0.5%, the amount of dissolved O2 decreased. There was no
difference in dissolved O2 reduction among the samples containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0% glucose oxidase (Mistry and Min,
1992).
In another study, the effects of glucose oxidase-catalase on the
lipid oxidative stability and emulsion stability of a model emulsified salad dressing containing 1.0% glucose were determined by

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58

M. SIKORA

measuring the headspace volatile compounds of sample bottles


and peroxide values. As glucose oxidase-catalase increased from
0 to 0.100, 0.200 and 0.300 unit/g salad dressing, volatile compounds and peroxide values decreased and the enzyme acted as
an oxidant (at p < 0.05). As glucose oxidase-catalase increased
from 0.300 to 0.500 and 0.700 unit/g salad dressing, peroxide values increased and the enzyme was pro-oxidant. Glucose
oxidase-catalase improved the emulsion stability of the salad
dressing at 0.5 and 0.7 unit/g sample(Min, Mistry and Lee,
2003).
The antioxidative activity of sage and oregano dissolved either in ethanol or homogenized with olive oil as a carrier was
evaluated in salad dressings by Abdalla and Roozen (Abdalla and
Roozen, 2001). The extracts of sage and oregano were encapsulated in liposomes by ultrasonication or microfluidization, and
their structures confirmed by microscopic examination and the
dye-marker carboxyfluorescin. The extracts homogenized with
olive oil as carrier showed higher antioxidative effects than those
dissolved during storage in the dark, at ambient temperature, and
at 40 C. Exposure of salad dressings to light changed the antioxidative effect of the spice extracts into a pro-oxidative one.
Preparation of liposomes by microfluidization showed higher
encapsulation efficiency and gave more homogeneous vesicles
than liposomes prepared by ultrasonication. Sage liposomes
prepared by microfluidization showed comparable level of antioxidative activity as butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) liposomes in salad dressings during storage (Abdalla and Roozen,
2001).

Emulsifiers
The hydrophilic-lipophilic (HLB) numbers characterize the
balance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of
the surfactant molecules. An emulsifier with a HLB value between 68 is optimal for water in oil emulsions, whereas emulsifiers with HLB value of 1016 are suitable for water emulsions
(Bergenstahl and Claesson, 1990).
Blending of lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifying agents
produced synergistic effect on reduction of surface and interfacial tensions and in some cases resulted in more stable emulsions. Alkyl glycoside polyesters with hydrophilic emulsifiers
produced reduced calorie emulsifiers suitable for use in o/w
emulsions such as salad dressings (Akoh and Nwosu, 1992).
The effects of oil, emulsifier and starch concentrations on the
linear viscoelasticity of oil/water salad dressing emulsions with
oil concentrations of 3555 wt% were studied in emulsions prepared by the use of a mixture of egg-yolk, a highly hydrophilic
sucrose ester as emulsifier, and starch. An increase in oil concentration did not qualitatively modify the linear viscoelasticity
behaviour of such emulsions. The pseudothermal relaxation time
increased with egg yolk concentration and decreased with sucrose ester concentration. The results were related to the formation of an extensive structural network in the emulsions (Franco,
Bergano and Gallegos, 1997).

Emulsions Stabilizers
As emulsions stabilizers, carbohydrates, proteins such, as:
plant and animal (milk, whey, blood plasma) proteins, as well as
blends of different carbohydrates are described in the literature
as useful.
Carbohydrates
A number of hydrocolloids such as gum acacia, guar gum,
arabinogalactan, inulin, flaxseed gum and xanthan gum have
bee incorporated into salad dressings to enhance emulsion stability. Also a modified stabilizer, Freedom X-PGA (propylene
glycol alginate) stabilizer, which combined the creamy textural
characteristics of gum tragacanth with the superior stability of
a blend of guar and xanthan gums was shown to have longer
stability than the control PGA in salad dressings. The addition
of -cyclodextrin to egg white was shown to result in less liquid
separation and increased viscosity of salad dressing.
Hydrocolloids were modified by the incorporation of
lipophilic moieties by esterification, which enhanced emulsifying properties in addition to their inherent functionality. Several gum substrates were employed including non-emulsifying
gum acacia, guar gum, arabinogalactan and inulin. On testing
with salad dressings, results showed higher emulsion stability at
lower gum levels as compared to control samples (Stewart and
Mazza, 1997).
Also flaxseed gum was evaluated as a stabilizer for salad
dressings. For stabilization of emulsions, the concentration of
the gum had to be more than 0.45% (w/w), with pH above 2.8.
Lower values caused the polysaccharide to have compact configuration or caused cleavage of the polymer, increasing stability.
Larger mean droplet size and creaming were observed when pH
was too low or gum concentration was not sufficient for coverage
(Chiu et al., 1988).
The creaming behaviour of salad dressings was studied over
a wide range of xanthan gum (0.110 g/l) and oil phase (9, 18 or
36%) contents. Dressings were produced by mixing colloidally
stable emulsion with xanthan gum solutions. The model dressings were completely flocculated by depletion at xanthan gum
content higher than 0.1 g/L. Traditionally, stabilization of salad
dressing by xanthan gum has been explained by the yield stress
of its solutions. It was suggested, however, that the depletion
flocculation of the emulsion droplets, induced by addition of
xanthan gum, led to the formation of a particle network and that
it was the time-dependent yield stress of this network which
stabilized the dressing (Parker, Gunning and Robins, 1995).
Use of Freedom X-PGA (propylene glycol alginate) stabilizer
as a replacement for the more expensive PGA in salad dressings
was presented. This gum system combined the creamy texture
characteristics in gum tragacanth with the superior stability of
a blend of guar and xanthan gums. Shelf-life evaluation studies
showed that all samples were stable for over 12 months at room
temperature and refrigerated storage. At incubated temperature
(110 F), Freedom X-PGA samples were stable for 45% longer

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than the PGA samples. French dressing containing the PGA


replacer also exhibited superior performance when subjected to
microwave, transportation and rheology tests (Anon, 1991a,b).
The addition of 1% -cyclodextrin (-CD) to egg white resulted in less liquid separation from foam, as compared to control and increased the viscosity of salad dressing. The emulsion
remained stable even after one month storage when -CD was
employed in the formulation. Flavour and water absorption of
powdered soy sauce containing -CD were superior, as compared to samples without -CD addition, after one month storage. The addition of 1.5% -CD had the best protective effect
against loss of colour intensity with increasing time of exposure
(Gauthier et al., 1993).
Proteins
The emulsifying power of a specific protein depend on its solubility and surface activity (Dickinson, 1986). Effective emulsifying proteins are highly surface active (often denature at the
interface), but they are also soluble (Bergenstahl and Claesson,
1990). The stabilizing power for each type of protein is dependent on pH, salt concentration, and temperature as these factors
influence the charge and solubility of proteins. Milk proteins,
whey concentrate, ultra-filtered soya protein, canola proteins,
lupin protein hydrolysates, beef plasma protein have been applied to enhance emulsion stability in sauces and salad dressings.
Milk Proteins. Enhanced emulsification was obtained by incorporating milk protein products (Nutrilac) into mayonnaise
and salad dressings. Unlike egg yolks, milk proteins retain their
functionality through heat treatment, permitting the manufacture
of preservative-free products. Nutrilac in an oil-water-vinegar
emulsion resulted in low viscosity in cold process treatment, a
very high viscosity by pasteurized water phase treatment, and a
creamy product with very high viscosity, with pasteurized end
product treatment (Daugaard, 1992).
Whey Proteins. Whey concentrate was applied to oil-vinegar
emulsions and the effects of droplet size on emulsion stability was investigated. In another study, whey peptide fractions
modified by two- step ultra-filtration process showed improved
interfacial and emulsifying properties in emulsions. Hydrolysis
of whey protein concentrate by lipases showed stronger surfaceactive properties, which resulted in a longer shelf life when compared to control emulsions.
Oil/vinegar emulsions ( = 0.5, droplet size > 10 M) with
thickeners and a whey protein concentrate were prepared with
different fat droplet sizes and different distributions of fat droplet
size. The dispersion of the droplet size had a small effect of
flavor perception, and the effect of the increase of emulsifier
amount was studied by instrumental analysis (Charles et al.,
2000).
Salad dressings manufactured by the use of whey proteins to
form oil/water systems without the need of additional low molecular weight emulsifiers (egg yolk, lecithin, etc.) were studied.
Dressings were manufactured using sunflower oil and around
2% of different whey protein preparations (Nutrilac; Danmark

59

Protein GmbH Hanover, Germany). Effects of the whey protein


preparations on emulsion formation and consistency were investigated together with the effects of various additives (NaCl (1
2%), citric acid (2.510%) and xanthan gum (0.050.1%)). The
influence of whey proteins on emulsion formation, consistency
and flow properties was slight between different preparations
(Muschiolik, Draeger and Sutton, 1993).
The residual fat in sweet whey and whey protein concentrate
was hydrolyzed with 13 specific lipases to improve the emulsifying and foaming properties of emulsions, such as salad dressings. Enzyme lipolysis converted almost all triglycerides into
mono- and diglycerides, which demonstrated strong surfaceactive properties. It was demonstrated that emulsions and foams
formed with lipase-treated whey preparation had longer shelflife in comparison with native products (Blecker et al., 1997).
Plant Proteins. An ultrafiltered soybean protein incorporated in mayonnaise or salad dressings resulted in excellent
emulsifying activity and stability in the acidic, and isoelectric pH
regions and could be analogues. Thermal-acidic treated soy protein replaced emulsifiers in producing stable low-calorie salad
dressings. In another study, the extent of protein-dextran mixture influenced the viscoelastic properties and stability against
creaming salad dressing emulsions. Lupin protein hydrolysates
showed better emulsion stability, than original flour. Also, lupin
proteins have been used as replacers for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings, with comparable properties to commercial products. Using canola protein isolate (CPI), the addition of carrageenan and guar gum increased emulsifying activity
index of CPI-stabilized emulsion.
An ultra-filtered purified full-fat soybean protein product was
evaluated at 1.9% protein concentration and 50% oil in the emulsion. Excellent emulsifying activity and stability in the acidic,
and isoelectric pH regions were observed, when compared to
soybean isolate (Promine-D). Unlike Promine-D, correlation between protein dispersibility index and emulsifying activity was
poor for ultrafiltered soybean protein, indicating factors other,
than high solubility, governed its emulsion properties. The emulsion samples displayed pseudoplastic or plastic behaviour. According to authors the ultrafiltered soybean protein product had
good potential for incorporation into mayonnaise or salad dressing analogues (Lah and Cheryan, 1980).
The replacement of common emulsifiers with soy protein
isolates (SPI) in low-calorie salad dressings was evaluated.
Thermal-acidic treatment with neutralization (TH1.6N) or without this process (TH1.6) was used for structural modifications
of SPI. The TH1.6N isolates had lower emulsifying capacity
than TH1.6, which were probably due to the higher aggregation,
produced during neutralization. The latter prevented protein unfolding, which was suitable for preparation of stable emulsions
(Puppo, Sorgentini and Anon, 2003).
Emulsifiers were replaced by soya isolate SUPRO 500E in
the production of sauces. Freezing and storage of samples for 30,
60, 90 and 180 days, and defrosting in microwave oven caused
insignificant changes in pseudoplastic fluids (Popov-Raljic et al.,
2001).

