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u~6flftUJLb = 1. UQJr6ATUULL_ Glurr®Gtr umrLw, utiJG6lJ/IJI U6lJir6llflfllU,tiJ 1D1I{;)~JlrfJ 6l5J(6)6IT~ff (LD~Q)tr 8;; 405). smo (§@Q§J/iJ /Ow CQJ61Jir@LiJ u6lJirOll6fJwUJ (LO~Q)tr 8; 422). J7f!Jt6~ C:IbGT~DU U8lilr67RlFJUJLD U&tfJD(!J;t.O (LO~Q)I]8;. 506).

2. 6DI~u@t.O QJ..ttauQurr(!!)Qr

(;]&ff@UaUffff &6lfJL (;]~ffIJ)/LiJ u6lJilrGlllf}IJ..JJ..b u(Tffi Q~lP (L06IUfl 7 : 24). ufiirr6flftUJ 6'516lf)6lJ®rT = UmrL6lJrr~9irT.

QU~QJ It¥Jtu L1J{JliJou6lfJ ~ L»6r6lllFJUJ 6Jf)~ <uiJ!bWJU· 765).

U<iilRrr6flftU1"(Jt.b-U6W~8iIT'7t..h=u6lJU~TI , h (i/QJrT J. Q{/J. uiiJrUJrrlJ (':IJ. umr~UJar -( U6W~C1)m- )-( U~8jGisT )-QJ6flftc9iW.

f;.C:/Drr. u~~UJfT[TLiJ-umrronfla;fT[JLh. u~ronfIUJfTl7tb-uGDfJ

UJ rr I]' I..D.U ®-6lJ@.

QJ~8)6W-6lJ~c9iLb. QI~a;w-QJfT~a;6isrQJ rr~ e;tb. QJ tt ~ a;ar -6lJ rr6flft UJro&r.

6TJ61UJJ&6ir QUlf)laUJ 6JJffOll6fJ& 6lIffJjJ&61J&. (G~rrQ).1578)'

Guj, vaniyo, baniya, A. banyan, Port. banian, E banian banyan.

QJ6IIlJfl&6ir-QJOII6fJ(§. @.(J,lDff.' (lQJ,mID6ir (C:QJtll,r5(1lDtrQrJ- C:6JJ,m6· &l156iT&6i6r 6'JJGlllfiQ&ff@QJ fJ)J6ff6ir (<::LOQ!>LD.ffi. 230) (QJ. GU. 253-254)

QJ61Ifle - QJ61Ifl!i.

~~, Qurr®6ir umr~uQJ6isr (rfL@uQJ6isT) u~c$ar orGisr.f!)JLDrrLh. "vanij. m (also written banij.) a merchant, trader RV. & . &" 6T~U,gp LDIT. fifiJ.-=,/.

&uI QlB-QJAu

u iJ :2iQ)=:t6IiJ@j~GlJ.

20

ulJQIFWIIJI U~.6616ir ~Q')5u4. LSltN)Qt 2). uiJ=l. lLA)lDmI, ,h (~Q1rrJ

uj)u51pJ ~&Jtu - <eJDfiiT 1116) 2 . .a@ (~QJrr J 3. C:&rruJ1fib (6t5J. -M&)

4. !6&lJw.

u~ QJJIj/tutrU 4Jl~1q. <Skuu t15)

LD4II4R»fJUJWUi/, i/Q)6I)QJU.Jwui/ c!:p~Il.lQfT j)Q).t5J1LI QJlP&~'

uiJ-6lIiJ· 9· Cli": U@i-QJ~ Ulll-6l/-QJLf-6l/.

QliJ~fJiJ=~IiIE!J~.

QJJJwair QJWUQJIT QJ~ ~liirfilTl1d ulflulT.10:20).

QJiJ=~diJ~LW.

lDITQJJ/ (l,p- <aaSl_. 119>-

QliJ-Qldu-QJlTmJ. fJ.<::f6IT': wfj-LDlifu-LDfT6nJ (w"w) (QJ.QI.254) Qldplb

~ ..... QlQ,-QlQ,.::QIa9A>LD (01ti1)

QJmQJITff (!pIT& (4.QQJ.32. Q51T~.

QJQr-( QJiir )-6IlQJ-QJuJ]rt=i/dJTfiflftUJ G,)8;rrWL/.

J/fiIir&"J.P QJuf/""&t6 ~6Uu (~®(!p®.120).

j) ~ wiT IL 6I)!J: - «i/oiJT fifIft ILl QJ u5J 1J f, Qf) ~ UJ"" L UJ G1 0; rr IiJ LJ uS18i G'J&rr.o1uu"-/66.

QJu51tr j,~.u=7. QJt6J1J!6JQ&rr6tr~~6iJ.

QJu5J,;~ ~,; QlH6I'IIJ5}QfJ ~6irutrtir (unv~ ~UQJ. (102) 2. G>c!FrrtbflJtiJGl8;rrr/rre~6iJ.

Qlu51tt -QluJ11fl=7 QJdJG)A1~6ir 2. CDlc!FtD!D(!j>6Trw UA)&QJw.

QJ 161 rfI ~ ~ ib = Ul AT W (Yl {lj.61 UJ fiIT 8; L9- fiIT LD tt 5fJ 6iJ I 9 L L rr t;r i.b

(U/L9-QlfT {ljw) Qc!Fth~Q).

QJuSJ It -QJt6} (J w=l.i/whr mw.

LQ)t6ID@ QJu.5JIT~fJtNr(]L8tir (5tbUIJIT. ~5<:&1T. 10)

2. 6lJ661Q)L.f). C:~fTf!rr6lJt6J(lti C:~rr6krfD (gQJ8). 645.)

3. LD(JQJt6J(JW (UlffiJ) 4. G~fT6ArL.f)fiflfttLJ6ir 9Qsr./J)/.

QJuf/{lU QUff/iJC/Dn@ (ilalu. 29, Qs:riI~L@QJQsr .. tbW)

urrQJrrfillTfT

21

s. LDQJTQJu5J'}lDrr HJUJ G>8/Jpl1:J. QlLQLDrr,pluSlib £i)~~ (!pQ>uSJ6btADw.

"Another vaj or uj, 'to be bard or strong' may be inferred from ugra, ojas, vajra, vaja, (qq. vv.) the last of which gave rise to the Nom. vajaya."

fiTQg J!)J LDfT.6Ii ~. (§I6Iji}(f§UUfif)~ alirr &@j&. (QJ.QJ. 254-255)

Qlp'fiUIII1.D

QJ[TQWw-- QlltQJIT (QJJ, filIt;TfiifIfI--QlrrfiRT (QJ J, 6lJAlrAITtD QI,.,fiifIfI 4 6TWftJlW (!Jl!&i}UJ c!#I'4-Ki)6rr/J&~ C:P;IT GlFrrdJ&fltr 6lJL(i;)LD"1iI t61drQDLDlL/W &QJAfJ&~~&G~. (i}.w: 754)

QlIFQIii Lb - 6lIrrQD (8. <1611.)

QJQr-QJ6lDQT .. QJQDQT~6b-fiT@./lJl~6'b, QJ61>fJ~·

IL(§QJU u~ (dQ},~~ QJ67JtiTr§ (Q~QJQ)J13).

QJdr-QJL@-Ql'· '9 6lJ,. '9 j,~7. QJA)QI;'~. (~~&J 2. fiT~4»{EJ6iJ. ilQ)u. 27, 46, cM(!§lbJ.

fiT~j,j)jJ)Jtb fj)Qi1Uj,j)S1IW QlG)6JfC&rrcpw QlfilDQT JJ,.#5W Ji11JlbL!i 6J(f!Juu{lJITQJ, QJfiI)Q1 HtiJ ~ fJ(!:NI/JINJ ~IJ~ ~A1t61tb.l)l·

QlQr-QJAv-QJAlTfillTt.D=l. QlQD."j,G,,&4iIt..D fiT~/l8 ~6bQ)11J fj)oD1UJw

2. fiT~4JlLh 6I)W d#/6U604JI &Q)A)QI !Bit.

UQ)(iJ)6 QJ6IJirGIIT /fitiliJr@ &JdJm& (IQJBi. 1107>- 3. OT@i}lU &Q)QDQJ tllf)w Jf1!Dw.

6JJo6ir&m1b QlfiliJrlillT!&J Q&ITli1T6iJ. (<!>!DQr. 714) 4. yp66JUJ ~1J><t!J.

VlGIJ/D/lJI/DQJ QJfllir6IIIIT llJlTliJ6irp (Y!DLD.1). (QJ.6UJ

5. c!IIy>51UJ C:&fTfiUW. 6. ~UJ8;8i6lJ6f)QJ, Ji1!Di;i}dT QJAl&, QJAlBi.

7. fj)6IllF QlA)&, urrL_@, GlCFtUfL/6b', g]{DuC:UfTfmf!F.# GllFWU/W, GWL_@, u6AT.

QJ"'~LDfTmQ)=G)~@JiJ&6IfT &@j (fiT@~/!JIq, C:&fTQ)QJ). QJ"'QiIT/JAi/u JJ,66J-QJ,*"",,fT~i}u JJ,8~-UQ) Jf1JDW ~obQ)1JI G&rrQ)(!p6Trwrr U.l51.

QJ6RrfiUr d;~"Qr, QJAlrrAITfTAT = .;f£A>L&61)6T( fjw/DrrtiJ QJ6lIlsr6W~ Ge:tlJUQlw.

QJAlrAlST8;&6iT=GlurrtD&fT8i8i61f!aiT ~6iJQ)4P (D)urrtiJ&LLlI-&6lf1. wrrtbg Jf1!D~Qj)~ dNfiiJf;o/jl i}fD~A>" C:~fT~ G6tUUQlW.

22

QJ~6tf6TLD~6Tr=a8ifTQ)L.b (~QJffiJg,rTf;rW) Qc!FUJUQlW.

QJ~ a17 W-6lJ6WGm' w=l. (!p(j))5JUJ c: 6lJ rn.)lS)a:Jj $661 U U fT 6lf..ff)J i.J '-I. 2. QJIJ~~~U48i~m&.

QJ ~ ~ W - QJ asr ~ . 6lI6lilrr ~ I> {!J QJ = U 6U Q/ 61J) a; u5J QJ

uobCJ6lJJ!ll fPmc!FULU 48ifpt6.!fjJ urr(Jt~~.

QJ~6'55fJ-QJmr~8)w=bT@~~fT,,"Qr.

QJW-Q/rt-QJrfJ. <OlJrfJ~6iJ=l. 6T@gp{D6U (UJrfiJ.).

2. g,~~[TGlLD@~~~, ~&{h6U

QirflQJ6lITU '-ItOflJ 6lJ(iJ6I5Iu Ulf61J6JJ <YWtb. 33) <OlJ rfJ $~('\)=1. fiT@f!jl{hGlJ.

QuirrgpctJrf 6lJrfI~1D c'Fff~tD6ir QJ6IT(YJ6'lJQJ <66Ut$.2532).

2. §1~$IfJGlLD@/!J/~6b, kj,&{bru.

3. (Jc$fT"'~ QgtiJ~6iJ.

c:!l)I6l0f}l£)Q)ff ~61JpJ"/bffIf)lW QJtfI&~tiJ (mffiJ. 117).

QlrfJ=1. QJf)6)wG8ifT@ (6lJrfJu4Q)J=(]Qldilma;), 2. c]8jfT@, 3. fiT@~~ ( o::!)f rftQJ rf1=c::!JI rflQ UJar.ff)J G 1bfT LffiJ ®w Gl {lj@ffiJ8iaJrt!i;®) 4. @fW>CFU urrL@.

6llrfi,!D6lSJdJ QCGff6ff6IJCE (~Q)u. 38) 5. {€J[Dw.

6lItf1lli6lJlJfl&LrT 6lIfftirQunuj6l)CE (u LLq..QTu.38)

6. ~YJ@j.

6l1tf/QJ6I)6TT <y.QQJ. 11.12), (QJ.QJ : 251-252)

Q~. QJrf/, ai. uQfJ (b) LD. Q/GI}'.

QlrfI+~~Lb=QJ(J6mth OT@,,~, H~&' !El[Dw, 6116ln8i, ~Y>®' !EltDwutbt6JUJ @j6UW. (QJ.6lJ. 251 - 52)

QlUQRJft

QllJ'fiIIfl-QJrTAIr

QI(J~t.h-QJfJ~, GlI(J~di;fJ6iJ=Lf~w!6~ml]'iJ~6iJ·

QJ1J~w, QJf]'~ 6T6ifr~t.b (i)® Q5fT6U~t.b, GlILGlc!FfTGU Q]UJ-rn6lJu O1wurbt6J QI(I!}6W, QJ®~ fiTG7if~ PJLD1y5J6iJ 6lJ~UUL 6T@{hUUL @ 6ir 6lT m. u rr 6'Itu 111- !D tt L.l1/- (b @j Q) t.b ~ QT 6lJ t.b (J U tt /f)J " 6T dr m QlIJ tilRST Lb?" 6T Qr c: !D @ m Jl)J W fJ 8) fJ QJ ill- 6Vl Q) !D fT L_@U Lf {D ~ $I.u

UITQJrr QAJl'fT

23

6ll~65JTLb, QJr;rfiWW (iT6iT~Lb ~® (;)c!FfTQ}lJ2/tb 9G1J ~cJ,iJ6fflw.J!)J G{lJrrw p5J IUm6lJC:UJ. ~ u5J6iT, (!:p6lsr6V 4jJ ~'-9-u UfiIlL &JQ)wrr 8i1U1 QJQr et ~ u j) AfJ Qr J!)J t.h, t5I Qsr QS1 §JJ c: wtb u m L eyJQJLD IT 51 U1 QJ rR GTATuiJdlar J!)J W, i,llfitA{hA)QJUJrr(§w.

QJQr -6lJ6ilu -6lJAJr6W tD-6ll61lJronfl-QlfiDTAlTalQST. ( 6lJGlr -6lJrT) 6l.lffl-QJf}" aJT w-6llr;ronfl-6lJ17 6WAl6fT.

fj).a{6fT : iJQr-~QJr-iJ6iJr61)QS5T (dNIlI-UUa>L eyJQ)W). (i)6ir-iJtt) iJlJ61r-iJr;romGlT-iJ[J6ln6m'(ClW[bUfilDL e!:PQ)W).

iJ6irTA>GVf, ~1)61l(iW er Qr~/lh ~r;r dIr@w 9CZr;r ey:>fiU/JiJ6"5fl6irr.9)J tb tl{DfTWp5JUJ 9®G)UfT@L QQrrtDo;(J61T, ~A>QJt6I[J6iJr@Lb ~fikTJ!)Jtb G) {D6lJ6'5>QJ{6fT L_@ 1LQ)8) 6lJ1J)8; srnb.

~ffiJffilQTC:W 6ll6ATmTW, QJ[J6WW fiTQrUfilST6l/W.

QJ 6dfT OIJT t.b 6T W iJ)J W ~ Lq-U U filf) L ~ 60 j, iJ rf14 QJ L G1 W tr If! t6I .o!Qu6llLDIL/W, tilll7mTW (6lIrTA1T) 6TQsrfi)JW C:WibUO>L ~Q)thiJrf1C:u c!IIiJ5Wd5rQf)WILIW, 8iQJAf}.$8i~ ~8;&QT.

QJ6lllu6RT 0; GQJrr ~~rrlf!~<F8;&.-6J 6TArfi)JW G6WUJQr Ql6I)c!};U QUUJrT, COJ$6rrW8ifTuUJUJfr (!Jl!6.{!JJ Jj/I6l5)tb~L ~.l),!t~ 8; ®tD1u1 LIT {Do6Iw, (6A>6U&&IP&& &rrQ)i»~.{!JJ fiTQr J!)J c!IIp5J1D6U C::QJ6iM@W.

6lJrt6iIT OT6VJ!)J QJLQJrT a;rrt.:...@Lb t!:P6lJW Ge:tiJrna;C:UJ.

''''V8{1l (rather Nom. fr .. varna") fiT6kr J!)J LDfT.Q}1~. rt§p5J~iJ®~{DfiiJ e;rrmr &. (QJ.611: 252-253)

QlULD

4(Jw = C:W6U, (JwwLDrrLw. 4r;rw-ur;r J:J = (}wQ), C:LD~LLb, C:LD~fi08iLb.

ut;Tw-QJ!Jw = C:WW6tDl.D. 6llIJw - QJr;Jdr ( 8i61l1 ,·,C:urro61) C:W.jJ}JQJ8iW, 68L.@Q)8itD. (ilJD.49)

&:uJJQ)~ uUJ6iJr

8j0>6lJ&~L.b (Arts) dJlp5JQ}1UJ6U&@!JW (Sciences) (1) #Jtb~rrrT46lr6YT6 (Independent) (2) LD!blFrrtr4Qrf;(1~ (Dependent) (ITm ~®iJ!DUU@w. ~tb.!F rr IT U tDl61lIUJffu8i@9W 965r fDrrQfT Q/r;JQJfT J!)J, OJ 6I>QTUJp5J oE1 UJ IiJf$L Gc9i6U6UfT Lb ~ IJ1-LD6lD6tJlJTUJ muto f.YJ l!Jl8)th~ l__rrlLJ Lb ~@i.J u ~IT @)w. ~roiJG6lJrr ® f[»Q)tDu5J iJ)J w, GJ~fTL8;&thQ1hfT L__Q;J6lJ@W ~§:)rf1UJrflwtr ~Q)6lJ gp ~p5J8rf1Qr 6lJfJQ)rrtD!f)J (YJm{Duul· I c!IIp5J6l/~G"rr®iJC:UJ 9®&61J)Q) dJ)Ip5JmJ UJW.

8jrrL_g)UjLD 8j®~~LDfT5JUJ ~6iJGQJrr® G)urr®L®w QJt;T6UfTp51([§U O1~w 9@ JD"(hI, dJ)/~Ar UJ&&6Tr, dl/6lIrT&Qr QWfTy5J, ~QJrt&m

24

16fT &rf/c9iW, ~L._g] d8 §JUJ s:16UQJib!l51ar 6lJ1)Q)rrC:{D ~ JDu LJ tr a; QJ(J eott QJDfilTuu@Lb.

9@ ~fT L._@ Qlr;rfilJfT./f)J dJlth~ITL_L1I-a, u Y;)(61C!!!>l1J- LDr9;&m6TT'4W (Aborigines) 6lJt!(]~!l51&65)iYTUJt.b (Immigrants) Ulrftfh.tDl8; 8ifTL(jj)QJ~rr6iJ 9® 6'8 L@r$&rrf]"~r$® ~6iJ68 L._([iJ ~ 6lJafrW 'iJLD&8ifT~UfTQJ4» C:U[fQ" 9C'!J {6fT L@U U lP rfiJ ®UJ- LD& 8iL®W ~ [AfDrT L@ 6t1f)" 61) rT!J)J ~6lJ 'V rflQ) LD QJ6tf) 8jt6]ib er W8;9ifT i.J u rr w.

~AfI, 6lJ IJ Q)fT!l51 w!l51 9® G'J LDfT uSt u5Jdr tL~ Q)LlJUJ tt AT ~UJ6U61J)U ~!l516lJ~tb ~rfi~rTtb.

QI~UfiUI'

9 (!§ !6 fT Ll1J- AT u AIr m L QJ (J QJ rr Jb A>!D o:::!)/ !l51 UJ i.J 41> ~ 8i (yJ t.b (;II.FtiJlL/@!j{A~rrdr C:QJAlsr@Lb fiTQrU 6 ~6iJVtDQ). ~!&~fTL._@ GlWfTuSt ~QJ6lJ8 Garr{bc9ifJtr 8nJ_ QJr;T6lJfT ./J)/6tf)I7UUm ~~w.

"ulJ)!6J&fTa> W&&6tf16tT 8D.L@!DGl/ t616r)Q) .Mt;T6JUJ6V tEJ6lDQ) ~QJ{b!l51Ar {ffimfilT6l/8 6/6trfi6Tr5J&6f>6TT ~[bm!D8 G6rrtb&61fItb 8i6lfJr@, ~6lJtbm{Du u tb pfJ j ~ W c$ (!!J j, (if) ~ c!JI !l51 65/8; «!> LD rr J!)J ~ 6J rfI UJ It ~ Q/ tb Qf) !D 8; ~!l51;,~ Ql)QJ~~'" C:6lJ6AT(jjJW. 96iJG16lJfT@ !6fTLLfTrfldr ILJotr@!jJ!)J QJrrY;8;(4)&IL/W ~QJr;T 4JJ Glwrr uStt61 tb G UUlI}' IT er @~f,)!b Gl u rr!l51&8iu UL@ QJ@r6J&rrQJ LD&&6ff1. ~!l51651tb8irro;u aUfT{b!DUu@5!{D~: 16fT L@ QJr;TfiUfT J!)J U fP8;& 6lJ£.p&&W 9(g)&8i6'5J iJ c9i6rr c:fJ,51UJ6lJtiJA>{Du GIl cut (!§Qr QJ 1J)&&(iJ JD G;) IF n tb8J6lf161f1 Qr J!)J til QQJfiff/ u u @j,~ rr ~ ~i1rf1UJJt uSJ8i~ ~!l51UJQJ(JfT6lJfr" 6TW!J)J iJ(J o;W 6TQr 4JIw ~tiJ5JC:Q)UJ ctiiJiftUJt7- 8Q.J!)J6JATIfJlTIt. English Word - Book by John Graham. (QIFrr6lJ. 16)

6UIJ1DlTJi>DI.i 561I'c@;IAwLb

G)~"[b&@!Jtb fj)6iJG1QJfT@ Qlf7Q)rrdJ!f)JidlTmwfif)UJ ILmrfr /J~& cm@Lb 6Tar !f)J W roil rf1Q/ fTAT ~&U" f,) 9® 6llt;TfiOfT (b!f)J& 8iilTttJ,61ILJW aTar J!)J w, QJ f)"QJfT (b./J)J 6 G)grrtb8iAl6fTU/w QJ(JfiOfT tD!f)J ~6iJa;m6JT U (J U fT6UU c: U fT tb!D c: Qldfr@ W et Qr .!!)J w, ~ QJ tb.f!)J 6tr@!Jw 6lJ ~ J;o;{iJ fD G1 IF tt tb 8i fifJ}6fT WI en & g, (!!J '" t7JfT IiJ i.J au fT tb {D c: QJ mr (hJ W 6T dr J!)I th ~ !l518i. (<D>c!frrQ) -30.)

"f·:

4IJLiJ=ILUJIr.t¥J, I1....UJt;TWrrST &Ll4-LW, (l&rr'-lU(!JJ,",QT {68itr. Q&rr4f)"LD = ~fJqQ{JC!!J8;®Lb ILUJIJUJrTfifT c$LlJI.-LW, ILUJIJLDrrAT tfin-6ll(iJ 8D..dIr@.

u rraUT Qm'rT

25

4li1J{JlLI'U'; Uff(§W. (Q~rrru. cor. ~<!!>J.

LffJW--ufJw= C:LD5J)JQ)r!J)W: u(JLb--QJt;Tw-- Q1fJ-V = C:L.J)~fTm Q/L_@608iW. (iJ.w. 754)

6lJUrTS>

6U1J1I'6\) - (!pIT6\)

6lJrf}-~ww; QJrf]-6lJfJTr6b - @)!Dal6lJt6!suw tBmrUJ-@uu~. E. murrel. CYJ fr (@lP,L5JikrW, UJ mfiiW) er rm- U /!Jl e!j)61JLDfT u5J C!!J8;8i6l) fTc;, wGJr jJ)J . LDfT.6fiI~. 8i(!!J4J1QJfDJ a:rflUJikr »I. (QJ.QJ. 255)

6lJrfl

Ql61- fiu'fJ8 (dI.<:&".).

6lJrfI=6lJ rfI #~Lhurr, QJrfllL{WGYT Q ~6iJ I G ~6iJ (t.5I diJ.).

6r@J§JIQJrf/ (!JJlDtitil6IfJQ)JL@ (~QfluurrLm).

WfT.61lJ~ "of doubtful derivation"6TwJPI @)p51~iJ®/J~6iJ 8ifTdJre;. (Q}.6lJ: 255).

Drflli6ir

@t!F8;e;rrfiWW, {hp5J8ic];L6I>W, ~L_LfT[DuurrLLw, 5JmLuJsJ,LUJ, Qa=Ji~Al!D' 6lJmrfiBTfTfJuurrm{D, tJifJ®urrL' 10, 'ijlL8;<9D_lOl5!, [6Gi.>Q}fT, f1j6UQ6lJ(!§4JJ (yJ{D.oJ UJ QT. &6l5J UJ fTGilRJT 8;c$" 6m" Lb er ar u ~ LD6m" LD~&tDir G) a= 5J)J /Ji} UJQJ FfJ. ~ 4JJ jJ J; 8i rr Q)~ ~ u u iJ fill W fiRT J; c!liLL GBT Lb G U fT wUQJ g,J. &Qr 6'IfI ID& ® QI fT It G q §JJJ Ii iJ UJ Qlffl c: UJ 61fJ iJ G1 U IT 6tr

fiTATUU'· I 4jJ. Ffy:> 16fT'. '9 QJ jJ(!§t6.!9J ~lPQJfr QJ/htbLi16irwGcr .d114J1 Ff IJ) W ML§1 et ~ U G) U U.J It tott p5l tb!f)J . G;) ~Qr (j4) 6'lf11Lf Lb U Q) ViM tLf w

G~fTQrr.!J)J G(hfTL@/J {Du5JY;>Clil>iJfIiJ jJ®~~ QJ®5J~!Dgr. £Drr([)J 8i fT 6lJ ilJ t u rr lII-&fT6lJ 6iJ ) I tB f;T tr 6lfIf) (IE IT 8;s;,_ 6151 ) (y) ~ 6l5J UJ ~ 0lJ QJ rfl8iQr UI1t;TmQJUJrrt;Trr~ QJfTrID8iUUL_L~QJfTW. (iJ@$. 754)

6lJrflQDlf w~

~ f7 qQrr ~6iJ6lJ:tP ~L~ff,~6rj)6lJ6lJQsr c9)a)6lJ<!?)rt, 4 fiOQJ rt I U fTQJQ)tT ~ p5J C9 IT I .d!ib UI rfl U1 It I ~ fJ IT til 8: 8?J UJ tt ett rt I U ~ ~ if to a QJ rr IT (!P~ fi6I C:UJfTrT8i('!!ju urflarotfl8i<!!!JwC:ufT ~Lb ULLW Gl.Jy>ffiJ®t.b(]UfT ~w (] fill.!J)J i'I !DuLj '* G> CFuJUj tbGu IT ~ Lh, ~QI (JQJ rt {lJ®i) '4 j, ~[J (yJWfT 51 UJ 6lJ 1ft "' <!F UJ p5J ~ 6 G) <!F uJ ~ fib c: QI ~ (j)J w. u rfI s: 61fJ ~!9} 6iJ 6T 6TfJ 561 ; QJ rfI maUJt6I !A1D6YfI ~~6iJ ~ rfl §JJ.

f'@~m6 QUJIT@QJg}6lIf lLItiriiIfJ ,!!Jff;iJp)J6TJ6U UQJ@t.D QJ(§QJtf urfl6J6ir WH&&tir

Qllf/1iTJ6 lJ..Jp5/jb(]Q)O' <:!J)IIfICIS Qutf/4It.D

Fr"lbtiJ ggfJ(]1S UJIT6ll61Jir CLff6irjOliiJ

C:".,ru. ur. 13 - 2

26

c:!fJI~p!iJ lbrDltblb67Jm UJffu5J6ir

QUIT§J/G,fDff& Q&ffuJIWJll.{Q)Qj'; LOffLC:L (4tDJbrr. 121)

et ~ lOl, 8»01 WIT LJ)QJ) 6lJUJ totr dr i) C!!J(yJliJ-,9;lJirr rf/6f)UJ c: (6rr Ji~ U U tt IJIeatr fr. @ruC:Ql6W(];J(].g;rr6Tr 6T,,",Q)fT FFmIJiUJrrGY1-rr &@)W bJ!b®w.

~ WI y> IT eu ffJ 8) rr LllI-UJ ®w i) C!!JQJfftT@!>6lJ1T 8i(!!J ~@~{hQJ fr wm{D LD ~ Q)UJ llI- e;C: 6JT ;

QU(l!jWLjQ}QJ([!JGYr ~6itGQJfT@QJ@Lh ~QjQ6lJfTarp5J6b cOlJ6UQ)QJrT. c: LJ t;T tr. ~6YT (idlfOlJ CIi. ~ (;6)'7 IF fT uS] U OJ 6Tr mw s: 6lJ>r;rCJ QJ ~:!6rr ,. UJ (h ~fT w67f5f)c# Q9"WQ1rT aLD. 63. C:QJ~C:8ifTUIT6lJU t5J6trAlW @6lJ8;8jmfU 4Q)QJ IT,- LDu5J~Q). ggfJ(J6lIffiJ8iLlFfT uS] 6lJ(JQJrr{b!fJrT t.UcFUI UJrTGfT!T.

UfT6lJQ)®w @6lJ)~U urrLL9-~o=uurr(!!Jw Ga:tUILI6Tr GlFuJQJrr(!!Jt.D G IF tiJ lLI6Tr Q 0= uJfOlJ rr C!!J@!J6tr@9w, ~uSI Ii> QJQT IT c!F1iI 8;@5w fiJ tbflJQJ tr !J)J uoo6lJma;u U~6lJQ) @UJ!DjJ)JQJrr®w urr(jj)6lJfT (!!jw QruwGQJJ!)J.

eli m 6lJ(§rt J; ®u u rfi,g: rorfI8;~LhC: u rr B, ~®iJ m UJ WL._(bll.'& dr p51 ~ c: ~6lS>QJmUJUJ t.iJ 8i6lJGafI{6{lJQJ CJQJmr@w. ~ liJ-J;C1)UJ- @ma: UJ(JdiJ® tfJ a; tJ> i> 5J1 ~ u5J r;r 8; 8i ~ J; r!J; tt c!Jj U Q u tr ([!J 6lr G u.!J)l UJ u5J L {b p51 Q)c!F (9'" 8i®u Q u rr tb{!Jrr LDml;J lLf Lh, ~ ffiJ ffi/6"6TC: LD, {5LQJ fJ ffiJ® fiJ 8jfp/JiJ U Qu@wQurr@6Tr Qu J!)J Li:J {5L6VJUJtT &@jtb {lJ6lJlfit)&(J8iff ~t.b QlY;>r§JUJ ATrrtD GurrfPw.

@UJ6lJ @61l a: ~ fTLIJiW fY>A-r!J)J W c!:p~~uSI Ii> et QfT U u@{DQJrrS)lt.b, @UJ6l5J6iJ C:16tTr#~ G'lu!D6l/w LD~~LU(yJLh G!6@r!J&rr6lJ 6l/">y>ULjW GQJ6lilJr UJ-t6J ®fh:!E»6lJfT ~w, u rfI g61T66J 6iJ .dJI6Ufil)!D ~ fOU 4q Q r!FtiJIljW Ql6I)&u)1Gb, (J6lJ J!)J urrlJ1-w p51, (yJ~~uSJ fpu L/fil)QJ6tf) 17'4 t.b auuon a;GQ} &(!!J§J~oiJ C:6lJ'*r@W. u51Ltbp51rnr!F eumiu'n» "L(f;).

• •

QJ6\)-Ql6\)

QJ6U - QlQ). 6l161J~~6iJ=1. 6l1",G1T~~6iJ. 2. @fp~ffi.J. 11J6IJJ:jJ QlQ),ffJ1l (4!Dt.O· 136).

3. 8itb J!)J 1h6U

";o@I6JQ&ITliJ..... 6l1ITriJ(§#Jm6llT 6J)Q)c$(§w. <YJDLD .52).

QJQ)th~W=GlIOlf)61TGl/, (eus»: 255)

6lJ6b' (6lI6tD6IT6lf5 ~rT)

(YJ",Y;~1hfio GwrrffJ (Natural language), @Olf)tp~~6iJ GWfTffJ (Articulate Speech) fiTGiT~t..b @®filJ6Il& GLDrrffJc9i@!JL UJQrw~ Qu®w urrSJlw IL&(J<'F &LL~UJrrtiJu UJ£DtAiJ®~{D66Iw, 1L&'7(]Wp518 G) ~ rrar c!p~fiI)fT ClifT ~ Q}t!h(J (!JJ{DtD Ga tt tD& G>wwUQ)fT Lb. 46lJ or6M ~ t.b

urr6lJrrQlT'rr

27

u ClifJ (YJ~Q)L!J-u5Iaf1 iifTC:/DfT (YJQJ 6TW~ tb LD8)t;T <!p~Q)L1J-u5J afJ we: fDrr ~fT6ir UJ p:Jfhgurotr war.

er -@ : U® - Q/®, urrru - Qlrr6iJ (GQlQrm6YT), 016tr - 66)w. GJuffrr - QQJ6lr (~(!!Jt.hLf) - QilluJ.

!DQ) - Q/6U, LlJySI - QJySI, LDfT6lTW - 6lJfTaTW, u5Jc98i - Q)Jr98F.

• • • ••• •

(y)6lJ - toeo - 6l.Jfit), 6lI6U6l) L.D = QI LI I DfT QfT tgj)6tS)Q)8)8n-6mL.

Q/6lJ - QJQJ~ = QJmGTrt5~ Qe;fTllI-

Q.J6iJQ}J 1LJ6IfJ6ITUJff6Tr (4.QQJ.QuGRrrurr!i>. 12 ILmlJ) QloU6l5) - QI. QlQ,ro'.

. ,., ,

QJ6l) - 6lJ6lJ. QJQ)$fj~6l) = @jlj)rJDVilJ.

Qjb@tiJQ&ffkt 61JllitJll61}~ LD@JJ6ir 6lJlfr&!(§#lm61T 61JQJ&(§w. (YJDtD. 52)

L.DQ)-LlJrurrn- (C.G.) = QU;6)GTT!A~ @61Tt.bC:UfT~~. (twig) Q{fJ. W6lJrTfJ(!jJ·

• •

!DiU fT tt -6lJQ) tr tr.

• •

QJQ)fT tt -6lI61T rr fT .

