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Topic6: Equilibria

A) ChemicalEquilibria
l. Reversiblereaction:A reactionwhich can occur in both forward and reversedirections/ which has
forwardandreversereaction.
\

z. ct"'i"ur

I ovnurni".qul[ii?*Y,[]*?,
"quniuriureversereaction & the concentration

: rateor
*n,.h rareor forward
reaction

or amountsof reactantsand that of products remain unchanged.

Rateof reaction

Concentration

Products

Reactants

time
time

At time: t, equilibrium
achieved.

,-t

'l

3. MassActionLaw / EquilibriumLaw: Whena reversible


reactionat equilibrium,the ratioof the product
of concentrations
of the productsto the productof concentration
of the reactants,eachraisedto their
respectivestoichiometriccoefficientis a constantat constanttemperature.The constantis known as
equilibriumconstant.

lcl'[p]"

aA+bB+cC+dD

: Constant

[A]"[B]"

4. Equilibriumconstant.
K
(i) Definition:Whena reversiblereactionat equilibrium,the ratio of the productof concentrations
of the
products
product
to
the
of concentration
of the reactants,
eachraisedto their respectivestoichiometric
,
\-'
coefficientis a constantat constanttemperature.
The constantis known asequilibriumconstant.
(ii) Derivationof K:
F o r w a r rde a c t i o na:A + b B - r c C + d D

Rate:\r tel' telo

R e v e r sree a c t i o nc: C + d D - r a A + b B

Rate:k, [c]' [o]o

\V

At equilibrium,rateof forwardreaction: rateof reversereaction


kr [A]" [B]b= k, [C]' [D]d

K:

kr

kr

tgl:!?l:
[A]" [B]"

(ii i)

Heterogeneous
system:Systemthat havingmorethanonephasesarepresentin the equilibrium
e Concentration
of solidandpureliquidis not includedin K expression
because
[solidorpure
liquid]is constantasits densityis constant
at constant
temperature.

(iv) Typesof K:
a) K. for aqueousand gaseousequilibrium b) Ko only for gaseoussystem
systems
K . :Nc

[c]" [p]o

Kp:

jATtBT

Unit for K. is (moldm-3)(c+d)-(a+b)

PV: nRT
P=lRT
P:[]RT

(Pc)'(Po)d

l roy 1en--lb

Unit for Ko is (Pa)

- (a+b)
(c+d)

(Pc)'(Po)o
Kp

l eof@a-lb

lcl'tpl:
lAl"[B]"
Kp:

fP

"^'\
x (Rr)"111)

,l
tl

(\

''-l

r '.

at.\l

:'

K .X ( R1;"*a- r u*u1 ( * ' ( , .

(v)Calculation
of K:

Steps:
1. Writereversible
equation.
2. Initialmoles.
(lf not given, uuse stoichiometrycoefficient
of reactantsin the equation).
3. Numberof molesreacted/ formed
4. Equilibriummoles
5. Equilibriumconcentration
6. K" expression
into K.
7. Substituteequilibriumconcentration
expression.

Steps:
l. Writereversible
equation.
2. Initialmoles.
(lf not given, uusestoichiometrycoefficient
of reactantsin the equation).
3. Numberof molesreacted/ formed
4. Equilibriummoles
5. Totalnumberof equilibrium
moles
( Pr x n / nr) *
6. Equifibriumpartialpressure
7. Koexpression
into Ko
8. Substitute
equilibriumpartialpressure
expression.

Jangantulis
apa-apadi
ruang ini.
Do not write
in this column

f2so plz. &t K. a.lcJqton.


f

rA =iBtc

0,9 \ _ _ _ _

\,/
o,tl
0,2
I

_ _r

K. :

r/-- --r' , _

fslt.l
L Al-

r\
>l

,^.1, ..1.\^rt,,t

@
It,

rn6|

/nftidl

Ito

mol rea&er)Fforwd

0,4 o.+
nl

er4w\,\i,tm MDI

0,0

VtV

eoyt\'6i!n t l

.. V V0 6

K. s

I c]'

( +)-

A rB
lntfralmol : !"

rnol

Erl
K.-

,4
rnol

g(ry)

^o \r^,L

C +)D
0
o
0,5

l,1qt,1b

O,7g

0,3

r! 1,1+
vv s fcl LDJ

6,>t"

oo9

av

rA'1 rBl

A+B
lratalMol

N \L

(,hr,*d: 0,t4 0,"r,


mol Tsctaltr)

0"b

r*1]-f1
3

0,y
0,9

, 2

}C
I

"g*rX/,=#;t$.t'eo,2

0
0,)

E rnol

F rl
|/
K C

Peringatan:Sila ikat kertasjawapan


ini bersamakertaspenutupmukahadapanskripjawapan.
Reminder: Plea.setie the answerscript togelherwith thefront page.

rrroI'Arrt'"

SEKOLAHMENENGAHKEBANGSAANSACREDHEART
SCHOOL
SACREDHEARTSECONDARY

IIN{
ffi

w"#

No. faO Pengenalan


I d e n t i t yC a r dN u m b e r .

