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THE
SALTERS'
CHEMISTRY
COURSE

UNIT GUIDE

Afourth year
unitfor the
Salters' GCSE
Chemistry Course

IllnJJIII~

ISBN

1 853420069

.. . . . it may be reproduced provided that reproduction is for use only by teachers or students as part of the curriculum of the purchasing institution.UNIVERSITY SCIENCE © OF YORK EDUCATION UYSEG GROUP 1987 ~ II • BUILDINGS Trial edition 1984 Revised 1987 ISBN 1-85342-006-9 .. Where the book has been purchased by or on behalf of a school or college. ...~. '- ' ...' The material contained in this book is copyright.....

Hence the preparation of an overall plan (green sheet) and individual lesson plans (blue sheets). therefore. have been produced for each unit. S. In particular. Each box on the green sheet represents one lesson (70-80 minutes). each unit has had to . A pre-planner indicating the less-readily available materials' and equipment that a chemistry department may have to obtain in order to teach the unit. . 4. aspects of chemistry are. fundamental to the whole course. 7. . A suggested plan for each lesson (blue sheet) indicating the activities involved. environmental. Sample assessment items for the whole unit. they should help those who are starting their career and those who are teaching outside their main specialism. in aspects of everyday life with which students aged 13-16 years will be familiar either personally or through the media. • It must be possible to acquire quickly an overview of the whole unit and of each lesson. 3. An overall plan of the unit (green sheet) in the form of a flow diagram. • Chemical concepts and explanations should arise naturally from the study of these everyday situations and should only be introduced when they are needed. satisfy the following criteria. wallcharts. Social.BUILDINGS Introduction This is one of sixteen units which have been developed for the Salters' GCSE chemistry course. Design of materials The materials have been designed with the following criteria in mind. Student materials (white sheets) in the form of student activity guides and student information sheets. Teachers' notes (pink sheets) relating to teaching strategies 1 demonstrations. industrial and technological. In devising the course. . etc. • It should have its origins and hence its justification for study. 6. • The materials must be flexible enough to allow teachers to introduce replacements and modifications to parts of lessons. A directory of other resources (films. economic. booklets and references) for the unit. An overview (summary) of the unit. • They must be suitable for the inexperienced teacher as well as the experienced teacher.. videos. the outcomes (key teaching points) from the lesson and the skills being practised by students. 2. A chemistry department should be able to regard the course as a starting point from which they could develop their own teaching syllabus. 8. student activity guides. whole lessons or even whole units where they feel it is appropriate. Materials The following materials 1.

Outcomes Outcomes (key teaching points) are stated on the lesson plans. when a high degree of manipulative skill is required or when care and safety are particularly important). Skills practised The skills practised by students are coded on the lesson plans as follows: P .~ Safety spectacles are not included in the requirements for demonstrations and class practicals since it is assumed that they are always worn.g. of outcome have been further identified. These include: observing. listening. Fundamental chemical ideas. Social. . working with due safety. following instructions. industrial and technological aspects of the subject are italicised. concepts. Two types patterns. working collaboratively.practical! experimental o . interpreting experimental data. skills Certain skills which form an essential part of almost every class practical ha ve not been listed. 2. Safety Attention is drawn to care and safety on student activity guides (SAGs) by using the following symbol. however. are preceded by an asterisk. S A F E Specific safety message in this box . environmental. performing experiments. communicating. 1. recording. measuring. Some of these skills are. principles.other skills. etc. using simple apparatus. economic. recorded when they are practised with some emphasis or sophistication (e.

Students discover that metals. This prompts recall of the problems of acid rain which leads to an investigation of the action of acid on building materials. limestone and concrete are attacked by acids and further experiments establish a reactivity series for common metals. consideration is first given to the possible techniques for making sulphur concrete. Opportunities are for experimental design and students are encouraged to interpret their terms of the simple particulate theory. Returning to the theme of buildings. . Successive lessons involve the study of clay and bricks. Further consideration of acid rain indicates the need to remove sulphur from fuels and the possibility of using this recovered sulphur as a component of building materials.the factors which affect the rate of a reaction and . Students then make a sample of sulphur concrete and compare it with concrete. uses and structure of building materials. .the relationship between the properties and uses of building materials and their structure. A survey of buildings leads to a discussion of the ideal properties of building materials. attention next focuses on building stones. Students study the effect of acid on different building stones and use a key to identify different stones. mortar and cement. wood and paint and finally glass. Students investigate the changes in the properties of sulphur on heating and the relation of these properties to structure. The latter part of the unit is concerned with the relationship between the properties. As an optional lesson.BUILDINGS An overview of the unit This unit is concerned with: .the properties of building materials including their reaction with acid. The unit affect the provided results in then continues with three lessons involving the study of factors which rate of reaction between limestone and acid.

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Investigation and explanation of the changes that occur when paint sets. Properties and uses of glass. t B3 HOW CAN WE IDENTIFY DIFFERENT BUILDING STONES? Investigation of the reactions of building stones with acid.-~------------------Jl--~--------------------~ Investigation of the r€~ction of limestone with various concentrations of acid. Relationship between the structure and properties of glass. WOOD AND Relationship between the properties of wood and its structure. Concrete manufacture.BUILDINGS THE OVERALL PLAN CORE B1 OPTIONAL WHAT ARE BUILDINGS FROM? ENRICHMENT MADE Survey of building materials. INVESTIGATING PAINT. Investigation of the properties of sulphur. B7X HOW DO WE MAKE BRICKS FROM CLAY? B7 ~--------------------~ HOW CAN WE MAKE SULPHUR CONCRETE? HOW ARE MORTAR AND CONCRETE MADE? Preparation of lime and cement mortars. Extension of the reactivity series. Revision of corrosion and acid rain. Preparation of coloured glass. Manufacture of glass. Economic and environmental issues concerning glass. DOES CONCENTRATED ACID REACT FASTER WITH LIMESTONE? B4 B4X HOW DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT THE ACID/ LIMESTONE REACTION ~~~-------------------. B2 HOW CAN WE PLACE METALS IN ORDER OF REACTIVITY? Investigation of the reactions of metals with acid. Relationship between properties and structure. Use of a classification key. HOW DOES SURFACE AREA AFFECT REACTION RATE? Investigation and explanation of the effect of surface area on reaction rate. B6X as a ~--------------------~ Comparison of fired and unfired clay. Preparation of sulphur concrete. Reaction of building materials with acid. . HOW·CAN WE USE SULPHUR AS A BUILDING MATERIAL? B6 Consideration of sulphur building material. B9 I t INVESTIGATING B9X WHAT IS THE FUTURE FOR GLASS? GLASS. BS Investigation and explanation of the effect of temperature on reaction rate. Comparison of sulphur concrete with ordinary concrete.

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videos and software to be ordered in advance. Everyday Lesson substances and materials Readily available (available from shops) needed Apparatus and materials requirements to note Less readily available (may need time to collect) samples of building materials Bl students' lists of building materials (made prior to Bl) B2 samples B3 of building stones hand lenses 84 B4X limestone chips of two different sizes red earthenware clay mounted needle cutting wires.BUILDINGS U nit pre-planner This sheet does not give a comprehensive list of the apparatus and materials required for the unit it merely indicates those requirements that are less readily available within most chemistry departments in secondary schools. Lessons in which these requirements are needed are indicated so that more detailed apparatus and materials lists on the teachers' notes or student activity guides can be consulted if necessary. silver sand fired and unfired bricks from BS access to cylinders of oxygen and nitrogen tissue paper oil-based paint B7 facilities / wire metal loops oxides -- . see the resources list. For films. wooden board access to kiln B5 B6 good ventilation I pieces bottle B6X of concrete caps cement B7X If B7X not covered: oil-based paint small paint brushes B8 tin lids plastic mixing bowls (or paper plates) ice-cube trays If B7X not covered: disposable containers sand bricks from BS piece of wood to break If B7X not covered: piece of glass or metal white spirit 70% solution of alkyd resin in white spirit ti tanium (IV) oxide nichrome borax coloured B9 B9X - --- pliers. clean sand good ventilation facilities access to fume cupboard wet clay. rolling pins rolling slats (lcm high) hessian.

BUILDINGS General Resources Exhibitions The Geological Museum in London has an exhibition of the use of minerals in industry including the use of minerals in building. Sphere Books Ltd. (eds) . Similar exhibitions are availalbe in many other local museums.my enemy (Air pollution. Films and Videos Air . Crabtree. (1976). together with the materials and implements that have been used in our homes throughout the last two or three centuries. .mainly to trees and to fish Books The Sunday Times Book of DO IT YOURSELF. B. S. and Schools Information Centre on the Chemical Industry The Polytechnic of North London Holloway Road London N7 8DB 01 607 2789 ext 2157 Produce Forensic ScienceForensic Chemistry. in the Chemist at Work series. The Castle Museum in York has an extensive exhibition of houses in Britain since mediaeval times. Centre for World Development Education Regent's College Inner Circle Regent's Park London NW1 4NS 01 487 5438/5474 Produce a Housing unit in the Third World Science series. Cuter. Acid rain British Gas 25 min Free loan (1981) success Viscom Film Library Park Hall Trading Estate London SE21 8EL of eliminating CEGB 35 min Free loan (1985) (Evidence of damage in lakes) caused smoke in London) CEGB Film Library Park Hall Trading Estate London SE21 8EL .

uses and recycling of glass. (March 1981). Alkyd resin (for B8. Cement and Concrete Association Publications Distribution Wexham Springs Slough SL3 6PL Provide a range of booklets and AV aids on the history. manufacture and use of cement and concrete. Materials and Building 1'. The catalogue number is 104-065-010I( and the cost is £5 for a litre pack. M. Leaflets Keep Britain Tidy Group Bostel House 37 West Street Brighton BN2 iRE 0273 23585 Produce a glass 'package' containing teachers' guide. 62. Book G. pp.125-134. pupil workcards and a filmstrip concerning properties. Stone samples Philip Harris Ltd Supply the SCISP Rock Set 1 Offa Rocks Lower Hengoed Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AB Produce a kit of raw materials used in the building industry. (Useful information on 'Materials for the construction industry' ..) School Science Review. 452-464. (1981). properties and uses of different types of glass. pp. No. . Buildings . 220.References and resources for specific lessons Lesson B1 Science in Society.6 Making paint) This can be obtained as a 70% solution in white spirit from Griffin and George. Pilkington Glass Ltd Prescot Road St Helens Merseyside WA10 3TT 0744 28882 Provide various booklets and leaflets on the manufacture. AS EI Heinemann . Mineral Resources unit. Booklets. ASE.Wallcharts. 'Building Byrne.