Q/6TT tttt - QliTr fT !f)J.

QJ6l.l- 6lJ6\5). QJ Q)J /J5holJ = 1. QJ6"6)W j,{lj6U (@jLfT.) 2. {lj.m Lrr 6iJ tK m 17 QJa'lW ~~ U U L_(l SifT L._@fb6U. 3. c!:pa;"6'6)~ QJ 6tf)QT~!Dl 6lI66Ici t!Fr6J q,fTL_(S)~6U. 4. 6nlGU6lI6lJl6lTUJ @@~~oiJ.

!Ffff;'5J&W 6lJ6TJDTTtLJ QJQJJ&(§w. (~Qj. jbnUJ6. 5:8)

5. 8imrlll-t6J@~~Q). 6. @~6l/~LfT{lj6iJ. 7. ar6Rrl1l- t6J@~fJfTdJGurr6l) C:[DfTGl/6Rr t..st ~Q;. Ql66J = aJljfT6l/.

QlQJ - 6lJ6'5>WU - ~ tf}a;6tf)w q @lPth~ ~t!hi.Ju®~!/Jlu:J 8iu5JtbJ!)J8; t$(fJj6'6l.

46V7(J&ITiNnDffff ,tfJ1f)J~16 QJ6TJQ)"-I6ff. (8jro1~. 65). 2. @V;ti6J.

~t!hUULaL6tr _ ....... eutt &C:~6lJ6ir Qlfii4>filJUj(Jw. (iJ6iJ. j)(!!)QJfTliJ. 5:3:6) to. Qi6. QJQ). & .. uQQ). (b)

6lJ6U-Qlm--QJ6TrQTW = 1. 6111' 1 1L6Brt$6l)W, QJLl1I-oU.

Q),"eTti 1D6lJC:QTti~ .. ····· lJ)§Pll)&JdJffi~n'(i: (IQJ&. 2700). 2. (9fTySlmr!h QlI' '9 Q) (~Lrr.).

28

3. LDI}"a;8irrfiiJ (OJriilJ. 4. ~rrATwl}"&&IT6U Qc${f~L dlQT6l/ (W.) 5. !DfT~® ~fiiJQJ.:1JI fiTL(~Jl~.IU~ Qo;rT69rL d/6Y16lf. 6. ~J!)J C:~rr~. "6116YTG1TU ULL6M LD&(l aiLGlroQT" (a;wu(JfT. ~L_CF(t!!). 28)

6116lr GYT 9,8ifTQJ - Q/Qi)tiiIT tf,~ c9)fT6U (~.QJ J.

Q/ GiT -QlG1r otf/=l_ G'18ifT I1J- " QJ rt lJI-UJ Q},," gf1 (Yl$iQ) rflti $hlIJ!f)J " (~/D'" . 1304) 2. G'18irrlll- (lurrfiiirTJ!)J G1~fTLrrt6~ ~®uutP 'C:LD8J QJQrfiffl' (Q~fT6U. Lf{lJ~. 33, lQ_GJ)IJ)·

QJo;norfi-6lJw6'lf1UJLD =LDfJ 8;o;6UW (CF 1fJ/.).

QJW-QJVJT-QJQT6l/ = G>1L._~~ &{b/f)Ju UI7U4· fiBL@1> G{EJfT~iI, q;jJ(£1. "Q/6YTG5J{b c$6tDw!h{b 6lJfTu1ItiJ [Drr51" (Gu([!jtiJ. ~QJfTQJrrQrT. 6:77). 2. 6'3L(j)Iu 4!fJw. (W.).

Ql61T -QJVifT tt -QJ61T rfJ=UJm!fJ<1 U rr6'l> 6llA>6"IT!i~ QJQTrfI ~fD1.1J- (boomerang).

• • •

GllGYT-QJVJTfT- &!DJ!)Ju ulJuLJ·

~erQJ6TI7T& ct&trkJ-6irtO/ ItitD6I)~ I6tDlIJI <®som. 523)

QI ett tt - QI fii1T tr Glf . QJ QT tt 6l/ ~ GiJ = " C§lP ~ oU. '" ~QTQ 6l.I u516iJ 6lJ QT tr QJ" (u rf/u tr. 7527) "LD(]8jfT~i) 6lJ6YTfT6l./w H~I.b·" (8iWUr;rrr. (}fjCf}'.f!)J. 42). 2. 8i{iJp5J &J@~"" "61S>uJ&4Jl5)6iJ ..... GQJw(yJQf)Q)c:wQ) QlwrrtiJ" (flOlJaJ. 2634).

Q/6YTTT + ~ a;w = 6lJGTf tt 8i tb = 1. ilJSH;1T 8;Q)8i, @}sj)6fS>lJi (@},-.rr.). 2. @sj)!6th @LW, @LW. "LfGUma; Q)6fTt!~t.D GQJa-,{IJ6lJ1r (,)J6JTfT8i~ ~6irr~L Qo:fiiirTp5J(]QJGisr" (a~QJrr. 1193:1). 3. 8iL6U @;~;fD LQ)c9iLD. "CY>!6tCrr QJ6T(fT 0; Gw6ixiurrtb" (8;6l5J~. 146). 4. tEJ6lJuQU(!!)!6J ~LLh. "6JlPQu@ 6lJ6TrfT8i a6lJtA~Ir" (a;wut;JfT. i1C!!J(!PIJl-. 6). S. C:~5t.h. "GQJG{Drrlr QJGTITr 8iW ff)/[iJ!D"Ar ... - QJ6nfJ8iQrr" (8j{!~4. WfT!T&. 142). 6. iJ m fir( U 4 Qf1 U U fJ U 4· "e Girr J!)J Lb UJ tt .!J)J diJ @)QJ@tb QJ 6TT IT 8i (!:P Lh (®tDfDfT. ~Q). C:QJLW &6lJw. 28). 7. C:1DITLLW.

Q/6lTfT - GlJ6TrfTc9UJ = QJ6lTfTfr, (@.QJ.).

Q/Qr - QJotfl = 6lJ6I>fitTt!/fJI 6D arffi/ s;rr{b.!J)J. "QJi1fJQJy>ffiJ@j wQ)Q)Qrwrr C9 tt 6lJ ffiJ !Ii rfI" (® [D fftr. 245). 2. ZL. L UH . .1J iW W GTT Il§[! m ~.$ &,_.!f)J. "QJQf}(yJ~6lJfT GGllmrmfJUJ ~6krJ!)J" (®!DQr. 941).

6lJ61T - 5lJAlW; QJmG'tT~Q) = 1. C:a;rr~~im. 2. ®~{6~ ~rrsP~6iJ· "C!:Ptb[lJ fYJ~.!P1,j, c: o;rr 6iJ ~ 6m 6lflff UJ rr (y)~ filfTL!J- a ~ fT J; 51 QJ 6lf)W $~ " (~6'iJ. GJurfJUJiJ. 1:3:1). 3. a~fTtb!f)l 6lJIiiWriu®~6b. "Ql6lS>6TTUJrT 6lJUJQJ (!!Jw " (Lf.QQf. 7. 18). 4. iJLLD.!J)J~6iJ (€/QI(I;. 1068, 1}_fi6)l;T). 5. G'1CFffilC:a;rr6iJ QJmfii1TQJ~ au rr6irr!!)J ~L5J (]~rT61J)LDu5IorUJ65r jJ)J 6l11Q)~~6U. "Gl.I61fI6lT UJfT~ Qr!FftlC:a;rrw QJ~6lTt5~ i'/IJlG)QJ6!rG;)o;fTru" (g'Jruu. 19:76). 6. QJ ® ~§J ~ Q) fLLWL/ 6lJ fi~H;Tr IA/!JI a QJ 6D6l> Q ~tiJQJ ~ 6iJ fiG)6lJ. (S!!.. .riiJJ .).

UrrQJff~fT

29

"QJA>WlLJrrrT u"dfiiT" (ujlGwrr. i}®661QJlL_.. (ylww6tRffJOi. 27). 7 .

., .,

&!D!f)I~fiU.

- (G)~. (t!!)ArlJrrdi.l 1. elP~6b. '~Q161J)QT c$L_Ql QJ6f)WuJItb ~!A.tJjI" (fJ6lJ8i. 1715). 2. &tb{l5J 6lJ®1l)oO. '''mQJUJ& (yJ@~L_W 6lJ6l>W@" (LffDw. 69).

fiJ}Qf)61TUJ 6lJm6TTUJ = i}®t.hu/J i}®wu.

QlA>6fT ~{h6iJ = 1. QJAlfiUW#Gla= uj~"'. 2. @JlJ>fDiiJ. "@®(!JlL 4 rft fi6>CF ClUJ!D QlQJUi'IT@'" (<!:pQ)~fiUU. 27). 3. ~@/J{b6iJ. "611'""" 65f'r6Jo;U G'JufDrrtiJ QJ6lS>blT /,GfDG'larw" (g6lJ&. 889). 4. U!DJ!JlfDfitJ. 5. &6lJIT ~"'. G 8irrQr QSu;rr && rr t;T IT 6T 6UQJ rr QJ [iJ m!D UJ III QJ m "" ~ /!Jl8; G> Clirr 6itu@ au fT tlJroDI LLrr fr &W (ZL.6lJ.) 6. G> q rr Qu 6fT G) CF rr W6lS)Q) WIT [iJ.8)J flj6lJ. QlQf)QT i»§ QlQ)fJT j,~u (lU55}/D"ofrr (fLQ}.). 7. Ql6lf)fiIT /J~ fiT@4JJ~fiu. "I!..@QlU UQJU GQJfT(!§Q8ifTUJ- QJ6tD'iTT@" (G>~@!D6iJ.113). 8 . .dJI6tRffJ16oU. " iF m L (y) 111- c: LD Q, (!JJl1J- G) QI fiiIr l1I-ffiJ 8i 6iT QI m et f, {hrr 6m aT " «(J~QJrr .871:1)

6lJ QSHiTT = 1. QI au;" UJ fiiJ. "(!:pQr m t!h t6I m IDuil !D QJ tr !EJ 6iw fD QJ ~ 6fT" (®~6ir. 1157). 2. q8i&t;TuumL. "fhrrffilq,05)a5TU u6tRffJ6lJQPw QJ~6YT lLfw" (e;wut;TfT. tL(!98;8irrL_@u. 43). 3. t!FriiJ~ "Q/mwG,)UJfT@ 4m[JILfw 6lJrr6l5J (JUJfT!b®" (urflL1rr. 2:20). 4. QlLLt»/IUfilDW, fiJo6J {6mr@ (JJ> fh661 UJ QJ tb {151 W Ql6lJ) GTT. 5. & tb J61 LW. "u rf1 c: LD6 & t;T wtiJ 8j fil) j, 4Jl 6fTlhUULL 6lJ6lJlwt6J6iJ" (S.lJ-i, 751;72).

&. uQw (b).

QJ6f)QT - QJQ)6'tTWW = 1.61.11·' 10 (~8i.@.). 2. fi5>8i6lJA>W (W.) 3. (!JJLq-uJ/tb @5@w QlfiI)wUJwrrmQ). 4. ~"LD6lDt;Tci 8i(l!J6Tr (UJIiiJ). S. ortD!f)J· 6. 9® (J8ifT61r 6lJrrQT wwW LQ)/JfiJ)~ 9®(!:PAl{D &JbpSlQJ(!9ffiJ 8ifT6lJt.D. 7. ®6TT Lb. (W.).

Q}6IlW - 81. 6lIfiUUJ.

6JJ65>6ff - 6lJ6lD6lTU16U = 1. 6ll6m61Tfil/6Tr6TT,gp. (UJ fT IJ>. ~&.). 2. 6J)t$6lJmG'tT. 6lJ6W6TTUJ6\J 6'51 tOlD U LQJW.

QJ~6lT - QJ filJ) f01T 6lJ = a 8) tt aar6lJ. 2. e;LLLdJ ~ aU ~ fir) LD8> «!J W oiI.uQJi1I-Glf. 3. 6lJLt Ih. 4. ar{b.!J)J. 5. t;;/IL__®uLJ[Dw (W.) 6. u6tRffJ6lJ (UJrTy>. dJ)Ic!J).

6lJmr;;rr6l1J - 1. tii81· '9 {DU4. 2. Q161)6TTUJtOU.

Gllmm -6'JJmm. Q1Etmm- ~GiJ = QJ~6lm"tlJ = 1. QJ6lS)rotT j/:;'J{hfT @4JJ~c!h. 2. fiT@4UW ,&661UJw. 3. fi1"@/lJIw fiT~.:fJ. 4. 9J~iJlJ G)LD@~ffiJ t$Q)61J)6lJ. "uGUm8i QJmr~ .fDJ~@fiJo6Jmo;" (!FQI&. 7107). 5. c!h6V~QI [.5)flJw. 6. W1flJw. "QQJGYfIUJrrfrQpGV Q}rrw 8ifi6>rpj QJGilfr~tfuG)8)fTw6iJ" (®/D6Tr. 714). "rumraar t.D QJIJ1- cJQI ~we: QJ &fiI>QJGUJ" (G> ~rroiJ. C:6lJ[b. 17). 7. flJo5I UJ

30

~~®. 8. ~y;®. "t5JGrf)!D~~iiJ QJmr~LDrr~wJ!)J" (LJIDw.1). 9. jJlUdJAle; UJYJ®- "QJ~om(!ptI> c:~ GLDlT61f1UJIh ~~" (urfiufT.12: 20). 10. GtfFUJtD6SJ8) UJY='@j. ~i.JuQ)6IT (~lJj.IfI.). 11. 6!{lJuL/.

"Q}9)QJ6lRsrr;;w uS1ffiJ@j8; QjdlsrGL~" (8)WUf,JfT. dPl8j66l~s;. 82). 12. tDQr m LD (UJ tr YJ. ~ s;.) 13. @jmTt.b. "rKJ r;r iJJJ 6tf>LQ) LDtLJ Lb Q1mr r;;m CbPIh ,gpmv;m-lLfu/' (@!j{l5J~UJu. 31). 14. QJl1J-6l/ (t5JffiJ.). 15. ®6l>Li> (Q:2)""" 4{Dt». 27, 1La>(J). 16. jJ6JTw. "QJ~BMW 6lJmrGm ~t7J LDQ.ut" (@j{l5Jc9~u. 114). 17. QJ6mc9i. "~65HiUJ:G)9'ru6lJfT QJ6itrrfiiRT~~fT6iJ" (@j{Dw. 561). 18. 9m5QJ61)&. "QJriiliriT6"W/A ~fTG~ tDrrmiO/A Q~mu" (Q~rr6iJ. GCFtU. 270). 19. g)!D{6~ f}(j6)<FQ/~Qju urrL_@1 QJmrGm~~IJL@. 20. (yJ(J;J8iJUJ tjpm s: '46YrW e;66/ILJ.!J)J U Lf. (!p(£J5JUJ6lJ (UJrIil.) 27. ~6irfi6f} 6tD5 U U rom(~lJrr BiLb) (CF !fJ/.) 22. ~.trafJm5u UfTL(f;J. "C:8jfT61f)~ ~fTC:(jg uilLL_ a1hnlr QJmr6mt6~6irrmQT" (flQJ8i. 1996).

fP. GtDfT : i)6iJ - j;}w - i)6W - j]mrVimw

QJ6AT6lm"Lb - U)Urr. QJ~filRJT.

QlvW6lm"W - QJ6ilsT6flfToisT = tffi!Dj,~6ir.

6T - @ : dl/lPfio6lld6rfiDTw, 8ifTrtQJ~Gmar. 9· (]/6rr : ~Q/u'6mW - i)~fi6rT6ir.

QJmr - Qlmr~, QJ~~~!Ihru = ~rT 96'61UJ~m~u uruaQJ.!J)J tffi !D ffit Ch GTT IT ~ Lh ..fIJI GW 6llJ 67iHiST 8i W fT 5J» @j ~ £D U UJ U u ~JI.lJ, ~ rt ~~e;~m~ (QJrr8ififT~m~)u um-~tD ~y>5JUJ GLJrr®G1r8)"'fT{b CJiQJIJI-Uu.:lJJw, 9" ILl lhmuu uwQf}!D ~6tDLUJ~&6'tTfT6iJ c!J)/1P(f!) u@~4IlQJ~tb C:urrm-.[!)JI ~a>!DQJ6m6"M ~ruQ)§1 9@ :!D6l»6lJ6m61iTU u ""aQJ JJ)J 8i®"4P &6TT fT ~ W U WQJ(iG)c9ir!F G ~tiJ'4 @!J.!!)JuLf8iG7TfTSJJt1J g}f!Ji.JL5J~au 4&{P~Q,: ~Q)Q)61 Qurr®6'tf]LdiJ &rTwwa;@]Jw 9w{Dar ~UJ6iJ G) a= UJ 5J».!J)J U 4 r!JjQ61T6UfiOfTQJ tb"'!DILJlh 06Jw ~~LD" 8i ( ilY/QJ(J LDfT &) 6T@/J./fJl& lFn..!f)J ~6iJ.

ffl· (]f.5fT : ~~Q1Hth - iJ6Br~ - ~~.

QJ6ifr~ - 6lJ6RrasT&W = 7. QJ,*,~j,4JJU 48iy,m&. "QJ~~~fDIu 4&VJ~o6Iw QJmr6UT 8) G)wfiJTuu@Lh" (Q::orr6U. Ga:tU. 140, S!L6'6>[T).

2. 9® &6l51UUfT 6lJ.[!)JU4·

QJ69raJr & QQJrr ~~fTuSlm~8; a;fi6}uurr - ~1J6lJ1 ~fTuSl6lf)9, ~lJrr s;w1 ~ Lh au tt ~ r;r til c!Ji W I ~ WI J: Q ~ ";;;U I & rfJ ~ 8i ill et fOisT ~ ffiJ 8i 661 UJ .[!)J U U fT jJ)J W 6lJ tA.{fJJ I f.YJC!:P tffim{DQlrr~t.b &G6I u u rr er Gkr ffJJ tlJ U fTQJQ)&.

fp(!!JQ/ar '7Jw q,rr ;fj6m6lJ QQJ61fI U u@j,{htD(§W, 8iL6l/ 6'5)tOIT eu (g>/J~tb ®w, QJ~6W t!/j (i;)QJfT ~~fTuSlQS)r!F8; 8i6t5]uUfJ'u(]urr6U uSJ&U GJUrT(!!J/J;fi LDfT6JT GlqwU,Jw 6lJm&mUJ (l6lJG)/DW GJwfTuSluSI ~riu S;fTfi'm 651UJQJfT ~.

9· OIDrr : iJ¥ii4TfimW - ~drrarr &w.

urrQJrrQIITrr

31

6lJ.m~ - QI.m-alST61Slf)M - GlJmr~::6~U LJ&I»6lf)~.

QJ6tlJr(iAT 8; 8itD LDfr = 1. 6l16"W6m'U J;&ctor e5/AlAT(9Ir, QJ""mrGQJfT~UJIr.

QJti~/DffL@ Ql61lir6lllJT & &Wl1J@W (Qu®ffiJ. lLema:8i 58: (4), QJ~aJTJ;&Qsr = 8irr& G/DfT'·' .$ar (fljrrfiiSfTUJ C:c!FfT~8iAT). QlQRs,61IT& c9iAr ~fT~~mfTtt (~tb). 6lJLW 6lJ6Rr6WJi&Ar ~LDfT~17 filfTrrrr (4{ow. 172). GJurrtb&rrm8= ILmfJ~~u UfTtT~4jI eM~. LDfTtb!f)J QJQrrr6llf1d; ~"6iJ (tEJ!D~~rr6iJ) a;rri16tr (i)UJ6UG'6)UUJ[61ILJW G{6fTLL_8;&fTI}"6irr,

QJ~6lSJT totreeeo = G1 !6@ffiJa;aJ[8;@j (lFri». ~8i.). QJ'iiiMww LD8i6rr = C:8irr61J<9 QCFtUU6lJ6Tr.

filJdfrQffT />{lJfT dr = QJ6tflrr6W fT6iT, ~ mLUJey>& 8i&dJ[61 Q#6RT AlTc9 QCFtiJUQJW.

QJQ5r - QJ~rT. 6lJaJrtt 16.0 = 1. QJ65)6lT ~6U. "QJmTtT!AC:~ti~ LD(!§uU/6isr" (LDQDQJU(hI. 37). wuiJtt rt!jy>w[61(!§i>~oiJ. "QQJ[618iLDI» QlfiWfif>lJWUfT6iJ" (8i~I>. 57).

QJ6Wfr = 7. UJrrl»J;(JOifT'· '9 6isr QJ66>6Jr!6~ u®iJ· "QlAfTr;J6Jr6l/ lFfT@)lJW" (UlfiOU urrt61. 9).2. 8jLL_L_ C:QJ6lJ)Q) 6lJG'6)QT6l/ (W).

QJ mT Ir - QI QRST - QJ QSf1 r!iJ ~. QJ 6RT ffiJ ®~ 6iJ. (i) ~, ill 6lT rf7 - 6lJ ~ rf1

• •

et QfT J!)J WIT W.

611'" - Ql6W - 6lIAlTfiiJ®. QlAJTdii@j~'" = 1. Ql6Il6IT~. 2 . ./JILJiJ@j{ljiiJ. "6lJ6BTI6J5J61lL_" (L/.GQJ. 7:27). 3. u~!A~LIiIct!J~6iJ. "QJ6JfTfit51UJ Qlrru5JQTIr" (C!>!D61r. 419). 4. 6JQldJGf1JfT ¢/6iJ GJo:liJ{66iJ. "!JjwuS)6iJ QJ!6/Dl 6lI"" ffiJ5IUjw" (8i66lj,. 76).

(Gg. ®fiiT pJrrQJ/) 1. QJ ¢/ U@fD6l>. "fiTdJr (t!JAlfT ~~fT6ir JDrr~6Tr 6lIWBTr§J &fT ~~RlQ)" (@!D6ir. 9). 2. ~1P!l~G8ifT&tr@!>{h6U "QJ6lIft6J®u}}u 01/DuU16tD6lI tEJfiG)fiJ1UJrr~" (i1®6llrrlF. 41 : 6).

&. ua;@ (baggu)

QJ QfJT diJ ~ - QJfiAT diJ 51, Q u rr (gJ 6 QJ 6JlfT tiu 51 = &iJ fJ QJ m fif1 C:!JjfT 8; 5] QJ~GfTUJw U «(f!}rfiUJ8irrthiJ)·

•• •

fil}6Jlf[ffiJ&fTfT = um8iQlrT.

QJ6m"ffiJ® - QJ~8;~. Q/QRST8;@j$h6l> = 1. QJ6tD61T~~{fJ6lJ. 2. U~UJ8 G'lt!FtiJ~6U. "wIPL/6lJW 6lJGBrc9;5/UJ LDrTQI.-ifr LJfJiJ6'6l" (~8iw. 61).

Q~. QJth~8i-L_L (vantsuta)., 5. u8iiJ& (baggiu).

Q/QJT8;(:!5 - QJ6m"&8iW = 7. QJ6'tf)fOJTAl8i. "e6l6lJ 6lJ6W&8i!h SffiJ® ®[61::t ~mLDUJrrar" (®!Dw. 827). 2. QJ¢/urr@. "®6J>{DmJQJfT QQl6isTQ6V'@ QJOlSfT 9,&ffij an.[61" (s;wu '7 rr. 6lD~Q). 38). MW c!::p8i~iJdJ 8n...J!)J tb lJjL6l/m

32

..

QJ 6m 8; c$ Lb. " QJ rr (p /J /lJl III 6lJ mIT &c$<!::pw G u rr ®6YfJ UJ oiJ LJ fiG) fJ ~ ~ iJJl GW01fT eyJQ}fm)r$uu@Lb" (~'<:JUfT.UfT. LDr§J&. U8;. 1). 4. t!Jjmr~UJu

u@j,~OQ8i (UJrr{p. ~&).

6lJ6mr$~ - QJ~J;5J, UJrrmm 6lJ~&51 = U1rr6"51~ ~[DL..l1I-.

QJ 6lSDT r6J ® - 6lJ r5J ® = 1. ,g; U u i6J 6irr 6UJ fit) tt # ~ L._ LffiJ,g; 6Tr 2. er 661 C!fJ~661UJ6lJ dJp516irr QJ6UlW.

QJIiJ@j - QJffiJ51 = 1. GJ~61f1QJmwUJ6U. 2. Q~6lfJQJfT6Tr. 3. G!6""' C:wrri/fJ'w (6lJffiJ~ Q~61fJGl/).

<;;),5./ &. 6lJrfiJ~ (nk), S. QJ8;51 (gg).

6lIrfiJ® - QltiJa;w = 1. 6lJonGfT6l/. 2. ~{iJ.!!)J QJfiI)GTT6lJ (UJfT,p. ~Q,.J 3.

QlO6>6'fT th~ ~fJiJ6t) ~ QJI·' QlI.!lJOlJ UJrrm u;u U6U. "6lJfT661m~ G)UJ@ii~ Q/6tfJ{D@ QJrfua;u/' (LD/!pfmfJ 8;, 536)

QJ ffiJ® - QJ IfiJ iii UJ t.b = 6lJ6f)6Yr ~{li I)_§JJ iJ fi'6).!F J; &C!!J6l1J. "QJ tfiJ liJ UJ th UQJ Cl1hiir 651wLbU1rn" (&wur;Trr. 65>CliC:8iuJ/. 60). @UJw = @6Ul<9=&8i@65J.

QlrID@j - 6lJffi/S;fT = 1. QJmrorrth~ I2§11!JjJQ8ifTWLj (W.). 2. QJmliifT!hfb &@/Jf!J.IQr6TT tB IT U U !D6»6'1J. "QJ ffiJ 8jfT 8; 8jL~ 16 Q <9= ffiJ,g;fT {b c: UQ) L"

(®!D~' 151), 6lJ66>GTTt61h 1hrrm".

ruffiJ® - GlJrrffiJ@j. QJfTdit~~6iJ = (Glg'@JQufDrrG5J) 1. QJ65)6fT ~1h6lJ "G)8irr@ UJt;rW QI fTffilfiJ" (~Q)rr. 4). 2. ftil/(i6)"" /J6 fDFTd5T ~L_(jjJ.pj"'. "~fT~QJrrffiJ8j 6lJfT IP 661{bQ8jrrmr(j;)" (@lJ"fT~. iJc$@6iI· 231).3. 6lJfi(J)6TT/Jf!Jl @@~~ru, @@~{!j6iJ, "LD~~ GwrrroJuu QJfTffiJ~", (G)u@wufT6iJr.156J. 4. &J6& @@~~, SLL.._G,g;rr6ir~~6'iJ. fYJ#8i 6lJfTr5J«!J5I6iT{DfTW (1L.6lI.). 5. G)a;fTGir~1bQ.>, ~tbJD6iJ "QJ®c$QQJ~ GJDWQDfitST {ffiQrrurrwiJ QJrrffiJ~L C:QJmr@Lb" (i/®6lJfT<9=. 5: 68). 6. ~6WQ)cj;®8i G&rn;Tr@!)1h6lJ. "LDrr~fi6I uxtese» C:aJ(fQJ6l)dr 6lJrrffil~" (~fiUU. 3171).7. GU.!J)J{D6lJ. "fiTffiJ® Q/rrffiJ~Ji G)Cfj[T(£1~{lJrr rfJ1b~C:UJ" (G1DQlfT. 456: 8). 8. @Qj>~~ QlQ)(l1bilJ. Ih9;IJ ii!J)J J;@j& c9)[T Q) QJ tt rfiJ i:l8i ~ fT {b c!J)rr 6lJ IT ® w. (fL.QJ.) 9. (iJ(gJ~~ ~§JJ8;®~Q). @!h1D QJmrl1J- (3urr®wu l1I- dPlIh~ (ilJ'"'lS/-a>UJ 6lJrrrfiJ~& Q&fTW (tL.QJ,) 10. 66J6iJ !f>fTfiilRffI@~§d ~Li:JQ)u# QlFjJJJj,!lJl~ilJ. "~LDmTlr QurrtiJu5l[b Ljr$Ih@{hi) 6fJy>rrClLD GUrT{h QJrrriiJ~" ((J:!6Q/rr. 658 7). 12. f?f!Jl<i;~ {EJi®1Dru. "6lJrrffiJ®u5Jar lJ)W~§JU1rt" (o;WUfJfT. WLi"JU. 278). 13. Li1rf15hQ~@~~Q). '\f!jrrGw fiTw{Drrfr, LJ!D~~mtitr6T UfiOQJtDjJ)J6rr 9~6W)!D QJfTffiJ@j~66J6Tr" (Q~fT6iJ. 4flJ~. 1, 1LQf)(l) 14. QUUJfr ::['{lJ6U. "Lf{bfDLn QJrrffiJ£!,J, ®®wUJ Qr!JjfT~(ijJLi:/' (~8iw. 72). 15. ~~:!h{lJQ) "C:QJY;>w ....... &®wUJ6fsr OimY;>ilJfTriu®Lb" (a;~~. 40). 16. G)QJL_@~6iJ, 6"ID8i Cli{TQJa;m"" fill tr ffiJg,66J@G61Nilsr (tL.QJ.). 77. J.5) fJ Lb~ u

QJ6ID~~f!Jl ~l1J-~~6iJ. UJl)"wmu QUJ(fj1dJ~ ~QJ61f)m ~rr~ GlJrrffiJ® QJ rrffiJ liJfilff rr m- (lL.tOlJ. 18. ~ ~ ~~Q;. "mJ fiffi~ wrnr tQffl c9) (.YJ@i/)Jw UJrrrnQlUjw rn6lJ#8i QJrTffiJ@j6lJrnu." (~(f!J6l.J" CF. 5: 96).

Urr6l.Ur 61S1Trr

33

(Qo:.661.). 7. QJm,"~6b "QJITr6J~8ji)rt QlfJ5J6ir" «!p6UmQ)u 98).

2. QJQ).".th~ ~(i6UF~6iJ. "QJfi'1f}QJfTffiJ® Yl6GlQfTUJ LDrTLDfJW" (untUfT. 7:74).

3. @j(1)Q)51i6V. LJ6mc$QUT ~drrr@QJfT ffiJ5J U au rru.1J tDJ!)J (W.). 4. (D) LD.61 fD'lJ ILLW4QJrrr!iJ51u (JUfTu5J[b.[f)J (ZL.filJ.). S. fLQretfJ(!JJ~~6b. L.Dg)Y;>~ ~ QJr J a> fJG UJ QJ6UfT t.b JE1 Q) Lb 6lJ rr r6J 51 8; G sur 6iIsr L~ ( IL.QJ.). 6. ~61>!D~6b. 68 8;QiW QJrrdiJ5Iu5I®8i8iJfD4JI (1L.6ll.) 7. 9!!JlffiJ@j~Q). 8. U16tT QJ fTrIiJ®{DQ). "65JA>lJmJoiT QlfTr6J51_ O1(i6)tpj,~ Ga=6J)QJT UlwQJ(J"

(i)(!!JQlrrQ)QJrr.49:20). 9. iJ!Di;~Q), ~!i~8i lIi6lD1 ulJw &~6lJ 9@LJJDw QJrrriiJ5Jt6J®j,~~. (1L.6lJ.).

In. Q~. 6lJfT 151~

6lJfTr5J@j = 1. QJQl""6lf (~fTLD~U. 768). 2. U/l}"wullI-- UlIJ"Lb61>uGu.J@/J4i/ ~QJQS)m ~rr 5J» eatt F5J(!!J eutt ffiJ~ (IL.QJ J. 3. Gc!FfTQ)QJI1I- 6lJ~6l/. ~QJGtr QJrrrtJ5JQf1 QlIT tiiJ~ c:fj/QJQr 6lJfT lP{.6rr@!J~u (lUff ~tb (A-QJ.) 4. filJJ6J5J. &. U rr@j (g) = QJQS)6Tr 6l/.

QJrrriaJ(f9 - ~ - urrFiJ& (Q}tiJiiJ).

QlfTdiI® - GlJrrdiJ&w = QJQ'KiTTth1l1 &LQ). 61JrrT6J8iw - QI. QJrrr6J8i (vanka).

• • • •

QJfT ffjJQ;J!)JQJrr6fT = Q/A>QT!D$fJ ~ .tf)JQlrr61T.

QJfTdiJ~ - 6lJrrrliJ&fT = QJAl,"~ MlI6G&rrW4 ~6iJfiUlP ~fTm[!. QJrTriJ&rr - IL. UfTt§J(J;fT (nk).

6lJ rr ffiJ ® QJ tt ffiJ a; 6b - G;) ~ @ ~ G'1 ~ rr ~ fiU 6l/ . Q) rra QI rfI u

urr &&~~6l5J ®!h/P 8if§J@!JQJrrrt c!Fj,iJrf lh 9® G u('!J filJrrffiJ&6lJ (IL.QJ.J.

QJrrffiJa;roiJ = ~~~~.u. ~cg>~$66iJ = tB@J>~roiJ. tE~#GqtiJ~6iJ. QJrrdiJ®OJl1I-j;~oiJ = Qu"®Ii.{p 651LL. ~w.iJ6l)~ tJ16Tr!A~C:urrQT j)@ U@j~a;m61T ~@~/fJ/si {D&LLfT6U ~Q)6ATt6~6b.

• • • •• •••• •

QJ6TT - 6lJ6"IT® - 6lIL@. QJL@~QJ = QlQ)fOlJ'$liWl>, QJAlfTI§I~~QJ, "rry>tpj6'U,

uQJfTlJl-UJ lJjrr61J/J~Lb QJL®uG6lJrr" (ulP. 204).

6lJ L~rr rt = QJ row ril8irr IT I U Ql&6lJ!t. 4' 6lJ L8irr fr JElQJ)f.T UJ6ir tDlJ>QfiUlJ) GQJtU/lJ} ~mc:!DfT6irr" (iJ®ci;C:a;rr. 152).

611 L@ - QJ r!i® = 1. e!P/JiJ f}' 8; (t!J6W 1.1I-&&rr til. 2. lL@fiiJrmLUJ rr OM 6'861J)~QlJjrrLA>L. uurr. QJ&&. 81. Q/@8;a;.