Tahun STPM
Yearof STPM.
Tahun MIIET
Yearof MUET.

Kod dan Nama Kertas


CodeandNameof Paper......
* Potongyang tidak berkenaan
Deletewhereappropriate

g)

A +B

/nrti'al rnol
-l

Emol

^I

)*

/-X

(-7

>a

, r.{

t rLr _ Jl
C

pr(.

+V

....-. Term/Resit
Sesi
...... Session..

=).C
o

nnol rzaetpd' /
*ornra.'1.

Jangan tulis
apa-apadi
- . . . : . . . . . . . . .ruang ini.
Do not write
in this column.
PenggaWlangari*

No. Pusat/AngkaGiliran
e u m b e r l l n d e x N u m. .b. .e.r, . . . . .
. . . . . . . C e n t rN

, r(tton

ODr'

K. = +12

-----rf

E*,wixtrrz-

f{tp*'ito^}

f +l-

kF,"

?"f'lt
L

L+lr+1

tnr= + I
Mol /m*" '
+
l_s1"
Tcl =+

And*= ?

. [ 0tnaeoursqstz/^)
&arnu\al 4 Ko eatcuJagro4

A,o, + B.r)

E,n?artal
Pr$^burL

/*-

K,:
A -tB =

6)
l,nrralMol:

^s '"ffiL

En nol ,

fr,

>C
O

r o,Lt.o,>, o,?
o,Jk A7g

o,E

+0,? **).f rrrl


o1b+o]15

E*P^ =

n.rD

E-p* = G n lT
F' ?"
(p

Calon hendaklah menggunakan kedua-dua belah muki surat.


Candidates are required to use both sides of the paper.
KEPERIBADIAN ANDA
KEJUJURAN MENCERMINKAN
HONESTY IS AREFLECTION OF CHARACTER

Jangantulis
apa-apadi
ruang ini.
Do not write
in this column

Acq)

:JCcnl

Bcq\

l n $ , a ' lr v \ o l : l l
n ^ o rl e a c + e c l /
6ima.l

,I

a z, 3
O

E* r$ol

neO,3

oX

OrL

o,1

O,L.

Dr = 0.-1+oJ+o.b - 9.Omo/

E-P

[*r,)

?"

tr.,-

P^xP"

l{o

AB+)C

@)

f\s-L

/nn-tzlrnol
reo"tecl/
4roed
ry1el

I e,
, :"'b)ffi

l,g

F^ .'\o{

O
0,a

o,\

O
o,tl

o,+

(17

E?

\-.t

?ox?.
KP=

?o

3)
E* ?

, *rP,)

38 +>C
;r?o)(?r) r.l"(h)

Ko

Peringatan: Sila ikat kertasjawapanini bersamakertaspenutupmuka hadapanskrip jawapan


Reminder: Pleasetie the answerscript togetherwith thefront page.

1. VJhen1.0rnolr-rfctlranoicacidand 1.0melof etha6olarealio'lveci


tc achieveequilibrium
at 30oC,0.67molof esteris produced.

tT-':1:y1:' *::o* forthereaction


carcu|ate

DH
rnolrea

lornecl

- f:
o.6J
I A&3

f,0

a61

c0
J

't

,6J''

o,tl

O4sCmH
+
=l'rb
ratd I 6'rnd I
Em mol

,'0:18
g.!2

, ,O.'18

o.?8

:1!

o.18

i ', 0i18

gasandhydrogen
3. Nitrcgen
gasin themoleratioof 1 : 3 areallowed
lo achieveequilibrium
and1000kPa.Theequilflurium
at 55OoC
mirturecontains15%NHs.Calculatelg fo:'thefollowingreaction:
Nz

3Hz

2NHs

=q,tb

t50}
0l\b
-

_:
2NO,(g)
NzOr(9)
process.
at equilibrium
is 6.51 103Pa.Calculatel$ for thedissociation
Thetoti-i'pressure

#
and5 atm''
at 250oC
itsdegreeoftiSsociation
of NzOnat 250oCand 1 atm is 0'15 Cafculate
5. The dbgreeof dissociation

Nt04
fafta1 mol

6o\ raac*eal

o,t5
0.gb

5 m rnol

l{,=#=

+ lN0"
0
0!3o
0.30.