School Science Review, 62, No. 221, 'Building Materials and Buildings II',
Byrne, M., ASE, (June 1981), pp.675-685.
School Science Review, 64, No. 226, 'Building Materials and Buildings III',
Byrne, M., ASE, (September 1982), pp .63-75.
Revised Nuffield '0' level Chemistry Options,
Decay, Longman, (1976), pp.2-19.

Option 6 - Change and

Housing, Third World Science Series, Centre for World Development
Education.
Lesson B3
Nuffield Science 13 to 16, 'S' unit, 'Keys and Detection',
Nuffield Secondary
(1971).

Longman,

Science, Theme 8, Section 4, Air Pollution,

Revised Nuffield '0' level Chemistry Options,
Decay, Longman, (1976), Section 1, pp.2-19.

(1980).

Longman,

Option 6 - Change and

4th Report from the House of Commons Environment Committee, (Session
1983-84), 'Acid Rain', Volume 1, Section II, Environmental Impact of Acid
Rain, HMSO, (1984), pXV.
'Acid Rain' article in The Observer,

Sunday, 2 November

1986.

Samples of stone can be obtained from Philip Harris (SCISP Rock Set 1), or
from Offa Rocks.
Lesson B4
Acid rain references in B3.
Revised Nuffield Chemistry,
(1978), pp.225-231.

Teachers'

Guide II, Section A18.1, Longman,

Teachers'

Guide II, Section A18.2, Longman,

Teachers'

Guide II, Section A18.3, Longman,

Lesson B4X
Revised Nuffield Chemistry,
(1978), pp.231-233.
Lesson B5
Revised Nuffield Chemistry,
(1978), pp .233-234.
Lesson B7
Chemistry in Context - Lab. Manual and Study Guide, Hill, G .C. and
Holman, J.S., Nelson, (1982), pp.132-134.

Lesson B7X
Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 7, Section 4, 'Building Materials',
Longman, (1971), pp .125-147.
Science at Work, Building Science, Addison-Wesley,

(1980).

Various publications slide sets and 16mm films from the Cement and
Concrete Association, these include:
This is concrete - work cards
This is concrete - teachers' handbook
Concrete practice
Introduction to concrete
Heinemann Core Science, Book 3, Materials, Kellington,
Educational, (1984), p.7.
Reading about Science, Book 4, Kellington,
(1982), p.38.

S. (ed) , Heinemann

S. (ed) , Heinemann

Educational,

Lesson B8
Revised Nuffield Advanced Chemistry, Surface Chemistry - a special study,
Longman (1985), chapter 3 gives useful information about paint.
The Chemist at Work - Forensic Science, Forensic Chemistry, 0 'Mahoney,
C., Schools Information Centre on the Chemical Industry, (1984), p.2.
Lessons B9 and B9X
The Chemist at Work, -Forensic Science, Forensic Chemistry, o 'Mahoney ,
C., Schools Information Centre on the Chemical Industry, (1984), p.3.
Glassmaking,
(1971), p.8.

Griffin Technical Studies, Griffin and George/Mills

and Boon,

Glass, a unit from the Keep Britain Tidy Group - Schools Research Project.
SATIS 4 (Science and Technology in Society), Unit 410, Glass, ASE, (1986).
Heinemann Core Science, Book 3, Materials, Kellington,
Educational, (1984), p.l0.

S. (ed), Heinemann

Flat Glass Making, from Pilkington Glass Ltd.
The Home Improvers'

Guide to Glass, from Pilkington Glass Ltd.

Endeavour, New Series, Vol. 10, No.3, New bottles for old: the growth of
glass recycling, Good, I.D., Pergamon, (1986), pp .150-155.

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a booklet in the Third World Science Series.aluminium.1 TEACHERS' NOTES Survey of the exterior of buildings Prior to the lesson. students should be asked to look at the exterior of their homes and other buildings in order to draw up a list of common building materials. concrete. A good example of this is the comparison of traditional and modern houses in Northern Zambia considered in 'Housing'. glass. the effects of different climates and different available materials on house design could be considered. cement. etc. steel (iron) . . wood. slate. students might also be asked to list 4 or 5 properties which they would look for in a good building material. Paint. If time permits. tiles. In order to get discussion under way at the beginning of B1. though not a building material in the same sense as the others. lead. stone. These will probably include: brick. copper.TN B 1. will probably be listed and is included in the materials studied in this unit.

one piece each.5-1 em brick concrete limestone (marble chips) granite or other non-limestone rock wood iro n (nails) iron (nails). contain sulphuric acid and this was the reason for using sulphuric acid in the class practical. However. in B4.TN B 1. of course. sized 0. painted with oil-based paint aluminium (turnings or foil) copper (turnings) 4 test tubes dilute sulphuric acid (about 100M) 0 Ask the students to test a small sample of each material by adding a few em 3 of acid They should observe what happens immediately and from time to time over the next few minutes 0 0 Note concerning the use of dilute sulphuric acid Acid rain does. you may prefer to use dilute nitric acid or dilute hydrochloric acid in place of dilute sulphuric acid 0 0 .2 TEACHERS' NOTES Which building materials are attacked by acid? Following discussion of the question: • What does attack building materials? the intention of this practical is to investigate the reaction of materials with laboratory dilute sulphuric acid 0 It is important for the students to appreciate more concentrated than acid rain that the acid used here is far 0 Later. the effect of changing the concentration investigated of acid will be 0 Apparatus and materials for each group samples of building materials. sulphuric acid reacts with limestone forming insoluble calcium sulphate and this reduces the reaction rate Because of this.

though corrosion is faster if acid is present. particularly by frost damage.TN B 1. The reaction of dilute sulphuric acid with some stones suggests that these stones may 'dissolve' in acid rain. If time permits.3 TEACHERS' Teacher-student NOTES discussion of the class practical in B 1 Discussion of the results of the experiment points: (i) should bring out the following Some kinds of stone (particularly limestone) and concrete react with acid giving off a gas. When stonework. Note Stonework is. sulphuric acid in the acid rain produces insoluble calcium sulphate. These reactions are studied further in B2. leading to the deterioration of stone buildings. of course. students could be reminded of work on acid rain in W4 and W5. . (ii) Weathering. cracks expand as the solid is deposited and bits of rock break off. directly affected by reaction with acid rain. containing calcium carbonate. it might be interesting to mention that aluminium is protected by its own 'oxide coat' and is therefore 'self-painted'. much damage is caused by solid deposition. (v) The problem of rusting has led to the replacement of iron (steel) by other materials in buildings. (iv) Painting protects iron from attack by acid rain. Even so. However. This will be further investigated in B3. can cause deterioration of stone and brick buildings. If time permits. Word equations might be used to summarize: (a) the formation of acid rain. Students should be reminded that iron rusts even in pure water containing oxygen. Once again. (iii) Some metals react with acid giving off a gas. This solid and its hydrates form in the pores of the rock. Some results suggest that this damage from solid deposition is more serious than the direct reaction with acid rain. reacts with acid rain. regular repainting is necessary. reference should be made to the problem of acid rain and its possible effect on iron structures. Cast iron gutters and drain pipes are being replaced by PVC whilst steel and wooden window frames are being replaced by aluminium and PVC. (b) the reaction of acid rain with limestone.

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. (iii) a tall block of flats. (b) Give reasons for the properties which you choose. L-_ . _ _ -'. (ii) a mud hut.4 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Properties of building materials Ql. Q2. -- ---- <. .SAG 81.-. -: . (iv) a caravan. What other properties.\\ 1/// .'.. " "-..'/ / I . ' . (a) Which of these properties are important in building (b) (i) an igloo.. . '. are important in the materials used for these five homes? '. besides those listed in question 1. (v) a wigwam. ~~. (a) Make a list of the five most important properties that you would look for in a building material. .

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a balanced equation) for the reaction between magnesium and sulphuric acid. (You may need to look back at your work in the metals unit to answer this question. 2. Which metal reacts most vigorously? Q2. Quarter fill five test tubes with dilute sulphuric acid. Write a word equation (and. of this. magnesium. Which metal is not attacked by dilute sulphuric acid? Q3.) . This different metals with dilute sulphuric buildings such as window frames. iron or zinc for the outdoor water pipes for your house.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Investigating the reactions of metals with dilute sulphuric acid Metals are used for various parts of gutters. drain pipes. trap the gas by holding your thumb over the tube. Ql. Q5. write a list of the order of reactivity (reactivity series) for the metals: aluminium. iron. iron. Watch the tubes very closely for any sign of reaction such as bubbles on the surface of the metal. sodium. magnesium. wooden spill 5 test tubes test tube rack dilute sulphuric acid copper. Starting with the most reactive metal. if possible. H bubbles appear. we need to know about the practical looks at the reactions of acid. magnesium in the fourth and zinc in the fifth. Test the gas with a lighted spill. Q8. zinc 1.SAG 82. one piece of iron in the third. Suppose you have to choose whether to use copper. What gas is produced when metals react with dilute sulphuric acid? Q7. zinc. Because properties of different metals. copper. Q6. Where do you think gold would appear in the reactivity series? Give a reason for your answer. gold. You will need clean pieces of: aluminium. one piece of copper in the second. etc. Put one piece of aluminium in the first tube. calcium. (i) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each metal? (ii) What would be your final choice of metal? (iii) What material is beginning to replace metals for use in water pipes? (iv) What advantages does this replacement material have? . Why must you not use sodium or calcium in this experiment? Q4.