Ql8;(t!) - QJ8;&" = QlQS)w{h}fi 8i(!p/J4J6TTQT tBlruuJDAlQJ 6lJ6t08i. "Qui;a;rrfil/ {DfT6'4>l7lLJr6J Gl8ifT&®W u@8ia;(]Q)" (®tDIDfT. ®!D. 93 : 2).

~.C:!6rr : G)e;rroir - G)e9ifTlOir® - G;)a;rrL® - G'/a;rr 8i® = 6116tJl6Tr!6{D 8i(!:pii ./06Tr6Tr terrUU!Dm61J.

6lJ&&rr - fitlI. UCii (baka).

6lJ&@j - 6lJ8i&f7t.D - Ql8;8irfl. QJ&8irf1~~.u = C:8irr~1DQ), 6lJmG;lT$fiQ}, LDL-.ffiJ@j~6U, LDLffiJ~~ iJ@w4~Q)J o::fj,WIT /,iJ G)~tiJ~6iJ.

34

6lJQJr - QJQJr(j)l = 1. a>c9iQJa>GfT. "6D)CJjQJ6Dr@diJ s;mr s;mr@ C:LDrrL8; &6IlfiU(JUJrrL" (~i). fLQ)fT. 98). 2.lFr§J® (OIffiJ.). 3. GU(f!j661,,~lh ~~ 6"5117 iJ»w 6lJA>6fft64J1 ~afJQUJrr6!1JD# HI J!)JG6IIJQJ tf1uS1frth~, a;L_@mJfJ .s» Lb !6@6iI'75JJlw Gl!D~ y;> QJ6"6)QT~,fljJ tf1 tb®w @65>6BTUJIT 6fiJrnw 8ima; QJ61)8i. (UlfiUU. 318, fLal'7). 4. c:~ LDQX;f)[T9&tbtDJ QlI· I 16/(];)W,61lfilll1(,GI

c9i(!!JWL/ c:~w t§'uSI.!!)J 6T6krfJ)JW ~fT6b&.t(8)u UI· I ~!)Ja;"tb g}.f!)I u !D6f)QJ. "usn lfl61llF Qa;rrfilifrL mJ QJTQJAvLll-uSJ fr{h {DfT tT uu" (s;Q)]~. 131). "QJ"'@&rritr w5Jy,C:{Jj 61f1Qi1riJ&rrw" (g6lJ8i. 892). S. {DQJIFW ~6Jf&@jW <::urr~ €laY' ~@QJ6lf)~U UJI1I-~4JJJ; QcJjrr6ir~Lb A> 6lJ.$ c: 8) rr tb L/ rfJ QJ ~ G1T UJ Lh. 6. 6lJ Ifl u G u rr 8; 51 '" W fT@8i6"IfJ 6ir IL 6tSf1 ~ tb&rr e; 6lJmr U/-& en.6ifr Q) L8= or tb tDJ ~ G'I ~ tt diJ c$ 6l1J @w 6I>6lJt(Ja;rr{b u@m~.

QJ6lW@ S;L...@~6iJ = u fT6f)QfTuJ]6ig QJ fTQJ)UJ# o;.{bpSlJ: gmQ)UJfT6U e!J>l1I-8; &L_@~iiJ.

61J6Rr@ 6&@{ljQJ = ~QJ8;(J8jrrrn6lJU 4 rflUJrr /J iJ rftj,{lJoiJ.

QJ65Jr - QJ6iJT L65r = fiJJ LL {liJ!)l&8itD (ro5I C!!J~~ G<FfDiJT th) G CF liJUJ U ULLQlQu (UJfTlP. ~,g;J.

QldIr@ - QJ6Drl1l- = 1. c!F&Oit;TW. 2. c!F,g;1 10. lQJrilJTl1I-6I)UJ C:UJ!lfJarrrm-' (€1QJa;. 2054, 2L~IJ)· 3. 9® Ql6WUJ-U QUfTfi6>!D t utrtnb).

!D. QJGWL1I-, Q~., &. u-nr1Jl-

8&LW 6TAr9)J W GJ u rr (!§6YfJ6iJ, QJOIr 111- fiT<iiT'iJ)/c9 <;19" fT6U U ~ l1IfiTQgu~w i}rflurr&/J G{Drf/5J6V{Dg,J. E!7G1Q1~Qg, umrLf- gWg)Jt.D QJL9_(~QJ aQJ8i ~~1..lJIOf6f1 ~Q) ~LJ.bG)utb.!!)J6trQT~. CJLD.suLb , U"eWLlI-, UfTAJrUJ-6U orwkTuQJ[bm/D (;Ivrr ~~ QI&r;r (yJ{b{bG~rr{b8)fftr j)(!!JQJfi6)8i QJ 1J)&5!.§JJJ uS}6UAl6lJ. 9(!!J&rr6i>, 6'JJQWl1I- <DlUJw~w QJl!/- GQI Q~fTriT 9)JG~"L_@ D....Q)8i QJ!J)~&rru5J®{I;iJ(f§&&QJrrw. QJriJr LfIQ OJ Q( ~ t.b QJ (fiJ a; 8iQg QT L QI iJl-QJ Lh, QI a;" U a; r;r ~ i) (fILii W mlAlfm"QJrr Lb.

6lJroW@ - QJ ~4JI = Q}fif)fi1T t&,gp 68 8ir6J s;rr/J.!f)J. "QltiG)~", 8; c$f/,~fll/T tb &6I>AJTG)~" LIt" (a;£I;~4. @j,(J. QJ6'f)~. 188).

Qlf/rr - 6lJL@. 9.C:~rr : &Qr - &L_@, uQr - UL@. &6ire?i6\> = 80.@~6U, Ga:rT ,.fi6l>, (D}urr@!A4iI~Q), ~1i6iJ. &L.@~6U = ~Qg!!)J<l9"rr/J~Q).

uGire:2)Q) = U61TUiTTUurrflj.o (QJIP&51!Dth~ mJ6DfiI1).

• •

U6TT - U6TT-U6fTUfi'(f-Ufi'fTU6YTuL/.

uQr-uGTfJ-ufiYf1#&. Ugf}f!FG)66JT6U = 96lf1 68 8F~6iJ. u6'JfJ-u,,",ffiJ(r!J. UL@U UL ... J;;)L_QJTQJ - !616lJG)QJrrfilfl Q)J6TTfiJ~.u.

.

UJTQJJT6IITrr

3S

6lJL(JJ = 7. QlL'-9-Q) 2. urrVihrLll- 661mGrTlUfT" '9 tb~rf1UJ QjLLJ-61iU.

3 ....a · · _0 " I"i"\" ~ • • "

. @}~rr' '9 !D~IIIUJ 6lJ1 1 a; t$®~)J'. ma;U1rT\!}1 6lJ1 '9 PJ \J){DrraT!f)JLD

(J)/8iw. 708). 4. ®mL,9;8iwU18i," sn..(])lw ·lfJJ!)J r!F8;8)(1W. S. QlLI I'J

U6lDATGQJruGlJ~ a;LlJI-. 6. f)1JL_61 (@LfT.). 7. i}fJQruLQUfT(!!JW. "(!pI' '9 QJ,', Q)6JTUJ (Ja;fTou c!:p/J!fJQJrnl/' (gQJ&. 2950).

QlL GJl___(gJ~~ = QJfif)6TT~~ 1[Ju51QY;>(gJ/J/p 6lJ61l&.

• • 1"""\ • " •

QJLLg)68T = 6lJLLWrrQfT \DILD~m~ UJQ)filRiT 6lJLLRl65lJT ......

®"®t6J6lfTfTC:IJ" (UQJIh. 2433).

QlL_@ - GlILLW = (GuJ. 1. QJ6J)6Tf6l/. "~"'6lSl6l) QlL_L.UUL QJfTffilgJ" ((l~QJrr. 5:9). 2. 9@6lJm& QJ6YTrftl>~l1I-' "48irf16WtT@;1P QlLL/J ~fitS)QI" (Un7Uff. 15:61), (UJffil.). 3. C:~fTL_&L8it.b (6lIfT~6lJ6lJ)61TUJLh). 4. 6lJ6ifrl1l-# lF8;&I]'W (UJrrlP. ~a;.) S. @U1QJQrr c!F8;o;f;JW (UlffiJ.). 6. &~lJ QJg)S1 ILl fA i} rfiI&6lf)6TT 11/<9 @;C!:ew C:8ifT LO)L_. (96'1ft6lJ6U>61TUJ th) 7. ~UUQJAlq,. "uffG1&rr® 0I111-~~ o5I6J>!p@$j) QJ,', th" (Gu(!!Jw urr~. 378). 8. G&L&LD "6JuilC!!J QJ,' I GWfT G)Lo~~QJQ)tA f)rf1uu" (iJ®<Y>®(f!J. 111) .. 9. fPA>fiU~~L(J). "QlLL.W G1~fT~flJ~ QJfTAafluw 6lJfTliJ/J~C:~" (f)(!jL1J!6. 1781). 10. ~6lJQJL' ,h. "Gr!FrfiJCl&u;> QlLLrg, &([!j&5J" (QII@~Q) 58). 71. Qjl' I UUITAlfD. "QlLQJIr ;fJtJ;:fb QJITroisrC:&$j) Qjl' I ,b" (G!6@166U. 51).12. 61l1ht6J61>6Ut616iT /D~uurrt!litb.13. fil)8iwwAafl (OJI6J.). 14. IBIT88=fT6lJ (tiJdiJJ. 15. G8iIT6Yr8iQ.)w (UJIT$j). ~&.). 16. ~6YTLh (UlffiJ.). 77. QjLLLDt;JW (W.). 18. 8)6rT/Ji)tb @!,LI1I-UU~tb® QJLLWrrr!liU LJfJuU1UJ GltJJbe;j)rr (/DfTc9) 79. ~QJ ~ffo;m67rcl; G8irr6lhrrL {lifT L@i.J uhfl6l/. 20. 8itiJp51ILf6Tr<OTT til60UU[J uL/. "C:&rrtDI6iJ QlI' I QW6U6UfTW" (gQJ&. 949). 21. QlLL8 G;)g6UGl/. "~rrrT Gurr6'61

L/U61l}QJI', th ~"WLf8i~ r!lifTL@ 5Jrotr{Orrtb(c!5" (gQJ8i. 442). 22. 9<!!J 8F tb.f!)J (W.) . 23. 9@ c: 8i" 6Tr QJ rr fifT LD fiiJT L QJ /J fir) ~ 9 ([!J c!:p aJ!D &tbp51QJ(f!>ffiJ SifTQ)W. ~QJ6ir GIFQu IJ)J 9® Q]1UJrrlj) 6lILLLDfTuSltiJ!f)I (IL.QJ.). 24. f)®.J.~tb. QJ/' I LDrruJu C:u§}QTITw. (~.QJJ. 25. {DL65)QJ. ".a~fTUJ8i1r ~fTLD;;Of){EJ Jj/TJbGlfDL@ QlLLc9 G/FtU§J/' (6D1~fTu.J&4· 74.214). 26. (~65lL.). Cl~rrJ!)Jw. ~L_6IDL QJ,' I til 8ifT& 96V./J)J8;@!JUD6JAUF. (S.LI.IIJ22:27)

• ·.0' • rt

QJI I ID- UlIJ". QJI I ,81. QJ([!J~~. ve ,vers.

QJ LLLlHi51f1 UJ t.b = ~ LLIT arr fill LD. QJ LLf6J 8i1.L...@ ~6iJ =

~AafltLJLDrr ~6b.

QJ L....LW - fill LL m 8i = 1. ~ jJ)J QJ LL1#-fiiJ. "GJ IF wG'I U IT tb Jf)IT wAafl 6lJL....L6I>8iC:tLJfT@" (8irrc§61uL/. ~@QJ8;. 333). 2. iJJ!)J5J.nrOlTW. "Q SifT l!I-UlAT rr Ir GlQJ 6ir6'IfJ 6lJ LL4m& GAr pJlQJ rrrU w@uu" (gQJ&. 938). 3. !6JQJU UfJU4. "till" {6fTtD&fT{b Q1LLAlc!Jj" (U1",u. 5 : 133,

36

tLQfJI;T). 4. ~'Qf)LU48; &LLfl-UJ [6JQJW (W.). 5. ~tb.f!)JuLJ!Dtb. 6. /fJfT L@U LilJfl6l/.

6lJ,., 61)& ~UJtb _- 611'· I l.DalSfJUJW (W.).

QJLLW - QJL._L~W = 1. QlLL&G&LChW. "@LL_ QJL..L. 6RT16J&6lr GLDGQ)¢Jth~ GQ/.u" (&66JdiJ 413).2. Q/6@QJLL_d; G&LChLD (UJfTy,. ~&.) QlLL65lJTW _ 81. ~I· I 61fT.

QlLLfiATLD - QlLLfiilmfJ.

QJI· I alSfJ~~.u = 1. QJ I· I I DfT $!Jib. 2. QlL.L.L.DfT 8;@JfhiU. 6lJLLa;alSfJu4 = QlLI ,ofTuS1®8i6Q&. "~a.rLQ) G)wQg.!J)J QlLL alSfJUA>U6 Q<'FfT6ixiu6l/LDfTW" (i)®.a®~. 57, 6'5IWrT. u. 318).

6lJLLA17W - 6'lJL.L6IlAIT = 1. QJL.L. QlLlJ-Qlw. "QJrruJJftlITQJrrib 6lJ,. I A>6R1U u!i1h"' GlFliJ~ 9161)tA~" (<J:5QJrT. 507 2). 2. <J&L&W "WArAT6l.IIt 8ifT6'W QlLLA>6IIrQJfT GJ6fT@ii!~/' (8;Q)Q)fT 48 8 ) 3. ~fT Q18; 8j C!!J66I. "G) &fT W6lDLD 8; @jUlQJL....L6lDAfT G) 8ifT 6liJr LlI-Q)<::6IT tt" (&UlUr;TfT. ~i)&"tlJ6fg. 9). 4. 1DfTWW C:urr(i;161l& (OIffiJ.). S. ~1.!/-8iQD8i (dJIC!!J.!E1J. 6. 1L®.ur6lJlL. 7. @Lc!Frrrfl 6lJQ) c!FfTrfiUJrT CliO &JD.f!)Jma;. " or tb t61 QJ (!!jw QJ i':«: wwu51 tb C:!D rr roV flJ tt QJ m e; &Q) (64'/' (Q u rf1 UJ 4. 6;T6fTfTi). 29). 8. QJLLL.DfTAT Q~Q)6lJ. "WfTUL/.mLt;J 6lJrrg)t6/w 6lILLQS)AlTGLD"''' (e;wuf;Trr u61>Lii. 98). 9. Gfhrr@~tb~ ~{l5J®¢JlLJrr e;~ ~fTU)6I)r;T G}WfTL_(bJu C:urrfil)J; 6lI)&c$6lOW 8; ®Q)J8;Al&. 'f.6lIfitf)~Q~rf1 ion 8;&L~ QJLL_6I)QT e;rrL....U/-" (wfiilmfJC:w 7:43). 70. QJ8;&6I)afT. "Qll· l 6IDA1T C:U&Qllt" (ui)G651rr.G&rr uu t5Jt;T. 85).

••• • (usmi .)

QJl 1 lD - eu 1 '7&/ - filIl I QJl1I-filI wrrlPu.

QJL@ - QlI· l fJlOl/ = CYlIJI-Qlrre; ~.f!)Ii)a5J@A>& (UJrTy>. ~8).). QlL.LLD - 6lJL..LW = (Gu.) lL@mr@ i)t;TrorivL Q/L.u>lJIQfTw. ',<~.9)JQJI· I " tfJ6iTAf} AfJu5J!A~C:{hfT an_QfIQg UJ/DUL/" (&66//J 94:27).

(@fi5>L.) (J~fT !f)Jw. "~L...6lJ)L 6lII· I W (I:P&(t!J!J)JfiilmfJ G>~tbG)UIT~ 6'f)lFUJfT,$" (8.1.1.11, 69:3).

6lU· 1 10 - QlI·' fT = i/!D6lDLD, c!FLDrt/,.{JjJl (j1@6'5I(!!jdi. 71. ~(!!jw. u371). Q,fj. QJ,., fTrf1.

6lJl· l 10 - Qll· I rrfJl.D = 7. 8itD!!)JuLffDW. 2. [6JQJU u'7UL/.

1""'\. • •

...,~. 6lJ1 l fTt;T(yJ/ §iI. Q}I I tttr, 8i. QlI I trtr.

QJL@ - QlLUJ-. QJLl1I-tfi~6b = (GllF.@.m1.) 1. 6lJL.LLDrr$66U. (UJfTlP. ~ q,.). 2. 8i £P iJJI ~ 6b. " QJ L'4-j, t/JI U LJ UJ a fit) J!)J 6lf) t;T@UJ fiE] UJ 66J (!!J A1fT@~rr,,"" (~&tb. 218). 3. {hfTw(;)QJfTtb!D./!)J~~6lJ (@ilLrrJ. 4. ~@!jA>[T /ifb'b. "Qll· '9 i>4J1 QJ}LLrrG6tTt61!6~fT61r" (~fitJu. 27:45).

·

urrQJrTQlJTrr

37

((;10:. ®wtDrr6l1]).1. QJ6tS)GTT/J{ljr;;U (@ou8i, ~9i.). 2. QlQ)GlT~/!JI fiT@/IJl~fiv (~.ui.J. 21:46@ ~®Lh. 3. t!1T~tb.!J)J~oiJ "w®tAilGiJ a;6lnff}iUJ QI®[h~ QJLI.1J-~~" (4!Dw. 42). 4. !l_®L..®~6U. "8jy>s;~.tfJJ1> ~~'7rr~ QlL__L1J-Uu" (8)fi6I~. 136).

r!Tr[btDJ8i a;L._@~Q). "~61J8iJ60 LDrr~6tJ UJnlruu fillL._Lq-/JfDJ" (4tDw. 394). 6. utfJ LDfT !J)J{lj6lJ (W.). 7. G~rrw L_f66>L/>{lj6lJ. "Qe:(!§6lJrn{D[h~ urry5J~a~fTW QlI· '9 /J~rrrT" (u!p. 326).

6lJLL!J- = 1. IhL8iU GlULL!J- "GQJL@QJ'iiT LDrTW!D66>J QCFrrrf}~{lj QJLllI-lL/U/' (4tDw 33).2. an.trnL "uwc$Q) QlI· '9 UJrT" (~r$w. 391).3. {6rry5J. (QtbfTw. fiT@~~. 170). 4. i)~6Wth (~a;·tfJ.)· s. 9® 6'5J®~.

QlLI.!/- - QlLL1I-m8i = 1. 6lJLLW (UJrr{p. d/)/t!1iJ. 2. arJD!DGYr'V 3. 8n.6lSlL (LiJffiJ). 4. ~8iJbLD6lnff) (UJrTli>. ~e;). 5. 9LQlfimc!li. "b6ir6YfJUJGU ill'- '9 610c9i JD/(j)1uUltb t!1JralL@" (Qu(!!JffiJ. 9L~"h!F&. 40:46). 6. ~®6lJm8i 661C!!J.{tiJ. "~Q)5JQ) fill Ll1J-alr!h ~!JlQJ 6'61 y5J /J~fiI) rr6iJ" (tfljo6J diJ. 333). 7. UJ I>i' fJ G1UJ~ 4JIr1il(lOirr6iJ "6lJ I· I q A)(1j8: GI gtiJ i'u5J~ QJ6lD(J tf,{h U "mQJu5I~" (w6lRff1<::w. 4:57). 8. U1f,i1fJw. "6lJLUJ-al8)U urr6lD6lJ (]!6rr&~" (f/QJ&. 2085).

6lJL/9 l-ILJ = 1. QJl- I Lb. (UJfT~. ~8j.J. 2. @6lr (16fT LD~U. 667)"

QJ Ll.!/-- - QJ L_ 111- Q) = 1. QI L_ L LD rt tOfT (GJ QJ oiu- &fiO ) !!L 6lrr 8i Q) tb. 2. ~~~tb. "GlUfT~ QJL_~6iJ t5JLiI-~~" (j16iJ. G)U®LDfT~. 4:3). 3. ~rrlf)l (Q~fT6b. fiTQJJ~/!Jl. 170 : @tOfTwlJ,). 4. !6fTy5Jm8i QlLL!J-6b. 5. J)/WLJ8; 8n.@. "QlfT6lf/ QlLl1I-oU 4!DWfi6)6lJ~§JJ" (&tbuf}"rr.(l~Gt;r.f!)J. 39). 6. an_6mL ( ~8i.{iJ.). 7. 9®QJ6U)8) Q)/C!!JfP. "W .f!).J LDfT6lJ ILJrrmQT(]UJ 5166J6"6)8) UJ!A1h6Yr& wa:(JarruUJ QlLUJ-Q/' (a~QJrr. 692:7).8. dPlUUGTrre,Q<!FuJUJ L(!§" 19 6"G)6)Jq;@jW LDrr6ll(!!)fiWmL (@.6lJ.).

&. UL_L~ (b)

.. ,-

Q/L~!DJd, = ~rrL.DG6>crulsJ,.

QlL@ - QlL6f)L = 1. (lQJrfilm&1616fsT LL6lJ6lJrfl (W.). 2. Q8;8iI7/Ji'rnC:LDiU QJQ)fiifT UJU i.J UQ.)6tD8i. "IL@Qr g;,iiT!D LJ)6lnff}QJ L.6mL" (~6lJi.J. 29, ILGtSlfJuurrL._@ usesn:'). 3. C:~tT (lUff!). ~Ch.). 4. JKlfiUUUt;TUL_f. 5. Q,,' I iJ U8;8Jrr 6TwiT~w ULL6mLn uUJ-. (~rr~).

QlLLc9; &@~!/)J,i Q<Frrtb&@!>61r QlL@, QJI' I 6lS>8i, QJL_L~, Q/LL alenT, QlLL_(T Qf I QlLLfT, QJ LLfT6lf5fI, QJ LLrr If W, QJ LLq-i;{lJ6l>, QlLUJ-Q), 6lJLmL 6T6V~Lb QJl1I-6lJ&m QJLQwrry5Jui/6b @vU~61). QlL' 1 b fiTQrU 4Jl QJ([!j~~ 6TATeuLh QJLfl-6llJ§J»W QJLL61flfTW 6TW U /l1I ",l' l QfI (/D) er dT~ tb 6lJL1I-6D"J §J)J W QJ !J)ffiJ®5I6iT {!JVi5T. fiJQj)fi6T lU(OJJ{bpS/ tV G & 6U su IT tb 6lJ @ /J ~ et rir LJ 6lf) ~ G UJ e!:P fil) LD tt 8i 8i 8j rr L @GlJ.t!Jl 6T ~ Ij/mmr1lL/w Qurr®~{ljfT AJI.

38

ueossrm».

UQ)L - QI. 6lILfT.

QJ65)L - 6lImLUJ J..b = 1. Q /DVibfiU9;o;af} C!J>1Df06J UJQJ {bfim{D ~fi6)t;T /J,gp i> ~LllJ-UJ QJ6lJ)L. 2. Q U m I fiULDfT $8; a;LU/-Ul QQJ tb p51 rn6lJ U rr 8; ® (~~).

QjLLW-QJLW = 1. QjL.L6lJI11-6lJW (~8i. £61.). 2.). 6lJLLLlJrrq,u UL@W ~Q)LDr;rWI "QJ,-tK!J)tD o;~~L_liI-®!6~ ®®C:QJ" (~fTlLJ· &®GWrT. 1). 3. iJlJ6WL $t6IJ!)J. 8)LDalfiU 6lJLLD, C:1DlT QJLtD, 4. iJt;JmrLGurr6iJT~rrmr. LD~QJLLb. "611Lr6J&m ~a)~lLfL.bulilIL_@/Jp" (iJ®CYJ®(t!!)· 204, ILmr;r).

QlLW (dfJ,Q)LD(lW) - QI. 6lIL (vata). @u G'lurr®61fJ6iJ @8 G'Jgrr{b® QJ t.: Gl Lf) fT IJI u5J 6iJ c: 6lJ rf1 Gi> 65) 6lJ. LD tr 6JfI U1 It IL Q)16iJ ~ UJ th a;. ~ tb CFLDtb51(f!j~r ~ffiJ5)fiU ~8ifJ(!JJ~6'6JuSJ6lJ. perhaps Prakrit for vrlt« surrounded, covered' fiTdrJ!)J G'lurr@L8jfTf76JlfTffil 8n.p51t6J®~~mQ) C:/DIT J;®8i.

QJLW - QJL®-QlL&W = ~rrQf1u4/J ![JJGmfiWr$ 9ir;TaaTWrT&, dJlm1J~~ LD fT 0lJ LW q, p51 g IF t;T J; «!J,g; 6tr (J ~ It ~.§J u G) U tt rf1 i;.:ffJ/ G) QJ u5J 6l516b

lL60fr ~~ UJ ~J!)J l.DaJrfil/ ([!j6Br6lf) L.

6lJL&LD - aI. QJL8i (vataka),

QlQr-QJrr-QlrfI. QJIf1~Q) = 1. 6T~/!Jl~6iJ (liJr!J'). 2. UJ/JiJ(JG>w<!:1'~~"" "6lJ6iJaQ)fTQsr mID@UJ QJ rflQJfir1 U 4 tDfD 6lI6i>6l51 U u tt A>QJ" (4{fJw. 33.). 3. ~~. 4. ey{f;I~. "Lf~a>6'fJT I..lJ6O)!DUJ QJrf1!Af~/' (iJ6iJ· iJ([!Iil1rr. 5:7:5). S. e;L.@~6i>. "Qlrf1t6~ c!h66lf)CFUJ6V" (@;QTrr. gUJ. 11).

QJrft;,~w = 7. OT@,§)J~6iJ. "QJ6fr@95Jrt 6'lJrf1~~ s:rrJl;iJar Qlw(yJ6lDQ)" (gQJc$. 2532). 2. ~/JiJfJ GLf)@.gu~QJ. 3. 1s:J,&~6U (~LfT.). 4. C:8ifT60<9 GgtlJ~fIiJ. "4Qrrmm UJ~LDQ)1t 4»6U){DGl~rr!!)Jw QIf"f1Bi®th" (aJriJ.177). S. &L_(h)~6iJ. "QJrf1&®r6J 8irrL6Iu5I6lJrr QJ p51C:6lJ" ( f8rrQiT611 tr. WfTQJ6l51. 48). 6. Q}QJlt;T!h/fJI G8i1Tdr~~6iJ. 7. iJ(!!JWfim'c9 G1~Ilt~6U.

QJrf/ = 1. C;a;rr@. "..!Jj/mr~UJ QlrftGUJ(T@ iJr;rfi'iu@" (gQJ&. 1702). 2. G{ljrrtbt6Jfii.J QJ61f>fJ6l/. "W~QJrfI 61ltD@fL/w" (&667/,. 76). 3. me;QJall7 (U1ffiJ.). 4. Qllftmo:, 9@ffiJ((!). "~(!!J~ Q6DT@6lJrfl Gurr{bu" (ui;t{b. 83:2). S. fiT~~ ({DrrLD,u. 673). 6. tBl/DLD. "QJrflUJ~8iLJt 6llrrm- GurrtiJma;" (ULLll-fifTU. 38). 7. dPIU'®. "QJrfl6lJal61T" (L/.G)6lJ. 71 : 12). 8. 6llUJ-0l/ (~e;{fI.). 9. @61lr!FQJAle;. 70. @6'4>8=UUfTL_('E1. "Qlffl {6G61ilJ Qe;rr6trm8i" (iJfiUU. 13 : 38). 11. Qlff18ic!m./Jb. "r!Ji~8n.@ 6lJrfllLJw" (U16lJu. 3 : 14). 12. &6IlL&&/rP8j ~6iJ&@!J6rr ~arJ!)J (@m/D. 1. u. 5). 73. c!hL@. "QJrfI#~",6lJUJrrtb !1Jti~ QJ61TW" (Lf·G61I. 1 : 16). 14. ~l1I-uJ161l!D (Ulr!J.).

.

urrOlJrr6IGTrT

39

15. Qflj6U. "~@/Jt!JlQJFfI (y>[bf1J~ i)6"5f106JL_(E)'' (tJ!j~UUfT I, 354 : 47).

16. tBw-w (@jLfT.).

Q,fj. 6lJrfl. UJ. 6lIG". &. uGJ[J. (b).

QJrfl-Q/rflmt!F - 1. ~@ffiJ® (@}Lrr). 2. {Elmer· Glf!jfTLrt. 3. {lJ(t!JiJ. "6lJ rfI m 8=UJ t61 ~ ~ W tOll (fiG) fJ UJ rr ibI Q s.n (fjJ ~{lJ §l» 11/' ( UJ .9)J u tt filiffT. 217). 4. c: LD ib U fT@ . " ~ (j)) G'L!h fT G1r 6lJ rfJ 6lf) 8= 8; Q c$ fT U U U U fT@QI biJ " (LffOLD. 53). S. wiJu4. (LDrflUJrr6'6)~). "QurrtbL/fD 6lJrfla>o: GIFIi.JQJfT~" (iJ®6D16ffJw. ~!6®(J~c!plII-' 37). 6. urr(JrrL._@. "QJrf}ma=u G;)ucg,w UrrL._G)L6UQ)rrw" (8i~J;. 85). 7. dJlfJt!FfJfTtb GU(!§® UJ/DU4. "Qurr(buA" ~aTrr QJ{f}ma:C1ifltr" (iJ®QJfT6lJ6lJfT. 28 : 93).8 . .J)I(To:n~ pJu4Q i=7Qg 6M W. "CFrr LD66)r;T U18ic$ LDfT i)UJ tt W lOll rfIg)O:u5/ tb 9ifiIDWJh{lj" (,g;WUf}'fT. t6'th1Jj6l»ov. 12). 9. gn-QJ~8iu1l{b Gl<FtUlLJw f6QrQ8ifT6I>L. " LDfT u51 6llfJ ,,5/1· I 6lJ rfI oms: G UJ6ir J!)J" (G5J!D 6616'51 (J;J. 533).

Q)5. Q/®CF.

QJIfI - 6lJrf/g& = 1. G8ifT@C:UfT6U i8GitrrL e:,L@ 6lJrf1#c!FGU. "6lJrf/#&GwGU mlrflC#& tYl,' ''1 (]UJn (S;WLJr;rrr. U1/Jil(J. 46).

QlrfJcF& - QJrf1~c!FaiJ.

Qlrf/ + ~QlSTLb = filJl}'Q'lSTw. 9.Cl{6fT : LDt.q... - LDrfl + ~alTW = LDt;JfiATW. QJI}'6mW = 7. @!jlP6tD8i (UJrr(p . .dJI8i. ). 2. Clitb.f!)JLDi)6iJ (~6lJ&. ~8i.). 3. L.D6'Gl£D8;A)r!J; (~QJ8i. ~8i.). 4. O:L65)L_ (!DfTLD~Ll. 454). 5. fiT@/J~. 6. !E'/Dw. 7. &161>&" 8. @;Q)w. 9. 'ijl61J)c!FQJA>& (QJ6itsr6mw). 70. (yJ1l{burrL._@ (~fTQfT 6lI!T6RTW). 77. UfTL.l1I-mt!F (6lJrr6WGwL.__@).

QJt;TomwrrA>Q) = QJAlrr6JlfTLDIT~Q) (G{6@t5JOiAJT&@).

• •

QJf;TfilRfT W-Ql, QJ fT6JfT, QlIJ ~.

6llfJWlSfT ~6b6lJ ~ 6lJ!TQJT orwffJlw 6lJLQlFrr6iJG6lJ ~u5JuSJoiJ QJ~A1TW firAr.f!)J i) rfI tAl/il fill y;>ffiJ@j6lJtfJfT&U au I}' fT ~ rf1 UJ rt ILLU LU LlfilJ®ffiJ &®i) 8; Gl8ifT Alsrl1l-@&5J6trJDAT IT. QJfiiIT 61fT tlJ, QI1;T ow Li:J (if fiisr~ W ~@G4!FfT6i.>.tJ» Lb 9® g) [15J 4JJ QlI1I-6l/ (J6lJ JJ)J ut: 1 6IT CJQJ§j)J W, ~(JfJ c: QI rfI af1 Qg J!)l <!:pAl jlJC: U1 5),pu U Q) Lu5J fIJI c: L.D tb U 6lJ) Luil iJH uut &/J C:~fTQg[15J6I1GQlW !D[15J~6iJ C:QJ6W@tb.

9.C:~rr : p,J.w66>fiDT, i),,6tDWW.

jJfiiJ§J}J(yJw~ = j)dJT(jj)~@.

i)6iJ .. Gl~6b - G):/6Qr -_ G~I!)J - G)~tb.J!)J - GI~tb[15J = p,JAfr61l,,",. i)6iJ - i)-" .. p,J6iJr - i)fiilTmaJr = i)"fiiJrL(lWA>L-

i)f/rr - j).w® - i)6ir - p,JL._{hI .. i)LAlL-

j).u .. j) IT .. i) f}'W - i) (l6llQT .. j)fJ61lfiW = i).wfi6)0AT. iJfiilrAlAIT. j)1}'fif)(MT 6T6ir~L.b ~(!§Gc!FrrfiiJiPlLb, gli>uU6l)LuSI~w GWtbU6W)L

40

u5J §J» WfT 8> f?a 17 (JQJrfl6?Sfl m-.f!)J c: ~rr 6iJr {l5J 9(]t;T Gu rr C!!>~t;;ff lL/(iJ6T-rr iif!JI ~Q) a;rrmr8J. @ffiJffiJ651GLD QlGUTmrW, Ql17~W 6TQrr~Lh @® Gs=rr-u~ Q W 61fT Jj C1) GlJrr ® G) $l>6lfJ OJ. 'il mr Qj) 6lffT' 'iJ 17 6m fiSfT' u51 dr ® rfI u 6ir .!J)J: ~ ffiJ ffilfi5TC] LD. 'QlaarmTl.b' '61lfJfi6lfT /J' i)tOir iJ rfJ u ~ !J)J. 'QJ6W(i5J1 J,QQJ rr ~ {lj rr y5l m rfF' QJ (J fiilSIT a; Q QI tr $ ~ tt y5l6lf) iF Q UJ ar!J)J 6lJ YI ffiJ 8i tt Al UHLf W G!6fT c9i@ja;.