-ffit

x lD-? a*ffr

N"CIi
l0
ic
,-1('

-f#x5

-F=-.

LN(L
", l0[
$t

#xb

4=

7)xto''=
[#i$
=a068

6. TheKoforthereaclion:

--;_

?-

starts
of NHsif thereaciion
10%byvolume
containing
a mxture
'-r'" -- toobtain
is 4.0x ,tI-3,,*-1", ui$b. wnaiTtne or"r#Jl"orired

with Hz and Nzin molarratioof 3 : 1 ?

\-

-0,-L.9r!$
^l\V

R?=

ffi

=+,t)xro+
Pi=e'clf

s
I

_-

g_{ff

]ltr

7-The_relative
molecular
6 fortnl r*ai*
1na1.9fapgmpleof NzOrat 350K anOrOOrFa is@.0.Catq.rtate
i:
Nzor(g).

'Ni
,"t

il\dc-

,y-

eeo:*ee)

|-r(

Str\ ftol

I -? trx
- t t

!m rrpl
I - 0.533:',O.+t
=1.b33
T"talrumber rnola=0,,ft-l+,1,066

Hxtoo

ttO,

)rt00:

6. lronreactsvtithsteamto produceH2.
3Fe(s) + 4HzO(g) :i:
eHz(9) + 'Fe3O4(s)
A mir*ureof Fe andsteamwasallowedto codreto cqdlibriumat 700oC.Theequilibrium
pressureof Hzandsteamis 4.8 kPaand2.5 _kParespectively.
Calculatelg for the reaction.

4.9
a.b
pressure,15c/oof a sampledinitrogen
9. At 500 K and1 atmospheric
tetroxide,
NzOr undergoesdissociation.
Calculate
the
partial
pressurefor thisreaction.
equilibrium
constantin termof

X | .0:1lt

to achieveequilibrium
10.Nitrogeri
anChydrogen
in themoleratioof 1:3arealloweC
at ternperature
T"Cand10C0kPa The
mixture
Koforthereaction.
equilibrium
contains
20%ammonia.
Calculate

ftrot1e .+ =rn
Em Par+ai$}ersur"

$+
txo,8

=0,?.

0_NHs
0,1

o,[xtwo

0,rfl000

frx0,8

= 0,6

0,}xt000

r--

K-

v-

?tl"

=( 00LP;

= aoOtP"

1,ytxtl--tk?u-'

t t o 't.Oodm3flaskcontaining
1.00molofcaroon r .oo*or oi ."ro* o,"nO"isienloreacttoJrm
monoxiOe
atg50"C.
ThevalueofK fortheequilibrium
"no
is 14.0moldm-3
at850"c. carCuiate
""roon
ineconcentrations
ofthecomponents
in
the
equilibrium
mixture
atthistemperature. t7l

Lo)

ln^+alnrola
rnJ\neoc*ed
t$rwd

-++
I
96
-*

S-rn mo\a

r-1
T6

='n []

0-x,

99.,,
"--&
r,fl)

(a
* )o
= #("(-r)
It+,$
)9(=0.81
i2.

tiHqHS(s)

+t

areboth
0.20
mordm-3
iH:H.'[ffi'f:,.l:t:",1r.;: tt, i::.lllLi,l?til]r" equiribrium
and
thepressure
atequiribrium
is

R.=[rvurlft"sJ
=(O,aa)
(ow)

=($-xo.m)Cg*b4o)
= g'Ac(atmL

/.t':,

\.

4.4 Relationship
betweenequilibriumconstants
4.4.1 betweenequilibriumconstantfor forwardreaction,K1 and equilibriumconstantfor reversereaction
K-r
Kr
aA+bB *cC+dD
K-r

K: {#+Bl-

^K-,'|:

tAl: tBl:
[c]" [D]"

".

KtxK-t=l

4.4.2 betweenK for elementarystepsin mechanism.