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Interested students may wish to extend the key to include other building materials or minerals. or from Offa Rocks who produce a kit of raw materials for the building industry. millstone grit or flint. samples of stone can be obtained from Philip Harris (the SCISP Rock Set 1). labelled A to E.5-1 cm.TN 83.g. e. A granite B slate C limestone D marble E sandstone sample of another building stone.1 TEACHERS' NOTES Identifying building stones Apparatus and materials for each group dilute hydrochloric acid (labelled simply 'dilute acid') 5 test tubes and rack hand lens samples of each of the following building stones. chalk. one piece each. labelled with its name. . sized 0.

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It is given off because these building stones are made of calcium carbonate. D and E. 04. how can we tell the difference between the stones within these two groups? Collect another sample of each of the stones. What differences can you see between the various types of stone? . What tests did you carry out. We can put building stones into two groups . CaCO 3. Put each in a separate test-tube. B.SAG 83.those that react with acid and those that do not. CO 2' when acid is added. you will be studying the appearance of building stones and their reactions with dilute acid. using simple tests. Marble and limestone are two building stones that contain calcium carbonate. first by eye and then with a hand lens. 01. C. What is the gas given off when some building stones react with acid? Identify the gas given off. A. Testing different building stones with acid Collect a sample of each of the building stones which are labelled A. Like all carbonates. Q2. If you are not sure what tests to do. 1. Which of the stones react with acid? Describe what happens in these reactions. 3. and what were the results? Q3. These studies will then help you to identify different stones. But. 2. calcium carbonate reacts with acids to form carbon dioxide. Look closely at the stones. B. and add a few em 3 of dilute acid. How can we identify different building stones? Some building stones give off carbon dioxide. C.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE How do building stones differ? In this experiment. your teacher will help you. D and E. What is the gas produced? Have your answers to 01. 02 and 03 checked before you go on.

• .

Now use the key on SIS B3.1 to identify each of the building stones A. . Examine the stone closely. Which of these stones would be most damaged by acid rain? 07. 05. This key can be used to identify the stones. first by eye and then with a hand lens. You will be told the name of this stone. B. 06. Put the sample in a test tube and add acid. decide how this new stone could be included in the key. C.1 (continued) Using a key to identify building stones We can use the appearance of stones and their reaction with acid to build up a simple key like that on SIS B3. C. B. D and E. Write down the names of A. 83. Q8. D and E. What building stones are used in your neighbourhood? Would these be affected by acid rain? Adding another stone to your key If you have time. ask your teacher for a sample of another building stone. From the results of your tests in part 5.SAG 4.1. 5.

.

:J tn t:: z ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 8 ~ ~ C/) Q) ~ ~ « >- 0 ~ ~ .1 STUDENT INFORMATION A key for identifying SHEET buHding stones o Z 0 z C/) Q) >- ~ ~ ~ CI".l ~ ~ CI) 0 z 1-4 § 0 z :.SIS 83.

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to explain the term molarity or the use of the letter 'M' in describing the concentration of solutions.0M hydrochloric acid labelled "1. 1 TEACHERS' NOTES Does concentrated acid react faster with limestone? The suggested approach in B4 and BS is that: this experiment should be carried out as a class practical allowing students to measure the volume of gas evolved.SM acid" a .SM acid as well.0M is ten times more concentrated than O. delivery tube and fitted with a bung 2 measuring cylinders (100 em 3) stop-clock trough access to direct reading balance marble chips (approximate size O.SM hydrochloric acid labelled "0 . Thus 1. should be told to collect results for a second concentration of acid from another group. Some groups may have time to use O. boss and clamp conical flask (100 em 3) with side arm and. Those groups which obtain results for qnly one concentration of acid. which involves similar practical skills should be a teacher demonstration involving measurements of mass.0M and O. . Apparatus of two different methods of following the and materials for each group retort stand.S em) .2M hydrochloric acid labelled "0 .2M acid" graph paper Concentration of solutions It is not intended. Most groups should be able to obtain results for 1. students should appreciate that the number before the letter M gives a quantitative description of the concentration. at this stage. Collection of results It is unlikely that all groups will complete three investigations in one lesson.0M acid" a . However. the experiment in BS.2M acid.lM and so on.TN 84. This will give students experience rate of a chemical reaction.labelled "limestone" 1.

the more particles of acid there are in a given volume. (ii) With other groups. This gives a greater chance of collision between acid particles and particles of limestone (on the limestone surface) and therefore a greater reaction rate. provides a measure of the 'rate' of a reaction. b) 'L'time' c) measuring the gradient of a line on die graph is a measure of the rate at a particular time during the reaction. you might introduce ideas such as: a) measuring the time taken for a certain amount of reaction to occur gives an average rate.1 Treatment (continued) of results The results of the experiments sophistication. The more concentrated the acid. a more quantitative analysis can be carried out by plotting the volume of gas collected against time.TN 84. . If this is the case. can be interpreted at very different levels of (i) With some groups. you may feel that it is appropriate to draw the conclusion that more concentrated acid reacts faster by mere inspection of the results.i. discussion should conclude with a simple explanation of the results in terms of the particulate theory. After considering the questions on SAG B4.

Set up the apparatus 2.0M acid 1. Tip the limestone chips into the acid. Record as in the diagram. Results Concentration of acid: TIme / seconds o 15 30 ---Volume of gas / em 3 o .SAG 84. 4. 3.1 STUDENT Does concentrated ACTIVITY GUIDE acid react faster with limestone? In this experiment you will be studying the reaction two different concentrations of acid. chips on a piece of weighed your results in a table like the one below. Weigh out 20g of limestone paper. 5. Record the volume of gas collected every 15 seconds for the first 2 minutes and then every 30 seconds for another 8 minutes. replace the bung quickly and start the stop-clock. of the limestone with clamp ~_inverted measuring cylinder or burette 40 cm3 water 1.

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TEACHERS'

NOTES

How does temperature affect the acid/limestone

reaction?

Strategy
Using the techniques developed in B4, students should be asked to plan and
then carry out an experiment to investigate the acid/limestone reaction at
different temperatures (see SAG B4X.l).
Students should be allowed time to plan the experiment using SAG B4X.l.
It is suggested that you emphasize that students must gain your approval of
their plans before starting the experiment.

Apparatus

and materials

for each group

retort stand, boss and clamp
conical flask (100 em 3) with side arm and delivery tube
and fitted with bung
2 measuring cylinders (100 em 3)
stop-clock
trough
access to balance
Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze
thermometer
marble chips - labelled 'limestone'
a .2M hydrochloric acid labelled 'a .2M acid'
graph paper

Explaining

the effect of temperature

on reaction

rate

In part (ii) of SAG B4X.l, we are not expecting students to fully appreciate
the idea of activation energy. Explanations may be limited to the idea that
molecules collide more vigorously at higher temperature and this produces
faster reaction,
Ideas of activation energy can be introduced in 'Burning and
Bonding', if this is thought to be appropriate.

How will you use your results to compare the reaction at different temperatures? (Hint: it might be a good idea to time how long it takes to produce 50 em 3 of gas at different temperatures. . How will you adjust the temperature mixture? Q4.) of the reaction during the When your teacher has approved your ideas. What concentration of acid will you use? Q2. Remember to record your results clearly and accurately. reaction? to study the Answer the following questions and then discuss your plans with your teacher: Q 1.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE How does temperature affect the acid/limestone Using the techniques in B4. ii) try to explain the results using the ideas of particles in motion. After you have obtained your results: i) compare the reaction rates at the different temperatures.SAG B4X. design an experiment acid/limestone reaction at different temperatures. What temperatures will you use? Q3. you can start the experiments. How will you find the average temperature time you studied the reaction? Q5.

.

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.. it is advisable to talk about 'limestone chips' or 'limestone pieces' or 'limestone chunks' in referring to the macro-sized bits of limestone. ions and molecules. Treatment of results As in B4. start the graphs for larger limestone chips whilst you carry out the experiment with smaller pieces. . Students could. Apparatus and materials measuring cylinder (100 em 3) 2 conical flasks (100 cmv) cotton wool direct reading balance limestone chips of two different sizes (maximum dimensions of 1 em and 0. the term 'particle' has been reserved for atoms. . Place 40 em 3 of the acid in the flask and position a loose plug of cotton wool in the neck of the flask. throughout the course. Do not refer to them as 'limestone particles'.5 em give suitable sets of results which display a significant contrast) 2M hydrochloric acid labelled 'acid' watch glass Procedure Measure 20g of the larger limestone chips on to a watch glass. put the flask on the balance. The students should complete a table of results as below: Time /min Mass of flask.TN t) 85. 0 ~ . the ability of the group will dictate the level of discussion. plug and contents / g Mass of carbon dioxide given off / g 0 .. By this stage in the course. Add the 20g of larger chips to the flask.1 TEACHERS' NOTES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------How does surface area affect the rate of the reaction between limestone and acid? Use of the term 'particle' In BS.. replace the cotton wool plug. because.. most pupils should be able to represent results graphically. start the stop-clock and take readings of the mass at half-minute intervals.. therefore.

Conclusion to the work on reaction rates SAG B5. These results can now be interpreted using the simple particulate theory. ·The smaller the limestone chips.2 provides some questions to revise and reinforce understanding of reaction rates.TN 85. Question 2 shows how reaction an rates affect our everyday lives.1 (continued) Interpretation of results Simple inspection of the results should enable all students to conclude that smaller chips react faster than larger chips. . the greater the surface area available for contact with acid and therefore the greater the chance of reaction.