QJf;T ~LD - QJ (J attfJ. QJ 17 attfJ $fflJ~ = U 6lJ/ffi {DffiJ t!JjQ)QT 8; G1 r!hfT mr@ fJrT f}611JUJ~m~6 g)!Dut5J~~rrtb (Ju rrm!f)J , UfiIJ Ga:rr{b&a.mlLfw ~attfJ8i6tf)wl1.fffiJ G8irrQ/Jr(1)) ~® Gu rr®mwu 4m~{h~Q)1J .f,~6iJ .

.-.0 • •

Gllt;TroOO/l - QI. 6lJfTaJr.

6lJ 17 ~ 6T fi6T Ufim;f> 6l11tattfJ Q WQrrC: [DfT Q/@attfJ G'lUJ6kTG fDfT ::ou5'J y5lbiJ

6T@.:!JjQ/4U ~QJ!DfT®UJ.

QJt.l~ - QJI}" QWmm- - QI. QJrtaITfilITrr.

6lJ mr QJT W , QJ Qffr attfJ, QJ 6lRsT mr 6tJ) 6fT, Qj 6llrr 6I"GT c$ Lh , 6lJ 6hr 6m" 8i 9, W 6T~~ W GlJ~QJffiJa;Qr 6lJLG'lwrry5lt61tb L/8i6'5laiJm6U.

use» {lJ /J {lj tb t!J) (IJ>/J ~ W et @ ~ ~ tb 9i®~~ tb QJ [J attfJ /J{lj tb 8i C!!JI;~ Lh QJa>GTT~tb 8i(!!J~Gtpjrr® G;)~rrLJT4QrrotT6llQJaUJ. ~~6lJrrru, @1P~~w LDm{lJ~{hjJ}J tb U tb{l5J UJ Q rfFfT6U6U)Q) (J6lJ {DfT 8i6l/ t.h, tB1/DC!PW 6lJmr mT6m5JT IlJ W U tb{l5J UJ G) IF fT 6iJ A)6lJ (] 6lJ!OfT 8i6l/ Lh ;f>u5"I y5l {b U1 rfI ~ {h6lJ 8n.Lrr ~ . et @.tt» ~6lJ 6TW U § 6lJ6iJr 6UTG6lJfT&lJ ILl LD QJQj)l;T ~Qf)Q)UJtb ®{l5JJ;®W. 6lJriJrmr J)l6U6lJ 8 tB1!D8;8i(!§$i1fi5f1WC{D ®Q)w, @mq, QJGRTfim"Ql6lfT (!p~o6IUJ 8i([!j/J~&6tr 51")(;(( ~/tJl6tr6'fffi6T. or @~/!JJ W 6JJ6'l6r6BT U U L (yJw Gu®wurr ~ tb Ql6'Q61T ~G~ et (!JJ~6l/tb, 6lJm(J Ulfi1l t.b u(JJ6lJ6lD ~ [j)ar .!J)J r6J a;rr QJr &.

Qlrfl (Q}m(J )-QJl;T(t,§JJ-filJl;T(t,A>~ = or6Ua>ilJ, fj)t;Jw.

6lJt;T!h.{/)J-QJI]"~~ = 6"T.u6lJ)Q). "@th ~rrUJwfTrT iJ([§uuiJt6J6iJ !6fT~ Qlf]" /i,/!)J8;@jQr@!)W @®t6~ ~L9-LD8;&A)6TT" (Pudu. Insc. 176).

Qlrfl-QlIJLDLJ = 67" 6UA) 4iU. 6lJ(JwLJ- QJlJwL/ = QlUl6U 6lJlJwurr6IT ilL_@. 6lJrfJ-filIRl(J. Ql65)IJ$66U = 1. OT@6~vU. 2. 6/j,iJI7W 6T@D~.u· 3. G&fTl1J-L@ 6T6U65)Q) ®¢1~{h6iJ. 4. ~r;;rr6lf u@~~~"'. "QJfi6)(JUlfTU U IF G) Q) fT.or f!J1I ~ 65T LD c$ 6YfJ It" ( LJ !D th 25) . iJ LL_ c9 G> ~ til {/J 6iJ . (4a;(i;) u>rr(l;lffiJ 8)y5l&~L.b QJQ)IJ!6fh tDfTG6fTm" (WO)(olJU@. 557). 6. ~LJ;@j166b. "6l}6J)l;T51G6l)Qr L/6lJwa; o>w!f,Jj/w" (C:ll»QJfT. 631:1).

7. 66JQ)8;®~.o. "1L([!)6JlG&fTGYT6U filIAlfJUJITrt" (G)~IT6U. fiT@/J4II' 41). 8. 6'tJl0i6U1(E)1DQ). "Ga;rrdr c$6lJW QJAlr;T {D66Jw" (a;w6If,. 133). 9. LDJ!)J/>{hQ; QJrflme:UJ{l5J~6iJ. "G>8irrmLLDL GLDiirTU ~WLD QlQ)f}"UJrr 4iI (D)&fT@/J~ Q)rrGw" (@;LrrJ. 10. C:(6tTAlLD611 y5lt6J6iJ FFL._@~fiiJ. "QJA)QG U fT(!§Qr (]6lJL6I)r!1i(]UJoiT" (UJilJu.l0:S1).11. ~rn8ict!JrflUJ:16rr&~Ih6iJ. "JJ/IDGikrQ}Q>17

.

urrQJJTQAJTrT

41

UJrrar" (®!DQr. lS0). 12. l.J)67fJTrg,G)(FIi.J~6U. "G,)6lJotfJUUL 6lJrnr;J~6i> ULrr6"6>LD Qlmr;r t}jfitJ" (Q~rr6iJ. e;~6l/. 49).

6lJrnlJ (6T@ffJJ) - QJfi. Ql!JITtLJ·

6lJQ)fJ = t. C:s-.rr@. 2. 6lJrfI. (@(3r;J06>8). 3. 6T~j;/!Jl (tSJr!1J) 4. 8i~6lJ6tf)17 '46fr~ (yJffiJ!iJGb. "LDfTGlJ6lJrn'7 {fIQ]!A1fJ QQJ {bUJ~" (i)<!!JC!:P®®' 12). S. r!Ji-6lJ fr(Ju rroiJ {fIQ)~m~ filIfitDf;TUJ!f)J &@W L1>~6U. "uafl u(JiJ Q !D@6lJa>fJ" (LJ!Dw.6). 6. 6T6Ual6U. ''fillGYT6lJQ>fJ'' (®!D61r. 480). 7. ~!f)J6lJfJLiJLf (W.). B. $rt&r!J)6J>1.l (<f!!JLrr.). 9. ~6TT~. "1L6YT6lJ61S)f;T" (®tDQr. 480). 10. s-.rrfiU 6lIf;TwLf. OifTfiUt.D "UJ.!J)JQlalr;r" (L/.G)QI. 12, G'iumrurr[iJ. 17). 17. @L Q/(lwLJ. @' lh. "wmQ)6lJ6'6>(J LDrrQS)Q)" (urf/UrT. 10 : 1).

LDL_@alfTtt~~tb QqfToU. QlQDt;T, 6lJmIJU/w, Q}6lS>!J&®w.

6lJ6'Cf>t;T - Gllrnt;1 iJ 4 = 1. fiT@IJjJ6tf>8J. "QI LL!J-6tDCIi Qjmt;T u4 W 6lJ rr 45Jw 61lJ8i{bu(yJLb" (G'/u(!!>r6J. 1L<9"UF&. 34 : 168). 2. 6TQ;A)6lJ "@QOL{fIfit} 6lJ", IJ uL51 fikr" ( w655fJG!D. 28 : 24). 3. LDiJ Q). " ~ (f!)ffiJ & I.!/- QJ(i{f) IJ U t5J ~rT8i661 arySlUJ" (UL__liI-~u 269). 4. 6lJ6fS>r;r[!~Qr!1irr61r6TTUULL @I ID. "6lJmrL.Ja;~ fYJ6lItT {h~urrySl6iJ Q/6fS>r;JuUJw" (QfJrTfib. G'JeFtU. 78). S. &QJtT ~1P{h{h @LW (flQJ8i. 949, tLQDr;T). 6. wrrGYfl",Si. ".tf)/6"5>6'6aT QUJfT@ i/61'>GTT J;®ffiJ 8irruL/6'G>L Q)06)CTUUJ6ir" (~r!1iw. 34). 7. ®orrw. "4ou6iJ Ql6lJ>f}'UUr!JiW 4®!6G{brT .D)JW" '(QUfT(!!J[D. 240). 8. <!§fTfi1JW, L6U8iW. "~~ c9iL6lJ QjQ>r;TuU/6i./' (QuC!!JWUfTrirT. 18).

• • • •• •• •

QJf)fT -eutt -Qj tt rr. QJ tt fT {h6lJ = ~ tt UJ fhiU, 6lJ6'5)6TT ;fIGlJ.

6lIfTrr-6lJfTt;Tw=1. lFrf16'l1rruJ/@&@w LDQ)6lJ#~rrfJQ). "6lJrTfJLD Q1DriiJ®W UOlrrI1l- &@J)[T" (@IJ ®.j)&~. 2 S8). 2. t!FrriU6'lIfT u5J(!!r9;®w fJrr y>6lJfT(J W.

6lJ fT tt -6lJ tt rfI = 7. wi} tDt!1itV!f)J. " 6lJ L6lJA>'7 tf/QJ U t5I tb C:!!j!J> QI fT rfl UJ fT U 41fJvD1~~" (Sit6fD4· ~8i'7q-UJrr &. 36). 2. Gc!F6iJT@G)QJfI!fJ. "@Jc9.!Ft;TW QJfTrfilLl61r QJQ)rorrii'1J(lQJ" (gQJ&. 275). 3. tfjJ6lJ8 @!J1Pt61D c!hLo1J (UlffiJ.).

6lJfTffi (&L.u). QI - QJfTrfl L. mare.

61Jrrrr-6lJrrl76'5lfTw = 1. QJQ)""6l/, C!!!!J1P6l/. 2. QlI· l WfTW (]c!hLa;W (W~). 3. ZL6TrQJm6TTth~ qffiJ® (01ffiJ.J. 4. {fIQ)<9@lPtAtfJ &L6lJ. S. @'Y;QJ~rr6U ~6iJ60 ~ or{bpSl tyJ(£IQlfDrr6iJ fiTtbu@Lb LDfim!DU LJ. "6lJ fTfJ6Rr LDrr6tDUJ" (UfT(J~. iJG IJ 6fT. 17). 6. ~Qf)L. 7. &QJqW (U/ffiJ.). 8. gLfilf)L (~LJT.) 9. s;rruLJ (W.).

Q./rrlJfi'Ww (c9iL6U)- QI. QJfT(!!j6Br. L. marinus

QJ fib" - QJ tt ffrr = QJ Q) 6fT 6l/ . QJ rr m QJ rfl = a 6lJ ffiJ Qf) 8i U 4 o6J . " L.D ~ c!h rfl J; QjGTIu(!:pw QJIT6Tr6lJrflu u!D(!jJw" (g)Q)u. 25 : 49).

fillfT61r -QlfTW I.b = QJLLW. "6lJ tten uxt CJjG6lIfT IT UQJ6TT LDrr6iJ Q/6lDt;J ...... Qlel,,"{i.;G>{D6krm" (urrf;T~. 8irr.wLQ}. 77). 2. g&8iIJQJfTfifr L.D"'fit)~

42

G)1DfTLrT (UJrrYJ' ~&.). 3. Q8;&I7QJfTS;UU/DfiU)6lJ. "LDffiJ6f>8JLDfTrT ~L(!P6mWUQILl6J1U Qurro6lQJw QJfT6fTlb" (a;wulJrr. UW6U>LD. 21) .

QJrTifTLD-Ql. QJfTWU.

QI rrrair -QIfT6'If1=7. 6lJ6tD6YTUJ LDfT m (yJ&8ifiilf5fl. 2. Ql6'6)fi'lrUJ LDfT 6V SifT 1Dfiilf5fI. "QJrrorfJ (YJ/J/l)/w" «(§UJt;T. UJU· C!PdiD. 1i16iT. 71).

QJrr,,",-6lI. QlfT66.

QJ (16'1f1 - 6lI rr 6'tfI",.$ = ~ Jl)J a; rr 4JI QJ Al QT UJ W " 8; L.l1I-61> a; U/ W QlfT6'ffJm8ilL/w" (G)~G6JT". ~([§J;Ale;Q)rrlU. 68).

Q1rr6'fftma;-Ql. QJfT .oJ,g;fT.

QlfT6lf} = QJ'. I lDfTGUJfT@m&. "QlfT6Jf1 G)6lIwurfl" (urrfJ~. @@' 708). QJfT6'If1C:UfT 1hQ) = ®~A)fT 6lJI·' ~Dn<::UJrr@$lJQJ. "wrrf}1J (!Jl!DUUQJ QJfT6'If1 (lUff 4JILDfTib" (UfT t;T~. @!4tI. 727).

QJrr61f}-6lI. urr.6J. QJLG'l6fTilJ.6161sr U&t;T (yJ~Q)Q) C:~rr &@.$.

QJrrw-QlIT@-QJLLW = CFfTtU6l/. ~tiJq.alTW QJfTL._L~

~rrLLlDfTt61([§&8iC:QJtOiIr@w (LQI.).

QI fT 61f} - QJ rr ~ = ~ 0RfI QJ (itf) 6Tr QJ fT filfT ~ (!!J QJ tt U1 , "us fT fiilf5fI 8; 8i QJ rr ~ (!JJ~4JJ~ffiJ 821T~"'J.b" (~(!!JQJIT~fT, 37 : 75).

6lJfTliJ-QJrrliJm& = ~(!§QJrr~. fj).C:{6fT : ~ - ZL&, ~6"Ift-~i'1.

QJ6DLD, 6lJaSl

QJQ)w, QlG6J : QlQ), QJ661 Ql6UW - UQ) (6lJ), L. valere QJ8it;Tw U&t;1LDfTlJi/, (b) iJrR!6f9JQrQT 8 QlLGllFfT6iJ.6]6frT OJAT6I)WAlIU& c!1ifTL@Lb.

"

(ilm : 754).

6lI~JbJD~ ~(QJwl1l)

~8)~fTy5I61)& J)l6iJQ)~ ILdfr .. fTu51m& (&ITuu&51(!§&w)

~ ffiJ8ifT UJ- (S;fiIS)L~G ~<!!J)

fjfTwtiua;fTl1I- (U&dJc$QDL~Gl~®) I ~"'Q)diJ&rrlJl- (LOrrA)Q)8; 8i6lDL/JQ~(!!J)

~@j,6oDr (8iQ}6V /J~tb(f!j a61,. I tf1wow)

~QDLUJ QJAl61T/hfhrrAr (G&fTu11661wlT 4{08&tDJ!)JLOj)6b) ~r;;mQ) (~rrLfI-J

dNfiilf5fI a;w (6lJ tt &QST th)

~OlJfIUJw (Readiness)

~eJ8;&/J Q~rrdlsr'_Ar (personal attendant)

Urr6UlTQlUTrr

43

c!llmu8;~Girr j]®QJrru516b (a;rtuu8;5}@& QJrri6J6b) ~rfllLJ",6m ~6VQ)4JJ ~f}" 8F.$c$L~6iJ (~ffiJ&rr e:arw) ~rn!D9n.QJ6U (8=QJ rr", 6l1I@fh6lJ)

~!Dw (~('!JLDLD)

JH.,i? rf1 UJW (ILL) tr j,iJUl IT UJQsr )

JH.,L6lI6lu (4®~A1)

~'9 I tb (mJ 6lS>6TTUJ rr(j;II.D1 LW) c:ti65>L (QJ6Yu~[JW)

JH., (l (J fTfifUF (JH.,(J fT (1;6"AT W), ~ wClt;T rrmCF (~QJG(J IT &fjW t.iJ) JH.,QJ6mW (Uj,j]f}"W)

JH.,@!>tiJ8i6mW (Managing Committee)

JH.,arorrrrLLq- ~iiJ6U6 ~G6Tfrr 4Jl1iil5J (IhrrQJ{ban.@ - (Sentry Box).

JH., c: 6fT rr UJ- (®'"" f, i) roil wiJ §JJ 6rr Lf!fJ uurs: LD8; <Ii 6tr !D LU U 1D {b® 8; 8;1· '9 UJ QJfI!)

~mCF ~Q)fil)~ ~waf1mCF (~ffiJ~~Lb)

~L_ c: LtD!fJW (QurrliJUJfT &8; ®!bfDr8CFfTL@mlh). ~:f>lP®aUJ U fT (fj}L.Ul-UJ Lb)

~1hY;8i.u iur (!BClerfTLL1I-ILIW)

~lJuC:UfT6irr (U/tlmCFd;e;fT(JAr)

~®mLDUJrrQJ C:!6rrtAi§J (LuUJrrgJJ CFtbLD~UJrTlu) ~UJ Lh (eutt l>iJUJw) I ~UJQJdr (eutt I>j]tLJ8i&rr(J6V) ~UJ tDLJ {D6lJ (fill rr ~j]UJ Lh QJ tt 6J j,~6iJ).

~!J>u4 (!D~I w)

~6TT thfD (6rr 8;C1iL9-~~6iJ (~(J fTUJ tr 4jJ eutt 8ia;otf/ ~$?i6U) ~6'fTC:QJfiitJflQ) (6lJlF th1hw)

L&ULj (choice)

IL{lJfTQJQJ)r;J ~6iJQJ ~ QPtbJ!)fTL@ (8ttQJLDfT~UJt..D) IWILLo;rr, I!f11L@/DrT «(lurr6lfJ8irr) 1l§I1L.@uL/6lf>[J (d/6iTm a:/Ji1(Jw)

titliJILIW (~Q)rrutb)

1l§I16"4>L.DUJ fTQ LDlTfI! (~tyu tt LD{Aj] fJ w) ~UJw ~6iJQ)gu ~IjU4 (U16lfUliJ;) ~UJw ~6UQJ~ ~u5JrTU4 (a={hCl::OlhW) 9uLjfJ6'J/ (lLuClirrlJw)

9® fDlTlLJ8iW (Universal Dominion)

44

fPWU@~$l>Q) cMQJQ)~ fj)WUQf)L (W8;8i6f>61TU urr g,18irruUJ{iJ (D)s;rr u46"51/J~6iJ)

~LDfT66I6'6)& (QJIT o:mQT t# (FfJ 8i®J fj)6m1J (j)t;TrrgJ, .j)6U8;8j(;91W).

fj)Q)8;c9.iW (~t;T 8i '" tbp5J@8;6tDc!£, Durbar) fj)6ilUJw (U1~i/(Jw)

r.$m,(D)GiOT ,tg]Qj (,g;fi*r j)(!!J~I1J-) t!hrfl8i (UfTQJW)

8i®~6lJLb (Tresury, GJUfT&5/a=6rrQf)QJ) r!Jj6l)ffiJ8Jrnl7 ~6TT 8;r!JjJ.b (Light House) 8)@Qlrrw (t5J 1}"(TUld: 61/J$l>w)

®v-6b ~oix;u /fJI C:8iQr Q)J (8i(!§iJ-ori/) ®L(JQJrT~6l) (Ballot Paper)

@)@W4 (Ward)

c!M..Q)W (1OrT AfIUJ tb)

an..{b{DUJ (~fT §J}J aifT )

8n{b.!f)JQI~ (UJLDW)

C:8i6TrGU1 (651 t!F fT (J AlfiJfT)

6l)8iU]6tflL (urrf/JI&fT8;®wULq- ~u46'511>~ QUfT®6ir, Trust) mo;UJ{lJw (~IJW8iG61, Elegy)

m8iIfLL@ (QJ®c!Fw)

G&fT LLW (eBJ6i>QJfT)

(ls;rrm

(ls;fT6RTw6fu (fiJ(J8)w) CF61J8;8J1J 6J>mr (Gl~6TT s;rftUJ tb)

CF IT fr C#g] fill lJ)8;(r!!) (flLU CFfTTJ Q}1j)&®) r!FfT6lJ4 (i)®ui))

CFIT jf)J (@IJCFW)

8iYilJL~ ~6b6lJ~ &mQJC9~ (@[Tg}a;6ir) 8i6t»~ (airrG51UJf}" sib)

UJ {b.[!)IT rt (~t;J tt WW)

~J;mCh (yJ.f!)J8;5} (Spanner) ~QJuuySI (Hunger Strike) ~fTY> flomfiO (@Q)riiJ(]&rr@J

rpjrrw ~6iJ6lJ fi)J j):!DY> (u /Ji/IJ Lb, u/Ji/ rf}6f)t!Ii) j;J~6m" 8;8iWt.D (Department)

urrQJIJQIIJI'rT

45

iJ(!!j(!:P@8;(t!!J (~U1C:6lJI8iwl <9fTQT6ID/firr6lff th) ~tiJu4 (~~UQJt.b)

G"lflj1flU4 (G)1brfltiG)~&Qf)6j, Selection) C:~tb!Dtb (tilaqUJw)

f6L-_LfT <!-'p'. lq (Layman)

/fi17 6b (6Jfi6T thy

fljrrti1r I ~rrmr L6 Qg (27 ~1hfI~j1 r;rrliJg;6'lfJ6b ~ J!)J) !6rr6\JQJ6lS),g;q GlFuJIL/6fr:

&(bItbU" @Qsrurr u5]A>!DUUIT Gu@wurr ~Q),6V!P1 &@A>W, @65fJmwI u51rnfD ~8iQ)W (~c!Ii LD§Jr;rW g}~iJf7t.b 6'5I-J,~"1Jtb). fJ",fT (o1vt{hlTliJ)

QJ66Jil/ Gt.D06J6l/ lFW6irT (~rr(Jw wtb~tb LD~iJUW) !CIT #~6mQJ (GJc$wt.1QITW, GC1ifTQJQTW)

Jjlo;;,,#~ (~~C:u"8iLh)

(DJ~c9lf tt t§J®6QQ) (~(!§f6UJt.D)

GJf6@e9lfrr<Oilrr 8i]6I>L QJ6eT 8;a;w (a: rnrroLJT riua; {6w6iu&fT I}" th) Ui/GUJ@6mCli (Evacuation)

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51

u~~ I.b aQl~iJUJ[b r!Tn./J~mfJ c$ ®p518i@jL.b. QJ61r@!>tOlJ([9W (FIT c9;6l)C/i UJ@W ~L1J8;®c$ ~lPUULL U6l) 4PvtntOmQJ6'Cf)fJ'4W fhl>~w G~rrySJ[iJ«!J (!:pc!::puQUfT .f!)J uLj (yJa>L6lSlLDUJITQr 8i®LD~ ~m6U6lJG)IJ01iTUULLrrrT.

10~w ~[b[DrTmrLfl- 661UJtb{Duul' I gQJ~~{l>rr~u5lru Q/w@!>QI<ON ~1Jt!FfT{ia'Him~UJU urn!DUJrn!Dth~ 6'SIGlTWUr;r~ G'l9tlJUQ/QfTfT8i8; 8n-!DU u(£1QJ {l>Q)(f 6iJ, ~ rJlj[iJ® @lJmrQLrTC!9 .!bfT tD{DfT ~ L1I-[iJ(!!) (!pth~ UJ L51ffiJs;6lJ~iJs»Lh ~~C:6lJUJrT~GU C:QJmr@w.

U~~LJ;8ifTWI>~{b UfT~rtJ;@j @tmq~G){hfTySJC:fil) @)Q)1h GrpjITySJ ourru11W1w, dJ/6lJ@L UQ)n- ~iJwJJ t5J6lf)y>i.JUJ~~wu{bp51u UJ{D (;J {hrr ySJ~blJ C:W[bQ~fTfilhrrL~ C:UfT6U, QJ61r@!>QJ@W ~fJ.:F Q)/A>6IT t6l6iJ it) rrQ (J 6U6U tt tb a;mf/ (G ~ fT i) L) /J Gl '7JfT ySJ GiJ 4 rf1 {h~ 6lJ £fi{D6IT tT. s tt ~ 8i ffiJ 8i mf/ {h ~ §W W ® p51 Q t!F IT 6u jJJJ ~ §W Lh ~ 8; rf1j tt 6U j, f/JJ th 6lIGlr @9QJlta,®rf1UJ.

u G1lrT m L&a;fT '" ~ iJC: 6lJG UJ Q/W@9Q1IT tfJ u5I /JiJ en ~ Q ~rr ySJ 5J» S Q(FtiJ f!UGl}!h{h6mwu5}roirr, QJGir~QJIT 6TfJJIW Qu UJrT tfJufJ Jii)&W 6T~ W Qu IT (!!j6lS>GYTlLf!& ~@ro5JUJ~. (~tA{ljrrLJ)~ 419). t6J u5J~~8)m tEJu51t»1bw (r!F®~w) ao..f!)JU6lJ~. QJm@QJ~ ®p51 Q(Frr6lJSJlQ1~OMrrQ), ~~ G 1b IT yS1 tb@j 6lJ "" @!>GlJ (F tr ~ j;J fJG wAr J!)J t.iJ, dJI QJ ~ c9;@j QJ6Tr@5ilIi.J UmrLfTfJG'lww!J)Jw QUUJ!T ILdIT(hL UmrLfTfJGLDdru~ (yJ{iJ r$fTfil)I;~GV JWT6lJ8ir6JS;L®W UQ) .!JJIT6U ut61dTflJ 4Q)QJtT r!i;® ~GiJQ) ~ f8fT afIC1iL® Lh GlJ y;> riu51 UJ G u UJ It. ~.gp OJ Qrr 4 (!pm fDC: UJ .:fP fD6lJ J:jmrL ~p51@jrtc9;®W C:urrv6J~ ~!D.a8i@!J8;®W, QUUJfJrrt6J[bff)J.

LJ P!DfT ~ tbp51 tb g}fit) u tt L6Us;GYfJ6b !DfT t8UJ 6i.> et GiT iJll W l.D6b)Q),$@~ $6~6lJQJ",rTOM ~@Qlrn QJW@9QJ6isT fiTar~w G'JuUJIJrrdJ 8n./Duu(JJ ~ pIT ar. ~Ql6tr f}<!!JtfT,rT {b Gs: 'If:JJI8;@)t.D, UJQg 4 U fT mr 1..9- UJfflJ J;®w U6lJ)LiJ;fJmfilJQJfi5rrru5J®/J{h~fT8j1> G$6rfJ51wflJ4aI. ~QJGiT 137, 140, 380 ~ Lh Lf fOu U IT L(JJa;OtfJ 6iJ c;, u rr@f1jG5T er oil.f!)J 6'6I6'IfJ 8;a;u U @~Qr !DrriiT. GUfT®!DW "'~~Lh QUUJrr 6JrT8;8iWW ufT@GQJrrm, C:urrrr8i 8iIii1TW urr@GQJrrw, UfJmf/ urr@GQJfT63T fiT~W1W fYY011tOff)a;U 4Q)QJ®,," ~Q)GU ~ U tt '-ei @Q-, ~@6lJ a> FJ UJ rr QJ ~ c: U rr It <til" fifHirr UJ rr 6)J /!II ®p51Ji@jw. @ffiJ~Jj <!Tn.{DUUI· , JDfT<9U1QJ QJ6lr~6lJrn- f}rT um'-I> ~rnGlJG)J67I1fT{D.-6Jw C:UfTrT~ Q~rryS1tbutbp51aUJ QUTT®!66M fiTosru

• •

ULLfT6m".

6lJQr @!>QJc9; ®Q):ii~rrGJ", tr (!!jQJC:err ~rT ~<!!>c9G a=UJiiJu{iJp51 ~6iJQ) 4JJ ~tDth~ ClurrtT~G~fTyS16iJutbp51 f1jfT8U16iJ 6Tw~Lb Wm61J6lf)IU8; G8irr~L 9® ~.f!)J f1jfT@ (Cla=IJ6JTrr6iJ ~¥ibQ)f/Jl urr~LfI- UJ~fT6U) Q8ifT@8i<!bUUL'4-®8;Oi61Jrrw. U~Q)L,9; 8)rrQ)~i16iJ C:urrtt i8t;Ttr QU(!!Jwurr.!J)Jw LD!D6lJ@W 9l6Tr6TT® LDfTu5JC'!>~$f>fTa'7~w, U/ID @jfiV ~ ~ rt C!!Jw dJ.I /J Q'!i rr yS1 (b ® et j; !!Jl m QfM' lLf W 6'5J Q) a,&U u L.lJI-Q)

52

GJl70GTUfjI C:~tb!DLb. o:::ti~Q)fT6U fb"c9616iJ Ql6ir~Ql6'IlQT QJQr@9Q18; (f!JQ)~~rr(jffTT && 8n.J!)JQJ~tD(!!jLi GluTfl6ti $lj'QDLt6J6iJmQ). #J(f!jdi~rrriJ &l.If'# 'AltDfiIJUJ6 C::~tTtB~ 9<!§ fljrr@ 6lIdr~QJ {6m;,L6lfrUU(i;1edrJD~. d118' 9@C:QJA'JQf fJ"c9iJQj QI.~. !fifTLJTr6J®!fi~(!§&&fiOOt1l.

jJAfI, 6l.U;ir@§611Ar orwguLi> GlUUJC:t;T 6lIW6YT6U fiTA1~tb GUUJrfi61sr LDJ!)JQJlJI-QJfTr!M; G)CMAIr@, ~{ix§ ILUdifTrf1 6TAT~Lh QurrQgew 1Llfij,{JifT~ft. Q/mQfQJ firSr~w GUIU®UJ QlQr 6Tar~W ~~ aflWGtD U1~fT"j9JIt.iJ, ~Lb e!P9IJLil, fLU&/Trff QUJroV~Lb Qurr® 61fI6b aJ;(f§IhCu rr /fJI, QJQr 6JT "',' 6lJ Qr aflllJ 6ir, 6lJQr Qf) f1J tt AT, QJ fiir gfJ GlUrrW, 61W!D Qll1J-6lf&alQf fiJtbu~Q)Q)B QlQrSQlAr 6TQr~W Q/Ul-AlQI 6T6lJ6'ilL~Btb fJOUff6lflWtDlW, ~ ~ C:u IT w61 U,JAl(JGlILlQS1 LDJ!)J&5.

jJij/&" I)ItfiJ &a.J6I UJQJjJ" "fib , QlweQldT fiTAru,D ~Q)iJG)UU1C::1J Ghu41!f)J tb, eM 411 tf}u5J ~iJ&mfJTl1/ Lb (§tOJ&(!!§ Gww JJ)J Ill, ILU &rr tf1 GhuQrff)/W QUff@6ffl6b QJfTr;rrrGl~A1l)Jw ~t6J~fDlG&rr6iT&. (The PatturiaD, Feb 1939)

QI61D&IIUJl.b

QJ8)6'RUJU)-QI6UW

QlQr -QlAl6'fT -QJmwU1W=QJ I· I I b, QJ61D6'JT lLliiJ. (QJ.6lJ: 2 S6)

6lJI)IQDlDIUR6D ~ ~

J!..UJ It t5~ to 8; & 6fT QI J!)J om wtDI §JY t.b G'I q w m LDUJ fT t61 ®~ ~tib an.@ torr t6J9lI w, Gl u tt !!JI6lJ rr Q; QJ.!J)J 6ff)W UJ tt 6iJ ~@J;s;ttJQ8i@QJC: {D LD,s(Jj .rfJ UJ6lJU rr Lh. c: u rr J;5J.6J or oil ~ t.b G,)q lT6lJ 9C!§ c: U fT 8i~uSI.u6lJrr $lJ 6}'OllJ)tmUJ8; ~t6J8;®W GCFrr.u. ~/f)J GUfTOJiJrfI 6TQff/J iJrfI/hOI &(!!JiJUJm~6 Ga:tiJ§JJmJ@LiJ 9iUJQJfi6)QT 8; ®t6Jti®w. jJ8:Qa:rr tbtOJ rf1yw G;) U IT (!§L.l1J- rf1 L/ W, L fiUT 6l/.$ 51 6UfilJ tr ~QJ Qsr 9@,j; a; rfiJ Q a; ® QJ /!JJ Lh QJ Q))!A f6I GJ u rr ®6ir G Q/6Tf 6lf QJ 4P tb iJ dIr afT L.b 6T W WI tb QUIT §P 6lfQf6r65)W lL6WtT ii!!PQJWQlfT @jUt ~./!)J 9n.A117 fiiI LQ"\L.8; ®#arfil@ or m- jf,)J th I @ ~ 516iJ OT 6M JOl w en!)J 6lJ ~ 6lJ1;P,J; a; t1J. ® lJI- Qf) c!F u5J 6iJ QJiilUUQJQ)61T8; ®t6JJi@jW ®~&J;o;fTlfI E)f6V~Lb Qe:rr6U, ~@9,8iffiJ Q Ch LL QJ 65HiJT ILl Qj5f rt ~ fJ)J 6lJ .ffJJ tD, c: us {b an. tOJ UJ lL filhrr fi(f) to ~ UJ QlQ)/lLI!f)J/J~tb. (Q5fT6iJ: 105)

6lJ6MULP """_mtD

GJ ~ tt fIiJ(JjrT U LiI UJ rT Ch rr 6IJj, ~.u, GJ t!F tlJ iLl 6fT fiT@QI{htD®rflUJ !&J Q) 6'08; 8J6ff ffiJ fJj 6tr I U tt L_@, 1L 6l) t;r I JjJT fib I QJ tt wQ LlJ tt uS', LiI UJ, dJI ffiJ a; ~ W, (Ij).tfJJG iF IT6\) 6T firT ()T@ Ql65>&UJ rrliJ QJ@8;8iuQutbt6J®{6$fj67fT.

UIT6lJ IT ""Hr

53

UITL..@Ii6J/f If)!TCQ) QJffWQWITJP J.5J#l(;1L1 c!!JItiJ~LiJ (fPBQeff6iJCQ)/T L6iJ(]6JJJjJ Ji1~#LiJ QJ6lIitr'-lC6/i> (fjJQJff lbiNrQuny)/w Q}Qf)!TuiSJ6iJT ,!OITtOC:utf gQ.JIinQJ lLl&~IbQJtf QJJI)tiJ(§W

lLJlTuJ.5)6iT 6lJJPlLl "lbtinlJJ61IflTff 4Q)QJ'; (Q~ITQ). 1336)

oraruiDI Gl1DrriUa;rruL11UJ ~dJUfT.