Overallequation: a A * b B + d D + q Q + p P
M e c h a n i s:mS t e p1 : a A + b B * c C
Step2:cC+dD=pP+qQ

Kr=#

K,-:+:,-tS

.'. Koverall : K1 x K2

Relationship
betweenK and k
. \r/ ,a-5
Accordingto MassAction Law, orderof reactionis takento be sameas stoichiometriccoefficient.
Kr
aA+68 +cC+dD

K,
At equilibrium,rateof forwardreaction: rateof reversereaction
kr [A]" [B]o = k' [C]' [D]o

K- + : -{ff"[B]"

.'. Sincek are affected


by T, so K. and Ko
only affectedby T

'K!'=
tcb) rw.,,ai,q the bdhn&d Efscron
c4)
4.6 FactoraffectingK" or Ko value :Jemperature,T
(i) BV usingrateconstants
kr

K_E

in
Qrft
. ")*s$f ,"i*"s^tuc"eofrc
to'rr.4fatNe-{att"r)'
(-ft ,a;seA"
enuahon'
,.,\) Co^b;*"t rnd^nd'{cl
(c = k,xK, YK3

If forward reaction is
Exothermic.AH : -ve

kr
N2+ 3fi2 * 2 NH:
k_r

Endothermic,
AH: *ve
kr
AH:*ve
A +B+C
k_,

AH: -ve

kl ond k.1increases.
But k -r
WhenT increases,
increases
morethankr HenceK decreases.
;. From graph,
K inverselyproportionalto T
linearlywith l
ln K increases
(ii)By usingVan't Hoff equation

WhenT increases,
k1andk-1increases.
But k r
increases
morethank - r HenceK increases.
.'.Fromgraph,
K increases
exponentialto T
ln K decreases
linearlywith ]

lnK:-^#+c

t"#:-io(* - ;)

If forward reaction is

AH: -ve
Exothermic.

lnK:_,-#,*c
- t-j=") decreases.
when T increases,
RT
ln K decreases.
K decreases.
.'.From graph,
linearlywith i
ln K increases

Endothermic.AH: *ve

lnK:_!_t3r)16
WhenT increases,
increases
#
ln K increases,
K increases.
.'.From graph,
ln K decreases
linearlywith i

r.lerqns3

is allowed
to dissociate
to nitrogen
tetraoxide
dioxideln i.OOdm3container
at 383K.
-'ihet 1a1tn an eiferiment,0.100roiu. oi-Jinitrogen
graphof concentration
of bothgasesagainsttimeis shownbelow.
Concentration / mol dm-'

o.120
o.100
0.o80
0.060
0.040

0.020

Time

theequilib:'ium
constant,
lG,for theabovereaction
at 383K.
{i)Calculate
thepressuiein tlfe container
aftertfle systemhadachieved
equilibrium
at 383K. [8]
iii) Caiculate

N"0u

k"1/6
lnrtral rv\ol*

0.lDo
0,040

$o\

o,oto

rl

)N0"
o,0,+0
0 , 1 1 0.
Or l)0

= o,3t
=NRT
0) (&:l)(393
P(I xtO-r)" ( 0'0+o't-1,t

c ho9vt0 ?o.

+ 9.67rJ mol-l_9qd-*396-iJ
entlalpies
nitrogeng[ioxiddare
mo!-r
ofgasedsdinitrogerytetra6fide
tggnseous
?l?lT^T":]?"dard

fi'L".::El".6t'br-odii
t

oi""o"i^yddueou<diniirogipadxide
tosaseeusdfiioeenluexde.

-/,

(ii) Expld-in
tneqSeCfof temperatured-n
the valLleof the enthalpyof dissociatiEra,l'faseous.tfi6itlogen
tetrftlide. l7l Gffifr')
c) An analysis
of an equilibrium
mivlureobtained
frommixinggaseousnitrogen
andhydrogen
showsa composition
of 40o/o
of
ammonia
whenthetotalpressure
of thesystemis 20 atm.
(i)Writean expression
for theequilibrium
constant,
Kp,fortheaboveequilibrium
(ii)Calculate
themolefractionof nitrogen,
hydrogen
andammonia
(iii)Calculate
partialpressureP.l, , P", and P"",