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60

M. SIKORA

The viscoelastic properties and stability against creaming


in model salad dressing emulsions were influenced by the
extent of protein-dextran conjugation which influence emulsion droplet interactions. Dry heated soybean protein isolate
dextran mixture was used as an emulsifier in the salad dressing
(Diftis, Billaderis and Kiosseoglou, 2005). Structurally modified soya protein isolates were prepared by acidic (pH 2.5) and
thermal-acidic treatment without (pH 1.6) and with neutralization (pH 8.0).
The emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of lupin
(Lupinus angustifolius) protein hydrolysates produced by hydrolysis with alcalase were compared with properties of original flour. The hydrolysates showed better functional properties,
which suggested their use in salad dressings production (Iqari
et al., 2005).
The use of lupin proteins as replacers for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings was also investigated by Raymundo
et al. (Raymundo et al., 2002). Response surface methodology
was used to optimize degree of lupin protein isolate (LPI) thermal denaturation, emulsifying conditions and emulsion formulation (LPI, oil and xanthan gum). Results showed that it was
possible to produce a mayonnaise and salad dressings with similar physical properties to commercial products and without a
preliminary thermal denaturation stage of LPI. Low fat products
could be obtained by including xanthan gum in the formulation
(Raymundo et al., 2002).
Emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability (ES)
of canola protein isolate (CPI)-hydrocolloid-stabilized emulsions were evaluated under varied conditions of salt and hydrocolloid concentrations, pH and denaturants (Uruakpa and
Arntfield, 2005). The results indicated that under complexing
conditions at pH 6.0, the addition of 1% (w/v) -carrageenan increased emulsifying activity index of CPI-stabilized emulsions,
from 162 to 201 m2 /g, and emulsion stability from 68% to 95%.
Under conditions promoting incompatibility at pH 10, the use
of 1% (w/v) guar gum increased the emulsifying activity index
of CPI-stabilized from 68 to 177 m2 /g, and emulsion stability
from 66% to 100%.
Animal Proteins. The emulsifying stability emulsion type
salad dressing preparation increased with increasing incorporation of beef plasma protein. In another study, the physical properties of salad dressings was dependent on bovine plasma protein
(BPP) content and with enhanced emulsion stability. Emulsion
containing spray-dried preparations of pig blood plasma and
decolorized pig blood cell protein (globin) with sodium hexametaphosphate were excellent acid emulsifier in the manufacturing of mayonnaise and salad dressings.
The electrophoretic properties and emulsifying stability of
the beef plasma protein (PP) were examined as an ingredient
of emulsion type salad dressing preparation. The major component of PP was water-soluble proteinserum albumin, indicating the solubility of 90.5%, at pH 3.0. The emulsifying stability
increased with increasing PP concentration and such emulsion
did not produce any sensory problems when 13% PP was used
(Koga et al., 2002a).

In another study, the electrophoretic properties, solubility and


emulsifying properties of bovine plasma protein (BPP) were
evaluated. An emulsion-type salad dressing was prepared using
1, 2 or 3% BPP as emulsifier in an oil-in-water-type mixture
of salad oil and vinegar (60:40). The main protein component
of BPP was serum albumin and protein solubility was 90.5% at
pH 3. The dressing containing BPP was stabilized at acidic pH
and lower temperature and displayed thixotropic properties, and
its physical properties were dependent on BPP content. Emulsion stability increased with BPP content. Hunter Lab whiteness
values decreased as BPP content increased. Salad dressings containing 13% BPP were judged to be acceptable in the sensory
analysis (Koga et al., 2002b).
Spray-dried preparations of pig blood plasma and decolorized
pig blood cell protein (globin) with sodium hexametaphosphate
(HMP) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were studied
at different pH values. The bound and unbound products were
compared on the basis of their emulsifying capacities and emulsifying stabilities. The highest binding degree of HMP or CMC
to the pig blood plasma proteins and globin was obtained at
pH 2.3 and increased with increasing concentrations of HMP or
CMC. Emulsion containing bound complexes with HMP could
act as excellent acid emulsifiers to be applied in the manufacturing of mayonnaise and salad dressing (Nguyen, 1985).
Blends. Mayonnaises were prepared with high oil content
(5080%) using olive, peanut, maize and sunflower oils, and
egg yolk, vinegar, salt, sugar, waxy starch, and Stabilan-2 (a
mixture of carrageenans, furcellaran, and seed flour of carob
and guar gums). The product was frozen at 20 C and stored
at 18 C. The emulsion stability decreased with increasing oil
content, with peanut and sunflower oils giving the best results,
while olive oil was unsuitable. Stabilan-2 was useful in mayonnaise at the concentration under 0.1% (Rodolfo, Tomasicchio
and Castelvetri, 1974).

Trends in Emulsions Stabilization Research


The review revealed a number of hydrocolloids such as: gum
acacia, guar gum, arabinogalactan, inulin, flaxseed gum, xanthan gum as well as propylene glycol alginate blended with the
other hydrocolloids, which enhanced emulsion stability. It was
shown that ultra-filtered whey peptide fractions and soya protein showed improved interfacial and emulsifying properties.
Hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate showed stronger surfaceactive properties, which extended shelf-life of emulsions.
Hydrolyzed lupine protein showed better emulsion stability in
salad dressing, than original flour and could be used as replacer
for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings. Canola protein isolate (CPI) with an addition of carrageenan and guar gum
increased emulsifying activity index of CPI-stabilized emulsions. It was found, that emulsifying stability increased with
increasing incorporation of beef plasma protein, spray-dried
preparation in emulsion type salad dressing preparation. Also,
spray-dried preparations of pig blood plasma and decolorized

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pig blood cell protein (globin) with sodium hexametaphosphate


were excellent acid emulsifiers in the manufacturing of mayonnaise and salad dressings.

MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SAUCES


In this section, the factors, which influence microbiological
stability are described, and the dominant microbial types in various sauces and salad dressings, as well as the survival of these
microorganisms are reviewed.

Factors Affecting Microbiological Activity


Preservation of salad dressings usually depends on the vinegar (acetic acid), which in excess of 1.5% may result in an unpalatable product. On the other handlower level may permit
spoilage. The highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and
sauces was 4.4, which was below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and
below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for food borne pathogens
in the presence of acetic acid. It is quite common for commercial mayonnaise and salad dressing to have a shelf-life between
912 months, with the shelf-life being dictated more by the
physicochemical characteristics (Smittle and Cirigliano, 1992).
Smittle (2000) reviewed food borne pathogens in mayonnaise, salad dressings and sauces produced in the United States
and analyzed them statistically with emphasis on Salmonella,
Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. When
Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica were inoculated into mayonnaises and dressings, the pH was the most significant factor in
destroying pathogenic bacteria. The highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces was 4.4, which was below the
4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of
4.5 for food borne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The
absence of reports on food borne illness associated directly with
the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and
sauces was treated as an evidence of their safety.

Types of Sauces
Salad Dressings
The studies on salad dressings have centred primarily on the
survival of micro organisms in model systems. In a simulation by
the addition of contaminated eggs, Salmonella enteritidis and S.
typhimurium inoculated into oil and vinegar based Italian salad
dressing (pH 3.49 and 3.67),Salmonella spp. were not detected
after 5 minutes of holding and thereafter. Spoilage yeasts and
Lactobacillus fructivorans from commercial starch-based salad
dressing displayed a minimum growth at pH 3.553.60, with
the minimum water activity of 0.89 for yeast, and 0.91 for L.
fructivorans (Meyer et al., 1989).

61

Also, the antimicrobial activity of sucrose and methylglucose


esters of medium to long chain fatty acids were investigated
against spoilage microorganisms such as Zygosaccharomyces
bailii and L. fructivorans in salad dressings. In salad dressings,
1% sucrose monoesters of lauric, myristic or palmitic acid significantly inhibited the growth of Z. bailii and L. fructivorans,
and were comparable with, or more effective than 0.1% sodium
benzoate. Some additives frequently present in salad dressings,
such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, ascorbic and acetic
acids were investigated for their effects on sorbate stability and
the ability of sorbates to inhibit growth of Z. bailii in aqueous
model systems at pH 3.5 (Yang et al., 2003).
To simulate the addition of a contaminated egg, such microorganisms as Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were
inoculated into oil and vinegar based Italian salad dressing (pH
3.49 and 3.67) at respectively 1.0 103 and 1.1 103 /g. In both
cases below 10 Salmonella organisms were found, at intervals
up to 60 minutes, using the direct plate method. A lactose broth
pre-enrichment method yielded a positive result for S. enteritidis, at initial sampling, but not after 5 minutes and a positive
result for S. typhimurium, at initial sampling and after 5 minutes
holding, but not thereafter (Miller and Martin, 1999).
Some additives frequently present in salad dressings (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, ascorbic and acetic acids) were
investigated for their effects on sorbates stability and the ability of sorbates to inhibit growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in
aqueous model systems, at pH 3.5. Potassium sorbate was added
to the model solutions with or without addition of EDTA, ascorbic acid and acetic acid in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or
in glass containers. Each of the additives exerted a protective
effect against sorbate degradation. The best conditions for reducing sorbate destruction were use of glass instead of PET
containers, a mixture of citric and acetic acids as acidulate,
0.5 g/kg ascorbic acid and 0.075 g/kg EDTA (Castro et al.,
2002).
The interaction between potassium sorbate, oil and Tween 20
on growth and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in model
salad dressings was studied by Castro et al. Z. bailii grew in
model salad dressing emulsions containing 110 and 230 g/kg
of oil, but addition of 0.5 g/kg of potassium sorbate inhibited
growth. When the oil content was raised to 460 g/kg, a steep
death rate curve was observed, and the effect of potassium sorbate addition was hidden by the inhibitory action of the high
oil level. Tween 20 action depended on oil level. For emulsions
containing 110 or 230 g/kg, a depression in the activity of potassium sorbate was observed. This behaviour was attributed to the
decrease in the free form of the preservative due to the partition
between surfactant micelles and water. In contrast, when oil content was 460 g/kg, potassium sorbate activity was enhanced in
spite of the decrease in the amount of its free form (Castro et al.,
2003).
Yeast growth in salad dressings during storage at 10 C and

25 C was examined by differentiation on chromomeric agar


(CHROMagar) Candida. Colour of colonies revealed different
yeast species. Analysis of three different brands of salad dressing

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62

M. SIKORA

revealed that Candida crusei had the fastest growth rate, especially at low temperatures (Fujikawa et al., 1998).

mayonnaise pH is the main effector of LPD of L. monocytogenes


in seafood salad, and storage temperature was the main effector
of growth rate.