~6iJ Q61J@QJ6J>Bi !EJmfil)8ic!Jj6TT~~Qr, urrL._@ fiTr;BU~ ~LhQJ)LD (7491, ~y>@ (1942), G>~fTQg61J)LD.(149B), C:~rrGb (1494), 6iI®{i;.!6l91495), ~6mUJ4 (1496), 4QJW (1497), ~6ID£PLJ (1498) or·. g"'QI~CJj fiilJilTUUfT& QJ~U Qutbgfl<!!Jt6~~.

QlmuLJ 6TQu~tlJ !!PlUJ ~!i~u51IiJ~ G)c!FrrQ)' ~@~f!bJ ~~u Uc!lir;TlDrT" r!l)ti; ~UJI:b, Q'6iTgvdl: QlL_q;,)lFfTQ1QDQJ& a;rrooUJLb. oz. J!)J

j} rfi,5ijJ .

jjffL&& &ru6J1LJ ,!D6iTfpr1iJ ~t:u111i: (LD6IIIfl<:LD.19:BO)

sr • .!!)I, (yJfljQg(!IJ~6lJrr 8. c::fb AlrLfi»fiig, g~6 IFrr j,~w. Q,5fToUOifTUt.!i'IIJ/JiJ6iJ· ~iU&&QWw ..... /DuQutb" fUQvQJA)& QJQ1 uU!!D(§W ~6l)&&iUJLDrTtD1(!§[i~ uft)/Ql6UcSQ6JT6b6vrrLD, -='l!o(lQJ i)!Dt6:fj1 U I· I Qf1. ~Q)fTQ" 51.uJ. 3c::tiLD JfJlTJb"fTfiWLfI-!b~ 10 c::tiW JjI1tbfDrr.wLfl-!b@jw ~LL1u'·' u/J.!IJI QJfilTU4&eW, mWGu(!§IiJ cfirruU}UJGlwm!!)Jw a3c9g].!J)J 8iffuUlvQwQr J!)Iw, ~& &fTiU~

iJ J!)l@u5IQ, ~® r!Tn.IJfT 8J Qlf§&&U U I·' QfT.

g}Q)uujJ&fTr;TW, LD~C:LD&Q)Q), g6lJ~d;fJjrrLD6Rfl, QlA)6ITUJrrui), ®.wL-QJCo;U} 6TWrJJJW tfJti~ti:J (;)U@QlQfTUL/: tB6Ua8i~, @!t6fT/T ~, w<J6TT rp;r t!HT.5IUJw, (;)u(!§IiJ8Wif)t/>, 16fT ~fJ 8JTfii1UJw fiTQg~w SJti4JI W liI./f)/QJQiTU 4 ~~Lh. G,)U(!96lJ0fTULj6lr ~.!J)I j1u5J tb @)¢Ja;.!Jju ULL ~'76ti1T~t.b, gJJ!)I611OJTU4Qr ~Jl)Ij1I61{b ~gfIJ,$UUL._L fj6V D)J t.b ~Qgt616iJQDQ).

QJ 6lS1 U (itO U U U1 tb &rr Q)~j1Q) 8;&fiRfJ UJ It I Q ~rr LIT tEJA>6lJ# (;) s: til u.! Qr tytaf) @~QJ# Q s:tiJlL/e1r et 6kr J!)J ~®QJ6lD&tU" 8i6lJ61r @j(l51uUrr'7rrt61mfT.

fjUL/UJrTQJtDfD fj)(!!)QJQ)Qf1 /J ~61DQ)6lI61Trr 8& (;)&fT.nrL /BaWL ai6m?i ~@6l1J, lhfToWLW LlLGUW c!p~6'5JUJ G'lu®Lb U@jU48i6lfJG1T0> GJ9irr~(£JJ u6bG611JJ)J 6lJ6O)8iUULL 0; tr eotb, ~LW, ilo;~ci§:J, LD8;e;~ QJrrY;,J,mr9iQjJAl{D, c;,~rrlfl6i:J, u~J;S;QJ~d;ChW, ~!J~lLJfib, iJ.§ll ~ tm LtLf6Dl!D tLfW, t€lm bU/J ~6I)6lflfTUJ Lb ~ UJ ffiJ ®i) 61f) tOm" ILf usrt liJ UJ LDtbtlJ 6lJu51 rfl6?fTt6JCliW C!:P1!Ju8JUJ Q U tt <!96'iT 8>05l6rT U U {bpS} U1 Qlmr6W mar .$ 6f>W UJ Q) L UJ ~fT 1iJ, 051 rfl6lJ fT IiJ GlJ ® Lb QJ 6M LJlJI QJQu !DJ, c: blJ G tv 6U fiJ}fiU)C];U U~6lI.oJ ~w, GlFrraU6lJW /J6tf>,-,U C:u IJGff6lJ rr 8i8; r!JjfT 6BT QJJlSIUJfT 4JI. c::J)I6lJ QJ6lfT uy.# Gs: rr6iJfilJG1T (!:PW, QJ6lJT U u rr li1 rfJUJafJ W L/fitJ67i) LD~ ~ fDj,6'6){DU G u rfl /!Jl W G;) U fT .!J)J j,rj}{Drr ®w.

54

2E wQ u @ tOl}65T U 4 $@j6Tr U}QJU U ~ o;rr f) (!:pw g, ~ $Orr LD~ tuib, 8J!f)J 6lJ 6M i.J Lf 8) ~ 6fT Q U@t6J a;rn ~U.fG LD G) g rr 6iJ QJiJT (YJ m LUJ fiirir. @ t.b ey:;fiikr .fDl W CYJ6lS>!DC: UJ fl)6lJ)60t6J 6ffJL 8im L_UJfT Lb.