ti) K" =

&'i) {^,_ = :i-

. 0.1

r;cmtnerclaiiy
uy ine -a'u*eiptr"-c': t u "''' ,Ji
v/hicrtis v-elysolubre1nrv{eJ liii iJieparc}c
gas ts
:j. ia) nmrfioiliars a riiitogenteriiirser
Tlte amountof ltydrcgen
45Coc'
at
flask
drn3volumetric
2.0
a
into
gas are intrbcuced
gas anc 1.0molof hydr"ogen
;.:i:ragen
temperature
[7j
at this
involved
fortlrereaction
ccnstant
theequilibrium
calcuiate
{1.40
rnolat equilitrrium.
g.. 7*hon heatedahd forns x againwhencocied'ldentify
to a r.,rown
gasx is an oxiaeof nitrogen.it cfranpes
il-r)A.r:olcui.less
theobservations[41
ga$rrsX a.td Y,anCexpiain
(6/2008)
is rtached'
untilequilibriutn
to reactin a closedco:rtainer
(c)(jasesX ard y areallowerJ
temperature'
[2]
ai
cciistant
is
irrc.eased
of theccniainer
*tr"n inu ptussure
what;;uld be observed
(i)ststeandexptain
voiume'
consiant
at
[21
mixture
equilibrium
to
the
gas
is
acoec
ainount-oiiigun
position
whena srnarr
ii)[xi:!aintheequiiibrium

lnrhol mdo

:
o.S
, $$s0.+

= mole
=[]

J.Xc=

NJt
1,0

3(a)

-*Hf

3l'lz
t,0

)NLls
0
0,+

0.4
95=0,L

'Bs=o't

= l),5 nol')nL
N,$u -

3$)

*7,

AH=

rN$r
bru.ln

cotou/ras

,/

+o {* ttqlil nu rea*ia
Nl.en\t E heated,
equihtvirmposifiel
r
"hd-ts
,\ ,rt,r^;bUiu'-fi.1n""d .nok'on ;+ x endo4re'tn;c'

N'0+

3 tc)

r-

)N0"
U{odn

Co(o.rrL-US

-p,om
b,o,,rn.1o
."rrr,lrl rt" oryl;brtuan
.hanqal
r#^:movzt^+1 le$F
ri)T\eco\onr.
uthn
numhr "f rnl\eso4 reacfa^'ts rJ ln/.s fhar, 'tha*t( +Az

Thisrs bn.*ge

prcil4nr.

'/,

cii) \nwz )s rrocf'a,ge tn elrrili biu,rngostion.Yarltal


tt#^

ll,
o{+he gns,^

rrotcluny.

5. V/atergas,a mixtureof hydrogerr


andcarbondic:<ide
gases,ii Ln rmportant
inrius'trial
fuelfoinicOaccordirrg
totneiciir:wr1c;
chemical
equilibrium:
C(s)+11rg(g) *
CO(g)+Hz(9)
A t 6 0 0 o C , t h e - v a l uKe" of of r t h e e q u i l i b r i u m i s 0 . l 6 0 m o l d m i a n d t h eAvHailsu+e1c 3f 1 . 3 k J .
(a)A 1 00 dm3flaskcontaining
1.0dmolof carbonand1.00molof steamis leftto reactat 800"C. rjalculate
theconcentraiions
of the
in
the
equilibrium
mixture
at thistemperature.
(6a/2009)
[7]
9qanoplts
(b) Explaintheeffectof an increase
in temperature
on
(i)theconcentration
of eachcomponent
in theequilibrium,t4)
(ii)the rateof ettainment
of theequitibriumt4l
(6b/2009)

tsca)
' lnttu\ mot' :

C tst
bff

=rnol

l(" " $o?4


atbo= #
2( = D.v:.f
/,

H,O +
l.o0
-x
1,00

EO +H,
o
rc

c)
x'

,1

fcoJto'3$'qo\Jnrs'
,4,
/'
[u'1 ' o'7)grnd/'n*3

'
/o-3-'l
r*ot
Ltl"o] = \,00 0,3)s 0,b1')

isasroliows
inthisprocess
the.".,ittjfff:t o""
ismanuracturedty
Hzso<-,.
u.,rio.rrl"acid,
itll"]1'#ffii[i-?"i:_n
atm' 0 180atm
are0'456
inthemixture
soz, o, so,gases
pi"ssuli's'of
;'#JnJn"nT.'"o"ni"r
K,equirioffit^i:L
,qr1000
"no

\-'

and0.364atmresPectivelY'

11l
orpartiarpressures
interms
reacticn
tg,rorthe
constant,
lfli ?dil,?$:l':litXtfl,ffi:;#{lall'l'0,','
K' t2],
thevalueof Kpat

1990
ici bircurate
if poristion
equilibrium
ioi Eipi"intheeffector:the
- (i)thetotatpressui!oitt't. tyti"t is reducedto 0'850atm' [2]
ishaintainedat irsoriginalvalue' [2]
(ii)hetiumg". i.'"oo"o to th'emixtureouiin" iot"i pi".rur"

(17120121,r)

--

t
.^
,
i
s
6ca)?o*rul
)s
grotsurc
qa.s
qds
bq
the
il6lt
tfw
exered
+he
4
E*ure
vAU
'
in {he roxto"inen

,t, Kp =

t-

is alon.