Mayonnaises
A probability model was developed, describing the influence
of temperature (1030 C) and the other factors, such as pH,
acetic acid and sucrose content. The model characterized the
influence of composition of mayonnaise on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in tryptic soy broth (McKellar, Lu and
Delaquis, 2003). Logistic polynomial regression with a total of
1820 factor combinations was used to describe the influence of
main, quadratic, and cross-product effects of the environmental factors. The model successfully predicted survival or death
in 1772 (97.4%) of the samples; of those incorrectly predicted,
28 were false-positives and 20 were false-negative. The concordance index was 99.4% and the disconcordance index was 0.6%,
indicating a good fit of the model to the observed data. The results suggested, that the probability model developed, could be
usefully applied to predictions of E. coli O157:H7 survival in
mayonnaise.
Growth and survival of 4 strains of coliform (two strains of
Escherichia coli 0157:H7, a non-pathogenic E. coli and the nonfaecal coliform Enterobacter aerogenes) in samples of mayonnaise and ranch salad dressing were investigated. Mayonnaise
had a greater antimicrobial effect than salad dressing, which
might be attributed to differences in pH, water activity, nutrients, storage temperature and the presence of lysozyme in the
whole eggs, used in its production. Coliform bacteria survived
longer in refrigerated salad dressing, than in mayonnaise. Both
mayonnaise (pH 3.91) and salad dressing (pH 4.51) did not support growth of any of the microorganisms, even though survival
was observed (Raghubeer et al., 1995).
The survival of Salmonella enteritidis after a pressure treatment, in relation to composition variables (NaCl, pH), both in
model, and real systems was studied. The fate of the surviving cells of S. enteritidis was monitored during storage at 10 C,
and the growth of death parameters have been calculated and
modelled in relation to pH, NaCl, concentration of the medium
and entity of the pressure treatment applied. The modelling of
the environmental factors on the treatment effectiveness indicated, that the salt content and pH displayed a synergistic effect
with pressure. The extent was higher in the mayonnaise based
products (Guerzoni et al., 2002).
To produce data towards development of a predictive growth
model, a 6-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was inoculated
onto the surface of a shrimp-crabmeat product, mixed with mayonnaise that was previously adjusted to pH 3.7, 4.0, 4.4, 4.7 or
5.1 with NaOH, and then stored at 4, 8 or 12 C, under both aerobic and vacuum conditions (Cheng-an and Tamplin, 2005). The
slowest growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in seafood
salad with mayonnaise, at pH of 3.7, and a storage temperature of 4 C, under vacuum conditions. At the same temperature,
the lag phase duration (LPD) of L. monocytogenes decreased,
as mayonnaise pH increased. Regression analyses indicated that

Fish Sauce Products


The quality parameters of fish sauces produced from hydrolysis of raw fish material of sprat (Sprattus sprattus phalericus),
scad (Trachurus), and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) salted at
20%, at 22 C and 37 C for 360 days revealed, that the microbiological quality of the fish sauces depended on the fish species and
the temperature of hydrolysis (Kiosev and Boshkova, 1998). In
the same study the faecal coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus
were not detected.
In another study, fish sauce was produced by incubating
mixtures of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at different concentrations of sodium chloride, and glucose at 37 C, for 57 days.
The fish sauces with the additions had lower bacterial counts,
yeast and moulds, than sauces without. Staphylococcus aureus
and yeastmould were not detected during fermentation period
(Kilinc et al., 2006).
The microbiological properties of Thai fish sauce (nampla)
and fish/shrimp paste (kapi) were investigated by Gasaluck et al.
(Gasaluck et al., 1996). Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria grown on
2.5% NaClmedium occurred at the level of 101 102 /ml in
nampla, whereas those grown on 2.525% NaCl media ranged
from 1.0 10 to 1.1 104 ml, in Japanese fish sauce. Viable bacterial counts of kapi paste products were 5.6 103 8.0 104 /g,
in media containing 2.5% and 20% NaCl. Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were detected as bacterial groups, in fish
sauce during the processing stage. However, only Bacillus was
isolated from the final fish sauce products, and the most dominant bacterial genus was Bacillus (92.2%), in kapi.
Bakasangtraditional Indonesian fermented fish sauces,
produced by incubating mixtures of small sardine (Engraulis
japonicus), at different concentrations of NaCl and glucose, at
37 C, for 40 days. The microflora were isolated and identified
from Bakasang samples. The total plate count increased during
the first 10 days, and then decreased gradually for both total microbiological population, and lactic acid bacterial population.
Micrococcus, Streptococcus and Pediococcus species were predominantly present during Bakasang fermentation (Ijong and
Ohta, 1996).
In sauces and pastes from fish, which have been used for spicing Asian-style food, particular emphasis was placed on determining the number of anaerobic and aerobic spore-forming bacteria. Clostridium spores were found in 100% of sauces, pastes,
fish, water, NaCl (1731%) and thickener, and were judged to
present a risk. Sauces and pastes, which were additionally heattreated and pickled were free of Clostridium spores (Eisgruber,
Brunner and Stolle, 1995).
Microbiological analyses were carried out on shotturu
(Japanese fish sauce) (Fujii and Sakai, 1984a), and on putrid shotturu (Fujii and Sakai, 1984b). In shotturu, both aerobic and anaerobic viable cell counts, in 2.5% NaCl, and 20%

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

NaCl-medium were in the range 2.3 103 3.6 105 /ml. The
dominant microbial flora in shotturu were Vibrionnaceae and
Bacillus, in 2.5% NaCl-medium, and the members of the genus
Halobacterium, Bacillus, and unidentified cocci, in 20% NaCl
medium. In putrid shotturu, the aerobic and anaerobic viable cell
counts, in 2.5% NaCl, and 20% NaCl medium increased up to the
range 5.8 106 2.2 107 /mL, although the count drastically
changed during storage. The dominant microflora (aerobes) of
putrid shotturu, in 2.5% NaCl medium were bacteria of the genus
Streptococcus, and in 20% NaCl mediumthe members of the
genus Streptococcus, while in 20% NaCl mediummembers of
Halobacterium, Micrococcus, Bacillus and unidentified cocci.
The classification of bacteria at the genus level was performed
on 40 strains, isolated from bagoong (fish paste), produced
in Philippines. The dominant microorganisms were Bacillus,
Micrococcus and Moraxella, some of which grew well on the
medium containing more than 20% NaCl. For patis (fish paste),
the viable count was 4.5 103 cells/ml (Fujii, Basuki and
Tozawa, 1980).

Soya Sauces
Strained lees of soya sauce made from whole soybeans were
desalted and dried for making livestock feed. Most (98%) of the
salt in the raw lees was removed by desalting. The product was
microbiologically safe, as microorganisms were not found in it,
and the water activity (Aw ) was under 0.3 (Makino, Matsushita,
and Takegami, 2001).
Fourteen sphere-shaped, and thirty rod-shaped lactic acid
bacteria were isolated from soya sauce mash, obtained from two
factories in Thailand. Separated by cell-shape and DNA-DNA
similarity, group A, contained 14 tetrad-forming strains, which
were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus, by DNA similarity. Group B contained 30 rod-shaped bacteria, which were
further subdivided into four sub-groups, and three ungrouped
strains, by phenotypic characteristics and DNA similarity. The
strains identified in subgroups were Lactobacillus acidipiscis,
Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Two ungrouped strains, which were homofermentative and the other heterofermentative showed a low
degree of DNA similarity, with the type strains tested, and were
left unnamed (Somboon et al., 2002).
Five Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in soya sauce were
incubated at 4, 18, or 30 C, after inoculation. The cell numbers
of E. coli O157:H7 decreased to an undetectable level (<20
CFU/ml), within 9 days, in all soya sauce samples, at 30 C, but
did not decrease in the 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH
7.0) control solution, under the same conditions. Soya sauce
reduced the cell numbers of bacteria, at 18 C to a lesser extent,
than at 30 C, but to a greater extent, than at 4 C. Components
of soya sauce, such as 10% or 16% NaCl, 5% ethanol, lactic
acid, or acetic acid, at pH 4.5, sodium benzoate (0.6 g/kg), or phydroxybenzoic acid n-butyl ester (0.05 g/L) caused a reduction
of the E. coli 0157:H7 population, at 30 C, and the anti-E. coli

63

0157:H7 effect of each component was less than that of soya


sauce (Masuda, Hara-Kudo, and Kumagai, 1998).

TableTop Sauces
In an observational study in Mexico City, 43 street-vended
chilli sauces were collected for microbiological examination.
Seventeen (40%) samples were faecally contaminated and 2
(5%) harboured sufficient enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to
cause disease. The authors estimated that the consumption of
only one of these chilli sauces could result in enterotoxigenic E.
coli disease in at least 21,000 consumers per year, making them
important potential vehicles for food borne disease (EstradaGarcia at al., 2002).
The level of microbial contamination of table-top sauces
found in Mexican-style restaurants in Guadalajara, Mexico and
Houston, Texas found that 47 of 71 sauces from Guadalajara
were contaminated with Escherichia coli versus 10 of 25 sauces
from Houston (P = 0.03) and the median number of E. coli
colonies per gram of sauce was 1000 in Guadalajara sauces
versus 0.0 in the Houston sauces (P = 0.007). Among diarrheogenic E. coli, 4 of 43 sauces contained enterotoxigenic E.
coli and 14 of 32 contained enteroaggregative E. coli. It was
concluded that contamination with E. coli was common in samples in Mexican table-top sauces from Guadalajara restaurants
and that these sauces commonly contained enteric pathogens
(Adachi et al., 2002).
Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of
Korean hot red pepper sauce, aged in an oak barrel for 012
months, at 10 C, were investigated and compared to characteristics of imported Tabasco sauce. Yeast and lactic bacteria
increased up to 2 and 3 months, respectively. Microbial counts
decreased after 8 months of ageing. Physicochemical properties
of the Korean hot red pepper sauce changed slightly during 12
months of ageing (Dong et al., 1998).
R
Either Tabasco sauce or a horseradish-based sea food cocktail sauce was placed on freshly oysters which were incubated
R
for 10 minutes on the half shell. Tabasco sauce, but not the
cocktail sauce was highly effective in reducing the number of
Vibrio vulnificus cells present on the oyster meat surface. Hot
sauces were not capable of significantly reducing the overall
numbers of V. vulnificus cells associated with oysters and people were at risk from infection, thus should avoid consumption
of raw oysters (Yi-Sun and Oliver, 1995).