2 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Reaction rates Q 1. (b) What is the name of the gas given off in this experiment? (c) How would you test for this gas? (d) (i) Which curve represents the results for zinc dust? (ii) Which curve represents the results for zinc foil? (e) Explain the differences in the reaction rate of zinc foil and zinc dust with the acid. (f) Why do both curves tail off at the same horizontal level? (g) If some copper turnings are added to the mixture. A student reacted a known mass of zinc with sulphuric acid and measured the volume of gas given off at certain times. What name do we give to a substance which speeds up a reaction yet does not change itself? .SAG 85. Volume of gas / cm s Time / min (a) Draw a diagram of the apparatus which you could use for this experiment. once using a single piece of zinc foil and once using zinc dust. The experiment was completed twice. the reaction appears to be speeded up even though all the copper remains at the end of the reaction. A graph of the results is shown below.

.

(e) A sack of flour has never been known to explode. Explain how the shape of the statue may alter in years to come. Explain the following observations. (b) Aluminium foil can be stored safely. but there have been serious explosions in flour mills due to flour dust suspended in the air. A limestone statue of your head teacher is to be placed outside the school entrance.SAG 85. (d) Twigs are better than logs for lighting fires.) . (You may like to illustrate your answer with diagrams. 03. but the containers of aluminium dust usually carry a warning which says "DUST EXPLOSION POSSIBLE" . The Governors have decided to honour your head teacher in recognition of outstanding services to the school.2 (continued) 02. (a) Sliced bread goes stale faster than an unsliced loaf. (c) Sliced potatoes cook faster in boiling water than whole potatoes.

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Since 1978.1 TEACHERS' NOTES How can we use sulphur as a building material? From the discussions of acid rain in W4 and W5 and reminders of the problems of acid rain in B1. fuels and fuel emissions.TN 86. Break the sulphur to show that it is too brittle to be of much use in this form and then raise the question:' . the price of sulphur fell from $ 70 per tonne to $ 6 per tonne. world supply of sulphur has led to a search for additional uses for the element . stockpiles of sulphur increased from 3 million tonnes in 1970 to 21 million tonnes in 1978. the Canadian stockpiles have fallen. In Canada alone. of course. but the increase in . The recovery of sulphur from fuels has led to a large increase in the world supply of sulphur.: At this point.2 . students should be aware of the efforts being made to remove sulphur from. you might produce some roll sulphur and pass it around the class. many uses (see Mineral Card 8). and that such efforts are likely to intensify in the future. Sulphur has. Between 1968 and 1970. • How can we modify the properties of sulphur to make it more useful? Heating the sulphur is one possible way to modify its properties and this leads into the class practical described on SAG B6. but they were still as high as 9 million tonnes in 1986.

or allow the students to use SAG B6. Precautions Ensure that the laboratory is well ventilated whilst sulphur is being heated. SAG B6.2 TEACHERS' NOTES How do the properties _9fsulphur change when it is heated? Apparatus and materials for each group Powdered roll sulphur test tube (note . but can be used again for heating sulphur) test tube holder beaker (250 cm 3 ) Bunsen burner damp cloth Explanation of the results of the experiment After the experiment you should either discuss the results with the class.3a or SAG B6.TN 86.3a. .3b which provide explanations of the changes in properties of sulphur on heating.3b offers simpler explanations than SAG B6.the tubes will be impossible to clean after this experiment.

01. until the sulphur just melts. Half fill a beaker with cold water and have it nearby. Heating sulphur strongly 6. wafting the tube in and out of the flame. but stop before it boils. If sulphur catches fire. Light a Bunsen burner and adjust it to give a very low flame.2 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE How do the properties of sulphur change when it is heated? S • A F E T Y 1.) 9. Put some more powdered sulphur in your tube and heat it again. poisonous sulphur dioxide is produced. Heating sulphur very gently 1. Put 4 em depth of powdered sulphur in a test tube. 3. examine the sulphur and quickly pour the melted sulphur into the beaker of cold water. take a piece of the solidified sulphur out of the water and examine it. heat it more strongly.SAG 86. Molten sulphur can cause serious skin burns. 4. This time. 8. Write your observations into the fourth and fifth lines of the results table. 2. After a few seconds. Put out the flame by covering it with a damp cloth. Write your observations into the sixth line of the results table. 03. very gently. Go on heating the sulphur after it has melted. Continue to roll the solidified sulphur between your fingers and notice how it changes over the next 10 minutes. . The sulphur may catch fire here. then quickly pour it into the cold water in the beaker. Take out a piece of the solidified sulphur and examine it. Turn out the Bunsen burner. Write your observations into the second and third lines of the results table. 5. 7. 10. Roll it between your fingers and feel its texture. Heat the sulphur in the tube very. (CARE. 02. 2. Examine the melted sulphur.

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SAG

86.2

(continued)

Results table
(The first line has already been completed for you)

Stage of heating

Before heating

After melting by
gentle heating

After gentle heating and pouring
into cold water

After melting
and strong heating

After strong heating and pouring
into cold water

After strong heating, pouring into
cold water, then
leaving for 10
minutes

State
(Solid, liquid
or gas)

solid

Colour

yellow

Consistency
(hard/ soft, brittle/flexible,
runny/sticky, etc)

hard, brittle solid (in
powdered form)

SAG

B6.3a

STUDENT

ACTIVITY

GUIDE

Explaining the changes which happen when sulphur is heated
Your experiments will have shown you that when sulphur is heated it goes
through the following stages.
yellow solid __h=.;e;;;..;;.a=.t
•.
~runny yelc:o:iqUid

hard yellow solid

heat.

sticky red -brown

1

liquid

cool

red -brown,

l

rubbery solid

leave f~r
some time

hard solid
In order to explain these changes we must look at the particles (atoms and
molecules) which make up the structure of sulphur.
Sulphur is an element.
It contains only sulphur atoms, but these atoms can
be joined together in different ways. Chemists have used X-rays to
investigate the molecular structure of the different forms of sulphur.
They
have discovered that in its normal, yellow, solid form, sulphur is made up of
S 8 molecules.
These molecules consist of 8 sulphur atoms joined together in
a ring.

view from the top

view from the side

In solid sulphur, these S 8 rings are stacked together in a regular way.
when sulphur melts, the rings are able to move around more freely.
01.

Use this information to explain why sulphur
is a runny liquid when it first melts.

02.

What do you think happens to the S 8 rings
when the liquid sulphur is cooled? Use your
answer to explain why the runny, yellow liquid
sulphur sets to a hard solid.

But

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it is called plastic sulphur. Q3. and with the remaining unbroken S e rings. These chains may join together. the plastic sulphur slowly hardens as the long chains of sulphur slowly reform as S e rings. This makes the cooled sulphur flexible and easily moulded . However. the atoms vibrate more and more rapidly.SAG B6. All this can be summed up as follows: yellow solid (S e rings) I __ h_e_a_t~.3a (continued) When sulphur is heated strongly. Some of the S e rings start to break open. Even when the liquid sulphur is cooled. the long chains remain. Eventually the sulphur returns to its original. forming longer chains. . S s rings short chains longer chains These long chains tend to tangle up with each other.runny yellow liquid ---~heat (S e rings) cool hard yellow solid (S 8 rings) sticky brown liquid (S erings+long chains) t cool red -brown rubbery solid (plastic sulphur) (S srings+long chains) I t leave f~r some time hard solid (S 8 rings) Notice how the properties of the different forms of sulphur are decided by the type of molecules they contain. forming short chains of S atoms. solid yellow form. Use this information to explain why sulphur becomes thick and sticky when it is heated strongly.

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we can often explain why that substance is hard or soft.. Suppose you have two liquids.=. these S 8 nngs are packed together When sulphur melts. so these are called S 8 rings (as shown). In solid sulphur. but these atoms can be arranged in different ways. each other freely as a .3b STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Explaining what happens when sulphur is heated Your experiments will have shown you that when sulphur through the following stages. Yellow solid sulphur contains particles with 8 sulphur atoms joined together in a ring. One contains small.e=a=-=-. If we know how the particles in a substance are arranged. (a) Which liquid will be runny? (b) Why will the other liquid be thick and sticky? Sulphur is an element. the rings can move around runny yellow liquid. It contains only sulphur atoms. ~runny yelc:o:iqUid is heated it goes heat. in a regular way. The symbol for sulphur is S. difficult or easy to melt and so on.t ••. yellow solid _h:::. Q 1. the other contains very long thin particles. round particles. liquid cool rubbery solid leave f~r ( some time hard solid Chemists try to explain the properties of substances by looking at the particles in them..SAG B6. sticky red -brown hard yellow solid 1 red -brown.

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giving yellow solid sulphur. This is because S e rings reform from the chains. These chains sometimes get tangled up.SAG B6. tangled sulphur chains. This is called plastic sulphur.3b (continued) When the sulphur is heated to higher temperatures. When you cooled the sticky red liquid. it formed a rubbery red solid. It also contains long. it forms a sticky red -brown liquid. so the liquid is sticky like treacle. Notice how the properties of the different forms of sulphur are decided by the type of particles which they contain. . Here the sulphur rings have broken open and formed long chains. But you probably found it turned hard after a while. a bit like chewing gum.