(0,gs+)'

(?r",)l

(P,#(L)

Kp=

( p,ub6):
(0tso) = 3.b4 atm-'
o{ rnoteson +h" l.{+

::lv

decrtq$.\.

7. 1a)Wiiteihe equiltbrlum
constantsrelated.
briumcat-nstants
andexplafinow
arflngtu.-oeqLilibrium
constants
for th-e
thereactions
reactions
belovr,
belovr,
ext
(il I'z + B, * ZnA\u

( 1 i2) A B * A * a r t u
(b)A reversible
reaction
idvolving
A, B andC is shownbelow.
A+28 *
zc
(i) A mixtureof 1.0molof A and 1.5molof B in a 2.0dmsvesselis allowed
the
at 1000K.At equilibrium,
to reachequilibrium
concentration
of C is 0.35moldm'3.Determine
constant
for thisreaction.
thevalueof theeouilibrium
(1i) lf theenthalpy
changeforthereactionin (b)(i)is - 20 kJ mol'1,calculate
at 1300K.
theequilibrium
constantof the reaction
,R,is 8.31JK-'mol-']
['l'hegasconstant
r.20t201.41
(;i;) Explaintheeffecton theconcentration
mixture.
of C whenthetemperature
increases
in theequilibrium

t^'fl *', =

tA"l[ s']
ITEEII
vN a r

f*gl"
IAr'lEr"]
I

K
' q ,-

cbla) lnrtu\ mok r


mol reo@ /"ktreel]
, ,
imole

lB

=]c

t.0
0.35

8;!5

ffi
I

l{" =

: 3.*

K'l-= 1,{x''?/*-to0o
I /(T4J
t' In
et I \

;J1J;3

-**e

drn3 0
Kr, = l,+ l4ol-{

Pnnc,'ple,
cfii) RB {orwqedg4eton l! *O"fP", Aco.J;nq+o to datlo-r,4
t*' fo
w\.n {e.pr"il; tt teqsrE,f!. ;iJrl,biarrtuTosio,ii',il
"l#^t

-__
0-

8. (a)e;tai3Le chatelle/sprinciple.
[2]
the followingreaction.
{b)The Habei"processinvolves
-=1
2NHg
3t.lz
Nz
Theforwardreactionis exothermic.
pressure.
at constant
increases
if thetempe.rature
[1]
(i) Statetheeffecton theequilibrium
volume.
at constant
is addedto thereaction
if nitrogen
t1l
iii) Statetheeffecton thee{uilibrium
Explainyouranswer.[3]
vesselis halveC?
if thbvolumeof thereaction
itii)Wnatis theeffecton thisequilibrium

117120151

gcntt" c?.*+,Le/s
pnnciplesk@4 -fi*t
a o*X*^til.
+*'a or - *,fSf""
.t{.
,+i
peslrr'on
+L +\e d.,1"1r.t
e+rihbra,,,r, unkt d,..its
<+u't^tnu,n
'

, af
'lr>J
{he ,}rt
{o nnr\rr.ro
oppoce +t^"
}pplad
TJ

tbulWherr.1gnA

l^ndrain{.{^
eondrain{io

+ho
the

o) u{,'L-',,tt

iJ*--

,c *l-. *r+^N.:.hrJ

I I

tr\crzajcb
rno/aAfu o,tdorlwmed,reag,-, e4wl'bnurvr
Dc}hon
1posTfion tlwaa,+" nqlrf

tJ

,F.
'/.&

.once,rtr.^tofl at reatcb'rrts

+J,l 6 c^lcdate

aod pnd'^cts

<t- 5m

Eg1.Theequilibrium
oonstant,
lG , for theesterification
Calcutete
the
of ethanoic
acicibyethanolis 4.0at roomtemperature.
,:omposition
of equilibrium
mixtureif 18Cg ethancicacid,230g of ethanoland45 g waterareallowedto reac'.
andreachequilibrium.

tootl t

' '.
b'-,+ tltO - ,t&

sB

cactd
S.note

3-a

e.5+{

1(

a5t (

4
''!

Z=5rF
- .e1$W

n (tl|,rftOt tl)

-.