Low Calorie Salad Cream


In the case of low calorie salad cream the research was
directed to modify the cream, by substitution of soybean oil
with 12% Oatrim-5 gel, and to ensure the safety of the product
(Vatanasuchart and Stonsaovapak, 2000). During the shelf-life
storage of 3 and 6 months, total viable count of molds, coliforms
and aciduric spoilage bacteria were not detected in any samples
kept at both room temperature, and at 4 C.

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64

M. SIKORA

Trends in the Microbiological Investigations of Sauces


The microbiological studies on salad dressings and sauces
have focused on the survival of microorganisms in the studied
systems. In a simulation by the addition of contaminated eggs,
Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were inoculated into
oil and vinegar based Italian salad dressing (pH 3.49 and 3.67),
Salmonella spp. were not detected after 5 minutes of holding
and thereafter. A probability model was developed to predict
the survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in mayonnaise. It
successfully predicted survival or death of 97.4% of the samples.
Using regression analysis, the lag phase duration of Listeria
monocytogenes decreased in sea food salad, as the mayonnaise
pH increased, and storage temperature was the main effector on
growth rate.
In the case of fish and soya sauces, the studies have been
conducted on the isolation of various food borne microorganisms. In various fish sauces such as nampla, Bakasang, shotturu
and bagoong, the research has focused on detection and isolation
of faecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Moraxella, Halobacterium
and yeasts. Lactobacillus acidipiscis, L. farciminis, L. pentosus, L. plantarum and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains were
microbiologically examined in soya sauces. Research on Mexican table-top chilli hot sauces revealed faecal contamination by
Escherichia coli, which had the potential to cause food-borne
disease. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in Korean hot red pepper
sauce were monitored on storage and ageing. The effectiveness
R
of Tabascosauce or a horseradish-based sea food cocktail sauce
was effective in reducing the number of Vibrio vulnificus cells
present on the oyster meat surface, but it was not capable of
significantly reducing the overall numbers of V. vulnificus cells
associated with oysters.
Additives such as sucrose and methyl ester sucrose and
methylglucose esters of medium to long chain fatty acids, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and acetic acids
and sorbate acids have been plied against spoilage microorganisms such as yeasts, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Lactobacillus fructivorans. in salad dressings. Salt content and pH
displayed a synergistic effect with pressure on the survival of
Salmonella enteriditis in model and real systems, however the
extent was higher in the mayonnaise based products.
QUALITY CONTROL OF SAUCES
In this section the quality control comprising rheological,
sensory, chromatographic and textural characteristics, as well
as packaging aspects is described.
Rheological and Textural Properties
Low-fat/calorie Salad Dressings
Research investigations of low fat/calorie sauces and salad
dressings have focused on the effects of fat, thickeners, emulsi-

fiers blends, mixed gums, fat replacers and stabilizing agents on


rheological and textural properties.
The effects of fat, thickener and emulsifier in salad dressing
on sensory and rheological properties were investigated in particular by Wendin and Hall (Wendin and Hall, 2001). Different
dressings were analyzed by the use of quantitative descriptive
profiling and time-intensity evaluation, along with instrumental and rheological measurements. It was found, that fat content
had the greatest influence on texture and mouthfeel of dressings,
and emulsifier content was less critical, when fat and thickener
contents were increased.
Riscardo and co-workers (Riscardo, Franco, and Gallegos,
2003) studied the influence of emulsifier blends of pea protein,
sodium caseinate, Tween-20 and sucrose distearate on the rheological properties of low-fat salad dressing emulsions. Binary
blends of egg yolk and different types of amphiphilic molecules
were used to produce different formulations for emulsions stabilization. It was found, that rheological properties, droplet size
and physical stability of the emulsions were dependent on the
weight ratio of emulsifiers in the binary blends, as well as on the
nature of substances blended with the egg yolk.
Similarly, the use of decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum on lowfat salad dressings was evaluated with respect to rheological
properties by Lai and Lin (Lai and Lin, 2004). Mixed gum
systems, consisting of decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum (dHG),
propylene glycol alginate (PGA), xanthan gum (XG) and egg
yolk were studied for their pseudoplastic flow behaviour in the
low-fat salad dressings. PGA addition caused the lowest pseudoplasticity, and increasing the PGA level in the dHG/PGA system
reduced the pseudoplasticity as well. Increasing XG level, increased the viscosity and did not affect the pseudoplasticity.
In related study (Pascual, Alfaro and Munoz, 1999), rheological characterization and physical stability of model oil-in-water
emulsions, similar to low-calorie salad dressings were considered. Two emulsifierssalted liquid egg yolk, and spray-dried
egg yolk were compared. Low-calorie dressings were formulated with either pasteurized salted liquid egg yolk, or spraydried egg yolk, using a rotor/stator homogenizer. According to
the physical stability and rheological studies performed, optimal
results were obtained between 6,000 and 7,000 rpm.
The structural architecture in the continuous phase of low-oil
mayonnaise was studied by Velez, Alfaro and Munoz (2000).
The linear viscoelasticity of increasingly complex dispersions
was compared, starting with xanthan gum/water emulsions and
studying the effects of progressively added spray-dried egg yolk,
and modified starch. Modified starches addition led to weak gel
properties of mayonnaises.
No-fat and low-fat salad dressings, with sensory properties of
normal salad dressings, were produced by replacement of fat by a
semi-gelled pourable ingredient, which comprised an amidated
galacturonic acid methyl ester, with a degree of esterification
below 55% (Ambjerg-Pedersen, 1997).
Oil in water emulsions of different quantitative composition (low-calorie salad dressings), containing dried milk
and locust bean gum as stabilizing agents, showed similar

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

rheological behaviortime-dependent thixotropic character


and yield stress. Thixotropic rheograms obtained for each sample could be modeled through the Hahn equation, at the different
shear rates. Predicted shear stress values had relative errors below 10%, in 99.9% of samples studied. Analysis of the influence
of composition on rheological parameters, showed an interactive
role of gum, milk and acetic acid content on emulsion consistency (Chiralt, Ferragut, and Salazar, 1992).
Other Salad Dressings
The rheological stability and properties of salad dressings
containing peptidic fractions of whey proteins were investigated
by Turgeon et al. (1996). A whey protein concentrates (WPC),
a heat-treated WPC and peptidic fractions obtained by ultrafiltration of their tryptic and chymotryptic hydrolyzates were
included in a salad dressing formulations at 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%
(w/w) protein. Emulsion stability was evaluated at 20 and 25 C,
over a 6-month storage period and rheological properties were
measured by dynamic oscillatory measurements. The peptidic
fractions obtained from tryptic hydrolyzates produced the most
stable salad dressings, with the rheological properties being similar to those of commercial mayonnaise.
The influence of processing parameters on the rheology and
stability of salad dressing emulsions, using both steady-state
shear and oscillatory measurements, along with the droplet size
distribution tests were studied by Franco et al. (Franco, Berjano,
and Gallegos, 1997). Mixtures of egg yolk and sucrose stearate
were prepared by a rotor-stator turbine, as well as by a colloidal
mill. It was found, that increases in energy input and in the temperature of processing, produced higher values of steady-state
viscosity, an increase in emulsion stability, lower droplet size
and lower polydispersity. It has been suggested, that interparticle interactions and droplet size distribution were the main
factors influencing observed phenomena.
Viscoelastic properties of mayonnaise and Italian salad dressing prepared with olive oil and enzymatically synthesized structured lipid (SL) from caprylic acid and olive oil were studied
using a dynamic stress rheometer. Mayonnaise and Italian dressings made with olive oil showed the phase separation, however
SL-based mayonnaise did not. Only minor separation was observed in SL-based Italian dressing. A change in crystallization
properties of the two oils, was probably responsible for the differences observed after refrigeration (Fomuso, Corredig, and
Akoh, 2001).
The consistency and flow behaviour indices of the power
law model, and yield stress according to the Casson model,
which described the viscoelastic nature of a model salad dressing, were determined as a function of storage time and temperature. Four parameter model was employed to describe the
creep-compliance data. Major changes in magnitudes of the rheological parameters took place during the initial 7 days of storage. These changes were attributed to coalescence of oil droplets
and to hydration of the food gum. Creep-compliance data of six
commercial salad dressings showed significant differences in the

65

rheological properties of dressings (Pardes, Rao, and Bourne,


1989).
Viscoelastic properties of commercial salad dressings were
characterized using small amplitude oscillatory experiments.
Samples studied were: mayonnaise (5 samples), reduced calorie
mayonnaise (2 samples) and salad creams (2 samples). All the
mayonnaise samples exhibited higher values of maximum stress
amplitude, as compared to the other dressings, which guaranteed
their linear viscoelasticity. The mayonnaise samples showed
similar rate of decrease in complex viscosity with frequency,
and the latter was higher than that for salad creams. Modified
mayonnaises exhibited different viscoelastic properties. According to complex viscosity-shear viscosity ratios, reduced calorie mayonnaise (1 sample) destructed the least by shear. It was
suggested that oscillatory experiments were useful for studying ageing and ingredients effects (type and amount) in order
to optimize properties of salad dressings (Munoz and Sherman,
1990).
A comparative study on the rheological properties of various commercial sauces divided into sweet and salad categories,
as well as the rheological behaviour of each sauce, at various
temperatures (2040 C) were studied. While the sweet sauces
were found to exhibit Newtonian behavior, the behavior of the
salad sauces was found to be more pseudoplastic. Flow behavior
and consistency indices increased and decreased linearly with
increasing temperature, respectively, and activation energies of
the sweet sauces were found to decrease in the order: commercial honey > caramel > natural honey (Alvarez, Cancela and
Maceiras, 2004).