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chemists have found substances (called plasticisers) that can be added to the sulphur to keep it in its plastic form. The sulphur is melted and then mixed with the aggregate which is warmed to prevent the sulphur 'setting' too quickly. Chemists have found ways to prevent the crystals forming. supplies of sulphur are plentiful and should continue to be so as long as sulphur is recovered from fossil fuels. by adding substances to the sulphur before it is used to make concrete. when it is a vital resource in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. The result is a strong hard concrete. . Sulphur can also be used to make a flexible coating for fabrics. Sulphur concrete has also been used to make kerbs. discussion should concentrate on the use of sulphur as a building material followed. Further discussion might now explore the disadvantages in using sulphur for concrete and other acid -resistant materials. Sulphur concrete is a particularly useful building material in chemical factories because it is not attacked by acids like ordinary concrete. The brittleness is caused when the sulphur forms crystals. Plastic sulphur might be suitable for a short time. Fortunately. For this purpose. Sulphur concrete is similar.Making sulphur concrete A simple demonstration showing the preparation of sulphur concrete might be carried out if students are not going to follow B6X. but it reforms the hard brittle solid in time. but the aggregate is held together by sulphur instead of cement. the normal solid form of sulphur would be far too brittle. There is opportunity here for an interesting discussion of the whole question of the utilisation and conservation of resources. In this fashion. Strategy (i) If B6X is to be used. There are several trade names for sulphur concrete. On the other hand. if time permits. The problem with sulphur concrete is that the sulphur becomes brittle when it solidifies.1. Discussion The following information is provided for use during discussion. Optional demonstration . gravel and stone (aggregate) are held together by cement. One is 'Sulphurcrete'. Instructions for preparing the sulphur concrete and then comparing its acid -resistance with ordinary concrete are giv-en on SAG B6X . Sulphur can be used to make a kind of concrete. acid -resistant coating for fabrics. (ii) If B6X is not followed. by the optional demonstration of making sulphur concrete. precast bases for traffic signs and pipeline weights.TN 86. In ordinary concrete particles of sand.4 TEACHERS' NOTES The use of sulphur as a building material The depth and direction of the discussion at the end of B6 will depend upon whether students are to follow B6X. it can be used as a flexible. discussion should start with the use of sulphur as a building material and then consider some of the other uses of sulphur.

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gauze. otherwise it will ignite. Precautions (i) The sulphur must be heated very gently.TN 86X. The molten sulphur must not reach the red. it can be readily extinguished by placing a damp cloth or a heat-resistant mat over the container. but the plastic inner liner must first be removed by heating.this will happen if it is heated too strongly. (ii) Ensure that the laboratory is well ventilated whilst sulphur is being heated.1 TEACHERS' NOTES Making sulphur concrete Apparatus and materials for each group 3 hard -glass test tubes 1 small metal container. Bunsen burner access to pliers access to a fume cupboard heat-resistant mat damp cloth clean sand powdered roll sulphur dilute hydrochloric acid a small piece of ordinary concrete (a chip off a concrete paving block. for example). (An old crown bottle cap (beer bottle cap) is suitable. viscous stage .) spatula tongs test tube holder tripod. If sulphur does catch fire. .

.

2. E 2. Do not heat the sulphur A too strongly or it wIll catch fire and produce F choking fumes of sulphur dioxide.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Making sulphur concrete In this experiment you will be making sulphur concrete. until the sulphur just melts to a runny yellow liquid. take away the Bunsen and use it to gently warm the sand in the test tube. The liquid sulphur will soak into the sand. Carefully pour the warm sand into the molten sulphur. As soon as the sulphur has melted. Work quickly. t gentle heat 5. . · .) is held together with sulphur instead of cement. so that the sulphur does not set too quickly. In sulphur concrete. gently using a small Bunsen flame.SAG 86X. Fill a small metal container with powdered sulphur. Half fill a hard -glass test tube with clean sand. You have now made liquid sulphur concrete. molten sulphur . If the sulphur catches y fire. Put the container of sulphur onto a gauze resting on a tripod. The sulphur must be melted before the aggregate is mixed with it. The aggregate needs to be warm. 3. sulphur gentle heat Heat the sulphur very. • S 1. 4. warm sand V l 6. extinguish the flame with a damp cloth. the aggregate (stones. Add more sand until all the liquid sulphur is soaked up. sand. 1. T 3. gravel. very. etc. otherwise the sulphur will solidify before you finish. Leave the sulphur concrete to solidify and cool. Work in a fume cupboard.

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particularly where acid is used? . To do this. ordinary concrete.SAG B6X. How does sulphur concrete compare with ordinary concrete for hardness? Q4. How does sulphur concrete compare with ordinary concrete for resistance to acid? Q6. Compare it with a piece of Why was it important to heat the sulphur very gently? Q2.1 (continued) 7. Ql. 9. When the sulphur concrete is cool. (ii) ordinary concrete? Q5. Examine your sulphur concrete. Why is sulphur concrete sometimes used instead of ordinary concrete for the floors in chemical factories. you may have to bend the container using pliers. Why did the sand have to be warmed before adding it to the sulphur? Q3. What happens when dilute acid is added to (i) sulphur concrete. Put a piece of sulphur concrete and a piece of ordinary concrete into two separate test tubes. 8. remove it from the container. It does not matter if the sulphur concrete breaks. Add a little dilute acid to each.

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If the purpose for which it is to be used is explained.1 TEACHERS' NOTES Making bricks Apparat~s and materials for each group A range of equipment will be needed of the equipment will depend on the it would be wise to make available a all of which should be available from for making the bricks. pottery-teaching colleagues will no doubt advise on the best condition for the clay and prepare it by 'wedging' .3 em x 1 em x 1 cm. It will probably be necessary to cooperate with the Pottery Department in firing the bricks. mounted needles cutting wires rolling pins rolling slats. . It is recommended that the clay be obtained from the school's Pottery Department. the bricks can be measured and cut out using a mounted needle. Firing at glazing temperature would ensure hard bricks. One possible solution is to cut the bricks from a rolled sheet of clay 1 em thick. The nature solution adopted by the pupils. but firing at 'biscuit' temperature would be sufficient. but it would be wise to provide an excess.a process which ensures even consistency and absence of trapped air. Such a sheet can be prepared using a rolling pin and rolling slats. The object is to produce four fired bricks of uniform dimensions . Teaching strategy This practical is intended as a problem -solving exercise in elementary technology. The fifth brick should be kept unfired for comparison later. Some groups may well need help.TN 87. Only four of the five bricks prepared by each group should be fired. 1em high clay Once the clay has been rolled out. but number of sets of the following items. 1 ern high hessian or other cloth on which to roll the clay a wooden board on which to dry the bricks access to a kiln red earthenware clay Each group will need a piece of clay about the size of a golf-ball. though it is recommended that help is not given until students have had plenty of time to consider and try their solutions. the Pottery Department. rolling pin rolling slat. The finished bricks should be put on a wooden board to dry.

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and may even make it shatter into pieces.SAG 87.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Making bricks 1. 3. • Only four of your five bricks should be fired. The bricks used to build houses must all be the same standard size. Think before you start. You also must try to get 5 bricks which are exactly the same size. You will use the fifth unfired brick in experiments later on. it will expand when the brick is fired in the kiln. This will spoil your brick. . of how best to Note the following points: • After you have made the bricks from soft. • If any air is trapped inside a brick. ". wet clay. The bricks must measure 3 cm long by 1 cm wide by 1 cm high. It is up to you to solve the problem do this. 2. You will be given a lump of clay in order to make 5 small bricks. they will be left to dry. They will then be fired in a kiln to make them very hard.

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but it will not crumble and cannot be turned back to the original condition of wet clay. Students will find that wet clay feels slippery.2 TEACHERS' NOTES What happens when clay is fired? Apparatus and materials for each group 2 beakers (100 em 3) wet clay wet silver sand fired and unfired bricks from B5 Observations and results 1. . 3. Clay also loses a considerable amount of mass when it is fired . Students will find that unfired clay quickly absorbs water and returns to the same condition as wet clay. Fired clay may absorb water. 2. while sand is hard and gritty.TN 87. You might like to get students to compare the average mass of fired and unfired bricks. Later these differences can be related to differences in structure. Fired clay will probably look brighter in colour and will be harder and grittier than unfired clay.

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Notice and hardness. What changes have happened Q5. 3. hardness and size. Notice their colour. colour Q4. Pour in just brick. Comparing How do they compare? fired and unfired bricks. Put and an unfired brick in the enough water to cover each minutes. The effect of water on fired and unfired bricks. Get two small beakers. 1. What differences to each brick? do you notice between them? .SAG 87. Q2. Leave for 15 off the water and their texture. This will help you to understand the structure of clay when it is discussed in class later. Comparing clay and sand. then carefully pour examine each brick. Q1. Collect some wet clay and some wet sand. How do the bricks compare (ii) texture (iii) hardness? for (i) colour Q3. texture.2 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE What happens when clay is fired? In this practical you will be studying the changes that take place in clay when it is fired. Look closely at a fired and an unfired brick. How does the size of the brick change when it is fired? Explain this change. Try rubbing each between your fingers. a fired brick in one other. 2.

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These plates have a sheet structure with silicon and oxygen atoms linked in a two dimensional network. and D atoms forming bridges between neighbouring Si atoms. Adding water to dried clay returns it to its wet. When clay is left to dry. Sand is hard for very much the same reasons as diamond. SiD 2 • It has a three-dimensional giant structure. Clean silver sand is almost pure silica. using ball-and -spring models to help in discussion. slippery form.TN 87. Begin by comparing and contrasting the properties of wet clay and wet sand. Simplified. and the clay loses its slippery feel and hardens. most of the water between the layers evaporates away. It is similar in structure to diamond. rather like layers of chicken wire piled up on one another. water molecules get between the layers. • Can we relate the properties What follows is intended to structure at the molecular of clay and sand to their structures? to provide you with some background information. Sand is an important building material. whereas wet sand is hard and gritty? Recall that in B6 and B6X we related properties .level. Clay is also a silicate mineral.3 TEACHERS' NOTES The structure and properties of clay The following notes have been prepared to help in disucssion. • Why is wet clay soft and slippery.rather as though the layers of 'chicken wire' had tennis balls inserted between them. used for example in mortar. When the clay is wet. . with every silicon atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. these aluminosilicate minerals can be thought of as containing parallel layers of linked atoms. This lubricates the layers and helps them to slide over one another . Most clays have another layer containing aluminium and oxy~en atoms sandwiched between the silicate layers. the layers being held together by strong intermolecular forces. although its structure is more complex and varies according to the type of clay. but with Si atoms instead of C atoms. It would be valuable to point out that the hardness of sand is put to good effect by builders. Clays contain microscopic crystalline plates. It is simple to build a model of the silica structure.

unlike the simple physical change which happens when wet clay dries out. This gives a rigid material. It became hard. You are not expected to discuss details of the structure of clay or any other silicate minerals with any students. gritty and rigid. For some students. it will be sufficient simply to point out the permanent change undergone by clay when it is fired. are determined by their underlying structure. chemical change has occurred . omitting any mention of structural explanations. using ball-and-spring models and perhaps demonstrating the chicken-wire and tennis-ball analogy. The level at which these explanations are pitched will depend on the class involved and is left to your discretion. like sand and clay. the more glassy the clay becomes (this is why some types of porcelain are translucent). and could not be turned back to its original form by adding water. and this glass acts as a kind of cement. The longer and the higher the temperature of firing.3 (continued) Fired Clay Now recall the way the clay changed when it was fired. The main ob ject of the discussion is to allow students to appreciate how the properties of simple everyday materials. Obviously a permanent. When clay is fired. Some of the clay is converted to a glassy state. . holding together the remaining unchanged crystalline plates. a very simple structural explanation of the difference between sand and clay might be given.TN 87. a large number of very complex chemical changes take place. The remaining water molecules are driven out (this is why clay loses mass on firing). On the other hand. Once the clay has been fired it cannot be converted back to its original form by adding water (or indeed by any other means).