-(5)

ot+)-- b-.>J+ j')i$' noI


! ),ll{ = {,
I =..1,b

is putin a
g for+.he
is 1.10atmat 600uC.if 20.Cg of CaCOs
carbonate
of calcium
decomposition
ccnstant,
92 . Tlp equilibrium
5.00dm'vesselandheatedto 6C0'C, calculate
tu) thenumberof molesof carbondioxideproduced. (R = 0.0821dmatmmolirK1 1
at equilibrium.
of calciumcarbonatedecomposed
the pereentage
-li

c6,0

cat$ (s)'

+ cr)>

;t0d$n ,..
tc^)

=^'RT

't,tD)\5,0u)
= n ( 0 . o E r t [69 t!(3

:.ryl = n (tOr-)

df

= O,O16J
r nr l.
05a* $,0{075-lXl00

6ose o$ &c0r

+'Lb1
= 3$.3

6.1\d.rm C

4J,
{

l,

gfldr*
---lO- ,r-

1l

l"

r.

r,

lVw drr@4{1svt
rtadtoyt
"*

ry-,w&D/t - - T - - , 1 il*i@.Q,- - V,aD


\::2317'rfffiZ,
il.- r t'
: l ',%*1z4.4.$:,q{a'J,\}
'
. J, r.;L Js lya. nvl nul>sArllv *hl- z4,u'(ftb.twaL J
6,

K'8
l,to nz* Aaz*)v,,

w+yad&isu_

'*he darve
It.
dc. hte 'fl
qo,:t:*o*
of d,ssqqrcrrro^
/,sSqfc.F,On
l'I To
Aarve;,rI
4l')
:
.

---v-

Eg. v/hen
=r.
iir"" 0.'l
o i mol
ro,of
orPCls
rc,",.
is heated
nu*"oat79oC
rnjain
ina 1, drn3
0". container,
.on,"'nu,
I? pressureof 3.5 x rrt05l.lrn'2is developed.Calculatethe delr.eeof
c,iisscciation
",
" = 1.50x .i04 Nm'2
j
of PClsunderthese conditions.
( Kp

?_c!r

-----C-b
. o.

::_

011rnol

hritta\ molP+:
mo\creadad| $rraeA I
3m nde

x:

ol -{
nr = O,!*Xt{+{ = CI,lfA,
=
?a.h^l
ffix ?b0xrob
' I -DrAa'{r,
'

4(
:

ffixtrbx#, #rx3fo'xrob

fficrrutXfrx?toxrd)
os
*# x.3'Soxf
rf t:,bOxrob
)

/.ho vlo+ 3

f o{+x)(0.t4)

1l-= o,D6&!rnql

4.1.j

-.;r

1o )der,,r),vg
][,t
r

.1.\

,",hor,
"t

ID eriul,L),r,,t

V,

vqlvtI

lt

lcl+
2;,,t),1'rs1r'1v{
l":rhrr, hes+o4,r

i fo],1
c+
: 1_<lqgJs:l:)_

4.1,+

44
. iD \,.1t/
i

'ry u:srI-rt +\-!rlPI


1+ V. 6

O'vvlV:(' .Q'o
:1

.;

(D dvnynl4on
I

or,5),v)rrt;

'r-s
h

,a'

.t
W

\l-li-l

^. L-,\

Y?C,iitU

"co"*A'L,

lav'.t
o'r't l|l<'i-o
equ,lrLtuttt0o9tl
'['nilu14' i/i t_t(4tr4'rB
J
J

'trr
f i i r t 3--tU
tr.3
t : :l(r rtUC.2
riivs2
tD'
L>
rN
a'l lU
tf3-10'
\4ty
i\ay
tU^l
/\..
\
I
i

'

: , 64,1f,

Vll(t)r'luYrl

b|wru po.,*tr,rl
=rzliliva ).l 2rrflh))45 ol
tt;,.utft
yl

'r,r

rql -

'

r,crys,ral\ kl7t)
VCt

',,r|rcioLlc
LJ,+
awhu,,lrnrlly
yaur,l4i I
r,of[ ltnrlaor,
ano\\| l t;ir,,l;,ii,,il;,,t i, ]
i-.;,*ry"1r,att'{l'-:tq&+i)
q!,!ilit-$sa,,

Ex"mfa# 4,1,8
ig1. Kpforthechemical
equilibrium:
-:
iiz(g) + 3Hz(g)
ZNHg(9)at4S0oCis5.0x10-5atm'2.
Fcrtnefollowing
mixtures,
thechemical
equilibrium
mayor maynothavebeenaftainedShowthedirection
in whichtheequilibi.iurn
p.ositic'n
vrillmovein orderto achievechemical
equilibrium.
(a,) NHs( 140atm),
Nz( 20 atm)& ]-lz( 600atm)
( 60 atrn)&'Nz( (83atrn)
Oi Nt'ls( 30 atm), 112
r