Chromatographic Approaches
The two main types of chromatographic approaches for monitoring quality aspects of sauces found in the literature were gas
chromatography (GC), usually coupled with mass spectrometry
(MS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Gas Chromatography
Splitless direct injection GC for determination of sorbic acid,
dehydroacetic acid and benzoic acid in salad dressing was developed, with 1,5-pentanediol as an internal standard. Into the
sample (0.5 g), 1 ml of 0.1% 1,5-pentanediol in ethylacetate
was added, and thoroughly blended to dissolve the fatty sample, and injected directly into the GC. Recoveries of sorbic,
dehydroacetic and benzoic acid were 95104%, with coefficient of variation <6.7%. Contents of sorbic, dehydroacetic
and benzoic acid in salad dressing were 0972, 0 and 0 g/g,
respectively. Results showed that benzoic and sorbic acids
were illegally used in some of the products (Choong et al.,
1999).
Nyman and co-workers (Nyman, Diachenko and Perfetti,
2003) have utilized GC-MS to determine 1,3-dichloropropanol
(DCP) in soya and other sauces. The method was validated by

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M. SIKORA

using a blank soya sauce. Identities were confirmed by mass


spectrometry, from analysis of test portions, spiked with 1,3DCP, at 10, 25, 50 and 100 g/g. The limit of detection was
0.055 g/g of sauce.
As a modification of the methods described above, Chung
et al. (Chung, Hui, and Cheng, 2002) used capillary GC-MS to
detect 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol and 3-chlorpropane-1,2-diol in
soya sauce. The method was successful in detecting very small
levels (parts per billion) of these two volatiles. A linear relationship between the concentration of the chloropropanols and
detector response was obtained over the range 101000 g/kg.
Precision was 5%, while recoveries of 1,3DCP and 3-MCPD
from spiked soya sauce samples were 77% and 98%, respectively, which made the method suitable for the simultaneous
separation and detection of these contaminants.
Fukami and co-workers (Fukami et al., 2002) have employed
GC-MS to identify distinctive volatile compounds in fish sauce.
It was found that 4 compounds contributed to the distinctive
odor of fish sauce, namely: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal,
2-ethylpyridine and dimethyltrisulphide. In addition, all studied
odorants were required for the sweaty aroma, while the faecal
odor of fish sauce was due to 2-ethylpyridine and dimethyltrisulphide.
Dynamic headspace sampling (DHS), direct solvent extraction (DSE) and vacuum simultaneous steam distillation solvent
extraction (V-SDE) were used for sample preparation in the
analysis of volatile compounds in Thai soya sauce (Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 2003). The extracts from two brands of
sauces were analyzed by GC-MS, and comparative studies of
the volatile compounds were carried out by DHS, while DSE
and V-SDE were used in order to give a wide spectrum of compounds detected. This could potentially allow the method to
differentiate the production process used, as well as the strain of
microorganism employed.
Fractionation of small samples of salad dressing for fatty acid
profiles and soluble sugar content by using an ultracentrifuge
was developed. Extracted oils were characterized and compared
with those obtained by the official AOAC ether extraction procedure. Both methods gave similar results for fatty acid profiles
and oil recoveries. Fatty acid profiles were determined by GC.
In addition, the sugar content of the aqueous layer of the centrifuged samples could easily be obtained by refractometry. The
proposed method was time and labor efficient and eliminated
the use of hazardous and flammable ether (Patel, 1994).
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
The detection of the artificial dye, Sudan I, in complex
matrices containing hot chili, such as tomato sauces was developed by the use of two methods: HPLC with diode array
detection (HPLC-DAD), as well as HPLC with atmospheric
pressure chemical ionization MS (HPLC-APCI-MS). Ten chilitomato sauces available commercially in Italy, with hot chili
contents of 0.0050.1%, were analyzed using both techniques.
The quantification limits were 300 and 90 g/g for HPLC-

DAD and HPLC-APCI-MS, respectively, and the detection limit


of the latter method was 30 g/g. None of the tested sauces
contained detectable amounts of Sudan I (Bononi and Tateo,
2004).
The photodiode array detection method using HPLC for determination of Sudan dyes in chili- and curry-based sauces was
also developed by Cornet et al. (Cornet et al., 2006). Depending on the dye, the limit of detection range was 0.20.5 mg/kg,
with the limit of quantification being 0.41 mg/kg. The overall
recoveries were in the range of 5186%.
Liang and Huang (2005)determined Sudan reds I-IV in chili
sauce by inversed phase HPLC, using ZorbaxSb-C18 chromatograph column. Chili samples were extracted with n-hexaneacetone solvent, cleaned up with aluminum oxide layer chromatographic column, and detected with visible UV detector.
The recoveries of this procedure were 91%95%.
An another study developed HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan red I, II, III and IV in chili sauce,
with a clean-up procedure by gel column (Xie et al., 2005). The
extract from ethanol was cleaned up with Bio-Beads SX3 gel column (200 mm 10 mm i.d.), and eluted with cyclohexane-Et
acetate (1:1, vol./vol.). The analysis was performed by Symmetry Shield RP18 column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 M), with
100% methanol, as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min,
detection at 478 nm and confirmation by diode-array spectra.
The limits of detection were in the range of 714 g/kg. The
average recoveries for all dyes (spiked at levels of 0.25 and 2.5
mg/kg) ranged in the interval 80.796.35, with relative standard
deviations of 2.45.9%.
The preservatives of soya sauce samples were extracted with
C18 bonded SiO2 SPE cartridge. The use of 10% MeOH in
1% H3 PO4 was the best solution for clean-up. The preservatives were eluted with MeOH and detected by HPLC, using a
gradient elution system. The preservatives of p-hydroxybenzoic
acid, HOBz, Et -hydroxybenzoate, Pr -hydroxybenzoate and
Bu -hydroxybenzoate were 97, 96, 95, 93 and 92%, respectively. The calibration curves were linear between 1.854
mg/kg.
A liquid chromatography (LC) was used for analysis of sucrose polyester (SPE) in vegetable oil based salad dressings. SPE
was separated from acylglycerols by gel permeation chromatography. The elution time window for SPE was determined with
an evaporative light-scattering mass detector. The SPE fraction
was collected and quantified by C18 reversed-phase chromatography with a ternary gradient. The gradient consisted initially
of 45.5% methylene chloride, 52.5% acetonitrile and 2.0% isopropyl alcohol. After 5 minutes, the ratios changed to 98.0%
methylene chloride and 2.0% isopropyl alcohol, and remained
unchanged for the next 6 minutes. The gradient then reverted
back to initial conditions, and was ready for another injection
after a total run time of 17 minutes. Sucrose octaacetate was
used as an internal standard to simplify quantification. Mean
(n = 3) recovery of SPE was 92.4 2.6%. Reversed-phase LC
precision was determined by performing 6 replicate analyses of
Italian dressing (Chase, Akoh, and Eitenmiller, 1995).

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

Sensory Aspects

67

been proposed, that these peptides contribute to the overall taste


of fish sauce.

Fish Sauces
The sensory acceptance of fish sauce having a partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride was investigated by Sanceda et al. (Sanceda, Suzuki, and Kurata, 2003).
Fish sauce was prepared with sodium chloride or natural salt
with partial replacement by potassium chloride in the ratios
90:10, 75:25 and 60:40. Volatile acids were collected by steam
distillation, under reduced pressure, and the sensory properties of the products were evaluated. The amino acid content
was also measured. Sensory evaluation showed slight differences in odor between the samples with added potassium chloride and the controls, however the differences did not affect
the acceptability of the product. Acceptance of the taste was
terminated at the 75:25 sodium chloride: potassium chloride
ratio.
The same authors studied the sensory acceptance and overall
quality of a histidine-added fish sauce (Sanceda et al., 2003).
The fish sauce was incubated for 4 months to allow hydrolysis
of fish proteins by an accelerated fermentation process. Sensory evaluation with respect to taste, smell, colour and overall
quality was carried out. The control was found to be in an immature stage and was unacceptable. Panelists do not familiar
with the fish sauce preferred the histidine-added sauce over the
commercially-available products. However, those who were familiar with the sauce preferred the traditional one, but they still
accepted the histidine-added sauce. It was also reported, that the
addition of histidine during fermentation did not increase the
amount of histidine in the fish sauce.
In another variation of this study, the feasibility of making
fish sauce containing lysine (0.53%) was investigated (Sanceda
et al., 1990). High concentrations of lysine did not significantly
affect acceptance due to aroma, but there was reduced acceptance to flavor and color. In was found, that the addition of up
to 2.0% lysine was acceptable for the panelists.
The use of Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated from fish-sauce
mash (moromi) of frigate mackerel, in improving fish-sauce odor
was studied by Fukami et al. (Fukami et al., 2004). The volatile
compounds were analyzed by GC, after incubation, at 32 C, for
24 days, with the cultured bacteria. The sensory evaluation of fish
sauces showed, that the notes of such attributes as: fishy, sweaty,
faecal and rancid were weaker, than those of not treated with
bacteria. No changes were found with respect to the attributes,
such as: burnt, cheesy, meaty and ammonia. It was concluded,
that the odor of the fish sauce was improved by treatment with
bacteria.
The taste effects of oligopeptides in a Vietnamese fish sauce
(Nuoc mam) were studied by Park et al. (2002). In this sauce,
the oligopeptides accounted for approximately 20% of the total nitrogen. The high molecular weight peptide fractions enhanced sweetness along with the sourness and bitterness of the
fish sauce. Several other flavour characteristics, such as continuity, first taste and after taste were also increased. It has therefore