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The mortars Apparatus will need to be left for 3 to 4 days before testing.TN B7X. after sticking the bricks together. SAG B7X. In order to make best use of their time. Nevertheless students could be made aware that the process involves roasting limestone with clay and then grinding the product to a powder. Testing the mortars Excess mortar.) . and materials for each group tripod tin lid powdered limestone spatula plastic mixing bowl or paper plate teat pipette Bunsen burner sand small bricks (from BS) cement (A supply of extra slaked lime may be required for the preparation of lime mortar if only small quantities have been made from the limestone. Links with the Minerals unit During the Minerals unit. students should start to prepare the cement mortar whilst heating the limestone for the preparation of lime mortar.l and SAG B7X. is not practicable in a school laboratory due to the high temperature required. should be collected from the groups and used to make small blocks for testing in B8. students will probably have prepared slaked lime from limestone. It is worth mentioning before students start that the preparation of cement .1 TEACHERS' NOTES Making lime mortar and cement mortar Introduction Students prepare lime mortar and cement mortar and use them to stick together the small bricks which they made during BS and studied in B7. The small blocks of mortar can be made using an ice-cube tray as a mould.2 will therefore reinforce the previous investigation.

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4. Do not add too much water. Use the lime mortar to stick two of your bricks together. (Care: the end of the spatula will get very hot. ~ The substance you have made is slaked lime. Allow the powder to cool down. Move the limestone with a spatula to allow the gas to escape. the substance produced should still be in solid form.1 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE 1-----------------------------------------Making lime mortar and cement mortar Making lime mortar 1. . _h_e_a_t_~ QUick-lime (lime) add water Slaked lime Mix thoroughly three spatula measures of the slaked lime with nine spatula measures of sand. This thick paste is lime mortar. 6.) powdered ~estone tin lid - - I ~ -~ 1/ tripod ____ I -~1 \ 1 (no gauze) strong l heat 3.SAG B7X. Label the bricks 'lime mortar' and set them aside until the mortar sets. Put 8-10 spatula measures of powdered limestone into a tin lid and heat it very strongly for about 20 minutes using the hottest Bunsen burner flame. Using a teat pipette. Allow each drop to soak in and stir until a thick paste is produced. Limestone 5. add water drop by drop until the powder stops hissing. 2. Then slowly add water into the mixture using a teat pipette.

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Slowly add water into the mixture using a teat pipette.SAG B7X. Mix thoroughly three spatula measures with nine spatula measures of sand. Stick two bricks together with the mortar. labelling them cement mortar and set them aside until the mortar sets. This thick paste is cement mortar. of cement powder 2. 3. . Allow each drop to soak in and stir until a thick paste is produced.1 (continued) Making cement mortar 1.

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Mortar and Concrete Q1 (a) (b) What are the names of substances A. (ii) gas B names and formulas of solid A.t _-. (iii) solid C? (c) Write balanced equations equations in part (a).2 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Cement. From the results of your investigations which would you choose to build a house. a) cement is made. Try to find out how C strength. 04. Why must mortar 03.SAG B7X.~ solid A solid A add water ~ solid C What are the chemical (i) limestone... heat is evolved. Suggest tests which you could carry out to decide whether lime mortar or cement mortar 05.. b) concrete is made. . be able to resist crushing? (a) has the higher resistance to scratching. (d) When solid A is converted to solid C. What is this type of reaction called? for the two word 02. Band in the word equations below? + limestone _~h~e~aJl. lime mortar or cement mortar? Give your reasons. (b) has the greater breaking (c) sticks better to bricks.

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(ii) Most mortars nowadays are made from a mixture of slaked lime and cement powder rather than just one of these. 3 and 4 on SAG B7X. students might use the mortars which have been used to stick their bricks together.2 and the following points should emerge. chemical changes occur and the slaking process is exothermic.TN 88. but students could design their own more sophisticated tests using G-clamps and weights etc. 2. . (i) In the conversion of limestone to slaked lime. Testing the mortars The degree of sophistication of these experiments interest of the students and the time available. will depend upon the A very simple approach might involve scratch tests using nails and attempts to break the lumps of mortar using hands. time might be spent in going over questions 1. sand and gravel stones. Alternatively. Although slaked lime lowers the strength of the mortar it does make the mortar less likely to crack after it has dried out and it sticks better to bricks. When the investigations have been completed.1 TEACHERS' NOTES Testing the strength and adhesiveness of lime mortar and cement mortar Suitable small blocks for testing should have been produced at the end of B7X. (iii) Concrete is made from cement.

be = • Why is wood used for these purposes? • What do the properties of wood tell us about its structure? Before pursuing these questions further you might ask the class what they know about the way in which wood breaks. cellulose.TN 88. It is not intended that detailed structures of any of these substances should be considered. The simple general structure outlined above is all that is required. therefore. This might then lead to a simple demonstration to split wood along the grain than across it. bonds are strong. doors. door frames. This makes wood difficult to break across the grain because it involves breaking these strong bonds. herni-cellulose. bridges. joists. one-dimensional polymeric structure. of how much easier it is It is then possible to return to the two questions above and relate the way in which wood splits. strong bonds within chain polymer chain / -~ weak bonds between chains The polymeric materials found in wood (e.g. Within each polymer chain. etc. The structure of wood The characteristic cleavage of wood along the grain suggests a linear.2 TEACHERS' NOTES The importance of wood as a building material Discussion should begin by recollection of the importance of wood as a building material for beams. Between the chains. to its polymeric structure along the following lines. and its linear strength. stairs. lignin and xylans) are very complex. so wood is much easier to split along the grain. The next questions to ask might. bonds are weaker. .

) Procedure Set up three test tubes (labelled A. Their great advantage is that they give a hard. If time permits. They have the disadvantages of taking several hours to dry and requiring to be washed off the brush with a special solvent like 'white spirit'. the experiment will still provide useful results using only tube A filled with air. • What happens when oil-based paints set? • Do they just dry out or is something else happening? Apparatus and materials 3 test tubes with bungs. B and C) as in the diagram below. (The tubes will get covered in paint and will be of little use after the experiment.TN 88.3 TEACHERS' NOTES What happens when paint sets? Introduction Several different kinds of paints are used on buildings. Emulsion paints are often used for painting walls and ceilings inside houses. water-resistant coat. should be elicited Attention should then focus on oil-based paints by raising the following questions which lead naturally towards the demonstration. long-lasting. A B c loose ball of tissue paper (sem x 5cm) .) glass trough 3 retort stands and clamps labels for the test tubes oil-based paint access to cylinders of oxygen and nitrogen (If cylinders of oxygen and nitrogen are not available. Oil-based paints are used inside and outside buildings. the important points in this introduction by teacher-student discussion.) test tube rack tissue paper dropping pipette (The pipette will get covered in paint. they are often used to paint wood. However. These have the advantage that they dry quickly and can be washed off the brush with water.

instead of simply dripping it into the tubes? tell us about what happens . - Pass nitrogen into tube C and quickly insert the bung. what may have happened to the gas inside the tube? • What does this experiment when paint sets? • Why was the paint soaked onto tissue paper for this experiment. - Put a bung in tube A. by is below the water surface. B8. - Pass oxygen into tube B and quickly insert the bung. Allow the paint to soak into the paper for a minute of two. tissue paper soaked in paint water air Examination oxygen nitrogen of the tubes The tubes should be examined in B8 and the level of water marked in each.3 (continued) Using a dropping pipette.TN 88. Now invert each tube in a trough of water removing the bung from each tube once it Clamp the three tubes and mark the level Now leave the tubes for several days until as in the diagram below. of the three tubes • Has the water risen into any of the tubes? • If the water has risen into any of the tubes. of water in each. Students might be encouraged to sketch the appearance and then asked questions along the following lines. put 5 drops of paint onto the ball of tissue paper at the bottom of each tube.

4 gives an outline explanation which you may prefer to direct. Background information Most modern oil-based paints contain 'oil-modified alkyd resins'. The important idea to convey is the cross-linking of chains. It is not intended that students should be given an explanation level of complexity. are polyesters which carry an unsaturated hydrocarbon side-chain. at this 3 . -OOC ~ I Q tR COO-CH-CH-OOC 2 unsaturated . side-chain { ~ COO- These pOI~ester chain I CH200C(CH2J]CH=CH-CH-CH=CH-CH-CH=CH-CH 2 2 .3 (continued) Results and explanation After a day or two. It will not move in tube C. the water will have risen about a fifth of the way up tube A. and almost to the top of tube B. 2 -CH On exposure to air. This Student information sheet SIS B8. leads on to discussion of what happens when paint sets. and the fact that this change in structure leads to a change in properties. the double bonds in these side chains react with oxygen and form cross-links to other unsaturated sites on adjacent chains.TN 88. Students may suggest that oxygen has been absorbed by the paint. .