if6\llJUjl51116 fft !DU48: Qlfrr!f>5m

~8jQ}QJ = QlUJ4Jj (QJ).

~~~Lfm~UJt;T(ilJJTt.h = C:sfJfTtbm8)~~GlTw (glove).

dPI rf1 (!pc!hQJ LhUJ = wLJfiJ8)f))J(!iI ffijq,) (yJ8i(!JJGTr 6TT U L(f!J. ~Q)fi6)QJ = Q)/UJU/grrt;Tw.

@Q)QJ!6 ~ rn c!1> = IE rt (61 fm!D ~ 4P G) QJ 6YfJC: UJ tb J!)J tb Gl U tt p5J UJ 61f) LD ~ ~ ®61TW, ~m~U1@d;{Ij C:e:rrm6U.

@J!)JLb~ = ~~IFUJL.b (QlJ. L//fPa>LD (wonder). ILWQJrficJ;C:8ifT6lJW = LDfT JDjac!1>fT6lJW (disguise). OJ~w = ~urrUJLiJ (QJ). (danger).

fj>& {DtT = 8i6lJ6l1Jm6JTf8tT ( sailors).

a;dJrG)Qf5T (!J>~.uP = ey:>LA)L_8i6ff16"isr c: WQ) er @~ UJ (yJaiQJrf/ (superseri ption).

8i61JrfiuJjallJ 6'5JG1T 8;8iW = Light House t!1ifT c!FQ){D = a;6iu!DfTrfi( QJ.J LDfTm, s;rr~U1rt = UJL@ QJrr~c$rT .

&rr6lJ"rr = CFfT61TfJ QlAl8.t.

® (J 6lf)Q) = et C!J' 611ft ~ 6iJ fit) Ii U Qr 6Jf1 ® Q/ rt QJ L L LD rr til @ dT Jl)l

• •

~L1I-Ql®LD an_{D~.

an.6llJUJtT = ~uu QJrr~t!hrr.

&@ffilm8i = &17t6gp U6'6>L, ~!j)tfiQ)QJ¢1 (Subterranean passage). ilmf}'UJ6lJ = Q6lJtbp5Jm6tJri &([!JQr.

t8(J~ tom ,b = u6iT61fIC:UJrrl I h.

uilG)UJ@~ = {68i(JQJfTA1TrT G'lQ},.,fK1UJtDtDw (Evacuation). &rfi(!p(J;QJ LhOJ = UJ rrmfiM (!Pc$(yJ61rfiiTf U L(:!!J 6lJ6lJ)c$. ulT@51L$~6lJ = t!F/JilUJfT &~r;r &w( QI) uom-f:!JlI~6iJ. QlWUWrr9;8i6Tr = LJil~rrtlJ 6lJtha~fT!T, ~UJ6iJ~fTLt_fTlr. 6I)QlUJw = @jiJml7 ULt.q-UJ G~rTC:ufToiT{D QJAlsrI.1J- (Coach).

@i1ff1, ~"6UQlma;u Qu®w u.m-f:!JlIw, ~fTfibQJA>8iu u-erU@)UL/WI

• •• • •• ••

{6fT Q)QJ 6ln8iU U fiOT (:!!jQ) (!JJ LD, 16" 60QJ fi5) a;u U fT (i(f)QJUJ LD, {DfT fit)QJ aJ c$

!617 wyw, fiTOJr6lJm& (;T y>rr 5J» l.b, or fil1v QJ6'f)a; @a>6&&lJafT(!PW I ~1T6iJ

UIT QJrr QJlJJ' rT

55

QJma; (yJY>GlJw, i)®QJm8i~ ~fTrorrdi GI~rr~j>'4Lb, !f>rr[iJu"'UJ!f)Ju '-ltD I u~4d 6lJm8i i)trna= U u rT6lj W, fYJQJ6lJ)e; QJ rfI UU tt ~ t.D, (!jJGllfilf)c!h# s tt n- iJ.{fJJQJrfllLJw, U1!D6>.Jwrr UJUJ j)mq:j,~ufllPu u®i)8J@!Jw; uGiJ 6ll6fS)8)UULL j)@GQJJDI an.d;~t.b, uf}aATrrlJ"L~t1J, 6T"8i@.5W 6lJ rflJ; an..$.uu tb I j)@QJ6f)8i8; @1JQf) QI '4 W I (!p U u ~ i1 ('!J QI m 8i !D r;;yf) GDJ~mfL/t.D (~t5I!f>UJ(yJW), fYlQJ6t)a; (;)UJuSlaflfL/W, UJ!D6lJLDrr~UJ {DrrL&/> {huflYJu u~i1a;@5w ~Q)uuiJe;fTr;rj,j>tb(]8i g]/Duurrw.

mil "sa 511'6\)~" l.05afli ~

t. Q)JfJ~ = c!JifTfilg(JLDrr~fJW

2. urflUJ8>W = a;fT~illtlJ-

3. JM'4fJW=~Q)Lb4

16 ~ QJrr6l)(O'(fuu~QJrTliJ C:WfT iJ[Jw 17. l1WilIIfl C:WfT ill] W

4. urrLSiw = 9®QJal8i8; c$fTfil)6W1 18. UJfJ~fT6Tr QCFp5J = LD'78i~8; 8QlLQe:p51

S. 5$lJ1iiJQj)(1j

6. dJ)Iri1W8JW == UfT {b!F rrfitJw

7. ~ffiJct!> (D)a= p51 = a;QJrrQrG)f_6pJJ

8. mJrfl5lQ)8i = (y-liJUdii)([!JQJL C:LD8i6t5)QJ

9. q;mr Lfl-61SUIi == LOfT 6lrlJf1 J;a; 6lJ(iI)QT

10. (]1l>rr6TrQJ~ 11. @!.L&W

12. m8i6lJ65>tOTr == G'lurr"'QJ65)QT

13. U rfllLJ&W = urr NI/J tjjrrl.CJfifRSfl, 61)8)8:6 rf)

19. 6151516& = 6i/'79~ffiJ~661 20. ~f.9FTfiiM

21. c:fJ,1J Lb

22. 8il6I~QUJrrC!:#UJC!en-~= t5Y0tT(lYT66J

23. ~(JtB~L5J6ir6r1f01T==

~

24. GJ{DujQJ~.J,i) == gG$D~

25. QJWw4rf1

26. Q{DrrtiJUJ8iw == {h~Q)uurr~6TT,

guurrmw

27.~=G>~u~Lb QJ~Lb

14. QJrTfiixMQ)(O'fT = affillhQJA'K)fT I CDlQJiiT 61fl6llmGlT

Uh9i6"lf1 rt tB IJ fT@QJ 10 tb ® rf1 UJ u ;:, §I i> ~ eu ttl tB [t,!!Jl65J a)fJ, c!:p U u ~ i) (!!JQlQf) ~ ~ WrT 6'61rna; (yJ{hoOl U161fT Qj W g] su iJ U iJ a;rr 1J 8; 8iLQ) rr@ s;rr 6lD~u5J tb ®{l5J 8;8iU Qu tb.!!)l ar. ~61J tb{l5JdJ/6lJ1 rflfiIDQJ dlt..q-UJ fliT 8i® !l)GU6UfT It lLallJ u51 tb 8irr 6ifT $.

~sftwU UAlL.5L..Jf,. Q!'j@@,Q"l6lWAr 5Ir6'\)~6Ilf)"'''1J ~!DQurrtDI5Qr

7. Ql6'5HiiJT6'5J tb G u rr {l5J = ilJ61JlwtA4J/ fhrr(]fiJT fiTtUUJ Lb (f!!;fp<F6IUJ (et l>iJ IJ ) 051.0.

2. 8i ® fi5I r;r i)J.fT 8) t.h = 8) rfl UJ ~ IJ 6"5) Q) UJ OJ) L UJ ® (J ffiJ ® a LJ rr 051 C!!J fA ~ C:Qn-!6lDrrmfJ 8i &L9-J;®w GlUfT{l5J.

56

3. 8ioiJ~uf/y> OiillGBr.

4. urflQf.!f)J G>QJthG~uJ = s;rrtlJth~6I){Df,~6UfTtb C:o:rtth~fTm(J QJC!!J~g,J6lJ ~rrUJ G'J (Dw.

5. utr c$@ ®~~ = G;}CFWLf(!§cii51 u5Jm/D8J®w WlLfT.

6. c!JjfTtlJQurrQg~m6U = S2...([§r!J)8;8irrtlJq~ QUJtDl::otb@ 67o'b®

• ••

ULliI-®r!h(f!jLD gL6I)Q).

7. a;ru6l5J@ an.6mL = @LffiJa;mfJu Gurrp5J OT~~tb 8iQJG6lJp5JlL/ffil an.mL.

8. g~'-'I-ru = ~roml1l-ru QlUJ-QJfT Chi; umrrom16'G)QI~~r!ii 5/LffiJ@j tBr6J 51 l.D~6iJ u!b.!!)JQI rr 6'5>17 c!i; (la;rr /JIDIQJ6l5l &(:!)ffil $([!j6'6J.

9. GJ~rrLc9;~ = c$@/J~[b ~/' '9 (YJ.!J)1&®W a=ffiJ~~.

70. ~6'hTLmQ}UJ@u4 = ~omLmQJU4Qr QJIlI--6lJrr8iu u6llJrmfJu U[D8; S;G"5IL, u6'6)a;QJrf!6iT ILqUJ~UJ8; Q8irr~® tyJal6YTmtLJ8;

8il1l-8;®W Qurrp5J.

71. 8im6lJ = ~ LffiJ~C:Q)p5JrDiT LDpSJUJ~;fDrotr@!>W @®U48;a;fi(f)6lJ.

12. 6m8iQuUJe[!)fiI = L.D~tb{DmQ)mUJu u[b.f!)J6lJfTfil»(J8; m8i~lLJu Gu fT ~Q;®Lb 1'J§[f ~uG'J UfTp5J.

13. G,) 8= GiT Q {D p5J iJ t;T GiJ = LD tt tb {lJ tt fr (] LD (b G;) c!F ~ .f!)J ai ~ ~Hi", 8i

Q8ifT"~W U1#iJ6l5Iu GUfTp5J. "

14. uGtrp5J = wiJ£iJfD6'tf)6lJu5/ (J6lJp5Jmrr ([9L61J>GUc9; (JairrLLfT{b ~~8;C1j ~®wurrtb Glr!FtiJ/!)l",QJ"~ uGiTp5Ju Qurrp5J.

75. UJ (lJ = Jj/T tb !f)J QJ m fJ 8i G'J 8j rr 6U 6l5I (a; {b & $1 afJ) , $D 61r GJf1 G) 6lJ L_ '-'1-, 8jm7tD.!f)Ju Gurrp5J, 6l1J@r§J®w umbi], (J)(!P@ Qurrp5J I 4""'uG'Jurrp5J, ®LU UfTW4, IFr!JjLuGurrp5J, ~8ifruG'JUfTp5J, dJIrf/ ~{bQUfTp5J (yJ~Gl5lUJQfT.

61 ~~IfLOAIfl8 1t![>U 48 Qe:rrd>56Tr

~~a;w = ZW!fr~ (conveyance, vehicle)

~Lh4~L = 6l1JmmCi1r!Ftll QJ~ (means, expedient)

!!LGllQT 8iW = dPlff,{DULflJ'w (Q/.) (zenana).

ILQJafJ"~6iJ = ~tlJQutiJUJ~ GJ~rrLrfiJ@)f!j6U.

ILa>Y;8; &mrrfiWfTfOfTfr = ~®~6'6I(!!j&C!!Jw c!h6llJTflurr wJD ~~ u fro fj}q6lf}~~6iJ = U!DmJ>6lI ~!D,g;~i;{ljQ).

8i6iJ~rfJ = 8i6U661 &tD®w @' iD (College).

t5J~UJ6iJ = UJ~IhQ{D@di~ 8im dP/iUQ)O @m-CFfTJ!)J. 6lJL&W = C:L.D6UfT61>L.

UfTQJrr6RTrr

57

QlGfTLD6maT = Qurr®dr !ffJm!Dt6~ ~!Dut51Q)Q)Lb.

@afJ I ILl rr {p 6T m ~ tb G"3 fi6HiGV 8; a; ® GUJ 8; ® rf1 UJ ®{iJ tDriiJ 8;6tf) GfT ILl W I U tr WLJ ~r8UJAr fiT@ c: rtilI Oir5JClifillGTTILfW, @jfJJ th6tJ)~ 6lJGYTTr U L/ (!jJ~{!J filS)UJUjLn, ~.!J)JQ.J~9)U Gu®LhGlufT@~d>aa;tb!D ~~mLa;65)G1T UJW, 6l1Irfl~gva; cm_J!)JQJgpW U)!h~fTLDmsf},$®# ~£DuQuw 8). ~u5JQ-r, @mQl Gurr®,,"Ql6TT~iJQu urrtbu@w.

G'lu®ffiJe;filf)$lJ# @/DULJ5 Qa=rrtbc$6lr

~#~W = ~([!j C:uQcrau-.

8)Lq-a'J8iUJfT(JW = OiLil-&fT(JW. @~ ~UJ G~arG)e:fT6UC:GlJ. 8iUl-airTUJ{h iJ'7w fiT~~W QJLQgrr6iJ~~ iJrfluw.f!)J. 8il1l-rn8) = Q/L_L_LDrrm~,

• •

~fJ LD = ~fT FF!J)J.

&fT fr (!p8iW = fill fT6M'6UI GiJ. ®uurrUJw = ClwtbgL_mL (coat).

'jJiJ = LJ!D&&6WA1Trr{b 8irr6W6'5JUJQJfT;fJ G)!D@t6Q~rrmQ)GlJ# G'J9tiJi)&mGTrILJ W ~8iJjQj~G'm"rr tb 8im-rLp5!lLjW ~tbf1J6iJ.

iI ([!jG6J 6iJ = QJ fT05Te5I fiiJ.

C:$lJUJUJ#(JCFrfI = ~UJ6iJ!5rrl' I QIIT aCFrrth~QJfTQJJth ®l1I-u51®uL/. {6fTOMW = a1htiJ~gv8; ®61f18i®w mJ6'6)I7G~tlJ (QJfT (F6'6)QT QUJ,,",Q~ti.J). ULLlJfTLW = 8n.LfTf}"W (tent).

urrw4rf1 = ~(J6TTrrUJ-.

J11J1-6U>c!1i = ~tbmflJu11®J;rn8i ~lriJ· LO..nCU)5QDQ)'; Sl!DU4j: QB=I!f>a6i1

~mrL6'5)6lJULJ6tr = ~6RrLR>'" Qlt.q.-6lJfT6JT, @!Dth~UL_L 9® U /DR> QJuSlm- w.

o:::ti Q)WtT CD) c9=Q>QJar = ~L._916S6Trr&JrT /Ji)( eu.).

Gi)u tr iJUJm{D = &lTtb .!f)J6lJ(J eu ySJt6J6iJfiO(T ~ tEJ6U6lJ6U>!D. QJL.Lq-6lf)c!1i = fU"@.{fP(Ja;rr6iJ (Painter's brush). QJL.@6G>L = ~fi6)r;r9;a;fTtb ~L_A>L (drawers).

@ffiJffiJrarCLD ~~QT QJQTU481fi1f15J»W 9®6'16lJ Q9fTtDe;6Tr UJ/Duu fT 8i 6l/~GQ/'iilf{ ~ p5! s: (,'G;)CF{!1[JL£! (p# Gl q:6iJr;6}")

QJQJrLb

QJ6rT Lb-6lJ6W"oo-(@. ClQJ.J

QJQJTW = ~UP(§. "QJ6V(YJ6lS>QJ" (&w6J/J. 97).

QJQSTU4 = ~1I>@j. "GCF6U6lJfTOVi>.t!» 6lJmuLl' (LJ!Dw.4). (6lJ.QJ: 256) <:~6)J. urr. 13 - 3

58

'QJff' 616ir p ...

• • • •

QJ6YT -QJIT -eutt rr -ea. 6lJ rr -6lJ®.

G6 rrQx;urr 8;8i~iJ6b L ~ Q) If) w;rr ~tti~ th iJ 8i17 LDfT 8i~ iJrftlL/ W. c!JI/J $I rfl6&6b QJ8it;T 6fT 8i1}" tiJ Gu f}"6Tf6l/ th, ~6iJ 619 t;Tmr L~6tr@!Jtb 6fT ChIJ W GU@WUfTW6tJ>LDlL/W, ~®W.

6T-@:

L - fJ ~-f) 6lJ - I}"

• •

a;@-9>I1I--Oirfl, ULfillft-UIJQJrT. GlJI6lf)~-65J6lfJ1}" .

ILfiU6l/-1L1J 6l/, @jQ)6tDQJ-~tT6lJ)QJ, ®iJ6lJ-®iJ rr, u~{D6iJ-utA~rt.

4 Q) y;> - 4 6lfJ r;r.

• •

• ·

• •

•• •••

~6'fT-~fT-~®-~@®, 8i6TT-6,fT-&(!!J,8i61T -

arfr, G>fh6lfJ- G~rf1, tCQ-,-tCrT, UJ6tr-U1lt-UlrfI,

(!pw -(y)Tr -(!P(!!J-QP(!!)® (@6fTQ)w), 65J6tr -051 If -6"61&.

c!p {D tb 9i tt fiU /J $I 6U (y) {D afJ 6'6> 6lJ UJ IT & QJ y=> ffiJ 51 QJ tA ~ g] Q) 061 Q) m # Ga:rr[iJ9i6Yr QJ~8;o;tb.f!)JU Currsri/ATrrfJiJ, @G1sr Jl)I ~QJtb{151tb®~ ~6lf)6lJLDrr{DrT IJj ~QJtb¢JQr G~rrySl!b GUUJIT ($(}w fhu5J~4Uw ~6J)6DT 66lmQTQUJrr@ 8rillJ-1LJ Lb QJ !J)tID$1 QJ®5)oV/D651.

fiT-@:

• •

• •

~65T

~/· I rr6M, {hL8J6!r!Drrar, ~/· Ilrr~

(j),s&lTftlJU LJ6'I)L QUILI;;- .if)

• •

~Q1

~firT /J~filrr, ~~a£JW!DrrATJ

(yJ{ljAf161)Q) (yJjJ&rr6UU ,-/QflLQulU;; c1Wl

• •

~6'a>61TUUfT"'.

&6frfil/G)~ tU{hrrviT, r!h6Tffil/ Q81i.J~6ir IDrroiT, 8i6TTfil/

GO:tUQJfToM .

r!f) 61T QJ tt Gi6r L tr 6M" I a; GlT QJ fT 6iT 6J i1T flJ rr w , 8j W QJ rr 6iT QJ tr Qr ; (JjmQJrrl.J1--6JTrr~, s;WQJ rr@51QrJDrrw, 8jQTQJfT@6lJrT6V; 6TarU6JT61ILD Q ~ tt ySI tb G1 U UJ rT gu Qf) 66fT 651 Al6W 8n.UJ- C!P ~ gf) 6lfJ Q) UJ tt 51 U 4 Q) L QUUJrT!6fhwaQJ. ~6ir, ~@ 6TWUQT .ffPrn~fi'51Q)grc!Jj61r, t!JjGTT6lJu~, t!J)6JT QJLq_, 9iGlT6l/8jrr 6W et G5r Ufi5T 6lJ ib 4Jlalfim"651rn6lJT Qa;rr~LiJTC:QJ.

@ 8; 8i tt fit} ~ $I 6iJ 16lI a> at' or ar .f!)J QJ lP ffiJ 51 6lJ ® W (y){6 6"5fI m fiU c!p{b8irr6Uj,~viJ 'QJW' (;TWa!D QI spffilfiJ tb.!f)J.

• • • C'\ • -L.".

r$1 I rr ~, r$Lthl6'M {OIT £001,

• •

8L.LJfTW

, , . ~

wn 61BT §l)JCD •••

UrrQJrr6RTfT

59

•• •• • •

QJ6tT ~1Dfil) = 6lJ rrnw fDQ). Ql6'tT 6l/ = 6lJ mQT6lJ. 6lJ 6YT v;rr LD = QJ 65)QT Gl/ I

QJI' I W, QJm6YTtJ;~ d116bQ)~ QlLLWrrQfT GUfT®W (Q~rry51fiUrr@ GUUJIr). QJw6lfJ = 6ll6fnW[i;1h G)c$fTLlI-.

9C!!JQl6irr ~Qr .!Lm!D6l1IL~~61Sf1Qr J!)J ~.u6U6 (il®Ut5JLI>i1~Qu.f!)J 9rf1L~i1tbct!>U C:UfT61TUJAJ", ~ffiJ5I®!h6 ILm!D65IL~~(b® QJ(!!JQJ~ (y)tiSrUJwmrr a;~ ~®Lb,j)C:UJ tutt ~Q)fT"', ~®wu{b 8i®~i1af}6iTC:!D 6lJ(!§Ql8)Q; (Jj®j,~u t51fD~{D4». ~~61TfTGiJ, ~([!JwutbGurr@L QqrrQ,6'6JG"6fJ61TC:!D Q/®~&U G)urr®L._G;)o:rrib C:~rrQrp)lJb.!J)J.

~C'!JwLJ~Q) = 6lImGTT ~oi>, ~mt!FwfTp)I G!6fT &51 tEltb!D6iJ, w(!!9~6l>.

ill @9~6iJ = i1®U)/j)6lJ®~6U I a;fT65>61Ji61tb GlFw;jr.!J)J LDfT6lJ)6t)uJ16l.> ~(!!Jt.bt5J aTfTW 6Tm{Drr6U, i1('!JWtil6WfT65'r 6T~U.{t)J il®LhUl 6lJt!~mfhQ; ®¢lI>~6iJ &fT6lf6r CIi.

QJfilJWrT Oi<l6lJrr (ilL-Wrr a;(JQ/fT i1®WL/~~ffiJ an.@C:LD~Lh, ffl®6lJQsr ~rrw au rrm (ilL::h~i5fIQr J!)J LJ flJUU LL_ (ilL::hiJtb®1t i1C'!Jwt5/ QJ (!!jQJ.{f)I (yJ61rrl.5J fiirT 67iT fT c$~ i1 @wUlC3 UJ G UJrir u ftjJ G)5 rr6lJQ)fT W(]60 <05J GTr ffiJ (:!!J Lb I

f;J®wy 6TwWlLD GJCFrrtbC:UfT~C:!D' QJmm{D6lD6lJ8; ®p)l8i®Lh ClQJ.ff)J 8=JQ) G,)dF tr {iJr$@JJt.D w @.9~m6U& ®p)J8i5Jrn- [DQiT.

~rfI~6iJ = Qlm,""~6U, t.D@JJ~6iJ. LDLffiJ®{l>6U = Ql6IDWsfj60, W@!j{hoU. LDp)I fh"-' = QJQ)6lT {hGlJ, W@JJ;f)6U.

JlIfI~6iJ wf!!.9lbw. (i.SlffiJ. 7 : 202)

wtOJlDfJ QQ)6liru§Jj w~~ QJff(§llJ fjJQJff. 9) LDp}J~!fQ; IPIflI6{TQ; WLt5JlGQ) J.8~IbGiJ (aJ~. 7:444)

~61i)QTLD¢l urru4 6T6VWltD (;)urr®6Tr<l&fTL QUUJrf1 §J»WI LD¢lQUJQsr ~ rt§ G) c!F fT ru QJ 6U) QT 16 6U) Q) ILl Lh iI "' t!F LD tt ¢1" j} ® LiJ LJ 1fj 6tf) su ILl Ttl ®{l5J ~{DQJ t!hrrr;;W s:

d8r6J5J6U;;~Q; Ql6mGTT ~6mQ) ~6iJ6lJ f!» ~(!!JwL/{h6(jJQ)a; ®¢18i®w tum OTWfJ)JW Gc!FfTQJ, re OTar~Lh (y)6irrQ6rTfTL@U G'lU!D!!)J/J ~®tht5J QJ(!9{DmQ)4; ®pSI&51Qg{O~. He never turned up this side fiTdT~Lh G~fTLrflUJi;~Q), ~# G)qfTQJ up fiT~~Lh (!p6irAfL__G'1LfT@ 8iill/-, QJ([!jma;u Q U fT®6IDGYT'4w fLmT IT ~/tJI5IGirr{D~.

(ilt!» c!JifT .!!)J rfiJ 8iLp)I UJGlJ {b{DfT6iJ, '61Irr' et w~ W 6'5J m6V #Q <F rroiJ QJ6G)6fT {h m 6U 8; ®¢l J; ® W 'Q/ Gir' et (Oir ~ w C!P ~ 6Of) 6'5H;UuJJ 65f1 we: {O ~ rfJ th ~ffrTGYTml.D GutTJuu(JJw.

(iltiJm{D c!:p~6'4fI66)Q)UJrrQff 6lJ6'5l61TG UJQr~~ Q S:fTru §J» W, QlmwUJ 6lJmQTW 6T6isr~Lh tfJs;y,t$fTQ) 651mmGhu#s: QJ@c!ii51SUtb, QJAl6V /J4JJ

60

'QJ n ' 6'16ir 1f)ICb ...

QlA>6fTi;§J} OTQg~W ~tDtJ;~8j"6U fii/mwQU81F QJ@r!i;51$Yw" iJ®wu iJ®wu DrQuff)Jw G)urr®w a~"{b./f)J6iJj,~Q)QJ& &fT6'Or8i.

~~6JT"QJ, U,Jj;>UUmL c!p~AfJ6l)fiUUJfTQT QJQr 6T6ir~~ Q5fToU§JJJWI (yJ{b&fTOlJ/JiJ6iJ ~U GUfT@@!JfiDT"/JiJQTA)W 1Lti.tj,/lJ/fiiWfJUU@W.

QJW -611ft -eatt IT -611 rr -QJ. QJ It -Ql@. ~Af} I QJ6lr -QlrrQr -fillfT" et 6ir !f)J LDfT Lb. 6llrrv!rr - QJfTWW = fill'· I W, 6lJfTQr-QlfTfiffJ = QJLl IDfTC:UJfT@6lSh!l;.

• •

Qlrrrr-Qlrr-6lJ@.

~ uS] IP Q}/65l GJT 8 Q CF tt tb a; fi1f1 fiiT c!:p ~ filffJ GJ) fit) G u ® wu rr ~ t.h 6J QJ GQJ rr (!!JmLD 6lJ L1I-6'5J(3QJG UJ IL/Qr61T D. ~QJtb If)J L_ ~6UQJtbp516iJ WL_@W, 6;J6lJQQ)fT ®D6U.D 6lJ'-9-6iJtOlSfJ oir.f!)J <YJfbWlA')Q) C:QJ Jf)J U L._@QriJT/I)J. -dJIQ) GQJ..!J)J u rr(J;l uS1 Jje; 6'5IQi)fi61 q,~v!rr 9rir J!)J 'QJIT' et 6iT u 4P. ~~. ~L._iJ u5J SH Lb LJ 6ff) '--- Gl u UJ IT <F U1 uJJ SlI W, QJ rr I 6lJ fT It I Q/ It I QJ I QJ ® et ATfJlJ t.b SlGQI Jf)J 6lJ ~6l/e;(j, a;rr ViflfT uu(hl5JdrtDw.

6J QJ '" QJ l1/-6l/, Gl U tt 6QJ irs: (!PfDai161l QJUJ6TT 6DIiU 9([!j(ilJ)W UQr fil>LJ) u5J"dfTLll-!b®w GlUfT 4JJQJfT a;(JQJ uJI®&~tb. ~uJ1ar I QJC!!J~QJ m16lS)QfT uSlfiiJ ~QJ65I (J fiW(J;Jw atOll!!)J U L@6Tf .

UQilQDW

Q}rr@w (QJITrT+u.i»

QJ rr (!!jr6J&6tr (QJ rrrr +ILW+e9iQr ) 6lJ Lbu5J~ (6lJ ®-6lJ1T -QJ+u51Ar )

UfT ®w UTar~Lb UoJrrnLD ClUJ6lJroJtb unlr fiT~U~ c!::p~6ff}6lDQ)UJrr t6J®~fbQ) C:urrdr J!)J I QlfT(!§W OTATUiJ6iJ 6lJfTlT urAruGfD C!:P$h6"6fJQi)Q) QUJar U.fJI a;2itDfDw. ~1hfil)rTQj, QJ rr rT 6TQrrfJJJ Lb QJ~6'6I6"6fJ fikr(l!D 6J Q)6JT iI>rT oUfj)J fTL1I-6l/8)@!J~ $I rfI /JiJ®/J~6iJ GQJoDr@W.

C:LDtb~p51 ~~ !lJ GlJ LIJ-fil/ a;,,",m ~L._U)lL/w QJ(!!Jwrr!J)J.

6lJfT

1. All'"

6J.I fT f;T fTfiJ)QfT (QJ ®rn&) et 6kr~ Ii> 6D1mrn- uG'l UUJrT: 6lJ tttr rr 6mLD 6TAr911 Lh sr iJ IT LD6l){1J 6'51 mar ue;) u UJ It: QI tt f}" IT fiir, QJfT (J fT ~"6kr er Qr~ ll> 6'T .LD. 6'5Im QST UJ rrfiU6'5>fim""-/ W GJ U UJ IT &6Tr: QJ rTf].,T", et dTfjJJ tb et .us. 6'8 Qf)6lfT (!JJ[b.!f)J: QJrTf}"rnll, QlfT@WI QJrrtflr QTQrr~tb ILLarUfTL@ 6}"QJ6U 6lJ1mrar&w: fillrTfJ6lJ, QlfTfJrr@, QJrrfJrrC:~1 QJfTr;Trr~rr, QJrrfJrTiJrr, Q{rrt;T~ ufldr et Qrr ~ tb et so. 6J6ll biJ Q)} 6f)A1 lbQr: 6lJ ITIJ Q), QJ fTfJ!be; er Qsr~ Lb et.us. 6llJUJrfiJa8ifT6Tr 6'6Jmar&Qr: 6lJfTt;TfT, QJrrlJ"~ OT6ir~W Of.W. G'! U UJG IJ ci ~ ffiJ 8) W: QJ tr IJ1r /!Jl, 6lJ rr fJ tt a ~ I QJ rr r;J tt "' LD, 6lJ mt fT UJ Q) I 6lJrrfJrrGw, 6lJfTlJrT .$8ifTolJ, QJfTlJrrQ)/Lfl-Qr 6TdT~tb fIT.L1J. mlmmQU18 qffiJa.m ~ 51UJQJ{bp516iJ QJ fT rt .,..vfJ)JW QJI.JI-QJ Lh tEJfi6)QJ~6dr6fT 6.

'GIn' tuit fI)Ilb-

ulrQJrr61ll1T

61

2.6\1.

QJrr 6TATfJJIW 9®AlwC:lLIQlQ) 6U1m6JTui.u WL@tb 6lJrr fUA19)JW QJL9-QlW tEJ(jJ)QJ~~6trQT IJ·

3 . ..u

QJt6$6rrar fiTArfJJIw ~!DtifD8jrrQ) QRQ)6VC!:PtbJ!)J: QJd;~., Q}!6{lJrrw QrArftlJw ~. sur. .5IAlATUJfTQJ",AlfTIlfW QUUJrT OjQr: QJti~ 6TAr~t.b ~. ClifT. G;)UUJG'1176lFW: Qllil/Jl, QJ~{/JrrQJ, QJri~&8iITQJ, QJti~661L~1JI 6TAr!I)J tb 6DlA>6'fTQUJ6t!F tiiJ&Qr c:ti 5) UJQJ tbJ61w QJ fiTAriJ)J tb QJl1/-QI I.b tEJA>QJ~~6tr.".~. QJwuS'Iw, Qlwtlwrr 6TAr~tb UAr6l)W GIUQlQ, 686mQS1&ffu QJ(!§u516ir, QJ(!§Cwrr fiTWUQltbJ610tr i1tflurrGlLl u5J~~ (JQJ.w@w.

9®61QJ c!:p~AflQi)QJ&6rf1Qg Q!fJIJI-AT(!JJ{bftlJ ~!Dti)58irr6lJ mlA)QSTuJI/b

(!!)J!)J~LD.

9J::~rr:

~rr - ~tf,~rr6V

6rr - (6.J,~rr.v) - Q8/JfbrrA'r C:~IT - Gtfirr!&tJ)rrw

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(!:fJQsr!DdT v;u'" Il§I] tifl f!U

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~6lJ

(1) df.I,~

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~ 6l11=QJrruJ6lI uSlQJ(!§W &fT dJ.J!)J, fYJ~ 8i (1Lt6J It U Lf), ILl61tt, e:fI, ATWfT, ,u6/ttC:ufTw/D a"rribJJw.

(2)~

~fiiJ6l/-QJQ,6l/-8i6iJ&l/. j)A)QJ C!P"'JDGUJ, 9fifTQ/, (;)QJroTr6l/, Q&QT'V fir • ./Olw QlfiI)c$uu@#..h.

c!J¥.{I~ J]wu,; QJ&gU L{tirlilflUjw

fi>ii1' 6TW "~@~Anm QwtiJ"u~ c:pwlllw.

~fiiJ61/ (96YT6lJ) ~ib"'QJ fTUJ rr tb u dJ./f)J ~QJ. &Qsr!!)J 4QJA)QJ ..JIQjQi ( 9,,"Q}/)/J iJw 5) fD4JI fiTATU 8 6lI1J>8»C!!J.

~Qj-~QJ-~QJfT = QJrruJIwfTJD utbJ1)J~6bGU"QJ LIYri6T~iJQITrrJb utb./DIw c:ft61D6.

-68

~QJ-~QJil/-~QJ"6l/. dJlQJrr6l/~fIiJ - ~Q)8UU(Y~Q).

~QJ"6l/ - Jll,6lf. ~Q/~Q:J = Jll,A>r!FUU@)56U. .JIJ,&I - ~QI"'. Jll,rrQJf,G{bITLQ)QlTHQI)Q) ~..a6<l6tttiD 8iL@~.u 6TArUtT.

QJfiiJfil/~'" = QJ"liJuutbJf)J~C:urrtb 6I)&UUtbJ!)J~, Upj}~. QjQJQ/ 6lJfT6lf .. QlfTQJib = G'tu®Qi®uutb.

•• •••

&QJ6lf~ = QlITUJIT{lJ ufO.fDl~Q)·

lJjQJ-8jQJ-&QJrt. &QJrr ~=u/JJ!)J~.u, 6fi([§Lb4{1jwU.

&QJ';6l/ ~UUH~W (QfDlTQ). lLIfluSlwQ). 65) lJjQJ-&fT -sut {hfiiJ. &fT-&ITW-&fTLDW-&fTWrr. 8ifTW + ILJ!)J = &rT(yJJ!)J. &fTLDW-&lTUJQsr. &Qj6l/~ih=&QjQi1;,iJATff)J~6b, iJ.ff)J~·

a;QJfa/-&u4. &UL/{bQ)=8iQJQTr§J&QJ6fTWIT.$ sIi~t5J@j~"'. &QJ,¥-&6lI6TT W=ffjH!§(yJA>/D &QJ6l/w ~6bfit).fljI iJ6iTgNw JII"'Qlrr6J1 rLfiffT6l/.

a;QJ6l/-lJjm!UJw-&.5J&W=&J!)JY> (bit).

& QJ -lJjQJ Q/ = lJj Qj 6l/ {D 6iJ, 8; Qj 619 efT rr the: u "Q)

dII&UU@~f!j"" ~&/JiJ@~d>.

&QJQJ~ IJ@lbtiJ (Q~Q). LIflu5lUJQ}. 59).

&6lJGl/&A>& = ~AlWRT~~ 61)&.

&QJJt~6i.> = U/lJ!)J{b6U, ~&uu®j,I/JI{hQJ, QJ6UU@~6~6iJ. &Qllt&QJ1r.lUJ. &6iJ'lf-&uLJ=&QJtr.l~.

&QJrT ~"'=utb!J)J~. upj}j,{hQJ, 8;QJfT dIIQr=6.QJ(!!jIil s;QrQJAr. &QJ IT -q,Q/ ./J)J=r$QJ(!!)c9 @J~IT L_@, {:!j{bfT@ &(!!)f8. 8i6lJ6l/-c$6l/6Al",-q,6516QD,QST=dI&~iJ@tb I'LA>/D.

a,6lJil/-&uL/. a,U4f!j",=~&j,iJ@{lj6iJ, ~1i6iJ·

8)6lJ-8i6lDQI. 8iQ)QJ1>~~&j,iJ(j)J~, (j)@ Al&U.JlT~W ~Al",,~. a;Q,6l/ - (&QJQr) .. ~fiffI = &fiiJ 6'51 am {bC:u lTib (ltD S}/l.b ~(!J>w IFI· I Ii> Q)QJI>~8;e;L@w 4/J{D&8;8;L(i>, &L_@, G;)61I!bpj}A>60&&L(Et &QJ.,ff&6lJ61f1fil»&.

&QJ6l/-&6l/w=q,QJ6l/w ~Q)~I &QrAJW, ILQrQ/rrtlJ. (JWQJQJfTliJ ~,pQJrrUJQ)(!!j&.tr &QJ6l/tiI ~JD(l)l GUfT66J@/J~rr6iJ, ~QJ® Q&rrl1l-J!)J (iT6ITUU@~ilJ &fT.w H2. (G18ifTl1I-J!)J-~!D(~J).

&QJ - di6DQI = 8jQJ6l/w ~Q)rt!J GUfTWJD &QJLA)L, UJAlQT. eMU&QJ6lI =&QlL.A)L. &Qllt ~",=&Qj&ylb ~Q)(t!) (lU"tb Lint_..,.

urrQJrr61ll1T

69

8jQJ rr=t5Ilf16l/. &6lDQI, 5JOW6fr. 8iQII;r tt CF W = ~® 8iQJ ®W 6fT e;®651. (Divider). &6lJ6l/ - 8iU4 = 5}Qf)6TT.

(&6lJw) - o;QJ@ = 8jQ)QJ C:UfTa.,.ID G'I~fTfif)Lgc!Fth/!)J, 8;Q.llt, 8i6lJLmL, 8ilm6TT. 8i6lJ(EJ-&QJL~=8ifi5)QI. G{lJfT61lL# c!F~~, 8iQJ(J;I - cfjQJL6lDL=&A)QJ I Ulrf16lf, 5161)QT, &Q/rr@mJ6iJ.

( c9i6lJ 6ir) - 8iQlOzsr = 8)QI L6f) L c: u rr w!D s;t6/ tb J!)J 8;9J (f!j ~. OiQJ au-&Ql61ltORr. &6l/.w-- &QJ6W@ - (JjQJQ/rrl1l-'

8iQJ6lD6AJ' &QJ6lhrr(h) 8iQJrilsrLq... er wiJlI Lb fYJQr!f)J Li:> c9iQlmr er o6T u '7>Qr LD.!!)J QI L1I-QJ ffiJ 8ie: en.

s)6lJ-8iQJrrw=Q~fT6f)L.l,g:!h4»J' Q~rrmLI Gl1hrrmL5 c!F~!l»aUfTwiJ ~®LJ)a>ilJ&@iQl~c9i6iT Gurr®th~®8;®w ~LLb.

8i6lJ-r!];QJru. &QJ§JJJ~uQ) &6lJrTU@~Q). UQJ8jQJrT u@~.u C:urrwu ueo !&1mQST6l/Qa;rT6W(jiJ c$Q)ffiJ®~6U. 8iQl.u - 8;6lJ6'G)6U = 9j61l)6lJ, 516l»6JT, s)6lJtT I;~ QJIfI, UQ) tflmQfT61f&&Q)8;a;w, dJ/8;8)6G)[D.

&6lJ6lJ-&QJ6l5J. &Q.Jfil5I~~'" = ,g;QlmQ}uu@~Q>.

o;6lJ-9J6iJIOlOQJ=a;QJQ)QJ, 8iQJ6l)Q)UU L(hJ'# Gc!FUJlLJffiJ&fT rflUJ t.b, &rT rf1 UJ W, C:QJ61l60. q;Qj - cf)6lSl6l} = 8ifTrflUJw. 9® &rrrflUJ~f;Jtb®t.1J UUJoirULfT ~

•• •• •

QJm~s; r!f,~QJ&@j~QJfT~6lJ", fiTVVUfT.

8i6lJo61-8iQJ6lff). &QJ6MJ /J~iiJ = & 6lJ61J) QJ(J UJ rr(£J (c$(!§j,a {brr@) u rr IT :IJ~Q>. 8iQJ6V1-c!JiQJQTw. ((yJ.~rr).

6lImi.JiGlmUQDl5 Glwn~Jb56ir

LD tt thfb AT ~UJ th 6U>8iUJ rr 8i 6l/ tb G'J,g: UJ [bm &UJ fT c!hQ{ W ~ar 6lJ rr uJl63T rr Jb Qe: tUlLJw §:1QJ G<!FtUQf)c!hc!h@!)W maQ)8j8i@!)t.D, 96iJ(JQJfT rt 9e61 RlUJ U

UI!DuUJ/J~tb (]a;tDfD 6lJrrtiJQJl1I-m6lJ UJA>wdJ4JJ, ~Qj Grurr96J8imJ6ir 6lJrruJifilJrrtiJ ~q Gc§UJQ)c!Jj6r)QT c!! @jp5'J8i®w G)(Frr{iJs;m6ffu t5J!DuUJ~ i}@&5)ar[D6'51 . .dJ)f# (;Is: rr {be;L@j ~Q)LDfTW ~6iJQQlfTfil5I8iQr 6lJfTtU.t Q~ujma; QUJrr~&""fTw.

,,1"'( 6l.I)

96isr tm[Dci; a;Qj6l/~Q}Q) G UJ rr j,~ QI fTtiJ#Gc!F tU6-aUli!&1 m6lJ I dPlfiiJ et 6isr~ t.b 96t5)6tf)UJ~ G~rrdJJ!)Jm1~~tb (J9i!Dtv{hfT ~"" 8irrmr 8;. GwQ;QJrrtUi.J u.u ~ @1hL_GLfT@ G L1 fT ®!A66lJ(J 1b o;Q]6l/ t1J tEl 6tfJ6l)UJ tt W. ~ th JE165l6lJ QJ 9ifJQ wtiJG)UJ fTfi6J utS! tb<J& f!J tb~w.

UQ;~JP ,@mUJlLJ QJ&trpIb t5J/D&(§w. (Q~rrQ). 98) (tWtOUQ; fiIf)~(!JJf!J r::LD6JJJ@LiJ 6lJ6iJ(;QJ. (.mm. 85)

• • •

~GlJ - a;QJ - QlQI.

70

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tOT - &fT:

s;m.!J)! 4rumf;l) ~Qj6'5J ~ iJotr 51 fD ~. ~6iJ - 9QT, a;6iJ - G&6tT, QJQJ - GGllWiJT.

~Q,6l/ - 9VJT6l/, &6lJ6lJ - G)c$liJT6lf, QJQ}Glf - (;J6lJ6YTfOl/. c!JJI&(T~ J)LiJUff UJt!b(nj LjtirgfJiLlw

teQUJ6ir Q,m@lfj6JQJ6lJT (Jwwr;;Ju/O!i (]~ff6ir/f.JJLiJ. (G~rrQ). 56)

6Tmu {Dtb Q&rr ;'KJ/,

~&r;r j, iJwu It QJ8i[J U '-I6tr6TfJILfUJ

961T6TQrr GJ!6@c9g}O)QIT Gww(i;JUpJ/J (J~rrQr.f!)lw

fiTwG [DfT@ .!!lfftburrGl/LD @®thj)(!§~~'iiJ CJQJ6iM@W. &a, jJ)J LJQJmou fj61T6'6J Ii iJm- 51 !D!/Jl.