Ranch Salad Dressings


Nine ranch salad dressings containing canola (rapeseed) oil
at 0, 6.75 or 13.5% w/v (total fat levels of 1.5, 7.25 and 15%
w/v, respectively) were prepared, in combination with added
garlic flavoring (resoleum garlic oil) at 0.12, 0.36 or 0.6% w/v.
Sensory properties of dressings were assessed using the timeintensity technique, applied by 2 men and 10 women, of 2236
years of age, over a 3-month period (38 sessions). Increasing the
fat content of the salad dressings reduced the maximum intensity, total duration and area under the time-intensity curve for
garlic and pepper flavors, and delayed perception of sourness.
Faster or shorter flavour release was not observed for garlic or
pepper, following fat reduction. Flavour release (garlic, pepper,
sourness) was reduced after increasing thickness and viscosity
of dressings (as in high-fat containing samples). Results indicated, that in such fat-based, semi-solid product, both molecular
interactions with the lipid phase, and physical entrapment in
the food matrix appeared to affect flavour release characteristics
(Guinard et al., 2002).
Ranch salad dressings were prepared in a factorial design,
containing added fat, at levels of 0, 6.75 and 13.5%, and added
garlic flavour (0.12, 0.36 and 0.60%). Taste evaluation was conducted in a supermarket, in a designated area, in which 4 consumers could be tested at once. 144 consumers were involved
in tasting about 6 ml dressing, on iceberg lettuce pieces. On a
9-point hedonic scale, consumers rated samples for liking of texture and mouthfeel, flavour (taste and odor) and overall degree
of liking. Various analytical techniques were applied to results,
i.e. ANOVA, RSM, LSD and internal preference mapping. A
wide range of preferences was observed. On average consumer
preferred higher garlic/pepper/sourness flavour level, and lower
viscosity, as well as fatty/creamy properties (Yackinous, Wee,
and Guinard, 1999).
Other Sauces and Salad Dressings
The sensory characteristics of vinaigrettes with tropical
spices as alternatives to imported garlic vinaigrettes were characterized by Fridie et al. (Fridie, Badrie, and Pemberton, 2003).
Chives, celery, cilantro and garlic were either frozen or freezedried, and added at 12% or 24% to vinaigrette production. The
panelists (in the Caribbean) had a greater likeness for flavor of a
celery vinaigrette, but preferred the appearance of the commercial garlic product. The use of frozen or freeze-dried herbs had
no observable effects on consistency, pH and total soluble solids.
Unlike panelists in the USA, Caribbean ones found significant
differences in pepperiness of vinaigrettes.
The consumer acceptance of processed red sorrel/roselle
(Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) sauces, containing 0.3% and 0.4%
xanthan gum was studied by DHeureux-Calix and Badrie

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68

M. SIKORA

(DHeureux-Calix and Badrie, 2004). Sensory color was the


most liked attribute with an instrumental color L 23.5, a 3.5
and b 0.40. Sauces were liked slightly to moderately in overall
acceptability. Also, a positive correlation was noted between the
overall acceptability and other sensory attributes.
The effects of brining, debrining and peeling were investigated on the physicochemical and sensory properties of reduced
sodium hot sauces prepared from green and ripe dwarf golden
apples (Spondias cytherea). Prior to sauce preparation, unpeeled
apples were brined in 10, 12 or 15% NaCl and peeled fruits in
10% brine, followed by debrining in water, at 30 or 60 C. It was
found, that brining and debrining had significant effects on all
sensory and physicochemical properties of sauces (P < 0.05).
Flavour of sauces from unpeeled apples was preferred, than that
from peeled fruits. The most acceptable products were liked only
slightly to moderately. No significant differences were observed
in either descriptor or hedonic scores, between the fruit sauces
(Katerson and Badire, 2002).
Effects of fruit peel addition on sensory quality of golden
apple (Spondias cytherea) hot sauces from fresh, frozen or brined
fruits were investigated by St-Louis and Badrie (St. Louis and
Badrie, 2002). Sauce base formulation consisted of golden apple
puree (50%), water (25%), vinegar (10%), peppers (6%), sucrose
(4%), aromatic spices (2%), citric acid (1.1%), NaCl (1.0%),
xanthan gum (0.8%) and sodium benzoate (0.1%). Hot sauces
were processed at 8590 C, for 1520 minutes, followed by hotfilling into glass bottles. Fruits were acceptable in 20% brine for
up to 6 weeks, when stored at 2831 C. Sensory properties did
not vary (P > 0.05) in sauces with 0 or 5% peel, however, sauces
of 100% peel were more yellow (P < 0.05), had lower TSS (P
< 0.05) and were less acceptable (P < 0.05).
Effects of substitution of peanut milk fermented with mixed
cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus for buttermilk
on chemical, physical and sensory properties of ranch-style
salad dressing were investigated by Lee and Beuchat (Lee and
Beuchat, 1991). Increased amounts of fermented peanut milk
in dressing resulted in decreased lightness, creamy flavour, oil
emulsion capacity and consistency. Changes were dependent
upon the commercial brand of dressing mix. Fermented peanut
milk could be substituted for buttermilk in salad dressing at levels up to 25%, without substantial reduction in sensory qualities.
Sensory properties and quantification of the key odorants responsible for flavor changes in tomato sauces during storage
were measured and correlated. Significant sensory changes appeared after 1 and 3 months, at 25 C, in dice and paste tomato
sauces. In tomato paste sauce, the sensory deterioration was
slower, than in dice tomato sauce, and occurred more extensively at 40 C, than at 25 C. Correlation between sensory and
instrumental data revealed, that the source of sensory changes
should be (E, E)deca,-24-dienal in the dice sauce. The sensory change in the tomato paste sauce could be due to acetaldehyde, methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, oct-1-en-3-one,
3-methylbutanoic acid, deca-2, 4-dienal, 2-methoxyphenol and
-damascenone (Pascale et al., 2002).

Effect of formulation on sensory perception and flavor release was investigated on salad dressing models. Oil-vinegar
emulsions (phi = 0.5, droplet size >10 m) with thickeners
and a whey protein concentrate were prepared, with different
fat droplet sizes, and distributions of droplet size. Effect of
emulsifier content was also tested. Sensory profile analysis was
performed by a trained panel, and flavour release was quantified by dynamic headspace analysis. Results showed, that with
an increase of droplet size, lemon and citrus aromas increased,
whereas egg, mustard, and butter aromas decreased significantly.
Content of alcohols and acids increased, when droplet size increased, whereas those of other compounds, such as limonene or
benzaldehyde, decreased significantly. Dispersion of the droplet
size had a small effect on flavor perception, and effect of increases in emulsifier content was noticed, only by instrumental
analysis (Charles et al., 2000).
Twelve type of salad dressing with three levels of fat content
and two levels of emulsifier were produced according to factorial
design (Wendin and Hall, 2001). These dressings were evaluated
by descriptive profiling and time-intensity evaluation. All design
parameters had a significant influence on the properties of salad
dressings, mainly on texture and mouthfeel, with fat content
being the most influential factor.
Succinylated whey concentrate (SYC) was substituted for
20% of the egg yolk in salad dressing, and the effects on quality and acceptance were determined by Thompson and Reniers
(Thompson and Reniers, 1982). SYC had emulsification properties suitable to these products. A more stable salad dressing
with higher viscosity, and no significant differences in consumer
acceptability, was produced in this way. It was also found, that
SYC had potential as a new and functional protein emulsifier.
Chemical analyses revealed, that Korean-type hot sauces had
pH 3.29, titratable acidity 3.88%, the content of capsanthin
0.13% and capsaicin 2.68% mg. Contents of capsanthin and
capsaicin decreased during storage for 50 days, at 20 and 30 C,
and sensory scores were found to decrease with storage time. The
correlation between color and capsanthin content was found to
be high; thus, capsanthin content was selected as a quality index
for Korean-type hot sauce (Kwon et al., 1998).

Packaging Aspects
Mayonnaises packed in 3 types of jars (glass jars with plastics closures and foil seals, or glass or PVC jars with plastics/expanded PE closures) with a capacity of 250 g, and stored
for 8 months, at 8, 23 and 35 C, were taken periodically and examined by chemical analysis (peroxide and anisidine values), as
well as organoleptically. The results indicated that temperature
was the most important factor affecting the rate of deterioration
of the products. The organoleptic evaluation was useful for monitoring the loss of quality of the mayonnaises, but did not show
differences between the types of packaging. Chemical analysis,
mainly the peroxide value at 23 C, showed a difference among
the packages based on their oxygen permeability. The peroxide

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

value could be substituted for the organoleptic evaluation in


some specific conditions (Ortiz et al., 1991).
The effects of addition of salad dressing and a citric acid dip
on storage quality of modified atmosphere packaged shredded
cabbage (Savoy) and carrots (Chantenay Long) were investigated with respect to possible extension of shelf life. Microbial
quality and headspace gas analyses were determined during storage at 4 C, for up to 3 weeks. Use of dressing produced vegetables with better quality and longer shelf life, than untreated vegetables. Respiration was stabilized by the addition of dressing.
Microbial growth was reduced, when citric acid was used in different quantities, for different periods of storage. Treatment with
citric acid had an immediate effect on initial microbial quality
of the vegetables; treatment for 30 minutes was more effective,
than thosefor 5 minutes. Microbial growth in modified atmosphere packaged samples was lower, than those in the control,
after the first day of storage (Eytan, Weinert, and MgGill, 1991).

Trends in Quality Control of Sauces


Concerning Droplet Size, Texture Studies and Rheological
Behaviour
Investigation of the effects of fat, thickener and emulsifier
in salad dressings brought about, that fat content had greatest
effect on texture and mouthfeel. A research on the influence
of emulsifier blends on rheological properties of low-fat salad
dressing emulsions indicated, that droplet size and physical stability of the emulsions were dependent on the weight ratio of
emulsifiers in binary blends, and on the nature of the substances
blended with egg yolk. Mixed gums consisting of decolorized
hsian-tsao leaf gum, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), xanthan
gum (XG) and egg yolk had pseudoplastic flow behaviour in the
low-fat salad dressings, with PGA showing the lowest pseudoplasticity and increasing viscosity with increasing xanthan gum
level. An addition of spray-dried egg yolk and modified starch
to mayonnaise revealed, that modified starches led to weak gel
properties. In the no-fat or low fat product, part or all of the
fat replaced by amidated galacturonic acid methyl ester, with
a degree of esterification below 55%, resulted in sensory properties similar to normal salad dressings. In a comparative study
sweet sauces exhibited Newtonian behavior, and the salad sauces
were more pseudoplastic. Oil in water emulsions (low-calorie
salad dressings), containing dried milk and locust bean gum as
stabilizing agents, showed similar rheological behavior: timedependent thixotropic character and yield stress.
The inclusion of whey protein peptidic fractions from tryptic hydrolyzates of whey protein concentrates produced stable
salad dressings, with the rheological properties being similar
to those of commercial mayonnaise. An increase in energy input and temperature of processing, produced higher values of
steady-state viscosity, an increase in emulsion stability, lower
droplet size and lower polydispersity. Mayonnaise from enzymatically synthesized structured lipid, from caprylic acid and