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Later. the long chains move more freely. wet paint set paint When the chains become joined together. A white pigment. the solvent starts to evaporate. oxygen gets to the paint underneath and this sets as well. alkyd resin begins to react with oxygen in the air. These long chains get tangled up and this makes the paint thick and sticky. The paint gets harder and sets. At the same time. This happens on the surface at first. they cannot move over each other.SIS 88. its polymer chains get joined together. usually white spirit. usually titanium(IV) oxide. the When the alkyd resin reacts with oxygen. . A solvent. A solution of a polymer (called an alkyd resin) to make the paint set hard. As the paint 'dries'. This allows the paint to flow. Alkyd resins contain long polymer chains.4 STUDENT INFORMATION SHEET Explaining what happens when paint sets White paint has three main constituents (ingredients). Coloured paints contain coloured pigments in addition to these three constituents. When the paint is brushed on.

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5 TEACHERS' NOTES ---------_.TN B8. particularly those outdoors. -----_ . The following points might be made: Advantages Disad vantages Wood is cheap Wood is strong for its weight Wood is a good insulator Wood can be cut and shaped easily Wood can be made to look attractive by painting and polishing Wood is a renewable resource Wood burns Wood is attacked by insects and fungi causing it to rot Wood requires protection . They will also have seen and discussed what happens when paint sets._------- . discussion should now turn to the general merits and drawbacks of wood as a building material.._-----------------_.-_. _--------------- The advantages and disadvantages of wood as a building material Students will already appreciate the need to protect wooden structures. If time permits. Students might be encouraged to draw up their own lists of advantages and disad vantages and then one or two of them could report to the whole class.

each group produces about 35 em 3 of paint. oil-based paint access to balance Arrangements (i) It is advisable to have a jam-jar of white spirit available for cleaning brushes after the experiment. Safety (i) White spirit is flammable. (iii) Using the quantities suggested on SAG B8.g. An old yoghurt pot. They should be destroyed by burning in the open air well-away from buildings. would be suitable. This being so. (ii) Alkyd resin solution is very sticky and viscous. It should be kept away from naked (ii) Try not to use more white spirit than is necessary. .TN B8. you may prefer your students to work in groups of four or to use smaller quantities. lined with aluminium foil to prevent it dissolving in the solvent.6. white. You should therefore dispense 25 ern 3 samples into the foil-lined yoghurt pots for the students to collect.6 TEACHERS' NOTES Making and testing paint Apparatus and materials for each group disposable container (about 100 em 3). Small volumes can be disposed of by pouring down the sink with large volumes of water. a wooden splint) small paint brush small piece of flat glass. Large volumes should not be poured down the sink. disposable stirrer (e. flames. metal or other surface on which to tryout paint measuring cylinder (50 em 3 ) white spirit (10 em 3) 70% solution of alkyd resin in white spirit (25 em 3) titanium (IV) oxide (15 g) commercial.

Q3. Add to this 10 ern 3 of white spirit. Add 15g of titanium(IV) oxide. what are its faults? Q5. stirrer measuring cylinder alkyd resin White spirit and alkyd resin solution are flammable. What solvent. white spirit and alkyd resin solution Q 1. How could you make your paint coloured? . Test your paint on a smooth surface.6 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Making and testing paint White oil-based paint can be made by mixing together the three main constituents: S A • solvent alkyd resin solution white titanium (IV) oxide pigment 1. Keep them away from naked flames. Is your paint as good as the commercial white paint? Q4. Inspect the paints after they have had 24 hours or more to dry. pot (lined with aluminium foil) containing about 25 em 3 of alkyd resin solution. Stir vigorously until the powder is thoroughl y mixed with the liquid. do you think. Collect a yoghurt 2. If not. F E T Y 3.SAG B8. Next to your paint. test a commercial white paint on the same surface. Why is the yoghurt pot lined with aluminium foil? Q2. is used to make the alkyd resin solution? Explain your answer.

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1 TEACHERS' NOTES Glass as a building material Introduction It is important that students should appreciate that there are many different kinds of glass. The manufacture of glass Soda-lime-silica glass is made by heating a mixture of soda ash (sodium carbonate). but this is water soluble. modified the properties of this glass by adding limestone which produces glass which is insoluble in water. . Chemists have. At this stage. Besides its direct use in the manufacture of glass. sometimes referred to as soda -lime-silica glass or simply soda -glass. you may wish to give the chemical formulas for the ingredients used in making glass and briefly discuss its silicate structure (see TN B9X. . A useful way to introduce this would be to ask students to name some things that are made of glass .l and SIS B9X. Soda ash and silica alone will form a glass after the heated mixture has cooled.A quick survey will reveal the use of different types of glass with different properties. therefore. If appropriate. This point is explored in greater detail later in the lesson. silicon dioxide).l). limestone (calcium carbonate) and silica (sand. it allows you to introduce the commonest glass. limestone is also used to make soda ash by reaction with common salt.TN 89. however. You may also wish to reinforce the use of limestone as an important industrial chemical.

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It makes the glass shine and sparkle in the light. Lead glass is used to make cut-glass articles.SIS 89. This produces a glass which does not crack when heated or cooled. (iii) Adding boron oxide for 'Pyrex' glass Boron oxide is added to replace some of the silica in the glass. (i) Adding lead elI) oxide for sparkling glass Lead glass is made by replacing some of the calcium in ordinary glass by lead using lead(II) oxide as the extra ingredient. These oxides react with silica to form coloured compounds in the glass.2 STUDENT INFORMATION SHEET How are different types of glass made? Different types of glass can be made by adding other chemicals to molten (liquid) glass before it cools. . (ii) Adding oxides of other metals for coloured glass Coloured glasses are made by adding metallic oxides such as cobalt oxide. Its common name is 'Pyrex'. Only very small amounts of the metal oxides are used. manganese(IV) oxide and copper(II) oxide.

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Touch the cobalt oxide with the hot bead of glass so that a very. you will be studying the colour of borax glass with different metal oxides. manganese(IV) oxide. Metal oxide used Colour of glass . 6. 4. iron(III) oxide. Observe the colour of the bead carefully and put your results in a table like the one below. Some of the powder should stick to the loop. (If you take too much oxide.) 5. Light the Bunsen and adjust it to give a roaring flame. very small amount of oxide sticks to it. In this experiment.3 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE How can we colour glass? You will need nichrome wire loop Bunsen burner heat resistant mat 2 watch glasses beaker (100 cm3) borax metal oxides: cobalt oxide. you will not be able to see the colour of the glass. 2. heat the wire loop and borax until the borax melts to give a clear bead of glass. nickel oxide dilute hydrochloric acid A bead of glass can be made easily by heating borax. 3.SAG 89. Heat the wire loop in the Bunsen flame and then dip the hot loop into the borax. copper(II) oxide. Heat the bead again in the Bunsen flame. Now. Put some borax powder on one watch glass and some cobalt oxide on the other watch glass. 1.

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Remove the bead from the wire by melting it and knocking off onto the heat resistant mat. Record Q1. What oxides might be used to give these colours? 06. Clean the wire by dipping it into dilute acid and heating it again. What do you think happens in glass when (i) it melts on heating. Which oxide do you think gave the most attractive colour? Q4. What are the uses of coloured 05.3 (continued) 7.SAG 89. 9. Bottles for beer and wine are often coloured brown or green.) 8. whereas milk and soft drinks are put in colourless bottles? Q7. all your results in the table. Why do you think beer and wine are put in coloured bottles. Repeat the experiment using a different metal oxide. (ii) it is coloured metal oxide? glass? to the particles by heating with a it . How do you think the dilute acid helps to clean the wire? Q3. (Do not touch the bead for several minutes as it will be very hot. Why is nichrome used for the wire loop in which borax plus oxide are heated? Q2.

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The glass versus plastic debate is an important issue which should be raised either here or in B9X. The Keep Britain Tidy Group .4 TEACHERS' NOTES Survey of the uses of glass This could survey are valuable to discuss the be a brief exercise for students after which the results of the discussed at the end of the lesson.copper(I) oxide green .TN 89. This provides a large amount of material suitable for project work and discusses many uses of glass including procedures for toughening and lamination as in the production of vehicle windscreens. The issue might be highlighted by consideration of such items as greenhouses. hard and soft contact lenses. glasses for drinking. milk bottles and aircraft windows. reference should also be made to the non-biodegradeability of glass and the problems that this can cause. Coloured glasses are made by adding various substances to the fused glass: red .manganese(IV) oxide (larger amounts give a violet colour) blue .cobalt oxide . Alternatively. spectacles. it might be allow students to continue the survey for homework and then results during the next lesson. etc. iron(III) oxide + reducing agent turquoise . If B9X is not to be covered.Schools Research Project has produced a detailed unit on glass.chromium (III) oxide.copper(II) oxide pink .

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Record your list in the table below. One example is done for you.SAG 89. giving the reasons why glass is used to make each article and any disadvantages of using glass in this way. Item Reasons why glass is used Disad vantages Windows It is transparent and a poor conductor of heat Breaks easily .4 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Survey of the uses of glass Make a list of ten varied items made from glass.

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The gradual softening of glass. If you have already introduced silicates in the work with clay and bricks earlier in the unit. rather than temperature.1 TEACHERS' NOTES The structure of glass SIS B9X. If time permits. you might compare glass with plastic sulphur which is a kind of 'sulphur glass'. you could extend discussion of the relationship between properties and structure by considering what happens when glass is heated. its melting at a definite the various bonds which exist between different elements the glass and these bonds have As the glass is heated. etc. This means that there is a gradual breaking of bonds and a softening of the glass before all the particles break their bonds and the glass becomes a liquid. sodium. If the work is related to B6 in which sulphur was studied. calcium.TN 89X.1 explains the complex process in which glass is formed in terms of silicon and oxygen atoms in silica (silicon dioxide) combining with other elements. Bonds occur (silicon. can be explained in terms of in the soda-lime-silica glass.) in different strengths. you may wish to give a more accurate description of the metal silicates in glass. the atoms in it vibrate faster and faster and some bonds break more readily than others. . oxygen.