c!IiJ.';~~,!OfftiJ Q&61TQ)J,j Q&ff6TT&&6lJir@J.iJ (,(DrrQ)lq... 70)

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6lJ tt tiJ 9roirR">flJo, Gl&QT6l/ tbC:u rr ~ c: LJ)Q)Q/ITUjw ~{pQJrr lLfw (:!J!DLUJ-Gifr FF '7 fit) ® c: U fT iir J!)J u tb J!)J QJ {hIT 6U, 8j fill 6lJ ~6iJ (~obfitJ ~ G'1 &"" 6lJ ~w) fiT6iTfJ)I Lh Gle:rr{bct!>8; @!D@GUfT tb 8jmQJ~j)<!!J~{hfib OTGirr~LiJ &(!!j/J§JI/J c: ~fT fiiirr p5J tb.!J)J. QJ tt u5J fiir &6lf)Q) ~ ::voir 6ID wm UJ, LDfT Ih ~6ir QJ tt t6J ~ W 051 su ffiJ@j e!:P <9 UJ ILf W, 6llIfiO ffiJ @j ~ c9U1 u5J ~ W U {!J (iG) QJ fYJ,9;@jt1J Q ~6'If16lJ tr tU,i Birr L._(l;J Lb.

c!IIQ} et Qg~ th Qo: 1T6iJ66J~Qu If)J, 6lI1Tu1Jm IT [b U {bjJ)l ~6'5>fiUtLf LiJ L£)~ j,i) m-rr tb u {b..!J)JrjirnQJUj ffiJ ~P5J J;~w ~Q) Qo: IT [b8iW a thfTar {l5llLJorr"" 6"'51.

~QJ&® fir rotr U /IJI 65JQ)fJ ~~ G18iG1TQj$lJ6'5> fiOlLJ Lb J ~6lJQ,8lrr g} er ar U 4JJ 6llI61n(1 t!.t!Jl G;)a;wrol/ W ~ ms:6OlUJ lLJ W 1L6U1rT ~.t!»W .

~QI - ~6lJ1T - dJlQ16lJ.

r:::!J{6JJ6l{&QJ& 6J5J@lDiJH (9J6lf6T{~) (8jQSl~. 14)

~QJ6l/ - ~QlfT6l/. ~QlrrG1J~6iJ = mI®WL/$lJ6lJ.

~QJfTtUtfJA>61J = 9® QS:fTW ~WG)roIT"(hJ QUfT®thj)u GJUfT(f§fitr (!JJl1I-~{b®rfJUJ @6lrrGwrr@ CO) o:rrwUQ)Q) ~filJ fT6llJ(aQJAv L1I~) tfJ tb[lJru.

urr6lJrrEimrr

71

~6lJrr6l/ - ~6lf. ~6l/~Gi> = 6'5J('!Jw4~""

Q6~(JIDQ)t5J &gJ6Ifl# (J"tiJC6JJL LffQ}}1L/ LOGnJDCUJff6ir. ILUa~S:BirT.

8l6U~~<:UJT. 12»

~Q)J# C:a:lttA6 CIj" '9 STfTW or6ifru.g,J 1L6lJ8i QJy;>8i®.

• •

~fi1/ - ~QJQ). Ln. ~QJ6lJ.

&QJGlJ 6Tar~w (;)grr6iJ66IaflitrJ!)J, (8)6'fT6l/~tb 8i®i>fi'f)~ ~L!J-uumL UJrr&9; Q&rrfiRTL 61..., Gc!FfT{bt!1i@jW, &6J)QJj,~tb q,®~Qf)~ ~l1I-i.J UQS)LlLJrT a-.J; Q8i"~L UQ) G>~fTtbq,@!Jt.h, 61lmm-rrtb utb.J!)J{l>~HitJa; ct!> p5J 8i ~ t.b §} 6lJ G a: tt tb Ch@!J W,LD W /J '7> tt fib o:::JI6lJQJ 4P LD Qf1 t> fitS) ~ u u{bJ!)Jw UJQ) Ga: fTtba;~w G{bfTwpS!lLJWW6liT.

&6iJQfI~C:l5fftiJ ;iJ6irSJIt..O (§t!J)Jt5J&';,mn-tiJ. (jDrrQ)tq._. 322) &Q/m = &6irmw. &tilIiJrJIf &6l/fjff6l)Q)uu ('QJ~. 2050)

<9) QJ "'" Lh = Q <9) 6fT 6lf W JJI iiJ su 4JJ QJ tr uj GJ s; rr W @!J t1J ~ 6Tf (O}J tt 6lfT

• •

&QJ6TT io = t!Jj6)J y;w.

&6lJ1J' wtff/tl.JIT6ir DTUh461J6lIT (]6lJjpw (Birul~. 80)

• •

8;QJ6l/ - t!Jju4·

g,u LJ ~ 6iJ = G'I& 6Tr@!J l.J)6fT fiil/ QJ fT u5J 66J L@ Q us rr 8i ~ ~ fiiJ 6'51 (gJffiJ®~ru.

&j6lJWQUffrfJ &uJ5)UJ &tfJ(!IJ&.;ir (~®uy. 6lSljDrTUJBiir. 1) a»i6JUJw = 8jL!J-6lJrTww( UJffiJ). &ro5JlUW - Pkt. kaviya. a;Gl1I8iw = 8iL1J-QlfTGTT @(!§WLJ. 8j651o;w - Skt, kavika.

• • •• •

a;QJ - c9J6lI6U - e;6lJfT. 8iQJ6lf - 8;QJL6mL.

&6lJ rt:f)6U = U6lJ sureon 8)U UJ rfJ ~6iJ. &ff6J5)rfJ QJ~~ &QJ';-Y,LL. (y~Lb. 35:8) &QJrT /Jr}j6lJ = 1. QJ¢J&6Tr t.5Jrf1~.u.

c:!JVliTIJDQlwli ~Q)j 15(!!J"/DP)/ &QJff6(§LD. (ilQ)u. 11:73) LD .. , Q". &QJ, &. r$QliJil.

2. 8iQJftU(b)~6U.

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Q~tb@j(Jf6"&g;, {8fturrtlJ5Jto CJjQJC!§&(t!, (Sil.Liii, 45) 3. ufiiJOJrf16l/.

72

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to .. , Q)5./ fiji. 8;QJ. at. 8tQJQ).

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&QJrTU@ Qurr(!!jfilhHQLDrry5) = u6bC:QJ.J!)J GJUrT®Qr~(!§tb Qe:fTwU

'dP/6UfiUl!Jl QlFrrtbQpJfTLff.

8iQJ l'iGc9JrrL6lJ = UQJQJfT{DfT eM; c!Ii®i:J SJUJ!DQ)· /D6lJri(llDffLQ; (]lDff6ir/Dff~. (LO~<:u). 27: 22> r$QJ@ = 1. LDt;18;gJ6(j)fii1T, 8i6l1 ®f!trw LDIJ di5Jmrorr.

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8iQJ~W = gmQ)~4PfilS5f1mUJ (;)'7~LfT&8; 8iillTrUL& 51y5}/J4Jl8; 8iL.@Lb 8irr UJ c9;a;L_(j;J.

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8jQl@-8jQJLq... = UIOTfroyu LL UQJt$fi6)!D.

In .. , &4 t$6lJIlI-' Q". 8i6lJQJ (gavva).

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8)QJ6ff/ = 1. 8i6lJmrC:UfT6U .dPImLDtJ,~d; /PI &@jLD Gurr j,tJj9& e;L(];t L{~Ib&& &QJef/ (]UJlbtfJ. (QurfllUY· QtnuJu 7)

2. Lf~~& 8lL(j;JUC:UrTWflJ QQJtbp5161)QJ8; 8iL..@. 8iQ/6Yf}-8jQJ6'ff16lf)c$ = til J!)J &6lJ6If1.

LtlilblbniJ c!bL~ Ilifftftilb c!b61Jef/m&t::UJ Q&n<:QJff. (C:8~y.~lJrrLO'rT. 49) c9iQJ6Yf) tOlJ)(1j- Skt. kavalika ( Q;QJ667&&rr ).

lJ;fOlJrr6isT = 7. tSQ)QJC:UITQrflJ G"I{DrrmL6c!Fth4JI, G)~fTmL.

&(!JJuSJUJ 6lf6lJ6TJ1Dt6J/iJ &6JJff/iJQ&ff67li!rL 1IW§~6. (LD6Af1<:LD. u~. 27> 2. GJ~rrmL#~~ffJJ C:urrw{lJ WA>fiOUU&&W.

LDffQ;QJ61J!T,$ ISQJfftin. (UL~QTU. 138)

a;m6lJ = UIG'ITQ{, LiJrff6l/' 8i6l1tT, 8J6'6)~, a;QJL6lfJL-

8)61J)QJ8;8ifTQ" o;6lS)Q/,$(t!!)WWL/, a,mQJ8;G)&fTwL/, c9i6U)QJJ;(]o;fTQ), 8;",QJfl,~rrwLJI 8imQJ~~rr~QJQJQrr (Gu@wufTmr. 208). t$6f)QJ~", 8;", 6lJ c!p L._ s; ® 61ll, 8i fi6) QJ UJ l1I- C!:P ~ fi6J UJ G ~ tt L fr q (;) 6 tt tb & m 6fT G!6rrJ;@!>8i. W. &QJ.

g,fiiJ6lJ-a;uLf = 8i6lJIrGa;rrWL/, 5Jm"", UJ""Gl/.

•• •• •

&UL/f1iI c$QJ(!!jLD fiT~U~ 1L6lJ& 6llJPc$@j.

8iUL/-a;uUJ. a;uU1iJ~6i.> = c9iQJn-U(£J~iiJ.

&UUJf,~ 8irrmfiUUJ6mLUJ Qf8~~AT~. (Gu®wurrmr. 208, ILAl[J) 8iUL/-Siumu. a;UmU8;8)fTaU = 8iQJL@8;8)rr6iJ.

a;fiilQj-o;rrQJ. &rr6lJ~6b = 1. 1D~lJI-Qr ~®LJ!Dc!pLh a;6J)QJGurrtb Si 6lJ ~ rn ~ ~ fli:J6lJ ~ G u tt C!!J fi6) 6fT f, G) ~ tt ffiJ &mJ L@d; a ~ rr ""' {b

• •

&LD~~fil).

&O'61f)QmriJ &Q)G6IIT. (Y!DLD. 206)

2. C:~rTf;;lfJ tb 6rLD~.p;Q), 8iLDj,~iiJ.

I/6lQJ6lIT& &lTaDJ Ii.IJf'I6';QJIf (C:~QJrr. 338:1)

SirTfOl/ + dPI~ = a;rT6lJl1I- = 7. a;rr6l/~l1J-. 2. (yJC!Jj8iW 8ifT6lJl1I- 3. a6rTtbJ!)/<~; 8irTQJLq-. 4. ~mrJIr.$ OirTQlUJ-.

Sirr QJU]- -&rrQ.JL(fj) = a;w@98; q,rrQJ l1J-. <T.fT6l/-&fT = 1. s;rrQJL!J-/J ~oW@.

&nLD(YJ JD"SIl1 (!jJu5}If&ffQJff/6 DTtiJ(§w. (®!DQr. 1163)

2. o;rrQlL!J- (J U fT 6VflJ 4JIfilJ(1 J;(lo;rr6iJ.

3. 4J/fiUrrw C:urr6isTflJ 9® tfjJ68l/D.

74

&nf;;J6JJm Jl6TJJ!}l1..{W. (Q~ffQ). 6T@~f)I. 169) &U'-! = &fT6l/~a~"6ir.

&UUff Q)ffUJff&6ir &IT6JfJ/iJ Q&ff6lllTtfJiID. (~QJ. QurflwrrW. 3 ' 1 : 5)

&QJoiJ-r$QJ6tJ)6U = 1. wr;rA;51mGTT(tiJffiJ.).

2, 8iQl It rJ;tjj QJ ySJ I iseo G,) ~(f!r9;c$6tr an.@uS1LW. lIJ6irID(!IJr6J lbQJ(iI)Q)U.I'.iJ .. _.jJrfJ,mp. (61Q)u. 14: 24). &QJ6IJQJ (!IJ.rO/DtiJ. (@Q)Q)Q)u. 30)

3. war 8;8iQl tb6J I WQJTfill (!!J/J~th (&QJrT /J{D fiTmrQflfT Lh). Ln. 8i6lJ6U.

4. ~t#CF~(l~fT([;J 8O.liJ-Ul dlJ/&&fi4)fD·

&QJ iJJl ~6iJ = &6l/fitJfTflJ" a;ci; 8i®iJ QJ®th~ {hoU. &. 8i6ll SJJ· 8)QJ6l>-8i6lJQ)w, 8) 6lJ61> Q). c!liQJoU-c!J)Ql6l51. 8i6ll661~~Q) = c$6lJ §JH{hilJ.

c$6lDQJ = q,rf/CF6m6J1, ~,9;&m!D .

&QJii1J6lJ = cSQJ6I')Q).

<!b6iJm6lJUJfftD (hQ)r6J(§LJ)6lITw. (~®B;S;rr6fTj. y. 18 : 27).

• •

6lf),fJjU u!D l!)J

8)QJ-8jQJG1/ = 1. ~lc!liUJrr6iJ ~(g>6l/~~.

&6lJirt!Jll IPIlDiPlnil t!bQj~niJ &6JJobJUJffrff!i@. (a; Gl5l $. 83 : 17). 2. (yJU1rliJ®~ib

&6lJ6lf)/DffW 6l5J@1i15615ffGiJ. (s;rulj,. 35)

&QJQ6JJff@ LDUJI5J&JUJ &ff(il')Q} ILIff6ir. (Q~rrru. Qurr(g)m. 173),

~ ® Q) r!1i UJ tr ~ Lb fb@6'lJ$DQ> FF r;r fit) 8)" tb 8) ru fill {h 6lJ c: u tr 661 ®i> fJ 6iJ 8ifTmrs:..

3. ~8)~iJ®{h~.

&QJQ/&/i jJ@~6iJ. (Q~rrQ). Gs:rrw. 357) (JeQ;6JJfftiJ &QJ615J6lJT Qlff6lRlT6TJ&. (~®~aBirr. 108) 4. ILWG1Y (]j1.

&6lJ(JQJIT@ LiJI.tJ./l1b 6lJ67>&LUti1JW alf)IT~&LiJ (LD~Q)tT B;. 626)

• •

c$QJ61fO',g)8i = ~Qf)6SlfT f!j~ 610c9i.

$riJ&6lJiJr (!/J&~liff61)6T1'ci &QJQj&QJ& (J(§liJJPH66f61TfftiJ. (&)Q)LJ. 7 : 52) &QJrT sf)GlJ = 1. (y)UJffiJ@!J{h6iJ.

&QJfft!h61J6lI6T9 IFfflJJ66Tff!T ~tiJ(!I>6ir (8jQ)l~. 94 : 12)

3. u [l511>~GlJ, U p5J /J~6i6rf!JlJ1D6iJ.

&6IJfJu5J(!9UU& &rni.J&QJ';,rD I5tDlfJI· ~!DQr. 100)

UlTQJrrQRJTrT

75

4. G&rr6trrnwUJl1J-~~6b.

oDL!J)& &6JJ,;,m15 6D7mmCJwITgflt6 !666r1IJl (4.QQJ. 3 : 15. Qt$rr~) 5. GUJ)/{hfiiJ.

6lJJff/(llliffff &6J)(l.u.6TtDlffi§J (~@>Q)S:QJrr. 20) a;Qlrt~/!JIT6lf5r = ~l1I-~~rnrr~w I!..fiW6lf.

u8lQlJ.J(!!;ii1'JQJ &6lJff~6 C:6lJ6TIT61JlDlLI' .. b (LD~aLD. 6 : 117) c9i61SHill ~~GiJ = 1. dPlAlGm /J~Q).

r;6iJQlJ.J6ITU t.5JrfllLl6ljW 6bJLlTc::!!JI6ir &6I)QJ@ (®!61@;g}u. 185) 2. ~c$~i'@{E>ru.

cfb{Tr6J tfhmQiii)UJ llJfftf(]U (YWtD 19 : 18)

8j6lJ 9)J = 7. t5J totT G)u tt ([!j6fnt;;tT 8; 8)QJ®W @~rr LLLD .

......................... _ ..... &lir@9rfi1 &QJ_ J7@J&&U ULLIT'; Q~ffL';4 (®lDm. 920) 2. @!}{DfT@ o;®6l1I.

c!J,)f@W"UffJi; &QJIfJr&J (§flJ61T (IQJBi. 927)

• •

LDAlUu!DAlI

&QIfT ~ru = 6l1J®Li:J4~fiiJ.

&6lJff6l/6Jf)@U Uff(§W (QllirrGb. Qgrrru. 362).

8'lQl6l/f!Jru = 6l1I®Lh4~6lJ·

&Q}Jt5i&W ......... m &QJ61fJ& &JL,m1D f§lfJtiJ&J6lIflflir (6QJ5. 1058)

cnQltt#6J = 66J®UUW. 8)QJrT#i1 = LD6JT1>6m~ ~~&mCh. o;uL/ = 8iQJrT#~.

&uOJar!DfT w~iiT 8iy>iiJ (U/6lI. (lUff. 11, 5, G)QJmr.)

g,6lJ - 8irr. dirT ~oiJ = 6V/ (!!jwLJ {DfiiJ, (J Ut;1w LJ Q &fT61r ~~"'. <lirr .. c!»rr 6l/.

• • •

&fT6l/{DfilJ = !Dqar~ru.

~6TJ6llT& t!Dff61fJlLf- 6lIIITff,;6}QJ "lDtilliJr6lllff1i"cstir (<:~QJrr. 338 : 1) &" + ~tlJ - &rrw = mJ@uuw, ,g:,rr~6b.

9· <J!6fT : 6J + LLD = WLD - tutnb - ~fTth. &rrLD + ILJ!)J = 8ifTc!:p.f!)J. &rr c!:p J!)J!lfj6V = 1. 6'51®WLJ~6iJ.

IiJdruGLD &ff(!IJ/PIQJ (l/TmlPLU'; (.ffirrm!tt. 60) 2. aQJ~@~"'.

t!hfiTJ66TcfjJi),; t!6 66l1TQ$JmUJ& &ff(!P/fJ 6l5J61JIJ..JQJC!6ff (~G5)~. 16)

• •

&fTLD - &fT(!P - 8)fTLDW.

76

• • •

®(g>LDLD, U@ - U(!!JLD - U([§C!:P - U@LD6JT,

8ifT(yJ - ~"(!P,g;W - &fT(YUI;W - Skt. kamuka (q,rr(!p8;q,). c!Jirrw + LD@ - &fTW(f!j - Q;fTWrT = 6'5I(!!JUJU~~O;, ~1P8iJ1J.

&ITl1Jtf &@W461TtiJ (li~~. 39) 8irT W!T lhUJQJLjfJ6TT (~",,(D)QJ)

• • • •

&fTW + o::!II" - &rrwrr = &fT(yllhrr,

8)fTW + j} - &fTu$1 = &rr(yJ&6iT.

&6'tfILD~ LDfTAfI <T..rruSJ &(jjjrQlQr (/6w. 38). llifT u51 - Skt. kamin ( &fT ufl6iT ).

8ifTuSI~~fib = 7 • .5I([!>Lb4~Q). 9.(116": a;rr{lJelJ - s;rr~6'8I.

~u41J UJ~~ CUJ~ffuj I6@LD/661'JI5& &HuSI UJn<:~ (5LDUOlf. Jf,lJb~. 54) 2. &rTWr5J G;)8ifTQr~{lJQ).

&IT LDW = c$WRTQJ AT W6'f)QSTeDJ UJ rf16f) LU LJ LL 8j rr ~ fib, LD6"RT Lb. o;rrl.l)l>~uufTQ; fiT6tT~tb i/([§8;@)!DL u~iJu GluUJ6lf)t;T C:{6fT&@i&.

~QJCJjfTufJ = 6'16lJmQST 8; &rr ~6618;®t.h LD6lDetJLD&Qr.

9. G/6rr: (JQlLL6U = 651(!!Jw4~fiiJ, 8i1T~.sJj;~iiJ, C:QJ,," = iJ(!!JWAfTw. &fTLDW - Gk, gamos (marriage), Skt. kama. (&fTW).

<!Iirr unb or wiT ~ t.b G) a: fT Q) C!P~tb&fT 6lJ~ j1 tb Gl u tr 4d Q/ tt fi6T c::ti 61)6 AlUJGUJ <tbp51/J~/IJI.

&trLDW QQJ(§9fI LDUJ&& uSJQ)QJ(!JJWPJtin ,mtrLDt6J QcSL&(J&@W CjbtniJ. ~1J)'ir. 360)

tJJJ@I,; wJOoD/ LLJ"I-6u5/1iJ fJlT6ir(§W Q&@/(I7Tff c'S8w4 16QJ6iI: C@;JI)Br. 605)

6TWft)/W ~JD6ir c$Qf)6TT C:~fT &~&.

U1/D&"Q)~~W, c!#I6 G)6/T6U &fTji6V fiT6trfJJIw GJlFfl"lbGUfTQJ c:fiL QJ rfl6iT G)) U AfT AIT fT 6lD6 6lD U.J 11../ Lb Q u AIr I.1J-rft.. <:f£ AfT tt 61D iF A> UJ ILl Lh 6} JD i.J utt tiJ & f!!>p51 &a;Q)fT u5J tb 8)J. ~ u Q u rr (!§erf1lJ)J Lh, 1Lu) tfl iu j}C!§ ~QS)Q)& c$fTLD~QD~'4 t.b 9®LD6'5»fi6T LDQlIT j,6"f)~lLfa io ct§p51 && ~ Ail f)(f§QJQr~QJlJrr~ <:f£,""uQUtDIDIP· <:f£ui1Qu, @dTgv, ~4iI @LfiI 8ifPAlUJfLlW @Al4iAT6'5J6ln1P68i ai (!§U uj,QD~"-IC: W @jp51&@W6'lTfiI/ j}fPUQ)L.~!Jj/6tr"" Ai}.

&"WtD-&fTLDQr = UJ6RT8;&rr,,6b I!..mrLJT8;~ (D)~6lJl.b_ The Indian Cupid.

cfi/TLDAr-Skt. kama (&ffW).

urrQJrrfillTrr

77

QlRJJfiIRR'LD

6lJ1rIJAII'IO-QJII' (!)AII' , QJ (!!)AIT

QJ If116QJ=QlQSHiTT ~..u. Qlff/-QJ rr It -eu fT I}'QffT W=tBJ fiU"m~~ (!!;lPtA4Jl6V6JT 8iL6'i>, "QJfTr;Tmrc9 ~Y>4mJ" (~65fJUU"L6iJ). QJfT(JAfTW 6lJrrt;1GiATW = &L6iJQ{huJQJW. QJLQlff 6lJ(f§ (0;6'51, W6'I>!D, (§sP) orfiirUfif)~ ~6Uwrr 9,8;e;rrLlJI- dl/fi'lDfifT /Jm~1LJ tb f!:P@lh QJ (fQT th t" AIl-envelopi ng sky" or Qr J!)J Gil U tt (!!j6rr 8ft.J!)J QJ It. '" ~ QJ ® filSJT 6lJ) 6'6T LDA> Y' I> Q~tiJQJ LDrr&& G;)&fTiUTL "'mL&8j"6U~j1tb@§ LDL..@tb GUfT@thIPGw UJwp51, 8iL6U GI~fiJQJLDrr 8j,$G&rr6dJTL c!pib&fTQ) UlJbc$fTQJ tBJomQ) 6f)w8;@U G1U"(!!J!6~fT 8·

~ufJlPlr Qlrr(J6WA)QfT 6TQs( JDlw &LQJQ~tiJQll.IJrr 8iC:QJ (;)8ifTwRrLfiJTtT. QJ@6DrAr GwUJ QUC!§WAIT ~QJ&(Ylw. (Q~rr6iJ. 951).

"'~ 6lJfT[T6WAI GLDU.J tBrtLDQRfT SJJQJc9i(!pw fiTmp51C!!J~~Q) G6lJ6AT@Lb. Gl~fT6iJ8irruUJUJtt QJ(!§fiAT orAr§llW QJL(D)~rrfiiJ QJl1I-~dJG8itbu QJ(!§05lfTQrr or Qr JJ)J i)rf1 tiD&(;)8ifTvW LJrlr.

6lILQ}IT &rrL(l;JLb QJ@ fiTArft)Jw &Jfit)~~tb~q @,Y>~tb GUfT®@§

(yJ6TT61T /IJ/.

",<ilSfJ, QltfJ 6'Troir~ tb 1[Ju5J y>,IG)e:fT tb@ f!:P@~tb (i;)urr <!!J@!J(y)w6TT6· 611 rfJ ~ii>=&>a;>~Q).

L{GlJiJrmtiIIT UJ(jIJ/fJI.L1 QJlflti§J (jl6iJ. jl®QJrnU. 5 : 1 : 5>'

tilI6IlfiTr6Jf& &(!!J~19 '·'UAlL.J6JG6U<lw, QJfTf;T6QTW fiTdTu4JJ C:&L~ A)~l1.Jw /Frilfilf)&ll.Jw ~&elb. (QI.QJ: 257).

QIIIft

Qllnft-QJR'1fI <_. <:cu.)

• • •

QJrTfT ~QJ=9(!JJ@j~QJ.

QJlTff /iQ; CUITISQ) fjJ(!J'&QJ (!p6irIJJlLD

C:~ff4tiJ ",II@(J)lJ)lLJ~ QlFtiJt1.jW QUH@fiTT. (Q~rrQ). 800>'

Qlrrlr-QIfTrfI=!Brr, QQJQr6JTW, 8iL6U, tBn-/61A>Q). 6lJrrtt = !ftt.

QJIT{I7Tl6J" (!/J&lDfT /fi&,;wt€§& (urrtr~ ~®8B'r6lf6iJJI)QJ-159). (QJ.QJ: 257>

... 16\).o-QJII\). Ul'a) (b). anf,

filIrr It -Ql1Tib=t8d1rL 6lI!!)J uL/. 9· G/6IT: Itt -Jlw.

QJffQ) ~(I}gx5(§ I6mU (JbIfQ)~ 213). 6lJrr6lJ-QJrrQ)tb=,. 6lJfTQ).

78

6lJfT §JJ>8i1'

6lJffQ)(!pW Utm"(YJ uJ/@r6JQJl»uSI/iJ UtOtfJ (8ifr@j&1uy. lDAUflBjEiGr. 14) (QJ. QJ-17J

2. {8QW@ fP@~5}UJ ~~ ~6iJQ)~ &!66m1h. QlfTQ)(!jU/iw-!RmrLQjuliLh (IL.QI.). (QI.QJ: 257-258).

6lJnlJ5t.D

),

6lJlfllJaLO-QJrrelJ5, urrill5 (b) = LOAlTQ)

QJ rrQ,=G)QJQrmw. QJ rr iJ)j&W=G;)QlfiilrrLD6BT 6iJ.

(J6lJ6Gl6UQ/fT ~r!Ji/J.{fJI 651rRilA>I7U ut;TuU'JdT. (iJ6lJu. 6: 121).

WfT. ro5J. ~. "of doubtful derivation" ~,*,J!)J ~pSI/JilC!!JI>~6lJ o;rr6'lrr1li. (QJ.6lJ : 258).

• • •

QJ~U6ll~

(iJ UJ6isrG WIT y5J tOll rr y;~.t!JI1 Lf {D{i;l6I>6l) QI IT IP~!/JII QJ IT lLfQJ)tD QJ rr UJ/J~ 6Tm 6lJ"y>~~mt;T eyJQJ6ln8iuu@tlJ.

9@QJ@mLUJ UJ!D!h (h U filffT LJ 8jQJHiM ILl Lb dJI rfI UJ ~tb!D 6iJ a; 6tn 61T ILl W fiT@/14J1mt;T I>~ U 48jlP6lJ.4J d/6UQ) /!JI eutr 4P~~6lJ!!» I (iJUJG5rG) wrrif)l

• •

eutt Y;~§JJ.

c:!PI@t5DT';~ C:15~JllU IiJUJ6irQLf)ffgfl6lJny;~6LiJ. QthrrGU'Y!D~: 35) LlJIJ.)Q)!PI 'n- ~# LDffQr(1/Dff W6in66T6JJ6ir.

fi)1J.J6iJ(lu QLOHgflu51lJJlw c!JIIl6lJ1GnpJ UJIT~w. (y .QQJ. 9:195)

8lL6l/W (~6UQ)4U tB QJ6WdiJ~ GI~tlJQJI.b) ILWQf)ATU UfT./p&fT&&, tC QJ if)IQJ if)! G) o:6iJQJ ~c: ~rr@ 61 /Dt/;D 6ll1." r6J@jc$ or AT ./Dl, 9®QJ6I)(T QJrrlP~~QJ4U LfflJ{i;I~QJ 6lJfTlP~6·

6lJgfJu@ "~JiJQitiJ JiltD41Dr!J c!DffUUU ugfll,; Q"Q;Q]QWff@ QJg5l61JgflllpJJ8#

QUffli1fJuSl6ir ~6irtf)ltiJ 4ID!DmQJ 6JJn~(J~.... (Q~rrQ).Q8uJ. 109).

a!D fT UJ fT 6IfJ J; ~ (YJ 66r 4 r!Jj IF U U fT 0; 6l/ t.b &fT '7 LD fT 8i Gl/ u51 ([!j~~ QJ ®/I ilflJJ WI UJar4 !5Q)w uUJ&®W W(f§/&IJII (lurrAr J!)J G)!6tDJ ~6lIpS1UJ QJ(!§&@ ~6iJfiIJ§ ~pSlUJ/T{D6lJ®~ QPfilIT4 (J8jLu~tb® QQJ./J)JUU/Tlli (iJ@uUJ~Lh, t.5JfiiTL/ ~WfilDLD UlU&(§W f6iiJQJtDJ6lf6lD(J 8ia.J!)JQl6

• •

QJ fTlLJa>!fJ em lP{D~·

Q/fT'4~fD' LD(!!J!D4JI.

QJffll./61}/O 6JJffJPIiC:~ QJUJIiJ& ~.6ir ctQiLD4r&J &@6JtLD CUtrQ) "QJ(!jQ6ffQJ 1b"t5J(§~tiJ ,@6iTp)/ QJJ#/llilfl UlU&(§QI.D6irf1lJll

fj)WU61JL-& &J""Q5Ju5J6ir QJIIlLIIPI~ ~(]tD. (Q~rrQ).QIfliJJ11)

QJ(fIM~· ..

.

urrQJrr61lTrr

79

QJrrY;/J~~Q) 6TATU4JJ 9®QJQ)f;T !6QJwrrs; tK@ QJrrlP(i4)QJI>~roiJ, ~flU· <YJtDtDj, 4Jl !Dfl,~ (YJ~ (!paflQlfJ rr fi6T iJfili>£DG> uxt if! WIT !h~tt ~Q)fil) ~ c:ti~!D mJ tA ~Lt6J 51 UJ ~ tr drG[Drr tt "t8 (Y QI fT Y; 8i" or W.f!)J (0) CF rr 6lJQJ

5fjaTfTSJ1W, ~t6J~tt 8D...9)JW ~[DGl/mr;r ~QJ6U~ ~pSI,¥6'6>(JUJrr~w tEJc!h~W. ~Af1UULLQJrt&@j jJQj66!® 6lJif!'4W (j)UJ~W: 9@ G)~rr®~UJfJlr&C:.$fT UJwW<::~ ;;;r{b®w.

j1(!!J6lJ6lr@!jQJrT, ILfi05JQlT IT ~Qf)ATQJ rT 8;(~Lh, i1 !Duu rr q,/J ~uSJ!J)rT c$®, 6LA>(J i;t7J ~!D6lJfjJ)r;rlLltb ~t6J6l/mI}'UJwrrfiJ1 ~®8;~!DQr, ~®Ql6Tr@!jQJ LD tt QHilJ uiJ Q) LD {JjJ Q) fJ UJ JI,)l6ll6lJ QI "6'5If1 c$Qr jJ 6fT<:: 6lJ L L aT fT It

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QJ ®~=~ LQJ dr I ~ drrr I 8i6mQlQr, e::fj fiirg 051 Q) ffiJ~, 8irr fif) (JT , 661a>LC:UJfTA>fJ, ~6I)Q)QJ6ir, {D(1)QJg}!Dt6{DIDI'

GU@6lJIu (bh) = 6iJ®~AT (i). (JQJ.).

QJ@<il!/Ju-@QJlu=a;rrmiTT (i). C:QJ). (QJ.QJ)

urrQl IT 6lIIrrr

85

Q/@6lf1U orWU{DW c!p~Jb®"'!DaUJ ®<il!/IU 6TQrU~. ~t6Jgut.b, QJ L QJ rT dPllIP 6lJ tA {h ill ¢16"6) UJ ~ pSI UJ rr UJ c: fit) tt , 6lJ L c;;, ~ rr Q)6lJ fT 8)& 8)fT LLQ) C:6lJAir UJ- c: QJAlsr@GLDWGpJfT, ([!j~2 fiTW um~ ®6lJtU 6T6irfJlJW QJUJ-alJ tb® eyJ6UUJIT e;8; &rrL@QtrT.

®~2 = G186V, @UJIb®; rtfJ/J§Jj, G&fTQJ,· 1L/J6, ~Qr.

mJ6'4lL 6T6tTftUW G)~fTQ)6l5)m ~rf}UIT~Q)rrGQ)C:UJ, 6iJ®~ 6TQgU~Q) QJ 6)1J (!pQr 6fT 6. .dfJ, u5I dr, QJ <!§~ (UJO) y;>GJ u tlJ) et dr~ <9 G s: IT'" QQ)IT@ dP/6U>{D/J Q~rrLr'rL/U@/J~ 1Lj,~8;G)c$rr6'iJQJrr (!paltDt61.u Q U fT ®6tr Gl {!j rr LFT LJ 8i fT Ll1J- QfT rt. c:!II ~ G 61fT fT L A) UJ UJ rr 4P , @jQ!JIu orarevw (!JJ~{brt!>m!D~ ®rfJ6I)uUjw C:QJJf)J G>lFrrwU6lJfT&8; G&rrmr@, ~~tb®w Glu IT C!!J~~rr (!JJA>f1Ju5J tb GJ u rr <!!Jf!tr G UfT (!!jj;i16T1rt.

~mL 6T6V u ~ Q8irr #6rJ)(F QlI1I-66}fib fiBL fiTQr J!)I tfltb®w. !i/6&Lull6IT 6iI", Lq Q S:@8i6lJ QJ I.P& 8iU U 111- 6DI-Q} ([!J 6T • ./!)J tb, GJ LDtU /J® ffl L/ UJf;T4uUL9- L-6lJI vr6iTjJ)Jw, ~rf1ti~Ar(D)QJQJT 1L6Rr61>W ~pSla;. (QJ.QJ: 260-261).

611,

6lJJl1I- -QjtLf~UJ- (@. GfilJ.J

QQJ-GlQl@!J. G1Q1~;;1fJQ) = 1. G6lJAJrmwUJrr ,,00. 2. .uJ lJ1--~6iJ. 5IIP8;<!!J (;)QJ@!J~{!j~ (IL.QI.).

G)QlQr -Q fillgf} , G>QJ""'~fD6iJ = 1. (;)6lImr6lflSf1!D!6J Ga;fTdr~~ru. 2. G5Jl1I-~""

G)QJ6ff) -QQJ llI-. ~.G tfirr: GlQJ6'1fI-QQJ UI-=~ JDtA~QQJ6lf} (U1 r6J.) 8i6Tf1 jJ)J& UJ-J!)J , G a;61f} J!)J, GJ 1Jj~.[f)J .

GQJ UJ-fh6U=Gl1J '-9-{!jGlJ. '6T 6iT J!)/T Ii> G6lJ Lil-UJ rr ~ c: U tr ~ Jb G) a;rr uJ {DfTdr' (G) tfFQJ6lJ/Aj) uL/. 1L6lJ>!DI!Jl7¢1. 47).

G6lJ l1I-=6"5J l1/-J;JQlw6Tf! (UlIiJ.). G6lJtq-UJQr-6111Ill-UJQ). G)QJIlI-Q/=6'5IIlI-61f. G6lJt.q... -66t. 6iJ t+1D 60=& ®Gl " fT6lf1 a~rrQr J!)J~Q). (6lJ.QJJ

QQJ@&Lrt C:$6fT6lsrpSl 06JL1I-~~rn{Jj U1~C:!D (f/QJr$. 219).

fi5ll1I-=66J l.f-8ifT filS)fiU. 6i} l1I-u OJ ti6J (JGQJ6ir {DpSI 'ill rfI ~rr uJ ( ®6i.t. r;, u rf1 UJ. 4:10: 8).

6'5J L1I- -Q)} l1I-UJ.u. "mQJ(f§J!)J 6lJI UJ-UJGlJ" (G{hrrvi.>. G u tr. 8).

6Jf/Jq.ww (i/f)Q}c$G1)f!) uS/(!1L (YJ(T. ~a;Lb. 196).

6VJl1I- -Ql/liI-6l/-~L9-0G)6lI. "6ll)UJ-6W>QJ ffFW&lT66I8i@jIiJ" (~6iJi)([§Q1fTtlJ 6:1:9). usr .6UI. ~. dP/6u6lJ.:fP QJ LQI It c9irT L._(];JIiJ tYJfiUW QJ®L.Drr J!)J:-

6iJ1LI~7 (uUJ~)=l. fiTrf). 2. U1rf1. 3. f>6Tr, GlQlfi1fJ6li@.

86

G5I + Qlw2 (§>~rT) = QJtLf~2 (vy - us) = 651l1J-UJ~ (~. (]QJ). Qjl1J'*' (7 ~th a6lJtiJ) - fij.a6ll.).

GiJILf,*,~ 7 ~Lh (]GlJ{bJ = ~L11-UJ6iJ.ffiJ

6iJtLf~L = 65/tJJ-rf,gp. Q]lLfrol!pL11- = ~l1J-UJ6U (fij.C:Q1.).

~~1D C:/DrT a;®wC:u tt ftU I 6l1IliI- 6T ~~ Lb Go: rroUOIDGU(] UJ r;;iJ lLJrol!p et 6tr !f)J iJrfI~:ffJl ~ 1D{b(]o;[bu {i)t!il ffiJ6U th iJt>iJ®&®<F Q a:tiJ iJ (!!Jc!i;$J6i! £Om It 6Tro U _gjJ G'1 ~rfI UJQI@UJW{Df!JJ. .

.!L6lr (961,-) - 1L6l!p OTQsrU ~ I (!jJ~~t;J ILmr6rmT tb (ZL.6'i:Jt~) 6T6irr~ Lb G)lFfT6iJ6151G1rT€lY,cii c!hrTL.._t__UGJutbpJ.{fJJ. (QJ.QJ: 259 - 260)

61iIQDL

ml6llL. -6iJ(!!)~. 6iJ®~u

651mL~{DGiJ=6l1J Lb(!jJ~6U I u®ii~6iJ I ~m!Dt>,fJQJ I Go: ®$®$h~. G>1J6lJffiJ~w ~~ tb Q u C!!Jwu tt iJJl LiJ ~ m-r uC!!J~i1 C!!Juu ~fTriu I 6'5J~L 6Tar~Lb Ga:rr6i> G516lJr6J~r;;M ~~urrm61J iL6Wfr/J~W.

G6/mL = 1. c!h(fm61T.

U@61JLlli C:Uffrf6J5J61JLLU6iT <G~QJrr. 539 : 2), 2. et (!!j6ri> LDB; 8)LrT.

liJl5'; 6J5]61JLuSJrO #pfI <y.QQJ. 7 : 14). 3. QQ/dr 6'ff tt L_(fjJS,8iLrT.

LDffL,mr:I5IfIJ)/W 61)W6J5)6I}L 6JiJjJuu (YWLD. 33). 4. ~r05rrLDml7.

LJ)61}{TLUff6ir &!6~6lfJQ)L (LDQ)Q)U@. 331)

5. ~aa-rGQJ@®.

rJQJ@&@ 6616TJLUJ6irm <Y!Dt.D. 324)

65/GmL -651 LAlQ)= {i)GTr ffiJq,rr milT I ,g;rrm6YT c: u rrtikr!D w{DQJQg I urr 6tS)6lJ [ilQ)/J ~6J)61JQJw. ( 6l1.QJ.)

d60brCB ..aAlr@-ml~

6'5/tDtr (~!!y~6iJ=6l91 rfJ ~6iJ, G6lJGtfI UJfT ~ru. ~6iT -Q6lIQr -GQJ61f1. 66J~ -~mr=l. 6'51 rfI!.&~ ~6iJQ):ffJl G6lJroffl UJ tt 5/UJ Q/ tt W W.

GJ5J6lirQUff@ 4&J.P 6J1JJl)iibQJc561 <Y!Dt.O· 11)

2. 6lJ tr 6"5T 1>$1 §J)Jw,," (!JJ516iJ (iJQJ tr.).

3. C:LDIJ)JQ)8iW.

UrrQJrrASTIT

87

615JOIIiJrw#(!§uumiJ (~6iJ. ~®QJrruJ. 6:9:5).

~mr-~fii6T(j)J=I. QlfTATW. uQ)Jmr(j)lfiOrrtiJ tf;1W1fr ~'V<9CF~rfI. (8it6~4. fhfTr;rSi 2)"

2. (!jJIi}Qj (UJ ffiJ). 3. 6lJfTfilfTmTTfiil/ WQ)Q).

Q]/6IJiJr@ Jil61'JpJUJ QJIT6IIIIfGin 6I)QJ~1b Q}}(!J'JltD (lD~QlIJ &, 202). 4. QJrr~6lJ6Tf}t6J6U (i/UJffiJ®ffiJ IhrrtD.!J)I (t5J ffiJ.).

S. i1®LDfT6lJ (UJffiJ.).

~LDrR8;SimrL <!p~Q) tf;16lJ"4JI LD8;8iwfr, ~diJ~Lh {ljr!iJr!JiW ~@ WfT@8iL®W (i/w tOJ UJal usutt {h waly;>mUJ ~{h (jw G) ~ti.JQJG wQr !!)J 8i ([§ ~ c: UJ , c!Ii rf) UJ QJ fT 661 ~ al ~ ~ 6U QJ !!JI (y>5J m 6U LD rr c: UJ rr dr ( &rfI(]UJ fTAr) 6TQg~ w G) UIUf,J fT6lJ QlfOWffiJ5J6lI th~V4T IT.

9. G/Drr: LDrrQ, = cy>5!W, wlflC:UJfTAr:

(i/#G)s:rr6i>C:6U i1® 6TQsriJ)JW .dIImL(;}utbJ!)l~ ~®wrrt!o 6TDM/J G'J~tiJQlljG> UUJ t;T rrtiJ QJ IPrliJ51 6lJ(!!J5Idr!D~.

~rflUJrt C:QJ~J;8jfTQ)~i16iJ &i)lJQJ6'6)QT(lUJ 651~f!jlI fiTQg!Dm!p~~fifTrt. UlQ,-mlr, {buS} Y;<;'II;Jrr@ Q{ljrrLlr4 G)s;rrmr@ "uSI,p UJ~/J6m~ C:WtD G'JCJ;rr6ifrL t.5JGiTGu, Q}J~f!J)J fiTW~W G)a-rr6U i)([!JwrrmfiU8; ~Jl51&& Q)/T uSJ tb J!)J.