69

olive oil showed no phase separation, in comparison to mayonnaise and Italian dressings, made with olive oil. Major changes
in magnitudes of the rheological parameters in a model salad
dressing were attributed to coalescence of oil droplets, and to
hydration of the food gum. In comparative study on the rheological properties, sweet sauces exhibited Newtonian behavior,
while the salad sauces was more pseudoplastic.
Concerning Chromatographic Analyses
For determination of sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid and benzoic acid in salad dressing, a simple and rapid method was developed using splitless direct injection gas chromatography, with
recoveries of 95104%. GC-MS was used in the determination
of 1,3-dichloropropanol (DCP) in soya and other sauces with
the limit of detection being 0.055 g/g of sauce. A modified
method used capillary GC-MS to detect 1,3-dichlorpropan-2ol and 3-chlorpropane-1,2-diol in soya sauce with detection in
parts per billion. GC-MS was employed to identify distinctive
volatile compounds in fish sauce of non-treated fish sauce and
of deodorized fish sauce.
For sample preparation in the analysis of volatile compounds
in Thai soya sauce, dynamic headspace sampling (DHS), direct solvent extraction (DSE), and vacuum simultaneous steam
distillation solvent extraction (V-SDE) were used.
Sudan I in hot chilitomato sauce was detected by HPLC
with diode array detection and by HPLC with diode array detection. The photodiode array detection method using HPLC was
developed for determination of Sudan dyes in chili- and currybased sauces, with overall recoveries in the range of 5186%.
Sudan red I, Sudan red II, Sudan red III and Sudan red IV in
chili sauce were also detected by inversed phase HPLC, using
ZorbaxSb-C18 chromatograph column, with recoveries of 91
95%. HPLC was also used for simultaneous determination of
Sudan Red I, II, III and IV in chili sauce with a clean-up procedure by gel column, with recoveries for all dyes in the range
80.796.3%. Preservatives in soy sauce samples were extracted
with C18 bonded SiO2 SPE cartridge, and detected by the HPLC
using a gradient elution system. A liquid chromatography was
used for analysis of sucrose polyester (SPE) in vegetable oil
based salad dressings, in which the SPE was separated from
acylglycerols, by gel permeation chromatography.
Concerning Sensory Studies
The sensory acceptance study of fish sauce having a partial
substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride showed
slight differences in odor between the samples with added potassium chloride and the controls. Sensory acceptance and overall
quality of a histidine-added fish sauce was studied with panelists,
who preferred the histidine-added sauce, over the commerciallyavailable products. In overall quality, it was found, that the addition of up to 2.0% lysine into fish sauce was acceptable for
the panelists. The use of Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated from
fish-sauce mash (moromi) of frigate mackerel improved the odor

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M. SIKORA

of fish sauce. It was found, that high molecular weight peptide


fractions contribute to the overall taste of fish sauce.
In salad dressings, the effects of fat and level of flavoring, on
flavor release, as well as the effects of fat and garlic levels on
sensory scores, by the use of hedonic testing were evaluated.
Based on sensory characteristics of vinaigrettes, Caribbean
panelists expressed greater likeness for flavor of a celery vinaigrette, but preferred the appearance of the commercial garlic
product. Sensory color was the most liked attribute in processed
red sorrel/roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) sauces, containing
0.3% and 0.4% of xanthan gum, with the products being liked
from slightly to moderately in overall acceptability. It was found
that brining and debrining had significant (P < 0.05) effects on all
sensory properties of golden apple sauces (Spondias cytherea),
and the flavour of sauces from unpeeled apples was preferred,
to sauces from peeled fruits. In related study, sensory properties of golden apple sauces did not vary in sauces with 0 or
5% peel. Increasing the fat content of the salad dressings reduced the maximum intensity, total duration and area under the
time-intensity curve for garlic and pepper flavors, and delayed
perception of sourness. Fermented peanut milk from mixed cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, could be substituted
for buttermilk in salad dressing, at levels up to 25%, without
substantial reduction in sensory qualities. Consumers preferred
higher garlic/pepper/sourness flavour level, and lower viscosity
and fatty/creamy properties of ranch salad dressings, containing added fat, at levels of 6.7% and 13.5%, and added garlic
flavour at 0.12, 0.36 and 0.60%. Significant sensory changes,
which appeared after 1 and 3 months, at 25 C, in dice and paste
tomato sauces, could be due to acetaldehyde, methylpropanal,
3-methylbutanal, oct-1-en-3-one, 3-methylbutanoic acid, deca2, 4-dienal, 2-methoxyphenol and -damascenone formation in
sauces. In oil-vinegar emulsions (phi = 0.5, droplet size >10
m) with thickeners and a whey protein, with different sizes
and distributions of droplet size, it was concluded, that droplet
size had a small effect on flavor perception. The levels of fat
content and of emulsifiers had a significant influence on the
properties of salad dressings, mainly on texture and mouthfeel,
with fat content being the most influential factor. Succinylated
whey concentrate, which was substituted for 20% of the egg
yolk in salad dressing, resulted in a more stable salad dressing
with higher viscosity and no significant differences in consumer
acceptability. Sensory scores of Korean-type hot sauces were
found to decrease with storage time, and the correlation between
color and capsanthin content was found to be high.

Concerning Packaging Aspects


The type of packaging, whether glass jars with plastics closures and foil seals, or glass or PVC jars with plastics/expanded
PE closures, did not influence the loss of quality of mayonnaise, which were stored for 8 months, at 8, 23 and 35 C, and
monitored by organoleptic evaluation. Microbiological growth
in modified atmosphere packed samples of shredded cabbage

and carrots with addition of salad dressing and citric acid dip
was lower, than those in the control, after the first day of storage.

HEALTHY ASPECTS OF SAUCES AND


SALAD DRESSINGS
In the last decades, trends have been appearing towards
production and consumption of low sodium, low-calorie and
low/reduced fat sauces and salad dressings, and towards incorporation of calcium and lutein to sauces and dressings. Some of
these products are described in this section.

Low Sodium Sauces and Salad Dressings


Katerson and Badrie (2002) have reported on the use of brined
green and mature dwarf golden apples for processing into reduced sodium hot sauces. Unpeeled dwarf golden apples were
brined in 10, 12 and 15% NaCl brine, and peeled fruits in 10%
NaCl brine, and then debrined in water at 30 or 60 C, for use
in sauces. The effects of brining and debrining were significant (p < 0.05) on all sensory and physicochemical features of
sauces. The taste of sauces from unpeeled fruits was preferred
to peeled fruits. Sauces had reduced sodium of 2055 mg over
the reference amounts customarily consumed.
Enzymatically hydrolyzed soya sauce (EHSS) obtained by
treatment of defatted soya flakes, using two types of proteases,
and followed by Maillard reaction was mixed with fermented
soya sauce (FSS) to make enzymatically hydrolyzed mixed soya
sauce (EHMSS). It was underlined, that EHSS and EHMSS had
potential for use with FSS to produce high quality soya sauce
with low salt, and high protein level (Chae, In and Kim, 1997).

Sauces and Salad Dressings of Reduced Fat and Cholesterol


Lupin proteins have been used as replacements for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings, whereby oil-in-water
emulsions were prepared using white lupin protein isolate (LPI)
as emulsifier (Raymundo et al., 2002). According to the authors
it was possible to produce both mayonnaise and salad dressings
similar to commercially-available products, but without a preliminary thermal denaturation stage for LPI. In addition, lowfat products were obtained by including xanthan gum in the
formulation.
Oatrim-5 gel was substituted for soybean oil in low calorie
salad dressings. Three replacement levels of this gel (50, 70
and 90%) were applied, and salad dressings were compared to
a control dressing. The highest intensity of characteristics for
aroma, sourness, viscosity and flavor was noted in the control
sample. There was no significant preference in characteristics
except for viscosity for salad dressing with 50 and 70% Oatrim5-gel substitution. The addition of 0.30.5% xanthan gum as
thickening agent, improved stability of dressing. The proximate

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composition of the control sample compared to all substituted


samples, showed reduction in fat and energy content, which
were 59.59, 29.81, 18.71 and 7.24 g of fat, and 595.21, 341.00
and 144.00 kcal, respectively (Vatanasuchart and Stonsaovapak,
2000).
Similarly, hydrocolloids have been utilized as stabilizers and
fat substitutes in low-fat salad dressings and sauces (Ward,
1998). The components of oil mimetic systems for use in salad
dressings, the development of specific fat mimetic systems for
low fat sauces, and the formulation of no-oil and/or low-oil salad
dressings were also described in this paper.
Greek researchers have described the extraction of low-fat,
low-cholesterol materials from spray-dried egg yolk, using a series of solvents (Paraskevopoulou and Kiosseoglou, 1997). The
extracts and the spray-dried yolk were included into traditional
recipes for oil-in-water salad dressings. The authors indicate
that the methodologies described were useful in the production
of low-cholesterol salad dressings.
Salad dressings containing cholesterol-lowering amounts of
a sterol or stanol ester, crystal fat inhibitors and emulsifiers were
presented in the patent of Dartey et al. (Dartey et al., 2000). The
dressings remained stable during refrigeration.
Health benefits of vegetable oils and their use as a source of
phytochemicals for functional foods, such as salad dressings,
were proposed. Particular consideration was given to development of salad dressing, incorporating hempseed or flaxseed oils,
and to the use of soybean extract in spreads, aimed for lowering
cholesterol (Anon, 2000).
Salad dressing with potential hypolipidemic activity was
patented. It was composed of ingredients shown to have hypocholesterolaemic effects on humans, i.e. soya protein (tofu), flax
oil and vinegar. Herbs and spices were added according to preferences (McKeown, 2000).
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) gel, having mouthfeel and
flow properties, similar to those of fat, was used as a replacer of
all, but 3% of the fat in sauces. The remaining 3% of fat, were
flavor carriers (Hoefler, 2004). MCC was used at a concentration
of 12% in low-oil and no-oil salad dressings, because of its
short texture and good cling properties. MCC in combination
with 10% (w/w) xanthan gum, could ensure long-term viscosity
during shelf-life.