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however. the silicon dioxide molecules lose their energy quickly. but it is formed in a similar manner to silica glass by rapid cooling of the molten ingredients. they do not form a regular pattern of particles which would produce a crystalline solid. The simplest type of glass is silica glass. Silica glass consists of complex arrangements of silicon and oxygen atoms. used for some chemical glassware because it is less readily attacked by acids and alkalis than ordinary glass. Because of this. and because it is expensive to produce. . the silicon dioxide molecules in it move around more slowly. If molten (liquid) silica is cooled slowly. the molecules begin to link up with each other forming a regular arrangement.1 STUDENT INFORMATION SHEET What is the structure of glass? Earlier in this unit. however.SIS 89X. Instead. Ordinary glass (soda-lime-silica glass) contains sodium and calcium in addition to silicon and oxygen. the molecules become locked in the positions they occupied in the liquid phase. Similar changes occur when glass is heated and then allowed to cool. This produces a white crystalline solid like quartz. In this case. This leaves the glass transparent (clear) and gives it some properties like a liquid. it is not in common use. molten silica is cooled very rapidly. These elements alter the properties of the glass. we found that sulphur changed its properties and appearance on heating and then cooling. If. Gradually. It is. Silica is the common name for silicon dioxide (SiO 2). 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 liquid silica slow cooling O'/~O 6 o /\"0 0 crystalline solid silica glass Silica glass tends to be more brittle than ordinary glass.

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Some buildings have gold and silver coatings on their glass windows. (a) Bearing in mind any disadvantages of glass. 02. bottles? would you choose? Give your reasons. Look at your list of glass items on SAG B9.SAG 89X. A company (a) (b) is about to launch a new drink onto the market. Design a leaflet to encourage people in your neighbourhood to recycle glass by using bottle banks. list alternative materials which are used in place of glass to make each item.4. (b) Explain why these alternative materials are better or worse than glass. Q3. .2 STUDENT ACTIVITY GUIDE Using glass 01. What is the purpose of this? 04. (iii) non -refillable Which container and dis ad vantages of using containers. What are the advantages (i) cardboard (ii) refillable bottles.

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is manufactured from clay 6. A A hot dry day B A cold dry day C A hot wet day D A cold wet day E A dry windy day . . Questions 1 to 6 The following materials are often used in buildings. the material which 1. is manufactured from oil 5. rusts most easily 2. is a naturally-occurring 7.. is the least dense 4.: A aluminium B cement C iron D limestone E PVC plastic Choose from A to E.BUILDINGS Assessment items . conducts heat most easily 3. . Under which one of the following conditions will a limestone building be attacked most rapidly by acid fumes in the air? ore.

Plastic sulphur for the mostly contains A single sulphur atoms B short chains of sulphur C long parallel chains of sulphur atoms D long tangled chains of sulphur atoms E cross-linked atoms. atoms chains of sulphur When clay is being fired to make bricks. 10.8. same mass. 9. heat . it must not contain any pockets of air. A they are drier B they are lighter C they have partly rotted D they have a larger surface area E they conduct better. Twigs are better than logs for lighting fires because. This is because pockets of air will A make the bricks too light B cause the bricks to crack C allow the bricks to absorb water D make the bricks conduct E change the colour of the bricks.

<)TONE GRANITE (a) Which material floats on water? (b) Which material fizzes when strong alkali is poured on it? (c) A material does not fizz when either acid or alkali are poured on it.11. uses of plastics in buildings. What is it? (d) Another important building material is glass. (e) Plastics are also used to make buildings.. It does not contain large crystals and does not soak up water. (f) Why is it difficult to include plastics in the key above? Explain how Give three STEEL . you would modify the key to include glass. to help to identify Yes ALUMINIUM LIME. The following key has been produced different building materials.

(a) What is the chemical name for silica? (b) What are the naturally-occurring silica and calcium carbonate? (c) What special properties would you expect to find in the glass used for (d) (i) church windows. Other ingredients are added when special properties are wanted. (a) What advice would you give to the couple on the materials they should use to repair each of these problems? (b) Why might the couple decide to use the original materials for repairing their house rather than using different ones? . A young couple have just bought an old house. (iii) can be a source of money for local charities. (iii) ovenware? and sources of Many towns have 'bottle banks' in car parks or at supermarkets. (ii) help to save our energy reserves. Explain how 'bottle banks': (i) help to save on the cost of rubbish collection. It is very The steel gutters have rusted and are leaking.12. Glass is made from silica. sodium carbonate (soda-ash) calcium carbonate. The cement holding the stonework together is crumbling away. 13. much in need of repair. The wooden window frames are rotten. (ii) car windscreens.

This table shows the amounts of different building materials which were used between 1968 and 1978. Breeze-blocks are made from materials such as the ash from power stations. (ii) Suggest TWO uses for disused gravel pits which could benefit the local community.14. (b) Suggest TWO reasons which might explain the changes you identified in part (a). Material Bricks-millions Gravel 1000's tonnes Concrete Blocks 1000's m2 Breeze 1000's 1968 1969 1970 1971 ]972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 7465 6734 6062 6541 6938 7183 5575 5046 5406 5066 4842 58428 56596 57331 58754 62873 67943 59876 63069 58405 53133 54588 51242 46471 49817 57767 68404 72767 56541 62133 69761 66865 71041 814 792 084 1050 1091 1012 1274 1546 1399 1402 No data avail -able Blocks m2 (a) J Describe the changes in the use of (i) bricks (ii) concrete blocks which took place between 1968 and 1978. (d) (i) How did the use of breeze-blocks this period? (ii) Why should the building industry be encouraged to make more use of breeze blocks? change during . (c) (i) Suggest TWO environmental problems which arise because of the extraction of gravel and clay.

Strength of concrete/% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 85 Time/days 1 2 4 6 8. (a) Use the following data to plot a graph showing the increase in strength of concrete with time. In fact the opposite is almost true.15. new concrete is often covered with plastic sheeting. Why do you think this is done? (d) Blocks of concrete can be "reinforced" steel bars inside them. STRENGTH /(%) TIME / (DAYS) (b) (i) How strong is the concrete after 10 days? (ii) How long will it take concrete to become 25% of its full strength? (iii) Estimate how long it might take the concrete to reach 100% of its strength. by putting (i) How will this reinforcement change the properties of the concrete block? (ii) Why is it important that the steel bars are not near the surface of the concrete block? . Water is needed to coat and bind the sand and cement. If the concrete dries out too quickly it will become weak. (c) In hot weather.5 12 16 22 28 Use axes like those in the diagram. Many people think that concrete must dry out in order to harden.

5 80 9 79.5 2 22 37. of gas/ em 3 a a a 1 11 18.5 5 53.5 7 71 80 8 77. What would you see if this solution is added to (i) universal indicator solution. The table below gives the results: Time/min Experiment A Vol. (ii) limestone? Give reasons for the effects you would see.5 6 63 78.5 67. The experiment was repeated using the same mass of small fragments of limestone (Experiment B). A known mass of it was dissolved in an excess of hydrochloric acid.5 4 43. (c) The product of the reaction in (b) dissolves in water. The gas given off during this reaction was collected and its volume was measured at regular intervals (Experiment A).5 3 33 54. (ii) air is present? (b) Write a word and symbol equation for the reaction that occurs between sulphur and oxygen. of gas/ern 3 Experiment B Vol. 17.16. Sulphurcrete (a) is made from sulphur and sand.5 74. A piece of a building was analysed.5 80 10 80 80 11 80 80 12 80 80 . It was found to be pure limestone (calcium carbonate). What effect will strong heating have on the sulphur in sulphurcrete if (i) no air is present.

Every day the air was passed back and forth over the painted splints. the total volume of air inside the apparatus was measured and found to be 200 em 3. concentration. Which gas in the air is most likely to have been absorbed by the paint? (d) How could you test the gas left in the apparatus your answer to (c) was right? (e) The paint could have been placed in a dish inside the tube. (a) What volume of air was in the apparatus after one week? (b) What percentage (c) Air is a mixture of gases. etc. sketch the line for results you would expect if 19 of finely powdered limestone was used in the same experiment. At the end of the week. The apparatus was left for a week. substance. the painted splints were taken out of the centre tube and examined. On the graph. The apparatus shown below was used.g. What steps been taken to make sure that other factors (e.(a) The experiment was designed to investigate the different sized pieces of limestone.) did results? (b) Draw and label a graph of the results. effect of using should have amount of not affect the 18. the volume of gas in the syringes had gone down by 38 em 3 • Finally. temperature. air glass syringe wooden splints covered in wet gloss paint glass syringe At the start of the experiment. The paint was still sticky. Why was it better to coat it onto the splints? of the air had been absorbed by the paint? to see whether . A chemist wanted to investigate whether gloss paint absorbs air when it dries.

He wanted to make 148 tonnes of slaked lime. the lime fizzed. Some acid was added by the operator to neutralise it. What is the minimum amount of lime he should order? (Ca = 40. H = 1) (b) Heat was given off when water was added to the lime. Slaked lime is calcium hydroxide which is made from lime (calcium oxide). Why does this occur? (c) Some lime fell on to the floor. This process is described by the following word and balanced equations. A white precipitate formed when the gas was tested with lime water (a solution of calcium hydroxide) . How should the control experiment differ from the real experiment? (h) Explain why gloss paint does not dry in its can if the lid is on tightly. 0 = 16. Lime mortar is made from slaked lime. Much to the surprise of the operator. (i) What was the gas? (ii) What was present as an impurity in the lime? (iii) Why was the impurity present? . lime + CaO + water slaked lime Ca(OH)2 (a) A manufacturer of lime mortar wanted some more slaked lime and decided to make it from lime. the chemist should have done a control experiment as well. 19.(f) Gloss paint is normally dry to touch after a day. still sticky after a week in this experiment? Why was it (g) To be certain that the missing air had been absorbed by the paint.

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