QlLQJr1 8)fTL(fj)Lb ~th 6616i!pl = (J6lJQf)6lJGCFuJ, fj>@, (]wwu@, e!:P@ ILwBr. WfT. Gil. dI/. ''prob .. for vish/ "All-pervader' or 'Worker" fiTW J!)J 8;([!J4Jl Lb.

6T IiI ®w tf;1m!DtAiI([!ju U.{6J fiTitT~ t.b 8) ([§/Jil fiiJ, 6llI ~ et QrrU ~ 6'516tr fiT~U~AT iJrflC:u. 9. C":/6fT: 4..,""-IL~, &Qr-~. (QJ.6lJ: 261-262)

~

~~§1 fiTWLJ/p c!pA>6IT&& mQJ8;~Lb 6T6UfiUfT LDfilfIf18)~tb Qurrf/JIu GluUJfJ.,rw. (G~fTQ): 70).

~~IaI(2)

6l1J/J/fJJ-(6UJm~)-fi/8J' d~ ((i/. G6lJ,) 651 j,:{ljl = 7. 6'6161l~.

&6TJp-615Jlipu CUffiJ!l,m/6W ud: ~fTQ)lq-: 315)

2. 6'5J/h/IJl (~rrLD~u, 601).

3. 8irr1J~tb.

J06irtOJ&(§ 6lfJ~~ff(§LiJ jDW(JQ)ff(!JJtSt!6W (®JDQr. 138). ui., Q~"., !6. 6'6J/J4)J, /Ii. UI/J~.

WfT. ~. ~. "of doubtful origin 6TmJ!)J (f9tOJ"iJ®/J~Q) lhfTAIr&.

88

~ffiI !i16lJrT 'LD {jIalr;T mul' G) 1.J)~'t;T rr et 6M 9.oJ/J~QD~lL/ W G ~rr &@8i. (6lJ.QJ : 262 - 263)

6lt~ <lJ,ITED QJQJ)«t

Q ~ rr 66J GJ LJ) 6iJ 615J UJ !fJI ; c: ~ tr iU i) mr f)W LD tt fi5T 4)J ; c: flj fT @ q tb!J)J QJ6WRlLDUJfT6W' 4JI; ~@ uS1& QJ6WQDwUJrrG7fT /!Jl,' q) IJ LmL J)/6UfiU gu Gain-I' 1 fTrliJe;,ig} a~ffiJc$rrufJw fP@. (QO:fTGlJ. 70)

6l1I61DJ, 6lJ61D5

LD6lSJf1 oUI",,," !A~~; U~rT dJ/6lJ6lJ ~ u~l1I- 6l1Jmw UJfT ~/f)I. (G> a= fTQJ. 69)

~

mlJ£,II-UlJ£,eI, ~!&~ (dt- ~-)

6UI /J~ - 6'61 !h §» = 1. 6UJ j, §» u (J U fT ¥iir!D tC It ~~ 6ffl 2. !C rr ~.$!Jl rorfI UJ tt 51 UJ &®t8rt (&c9i5J6lJw). 3. fLQJ8i/JiJdJ® 6VI~~uC:urrm{!J LDfT6rf)UJ.

61lIIhfP65J~ l.Drr6tf)UJUJrr~ (UI.g,. 1 : 19). (6lJ.6lJ: 262)

dUJLi>

mlww-.-61w. (~_ ~.) ml6ir@!j~6iJ=6llJ rf1 ~.u.

6'51," -( 6BI tlJ) - 6'5J UJ W = 6'5J rfl6l/ . "~Ill wG u.f!)l c: $flIT {b {!J (YJ t.b " (~ <!!J8; &rr6TTj,. 4. <9rr<]QSTrru 62).

QJLQJIT Q)/-UJ/) 6TW.!f)J UJrfll;~u ul!fJ{h/!Jl C:urrmQ; fiTar.!J)J GUiT®W an.p5J, UJ,f, 6'T6irTU{ljtb~ (j}s ()f¥iiru~ ~Gl.DQffc9; e;fTL(£16lJrT. (j}GiJ '(j)' et 6iT U {!jI (j) UJ 6iJ et Ar ~ tb ~WlIP#CDlI!F rr 6iJilSJ GiT (y){lj WI 6lHiU UJ rr 5) UJ ~tiJC:UJ 6TtiiT.!f)J (yJfifrrmCl7 &",' 1 UQ utD{D 8·

6l1J UJ tb-661 UJ ... fiDlUJ6iJ=~&Q)tb. 9· C:fljfT: i) /Dw-i) {Dfikr -iJ pJ6iJ. 06JUJ"Q)tin &Jm6lfJ UJ&QJU QUR'@L(]L. (Q~rrru. Qs:rrQ>. 354). 6l1JUJw=l. J)I&61JW, 2. G1U(!!J'imLD (iJQJrr.) 3. 6lJfT6JTw. 6J5J11J66f/mL (!JJ(!J'QJ# "&L (<:~QJrr. 833 : 7) (QI.QJ: 263)

6tlU~filDQlJfQwl1'66l56ir ~aSlwtq. mtA)QJJ5Qr

8)~~, 8n. - 8n.6l/ - anLI4 - anLIUJ(fj1., (E. coo) ~I.1J-, ~m!D' U65>{D, €I!J)J, ~66J, ~rfl, 6'8{I5J(£I, ~rnfJ, GlQJL@.

9aSlwaqU QUWlTaQr

®tDL.6mL, 9 - 961f)8= - 9m~, (j}QJ)a= (E.hiss), 96U - 96l51, &6U - &6'61,

89

(3) mll1~~~Al61AlT QWIJ16l5Qr

9~&~~U4 Q6"~

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(j)UJw, ~UJWLJ' ~UJffit®*, ~tOlf)U1- (j)ms= 6Jr6J® (6JffiJ®~6U = 9£1/>{D6lJ)

f?6l» a= - fPf06)~·

8)fiI)t;T

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u@ (u@~Q)=~6UIf,{D6lJ)

8)fT

G u c: t;T fT m CF 6tf) UJ 8; ®p51 J; ® w (l u rr ifJ/, f} a; rr I}" (!J> t.h 'iJ18i fT t;T aL t61 fr G !.DulL{!.Drr 51 UJ ~6'a') L#G1a: rrGlJ6lJfT (b (t§p51 u u ~ 6lJ ~J;c$w. ( (yJ.{DfT.)

~6lt8)~

s6I ® ~ ~ fillI6lJ & 8i 6"W ffiJ an...!J)J t.iJ .[DIT aU a; w , 8i fT GYf1 {J) rr 6YV rf161Jr # (!!J ~ c: u rr ~w, C:8i{J)fT fJ U LLrf16kT G6I ®~ ~t;T j,[DfT r$IJ tb, c: 6TUfTC1w{l;i' IJ rfkdsr 6T1J"~(!!J/J~ i'filJ8iW (ljJ1D6151W6Sf• 6lJ L G1 LDfT y51 6"51 (!!nt,~w C':6lJ!J)J; Shuff Ii> LDmr L.!J-6lJci G'lt!FwlLJ6Tr c: 611 J)J. J5J6i;r~mfh 6l1J ®/J{hW firm- u ~ 6lJ(g>Ql tub.

~

G61®~-G51(!!J~, L!J/<!!J$b' Ult;T ~

GQJ6lJ-( G516iJ)-( 6bltt) - 65/!f)l-( m16iJ)-6"8 J!)J= G6lJtbp51.

oG/PI QUID (]6lJff#6J (LD~Q)IJ'8;. 54),

(6l1Jrr )-6'61®~=7. GJ6lJ!bp51uu1' I Lb.

~LUoiJ6lfJ(!§ 1b61fr6J&6ir (~6If\uurrLQ)>, 3. GQJtbp51g i1armw

u®i' .. _G51®/IlIGLDtb G)8ifTmr@6UfTW aQJt01Jf]6i> (o;WUt;TfT. ~fTL66)&. 5) 6lJL6lJrt 8irrL._@tb eyJ6UW : ..

6l11-®~ (d = ~(!JJ, 8i~I;T, orffiJ@, Lf~tl)l--I' 4JlUJrrG&rrtiUrLrr($L Q)]@j{D = 48i{P; t!F518 Gi'Ja=tUU-/Qr I U fTLfTdrrr U fTL_@, (J j,.KJj06)t;T.

~ t;J rfiJ 8i {b G r!F til '4 6fT fT 51 UJ m & fLJ ./!)J tEl 61HitJ u516iJ V1 ® $fj 61SHiU 6lJ Q) AT ~6iJQ)/IU QJvVGlTm6lJu LJ81{p~~ urr@QI§)I QlY;8;8)C:LD~WI ~ (g)m r!Jj 8; t!1i([!j ~ i16iJ Q 6lJ tb p51 8; & ®~.I)J i; c: {h tr 6ir !J)J ustr et ar u Of) ~ ~p51C8tT dfJ,tUt54P c$fT6Dr8). (6lJ.QI : 263 - 264)

C$fiQJ. urr. 13 - 4

90

~U60

fi5I (!!jwLJQl ~ or QuaT t.h a QJ IT U Q U tt ®filf)rorr 8; Q c$rrmr L 6"5J (Ilj[h~ 67QrrWW Ge:-rr6U, t5J6irr4 6"5I®wuu QutbfD LJ~UJ6lJ{b(6)!DlLJth, ~QJIT rK1~fiUa>LDUJrTQJT Lf ~filf)LDmUJUJt.h ~6lJfr o;G1fl8i®w ~!Dtti~ !LORTA)QJ IL/W (yJ a> fDa ILl ®¢J j,,g)I, @6irrJ!)J LtD 6llJ gr IT 8;@j Lb ~ iW U IT 8; ~ th UmLs,®w i1!DiAfb ~mrmQJC:UJ ®¢J8i®w @uSJumLt6.UJl6TT6JT4jI. udrirmL 65J(!!j!h~Qf1lr 4~UJfJfTuJ @C!§iAfhGmUJlUfTGiJ 4~QJfr fiTSTfilJW ULLJTtT. (~.LD. 79)

dl&>6lJth

6lS}6\.>6uLh- tSl600J (~~ ~.), &5)&\}Qj

6'5lorr - 61l1GTTW = (;]QJorrm61TUJfTQT a~fT@mLUJ &~:

6'51," - 6bIWrT - 6"516fT6lJ - 651wQI Lb. ~otT W - 65/611lt - 6l5/",1fI = 05Jw rt. 6lYIfitTfT - 6516TTfT/JiJ. 05J6TTQJW - Q)JQ)QJW - Q}JvU6lJW = ~fJT~i)tb@!J 6lJLQLDfTuSJuJ1Q) e!j)fiUu5]Q)61f)Q). (Q}.6lJ: 264)

d1~

ml~-6li~ (d) - I). ~ :

~fftr@j~olJ = ro5J tf)1h~, ~ PJ~~GiJ. Q)Jw -65J uSJ· 6"61uSJ~~6b = 1. c$dfr i) !D~{DvU.

tWmLD(JUJ@~~U utf;If)IC:QJ Qm6ir#UJffRr 6J1)g)l&~tiJ&fftiJ <8irol~. 144),

2. §f8>&~ Q~6'IfI$66b.

lL/DtiJc!iJ 6DJgfJuu6 CUffi)JJ1iJ tfJ/DuLj ~lDQr· 339) 2. 8irr'i!Jll~ru.

4. 6T glFrf}&61SU/iUlfT u5J®i;~.u, C!:PtbHifT uu rr t61([§j,~Q,.

s. 8iGlJ~/J~ C:~fT8i«9:!D6b. l!fJfTLLfTfr&6rr 66IuSJ,f,f}(!!Juu' (i)(!!J Qlrr5&. 5,' 28)

6. 6D}6TfffiJ®~fitJ, 961ft It ,t;ib.

"Uff6ir~ff 6111FJ(!!;mQ&L 6J5JgfJuu <IQJ8i. 2238)

7. dN{l5I1D6V.

6l11uSJ = 1. ",{l5IQj. 2. fiJi) (<9fT6ITw).

(]I6PJfftf 61fIgfJu5IQ)ff l1Jff~/bff (~®LO!b. 1n>.

L. vide, E vide, S. vid=to know.

fiiJ/JUJfT, mJ/>QJrrar, mQJ~I11, C::QJ~, C:6lJ~oiv (dh) (!JJ{Dv6JUJ UfilJ Gqrr{b&6Tr ~/J 6T6iT~W e!:PQ)~i)AfJ6kr.!!)J tJJID/h{Dm6lJC:UJ.

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91

~ 8) C QJ ~ rfJ UJ fr 8; ® @J fT ~ (yJ w o5J j,m ~ ill Lb ~ u5J yS16"5f/ 6lrrG {D a{brr 6irr p)J0lrT 6T fii5T ~ p)J s:

GfiI /JUJ IT et ~~ L.b QI L G,) ~ fT 6i>, ~uSJ yS16i> G'5I ~mrjj, 6"611 (il»r!F, 6'5J ri!Jms: et ()5T (!JJ~ !r,cllLJ iJ rfllLJ Lb. ~rfJ UJ IT ~6ID{D8;G) t!1)rrmr@, 6l1J yS1 6T ~U flJGlrr iJrfKlu 6'5J~ 6TQuUm{h ~{!5JUJrr ~ ~uSJY'mfJ LDU18;@j6lJrt. (QJ.QJ: 264 - 265).

dl~j,p;6b

roil yS11>~GiJ = a;~ iI {!Jii~6iJ, u rr It /J;f!jQ), 8Jrr~~fiu, dill p51 $5GiJ.

G6JyS1 = UfTfr~6lI, ai~, ~p)JGlf, §)iJ (~fTwLh) ro5JyS1- fiDlUJ- (~QJ~.) - 651 /J (6lJ.J - 6'5J I>1hOiW Gl1J ~~a;Qu - 6"OJ i;1h8JrT. r!F w{b UJ ®1h ~c9i'7 (yJ{Dfi6l Q)J ~,J.1h (Vidagdha) 6T6Ir.[f)J eyJ6UW e;fT L__@w. (iJ.LD. L1J dr )

dl6ir1 (dI<!!)u>uJf> ~(JQJrT)

~"'!P/J~ruQLDfTyS1~ (articulate Speech) Qr!Frr{bOi6Tr Gu@wurrS)/w lL8ifJ q (lfiLL1I-61SfJ 6tr.[f)J c: $hrnolsr p)J UJ ~GiJ 6T wWJ W ey:>6lJ(J6lJrflaflw!f)J t.D @jQ), or 6iJ , ifJ/6lJ, ~ 6u I (y) r;,U et w ~ Li> QJ yS1 c: 6lJ tt 8) G7f1 ~ Gir J!)J c: to c: '!iff", p)J UJw fifT 6"5T. {DWJ yS16iJ fiiJ/ a;r;T t.iJ G r!F tt dT (!JJ~Q) 6lJ titt A) LD UJ fT 6iJ , QJ 8ifJ c!p~{bG;UF rr tb c9i G'I QT rufit) tr W LJ 6iJ, (yJ GiJ 6T 6Jr ~JI.D {i)® c: QI IT OirotfJ 05f}Qrr Jl)J III ~QJ tb {l5) ~ W JJ)J c: {Drr~ p5J UJ G r!F tr [bOivtf165f}Qrr J!)JG LD iJ rfJ!5 fIjJ 6tr 6fT 6"6T. 6lJ t!Jj fJ (yJ{D G 6lJw;&r !D ~ 6lJ t!hr;T Q LD tiJQ UJ rr(j)l 8Q_L!l-t!F Q CF rr fiisr (yJ{Dffu Q)(!!Jw fiTmr~u5I6Glt;TUJt.b·

QI LL_8; 8)(!§~/lJ/ C Q/ r;T rr ar QlQ> or Qg u f!P ep6U 6T 6iJT u~w iJ rflL/. 6'51 (!Jjwu {b 8J(!§/J!!Jl c: 6lJ fJ fT fi6T mt 6tr or WU f!P 46lJ or 6fg ~ Lb c: eu rfJ &iT iJrflurrw u6tr 6Tar~w dPllJI-uJJw iJrflL/.

4 6iJ 5J» {lJ 6b = Gl u tt ®!A/P {Ii 6iJ I 9.J; {D 6lJ, {D ~ 6l/ {D ~ , LJ 6m rt {DQ), £6L u tt ~6l.> I 6BJ ®wLJ tp)oU. Lf rfl {lj6lJ = 6UJ @w4~6U, Lfr!Ji6U~Q) =6ll!@WLf{ljrolJ.

46\>- 46lT -UlGtr -UJ~ -U1romrr -U1tmr - t5JGm6lf-UlGm"QJ6U ,t5Jmmr. LiJ67r-G)uQr-Qu~-C:u~.

L5J6IJ6lIIJTlLlw C:ut!J)Jw QULt.5J6ir QUff@6ff (Qthrrm. Lift. 40). t51Gir -Gk.phil.

UJ 6tr - fO'l1} 6Tr = mJ mf'J6TT = 66J ([!)U u th. 6'6J mGTT UJ rr@{D6U = 6'DI (l!Ju U usmis ~L!J- c: UJfT liI-~ iJ rf1~6iJ ~6lJQJ fDl 9@ fifilm6"5T G r!FuJ~6iJ.

"GlCliLQJI}"6U U6WQ)arT UJrru5JI76W@W 65/mwUJrrL(J)J." (G~rr6iJ. l!_rf/.) 6T~ufDtbG&{bu, 6llImwUJfTLQ) 6T~~W Qa=rrtD®. ut6JrT~ Q~rryS1QJ GO:uJ1l}6i>(]urr6U !DL~gp w51Jj){ljolJ f)TQrr~t.b GUfT®~W G U IT @ ~ ~ c: LD ~ t.b, GUI @ U:Jl.iJ UJ rr @ ~ Q; et 6iT ~ Lb (;) LJ fT (I!J c: w i1!D~~~rr &/J G~fTW .!f)J5}Qg[D4JI.

92

oB/w -651@. ro5I Q:P::6QJ = Q)J ®wL/ {hQJ, mI (!!Ju U ffiJ Glc$fT6Tr@!jtl)Q). mWL{Q)6irC%wliJ 6JfJ(!fJffi~ (~®mu.ID· 13).

66J@-68~. G'8lPfhru = Q)J (!!Jt.bLJ~fJiJ.

tD/TJiJ6Ji~Q/ffff QW6ir(]/OffL (f)u5J6lf/ 671fJQ{J~ (Jc$/TW (®!D6iT. 1103). f:il1I@-6'5Jmy>. G'6Jt;;6) ~~6iJ = 6'51 @I1>4~ob.

i@6iruw 6lfl6TJ~l1Jff6ir 6JS)6I'J66T6J5)QJ6ff6llff6ir (®tDQr. 615). 6VJm !J)-65J~lP# C1i = 46JITfr t!tUl (UJffiJ)

fj}. C:!fJrr : Gk, philos, desire.

6'5Ia>y;>-mlmlJ).iUi = 1. 4(iWrt#~. \~/J!)JQ'A>q,UULL urr<FrrroWl.!J&('!>t.D @6lS)Gm~~Yl#8r ~G~6STU.' (~6lDJD. 1. fLfiI>fJ) 2. ~wu 1618ifr #iJ. "LDfiirT m rt 6'5I67S>!J)'# UJ" (~Q)u. 2: 2, iL.fi6>fJ).

6llI ()6)!J)-6'iJ rny;[h{ljfT 6tr - t05JOlDU;> {!(;1hfT Qsr = (U1 ffiJ.J !66l1Jr u ~ , 8i<tim'fillW. roiJfif)YJ-061mL -Q)1A>LUJAr = IlirT(6)Qg (~.QJ.).

6liJ 66>L -G5I LrrtiJ. 6'5l LET tiJ/J~6iJ :. 1. c::fb A>6 U u@ ~Q). 2. ~rr q,G) UJ(j;J~ ~6iJ. '651Lrrujf,~ 8irrQ)~iKlfil) 6lIfTtiJtI ~!f)J~{b®' (w6lJ)6t)u@.136·1L.A>1J) 3. 8itm6'fTUUa>L~6b. "6TC!!J~ IL@~{D/!Jl' LmrGtRJf/ G"6ILJTluJ;iJ!DI6I" (uy>.).

651LfTtU = 1. ~mc!f (~. C:6lJ.) 2, "fTr!hw. "~mr6SlJf1r fJ5IL.rrGUJ(j)If, cpJrr~" (i}fJfTLD{Drr. UJ~~. 59). 3. Cf,",wu4 ({!jrTW'U 633).

66lm-611Jrr-651®-Q1]®wL/. Q))®WLJ~(;\) = cfj~c!FUU@$6oU.

65/(!!Jwy-65J (!!Jl~l LJ=~ trn~, ~roirLJ· ''f;61 ®u U IDrr 5 &!D!fJu:>" (®!DGiTr• 522) fi6I®u4-G5I([!juuw=1. ~'~UF «(f!}LJr.). 2. ~drLf· 3. utDJ!)J (U1ffiJ.). fill)@-6&®~~ =1. ~Llil-tb® J)/GiJfil)~ tiI!@91@jU LJ~~rrtb QJIh~ 6l1rT8;® GDJ®wUlu UmL8>®W ~!D{h~ 6lf~6lf. "UJrr§Jj Qo:titC:QJQr Qa;rruU fi5J®{AB" (@JIDW. 1211). 2. 6"3Ll1/-£D®U Lf~1DfT(Ji 6lJth~ 65J ® [i, {lj tt rftr. "Q)1 (!!>!& 1!JI c$ mr Q LIT <01fJ &®!h ~ (!!) {h ~ tt QI rr y> 8, a> 8i" ( 4 {Dw. 266). 3, au tt tb flJU U (£lib G6J(!!J{6~rrf!tr, "f>6} (!!J/h{lJfT UJA> L.@jj})JfillW _0 ." 1""\ 3 12) 4 &;'l • 5 " ~O ~ "

blJ/O5riT (4. \D/QJ. : .• 4'iD'UJ6l.JfifT. . L/fbJ~LD. blJ/C!!JlD§JJ LffiJTWUJfJ

(urf1UfT. 6 40). 6. L/§JGlJrOID8iUJrrfilfTuiJUQJw, 6T~6lJ6'6).!h Q./QTU48;9)@!J Q6Y1Tr~ !f)J. "~®thG;fh pjrT W1 tb LJ,g)/6lJ f!J 5:iw ~{h UJ fT U UJw aLDtbC:/D" (G1~rroi> Qa:ru. 237). 7. (@8;c!lirr) iJ£D~~ 6lJGffiLq-.

,"6l(!!j!AfDJ-~®{h1hW = 44J LD67i)m~. LD",(QM'~ (@Lrr.).

Q)/ ((5tb§J-GfiJ®~~",m = 661 ®tbG~rr iau tb ~fii>Q) f!)J LJ 4» UJfi5)6JT 6"51 , LDtrn fi~r6U1 ( J5J riiI.).

G5i®t~~IT@1hfiiJ = fPC[!} d/t' ul-[b® 6lYI(!!Jt61!>fTGTrrrQ;u C:urr {DWiV. r;5i®!5~rr@-651(iJ;!A~rrLq- = 661@!A~rr61fJ.

UITQJlI'arrrr

93

6ll1®t&C:1DrrtbLJ~ = LfiJ~rr8i 6lI!Afh 65J®~iJfiMmr;Tu Gu~~6b. 6D1(!§~/BQSTAr = 1 . .a®t6fDfT6lfI. 2. 4/BIU6lJw.

6Ul6tr -QQJ6Tr - GQJ6liv@. QQJfiilrr@~6b = ~6iJ"'" t6::6tD(c!§ cfj filDa=U u®~6iJ. ~6lJQr CJ<FfTtb.!!)J8i@ GlQJdlrl.Jl-& 51L.t5J!1JfTAl (~.QJJ.

G6lI6ir-GQJQr@)-QQJo~@j. G)6lI0~®~6U = 1. u51& 6'8C!§t.b4~6b, '\~/<!§6Tr GlQJo~51" (®!D61r. 176). 2. UlfDrT G)urr®6trClI..D6b c:!iJ,m<F G)8i1T6ir~~"'. "~QJ(;J LD6ir Jl)I GlQlo ~~$O'" GlatUUJ rrIT" (@IDQr. 174)

GQJo~8iQ> = 1. uSldi a51®uuw (UJdiJJ. 2. C:Ut;TfTAla= (84j1.). GlQJo~8ifTomLD = 1. ~QJfTm1wmLD. 2. UJIDff QUffC!§QlQT GlQJ6YTQJ& t!n®~"fif)LD.

QQJo :&ff6l)lf) GQJ61Iir(fjJtiJ 6J/DtirmcSu QUIT@9r 'e!DSr. 178) QQJQr -G6lJuJ-GlQJuJILJW = 6'5I®u uc!:pfftrGmrr dr.

,fDQ;SUf(T9r 4B(lQJff';U 4li111ftT16QJ "QJtiJUJ66Tnv5J~ (aQSld;. 75:10).

QQJW-QQfwUJQJW = GUJ (!!ju u(y>ffrr 6fTQJw. GlQlW-G6lItiJelUJfTQr = Q)J([!juu(y)wGwrrdT.

QUIT6ir66T6I)/DtDff9r Q&n(f)Ii!5ff6ir 416UJ"QJtiJCUJff6ir (6QJ5.237> G6lJriJ-GlQJti.J6lf>LD - Q6lJ W6tSlLD = 661 (!!juu W, C:6lJ~ L.6l>.

Q6l1W(iI)lJ) (l6l16lJiJrLQ; (Q~rrQ). Lrfl. 36).

~. GfDfT : G>3m - G~1iJ - GlCFuJwmw - Gs:W6tJ>w.

C:QJuJ-C:6l.IuJ [hCJffDfTm- -a6l1 ~{hrffi.

GQJcrn- -GQJG1T. G6lJ/' I 6U (C:6lJdr {h60) = 1. ro6J(f!)WLJ~"" 6lJlLJ6l/!!)J lJ)G6gfi,; C:QJL@ONJf) 6I'fQ)Q)6 (Y!DLD. 20).

2. ~L._LQ), !DL_LJ~ (D)e:tiJ~Q),

w6VrTtbpLfl;:b IJiLWUfflP/ C:QJLL~ r:61JLLlbff ~Lunl:_#J (]!>ffQ)Lq.. 215). 3. LD<iiWT WLf rfJ ~ biJ.

Qlf)tiJd>$m[T (!fJQJ6IJCT (!!>QJ(!!;W <:6lJLLIrff (a.t.OulJrr. 8ltq..lJ)Qm"u. 102). 4. ~fT dTjrfu Qa;rrw@!J1hGiJ. 5. GQJwG6J Qe:tiJ{hGU.

fi>~w (J61JL.L6V (u~!D. 24:6) 6. ~fJ~~6iJ

&. Clu61r. (b).

(gQlL®<§ Qa:lU6V ~rf1UJ'7fbrTl6/~WI C:QJLLGU 6Tw~c9 Ga:fT6lJ ~uflQ!pm dP/{l5J8).

GGli LL8iW (G6lILL c:?)I&w) = LD~f8 Q t!F til fli ~LW, W6lfl61ffro5J UJ{D!i>1D 6li@.

94

C:QJQr = 1. GUI (!!ju utb 2. iJ (!!jLD6m" W "C:QJQr QJ{TliJ 8)VilJ L._mL. G!Dp)J" (u!J>. 36)0. 3. s;rr{!jA>QJ «/fiBr@ ufifu~uQ/filfTrr8)r9i a;([!J~uu@L1J &fTLDW. "a6lJGTrUL 6VI/flQqliJ§JJ" (C:~Q1rr. 1172:8). 4. 8jfT~6b afljrrQI)UJ ~ miff i; ~QJfi6r tr a; c: 6lJ Q)6tsr G> 6lJ p)J UJ IT LIJI-{iJ 8n.!D i.J u@Lh (y)(!!Jt!h 6ir ( L5J ffiJ.) S. C:6lJ6JTfT6ATmw QqtiJlLJ W C:6lJ6YT rrGlTlT ~mQJQJmfTOlJT ®.f!)J f)filJ WW6J1Ar.

Cl6lJ6f17T6fJir L1J1T,m~tf Ii @(!J'61 O7IIIfQ)Q)

IitiJQQ}61T (dwnyflu LfJp;QJ6T}& ,t5J6~6#J. (Q~rrQ). LDIJ. 82)

Cl6JJ,m66J1J@ Qlbff#QfJjJ umLlLfril &6IIir6I8fJ1lI'iJ.

6J.JfftiJ~l56IT QfT6iru dlJIQJrfQUIJ)/LD QUff@(]gr. ~LD!DUtq... 83)

6J5JQJS!lw (l6lJiJ!Iw &JP§iJr&; lD67IirlilDfllL!W

~ff (!!Jw d'lhfT(!jJw at§@W 16tNr6lllfl1J.'I'.b

If)6irQulf)I LD{Tt5Iliir qr(]6IJTfftT &(§ (!JJrfJUJ. (<::LD!DU'4 84)

6. 91{b{1Jf7q6tr (@!JLrr.). 7. §1pJth~ ~~LDQJGU (UJrrJiJ. ~s;.). 8. U<iili1rr(i6)L~ ~uSI!p1}" CFrf fT6U c: 6lJrOfT ITmr ~6lf)GlJQJ IT a,@ ~,",8;8)UU LL. g}fDL.t4U QUUJrT. 'GJeFwUlUJQr 16u5Jy>C:6lJ6Tr ~~~ffiJ ®Q)u GuUJ@w' SJJ. III, 221). 9. <fM)Jf)Q'J wQr6lfffJIrfJr C:6lJ6lflrr (!!JfiI)/J~fT~. "'G'I~fT6tr (yJf;J IT C3QJ6"IfI It" (4!Dw. 24). 10. GGlJ6'lfl!:r (nair, L c: QJ6Tr L/fit) QJIJ a:~ IT 6V O=@!J8;~ (JQJ~~6isr (t5JffiJ,). 11. ~rr eub.

C:QJ61r4QJW = C:Q1fi1f1(J rraar L f6fT(h/.

GQJ6tr 4QJQlfJ qW = <J6lJGYfJ It 6l1/fl6ll th~ q@!JJiiJUJ 61117 a:~.

GQJQr - C:6lJQr6ll = 7. i)(!!JLf)~/Ji)6i> LDG"Wwa;c!h6Tr mLLrTrT 6T(6JBi@jw 1L6MT filJu UR>L. QJ rf1 me: «(;)a:. {ljrr,). 2. CQ/6Tr G6J. "tOl1J Y)(OlJ W Cl6lJQrGl/ W 6"5J@difJG6lJrr6&r p)JrW6mLDUJfTQ," (gQJ8). 138).

C:QJQr - G6lJ61rro6J = 1. iJ®LD~LiJ. "!6rrw (!JJ6irrLf Q~rrmr@Q$fT6DrL. CJQJQr61l1u5JoiJ" (GurflUJL/' 1D([;1/J~fTL_. 127). 2. GL!hfT(;a)L (UtffiJ.).

3. JsjCFm6lfT. "C:QJ6i7ro6Ju51 ~y>51UJ~ G6Jwwy C:6lJrr®w" (urfJurr 19:43).

4. ~!D65/~firT. "~o1rro6Jmw <JQJ6b-661UJQJGisT" (Lj.QQJ. 9: 27). S. m1C!!J[6§. 6. 8iwGQl6rrfiBl. "U6W~ rn~~UJ uUJrID(;)8)@ (lQl6tr6'5lu5J'*r" (dJ)/8iw. 13). 7. ~rfI UJ c: QJQr 6llJ. "(!pfiiiT (y)UJGSr JDrfl ~~ Gig c!:pLiI-~{lj G6lJ6Yr 6'61" (~g,t1J 220).

LD., Q~., C:6lJ61r66J. ai. C:U.!)JlQQJ (b).

C:6lJQr -Cl61JGfT rrfi1T~ == 4 j;I ~fT UJ fill !h{!i6lJGlf)fJ 65J@t.btSJ Q)J ®thC: ~rr LbUJ u C:u~UQJtiir.

"(J6lJ""fT6YT G6JTArUrrrolrr 6'6J®/AiJC!9c9;8) GlJ~~rr ~rrm" (iJrf1a>@. 12). C:Q/GfTfT~mLD = 1. LfiJUJQJ6'lf)fJ 6l1I@~C:~fTLbUJu C:u~tJ;~6irrrnLD. "6'6I([!j[t,a{hrTwUJ C:6lJGTrfTmrmLD Gt!FtU1[J[iJ Qurr(J!>L._@" (®/DQr. 81). 2.

U fTQJrr ""IT

9S

U/ tv Q) fJ U c: LJ 6IIfI 8; c!1i rr & ~th. ~ rotr A> UJ. "C: QJ 6lT fT vifr 66) LD Q «!F til ~ mlC!§tiG{Drrl.biJl" (uy;. 151). 3. a6lJGfTfT6TTtT Gs:liJlLlw uu5Jtt~Q~"y51f1iJ.

G6lI6YrfTAfrQSJw-GlQJQr6Tfrr.m6l)!.D-G;)QJdrGfTfTa>LD = (Q8iIT.QJ.). = 1. ut6Jrt~Q~rry51"" 2. fP(!!j(yJmtrJ 6'8 A>6TTU L/.

c: QJ.tr - c: QJ.". fT ar - '€j)@CFfTIT u 6lRif) UJ rr 6fT rr 8; ® U u om-m L c: 6lJ th $h fr QJ!J>diJ5JUJ UI', ,·,QuUJrr. "LD4JlfJfT!A~8i e!P(]QJ!A~ GQJ6YTfTfiir" (S.LI. ii, 10).

C:QJQr-C:QJ6lfltt = 1. um-rmL~ flju5Jf» (DfTLfTmrL C:QJ6YTfTmr@5l11_.c9; ~tEJfil) WtOVATIT. "!Drr6fru~ Gl{DfTaru~ 6lJy51C!::P"'ID 6lJt6{l> G6lJ6"tf1®w C:QJ<JtOfT" (4 !Ow. 201). 2. UI tDfDl7 8=17" (~LfT.). 3. IF@!JJi5lUJ QlI7 9rT (~Ql tr).

(]6lJ6TTfT6fTAr (~. t.ut) - aQJ6YTrn_:-lJI- = ~I}"mr LDQ5)QTtD16b ~6iJfiO §JJ GU(!§W8;8i 61fJQx;uftiJ6b u6llfl GlFtiJlLlw C:6lJ6YTfT6JT!T ~QJuQufiilW.

(]QJ6JTfT I· I q -(D)6lJ6TrW rrLIJI- = u6lRif) ilG u6iJr.

C:6lJ6lr-G6lJ6'fTW = U6Hr6'6>Lj, ~uSJ Y> C:QJtA~tt, ~!DUUfT 8jq C:,fFfTY)ft I ~WLDfT!b (;)8ifT"'Q)UULL_ ~6V61J§JJ 616lSl!DUll1I-8;c$uuLL Ulm&(36lJ t6~If1", C:~6'5IUJ6'tf)171 (JQI"'"'. , 9 UJt;T fT a; ~6UQ) ~ dNl1I-6"6)wUJ (JfT e; eutr (gJl.bul1l- mQJiJ~ ~[T6lRif)LW ~fiu6lJ f!jJ ~m{lJ8;C:.$rrL_Lw. " W 6fT QJ It c!Jj rr AT t.b 4 (Ij .... c: 6lJ 6YT tb 4 <!!> LD L t08 IT " (& 6'6J ffil . 47) . " fi'81J urrfiivt..q-UJmw c!:pLfI-~{bmfit) G&rrmr@ ~QJW LDL8; Qc$fTlII-mUJ (lQJQT{:w[b[l51" (S.I.I.iii, 217).

C:QJ6lr+~fT@ = C:QJfiOTfT@. i)(f§6lJrrffilCTn.rT ~t;TNlUJ~~fiiT G'Ju(!!jw U(§iJ ~LriJ51UJ !E1fiUUU(f!>i), u.wmLu uwtrAfl® G&fT@!A~uSJf» !6fT@8i@!JQr t}roM.!f)J.

C:QJW-aQlmr = 1. fi'6J®UL/LD (wrrJP. ~&). lD.GQJ6OT. 2. C:QJ6RTfT@.

Q~6irUff67JiJrJq.. (§L.Ltil ~LI5J&!D&ff (;QJ6lJiJry,gfJ (Jb6ir. 272. LDuSlmQ». <lQJmr+.d)IQJfT = C:QJ6JS1QJfT (wuS/me!FgQ-fFrr.o) = G'Ju® 6l11®uuw. (JQJL06>8iU Qu@&&w.

~m!21 c: QJ Lma;+ c::!JI6lI tt fiToM J!)J t5J rfJ UU 4)J G) U "{!!J!h;fJrr ~. (3QJ6U+LDOiQs7 = C:QJmrL.D&~ - GQJ6Brwn-Qsr = C:6lJ6YfJtt®Q) LD8;Qr, C:Ql6YfJfr @jL9-UJ"~. "{6Qrw6irT C:QJ~L.D"drn (dI.$W. 97).

C:QJ6iT +LD8i6rr = C:QJmrLD8i6iT -GQJ6W wrr6ir = 1. GQl61fI1t @6lJ J..D8jm I c: 6lJG'tfJ IT ®l1I-UJ fT6Tr. "C:QJ mr LDfT oiT ~ {h/bl 6lJc9G;} -fF 6tr 66>6TT ,,, (u ~!b 9 ~th. uiJ).

C:6lJQr+G6lJL6lD& = 1. 6'5J®uuw. 2. u[bJ!)JQrfiilTw."GQJLmc$GUJbU Ot) tt Lh 651 @ /J 4U ..... IL 6iu iJ ® QI u/J'l UJ 8i L.D!h§J y> fiO 8; 8i1.L L rfI UJ iJ®6lJl1I-8;r9)L. t!1n.,' '9 6mm'" (~6iI. iJ®6lJfTliJ. 4:9:9). 3. c!hfTw6l1J@uuw. (/DwUJUJ8iu. 36. ILmfJ). 4. @J66JUJrt QlUJfT. S. {£1fT OiW, !Err a51(f!juuw.

96

fJ6lJw+tBft :; C:6lJti51Itt = ~"&tA :fljiDftwu u(!j(§!Brr "C:6lJti51I ®'*L . (!!§6mLC:UJfT I7WilTn-" (J$6'5Ij,. 23).

(l6lJLA>&tBlt = {Ij"J$!i :!6iDft&<?§ JIlt (W.).

ClfilJQr + Jj!TfiiJ = Gfilll!llffoU = &"LD!Dfl6lJ "~thLDL 6lJlTrflw Q)fTAT6l/tb~. ~ L QJ iT Gil t!F tlJ Oh1J;1L/ W ..... ... 6D1 QT W t5I (Jj1 Lb c: QJ I!Ilff Q) " (8i Ii ~ 4 . &iJ~iJ(14rfi. 25).

CJfilJQr-C:6lJL..L/=m1®uuw (UJrrJP. ~&.).

CJ 6lJ LLf - c: QJ L._ u rr 6fT It ( &iJ 8; ett) = ~ rr L fTC@!) Lf)", {D ~ Q) fit) i/J/ {D(b)6lJfiffTfTC@!) LDW/D 6l/J!)/ U U rrmr6f)LJ) 661 ([!Jw4C:6lJfT fr.

CJ6lJ6U-C:QJL..~ = Q)J@uuw. "QQJ'lfJUUL IJI-Qf>[Dc961fJVw C:6lJLi1 UJLDrrC:W." (p;J([!JLD{6. 437).

G6lJ6U-C:QlL6"5)& = 66Jr.g,uuw (UJrrYJ . .dIIs;.).

CJ6lJQr-<"l6lJmr@. C:6lJmr~~~J = 1. fi'BI®LDy~6iJ. "U8iC:QJfT@ G~6iJfiO".§JJ t6J. {8 UJ 6i> C:QJ 6iisr(li)6lJ Qr" «(/j 061 /J. 145). 2. LlJ fIiT!D fT @ ~roiJ (UJ fJ tt rt ~ i)/Jf[J6lJ). "C:QJ.mrrL1l-~ C:~QJ rf1(J8J&6lJ/hD t5J{Dth~~w" (p;JQj. i)([§6lJrrtiJ. 6:4:5). 3. ac$fT®~6iJ. ~filg61)LDu5J6b G)QJ6'tf}6lJ[J ~@8;@jLb fiTr6J&W

&JP8i ~ 65JT@ LDQJ([!J&@j ~® &LQ;lmr;r 6l11@8i®LDrr.!J)J ~ffiJ8JA>QT (l6lJ,,*,@5}wC:/DW (1L.6lJ.).

C:6l1"*'L6U = 1. 651(!!>wL/QJ)e;. 2. @j6m!DuiJf7uy (m1mr6ffluuw). (lQ/"*'L[burr@ = 1. m1®UUtD ({fJ8;t!hUJfTr!nU. 506, ILfimt;r) 2. (J166J)QJ. 3. (i;)U<!!;06>LD "~QJQg G)~rr~IbUl1J-lUrr6U (JQJmuL[burr(fj1mLUJ $6"Qr G{ljrTlj)fT t6Jw!Drr6tr" (FF@. 2 : 4 : 4) 4. G>~fT 8i~t6J tb@~ QqfT6iJ ~fiiJQJ 6 GJq "[bG flJfTLrT. t6Jdr!D 6'5IfiiJ66J. "b8 fJ u/Ji)t;T (]ff[JQI IT a;@9 et p;JC:" G u rr® ~!b® (IfJ 6iT!D 6l1J6b66J) 6T6ir u.{J)J (] QJfiiirT L{bU rr@" (~8;9i UJ tr CliU 704. fL fifJ) IJ ).

G6lJmrLfT~QJar = ~®uuu UL"~QJdr, C:1Da>6lJu5J"'Q)fT~QJW, uUJ6M'{bJD6lJar, U06lc$QJQsr,

c: 6lJmr LfT = 1. (6Dl.(yJ.J c: QJ6W llJ-1LJi/ GlJ6J)6lJ. "~{D/.tpjrr pSI ~GlQJ fi5T C:6lJarr Lrr" (®!fJwtr. 37). 2. (G,)u.). G::h61f)QlUJ6U6Urr ~~. C:6lJmrLrT lTn.(l5Ju UUJaf/Q)6"6)6U. 3. 6'61 ([!JUJu tt, (u. UQ) et. LD. 6'51. QJJ) LlJ8;e;r;!rr c: U rrw(J{D 6U/Q)rtJ(f!j u{DmQJ&@!Jw on.mr@wfJlf!®8;& (]6lJQfuLrr.

a6lJ~ LfT t.h = 7. C:~6lf)6lJt6JQrr61f)l.1) ®pSlJ;®w ro6J (ffiQT C!:Ptb J!)J et ffiJ o;L@jU u~Lb C:6lJmrLITw,. G)UfTj,~c$w~rTm GQJmr@Lb. 2. Q6lJ!f)JuurraT4P 61m U6lJl{D8; ®PSI Ji®w 651m6"6T (JJJ[bJ!)J. 6T ffiJ 8iL® &iJ ~p;JC: QJGRr LfT Lb~· ~rfiJ~filJth~rr6tr C:6lJ~@w,· 3. Qo=tUUJ{hq, fiT6!r~tb 6llIQJc$®u Glurr@6"IfJfilJ QJ@W 6m6m'6'6JmOtiT.

G'lfDwQJj,rm{D GUJrr @~rrC@!)1.b LD{D8;8i C:6lJG1iJTLrT W. ( 2.Q)&.)

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