Sauces Containing Inulin


Inulin, naturally occurring polysaccharide, present in many
plants and obtained primarily from the roots of chicory (Cicorium intybus L.) (De Bruyn et al., 1992) or tubers of Jerusalem
artichoke (Baldini et al., 2003),has been incorporated in salad
dressings. Inulin was reported as a prebiotic, which stimulated
the growth of bifidobacteria and inhibited colon carcinogenesis in animal models (Roberfroid, Van Loo, and Gibson, 1998;
Reddy, 1999). Also, it was reported that inulin significantly lowered serum triglycerides of hypercholesterolemic men, as well as
improved the gut flora (Causey et al., 2000). The incorporation

71

of inulin in sun-dried tomato salad dressing product improved


mouthfeel and viscosity, due to synergistic interaction with xanthan gum (Ohr, 2000).
The use of health-promoting functional ingredients, such as
soybean, canola, olive and fish oils, Echinacea, inulin, Spirulina and plant stanol esters, in salad dressings have been reviewed with reference to functional properties in salad dressings. Introduction of Benecol-containing and all-natural dressings, use of stabilizers in salad dressings, factors affecting the
choice of a stabilizer system, stabilizers used in salad dressings,
properties of xanthan gum, the most widely used salad dressing stabilizer, increasing development of clean-label dressings,
and properties of Benecol dressings, as well as development
of Benecol-containing snack foods were described by Brandt
(Brandt, 1999).

Other Sauces and Salad Dressings


Sauces and salad dressings containing a soluble calcium
source, comprising specific molar ratios of calcium, citrate and
malate, or calcium acetate were described by Fox et al. (Fox,
Luhrsen, and Burkes, 1993). The calcium composition was more
soluble in sauces and dressings, than calcium citrate or calcium
carbonate.
The optimal conditions for stable lutein-enriched oil-in-water
emulsion were 20% corn oil, 2% whey proteins, 0.1575 phosphatidylglyceral, 93.7 mM KCl, 0.0282% lutein, at pH 4.55.
The half-life stability, stability index and zeta potential values
for freshly prepared emulsions were higher when stabilized with
phosphatidylcholine. Lutein remained stable in fresh and heattreated emulsions (Losso et al., 2005).

Trends in the Production of Health Beneficial Sauces and


Dressings
In the production of sauces and salad dressing the trends have
been focused on reduced sodium content, low-calorie, low-fat
sauces and salad dressings with functional ingredients. A reduced sodium content, golden apple hot sauces were produced
from de-brined fruits, and soya sauces of lower sodium content were produced by mixing enzymatically hydrolysed soya
sauce, mixed with fermented soya sauce. Lupin proteins served
as replacements for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings. Xanthan gum, Oatrim-5 gel, low-cholesterol spray-dried
egg yolk, hempseed oils, flax seed oils and microcrystalline cellulose have been used as fat substitutes, stabilizers, as well as
to lower cholesterol in low-fat and low-calorie salad dressings
and sauces. The incorporation of functional ingredients such as
inulin, olive and fish oils, Echinacea, inulin, Spirulina and plant
stanol esters in salad dressings have been presented in salad
dressings.

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72

M. SIKORA

SUMMARY
Food products such as sauces, mayonnaises, and salad dressings have been studied for many years. However, the growing
consumer demands pose ever-increasing challenges for the food
technologists to constantly develop new and better technologies,
improved quality products and products with healthpromoting
functions. Therefore, it is very crucial that papers such as this
one are presented to the readers, especially since the specialized
literature lacks in this area.
In the paper it is underlined, that all aspects concerning
sauces, dressings, mayonnaises and similar food products production are of great importance. Particular sections are arranged
in this way, that the reader, even not familiar with the subject,
could get easily into the scientific base of e.g. emulsion preparation, or the use of polysaccharide hydrocolloids. Thus, in the
first section the most important properties of polysaccharide and
protein hydrocolloids, as well as the combined polysaccharidepolysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein systems for thickening, texturizing, and stabilization of sauces, emulsions and
foams are presented, as the above mentioned systems and the
understanding of their application seem to be crucial for such
systems.
In the next section (Section 2), the applications of polysaccharide hydrocolloids and their combinations used as thickeners and stabilizers of cocoa syrups, sweet and sour sauces
and related products were demonstrated. Hydrocolloids such
as: agar, carrageenans, carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum,
acetylated distarch adipate, acetylated starch, and oxidized
starch, combinations of potato starch, oxidized starch, acetylated distarch adipate and acetylated starch with xanthan gum,
also combinations of oat starchxanthan gum, oat starch
oat hydrolysate, and oat hydrolysatexanthan gum were used
as stabilizers, thickeners and consistency providers in these
studies. Starches of special properties (amaranthus and corn
starches) were also used in order to improve mouthfeel of
sauces and beverages and compared as thickeners of salad
dressings.
In section 3, a number of hydrocolloids such as: gum acacia, guar gum, arabinogalactan, inulin, flaxseed gum, xanthan
gum as well as propylene glycol alginate blended with the
other hydrocolloids enhanced emulsion stability. It was shown
also, that ultra-filtered whey peptide fractions and soya protein
showed improved interfacial and emulsifying properties, and
hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate showed stronger surfaceactive properties, which extended shelf-life of emulsions. Hydrolyzed lupine protein showed good emulsion stability in salad
dressing, and could be used as replacer for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad dressings. Canola protein isolate with an
addition of carrageenan and guar gum increased emulsifying
activity index of stabilized emulsions. Emulsifying stability increased with increasing incorporation of beef plasma protein,
spray-dried preparation in emulsion type salad dressing preparation. Also, spray-dried preparations of pig blood plasma and
decolorized pig blood cell protein (globin) with sodium hexam-

etaphosphate were excellent acid emulsifiers in the manufacturing of mayonnaise and salad dressings.
In the study on various microbiological aspects of sauces and
salad dressings (Section 5), the studies have primarily focused on
the survival of microorganisms in the systems. For fish and soya
sauces, the studies have been directed on the isolation of various
food borne microorganisms. For various fish sauces such as nampla, Bakasang, shotturu and bagoong, the research has focused
on detection and isolation of faecal coliforms, Staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus spp., Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Moraxella. halobacterium and yeasts. Research on Mexican table-top chilli, hot sauces revealed faecal contamination by
Escherichia coli, which had the potential to cause food-borne
disease. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in Korean hot, red pepper sauce were monitored on storage and ageing. The effectiveR
ness of Tabasco sauce or a horseradish-based sea food cocktail
sauce was effective in reducing the number of Vibrio vulnificus cells present on the oyster meat surface. Additives such as
sucrose and methyl ester sucrose and methylglucose esters of
medium to long chain fatty acids, ethylene diamine tetraacetic
acid, ascorbic acid and acetic acids and sorbate acids have been
plied against spoilage microorganisms such as yeasts, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Lactobacillus fructivorans in salad dressings. Salt content and pH displayed a synergistic effect with
pressure on the survival of Salmonella enteriditis in model, and
real systems, however the extent was higher in the mayonnaise
based products.
Studies on the rheological and textural properties of low
fat/calorie sauces and salad dressings have focused on the effects of fat, thickeners, emulsifiers blends, mixed gums, fat replacers and stabilizing agents. The inclusion of whey protein
peptidic fractions and variations of processing parameters have
been studied, as being influential on the stability of sauces and
salad dressings.
In the various chromatographic approaches, gas chromatography (GC) has been applied for the determination of preservatives and identification of volatile components in soya and
fish sauces using different techniques. Also, a number of studies
have applied high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
by using various detection methods, such as diode, photodiode,
diode array spectra for artificial dyes in chili and curry-based
sauces, as well as for determination of preservatives in soya
sauce samples, and analysis of sucrose polyester in vegetable
oil based salad dressings.
The sensory studies on fish sauces have been carried out on
partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride,
the use of Staphylococus xylosus to improve fish odor, and consumer preference for histidine-added fish sauce. In ranch salad
dressings, the effects of fat and level of flavoring on flavor release, as well as the effects of fat and garlic levels on sensory
scores, using hedonic testing were investigated. Sensory studies
on the other type of sauces and salad dressings were based on:

sensory preference and descriptive characterization of celery


and garlic vinaigrettes by Caribbean panelists,

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SAUCES AND DRESSINGS: A REVIEW OF PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

hedonic scoring of various sensory attributes of red sorrel/roselle sauces,


sensory preferences of golden apple sauces from peeled, unpeeled, brined and debrined fruits,
descriptive characterization of golden apple hot sauces,
substitution of fermented peanut milk for buttermilk in salad
dressings, without reduction in sensory qualities,
substitution of succinylated whey concentrate for egg yolk in
salad dressings, with no significant difference in consumer
acceptability,
identification of chemical components, which were responsible for significant sensory changes after one and three month
of storage in dice and tomato sauces,
influence of fat droplet sizes and distributions of oil-vinegar
emulsions on flavor perception.

Studies using different packaging materials have focused on


the loss of quality of mayonnaise, and influence of added salad
dressing to atmosphere packed samples of shredded cabbage and
carrots on microbial growth.
In the production of sauces and salad dressing the trends
have been also shown towards reduced sodium content, lowcalorie, low-fat sauces and salad dressings with functional ingredients. Golden apple hot sauces of reduced sodium content
were produced from debrined fruits, and soya sauces of lower
sodium content were produced by mixing enzymatically hydrolysed soya sauce with fermented soya sauce. Lupine proteins
served as replacements for egg protein in mayonnaise and salad
dressings. Xanthan gum, Oatrim-5 gel, low-cholesterol spraydried egg yolk, hempseed, flaxseed oils, and microcrystalline
cellulose have been used, as fat substitutes, stabilizers and to
lower cholesterol in low-fat and low-calories salad dressings
and sauces.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The presented research results focused on several directed
areas. In every area, however, the objective observer could
find some niches, which would require further exploration, and
deeper research. Summarizing, the following research recommendations seem to be worthful:

more sophisticated physical characteristics of obtained products (textural characteristics, with an application of different
measuring systemsback extrusion, squeeze flow tests, and
application of the newest rheological methods for characterization of products),
trials on application of new, rare polysaccharide hydrocolloids, or their combinations in the production and stabilization
of emulsions,
application of the new and various sensory evaluation methods
for characterization of products,
mutual correlation of sensory, textural and rheological methods in evaluation of final products, that could lead to optimization of thickener content,

73

more frequent use of shelf-life and microbiological determinations for characterization of products, and application of
them parallely with physical characteristics,
investigation in the area of texturizing and structurizing ingredients of sauces,
trials on substitution of various fat replacers in dietetic sauces
and their effects on physicochemical and sensory properties,
inclusion of functional ingredients for beneficial healthful
promoting properties of sauces, e.g. inclusion of oat hydrolysates, phytochemicals, etc.,
fermentation of sauces using probiotic microorganisms,
processing of sauces and salad dressings from exotic
tropicalbased fruits and vegetables.

It seems also to be necessary the fixing and unification of the


analytical procedure concerning each type of sauce, mayonnaise
or dressing in order to take better care of the health, needs, and
expectations of the consumers.

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