-0
.") =' DZ,Nile
P".xP;

(r{oit

r toi'

83x $qr
b.orxto* ^tl,.-)

90x6003

--eIKP

i: Thereactionis nd !n eqnr.ilLrlrrn,
'fhr e+r;t,bnZmpotfion
nbte{or+r{rf.
v.
tJ

Eg2 Determine
thedirection
of thefoitowing
r."*tio. in orderto attainequilibriunn
concentrations
at a particuiar
instantareaF

blh fc!lor."'-c:
Nz(g) +

3Hz(g) =- ---zru{. (g)


=
= 0.10moltjm-3
[Nz] 0.30moldm-3,[Hz]= 3.29moldm-3anO1ttH.1
t he equiiibrium
constani,
is = 0.19at 532'C.
K forthisreaction

(o'lo)2
A, = {N}ts]"
=
rvc
[g:o)(9'm)3
rfibltH'f

+) mo]-) d;6

SinceU- 7Ki- ,

=
b,t r*'l;briJrrr
oosiUon
vl

(t

-L

in qtfu'
o0 qactarrtsad guod"rcts

cAottils,nho?b

b3 F^.{le-5a${ecfingu4urTb'um pnitian
:
To sunlrnarizei

5"n ge.tion /
Rat"-constantJ

Concentration
nO chonge

'//:'

X"
constant,
I equitiOrium

&k+A'uaylz

doLel:,eft

+a zr/a r)',."'ul,.

-Trruas',,ybndult wrll lo*u,


r,f

':l{*j**
A1

I;
J1
+l
Lt

I'

&<Kc

(taclron o. J'Jt +1,44yd'bi uw ), +U


bt+ 5o as *o )ouoastl pLe
fu4,.'GL1

{ry- v(9 VLG4 '


Inoreasz cott@rhe*ton
'(ytLreas1"K*W- oP nlad,o,

-Wt
. K.

hlp- vopoq

av&4!- norLorgz
o4ui l t bnv,n

unt*o r* ^ ^ o

"1.,a*2,

- ?os'ft',o. ol e+v'r[1b,'t,,ra
Jlbd
I

* o dzcrcasz

r.

a n,untlrqltdrt

+, a.
'

aaa't /t .

"',Jz

-Jyua|,y
?russure
f{asuyt-,^til lawro"4n rqdiovl+;+
-IL,L
onlyaNfec!3 dtaeages
+,rbl wnt\rr{
yaserusVtt"la ?
4)tuas,11
ruirAoqinwlJ'n4
ll
'urtcyu/y'5
,(nrrrrg .^/i hwro l* t*r,+,o. W
+Lu-)r+tl nvrule.ol gK";*gas(.s.
f;jioles_
lnueo*.ivt 4,[+t 1

rtrHf;i_#!,ff
r{LssurL
WW--, .

for a reaclronb)ow:

.a^.-.

pr*rclzs)

lyseaus

wvubr o.p ^Jes


dr tn reu0r14

AM:y a .nr[o
04bu-

at unstat volu,u

"t +h tyt+un

'tncea54t)

-.wdd=M__
,- Auest
At +tru
wluru
II
'.rl
|
,
.,1

VtlU trrqz,*

l't

mtir*din

Tup-pnfotg-(ijMr"e T *t -EtrJB

t/t ha

flDve)b- ayl}Wu

ot,l'oy6 +le,
udq+ldryit_L_
IrytCho4 or'

'hqcdnla
-$/DiiU&;.-Len@e

y (L varg )-+

c / tH,l
w{,

ruazhon,Wrr4i

0f vr(Q ve64.
Qa r-h ans

v
-,-

/r

tS

\4

-l---t-

_gr,hSt7vt
U thaf
,, lroo
tw_Mg @_91

wachon

w ;t*rytA
oy

v( q-

vovrtd bv

h teyrraAres

,*rni 6,

0 lSnoprnhrz,

v,u,l,W!vlnrwlo*
-ffilyg i!@ge !!- frq- ol l"*aQ o^a ftverszpqchon't
-h

w&u,b&--

*la-/arB.-Mct"i{.-

\tse){ is rrvt

vw)vwI \ n +I,t-

-:Lpy,k ,y+w+t+" ,Ap- *t&*U -" tUr', o-u


.tl-I-.------

,rdtl-U-p

,kai,,rtv
-/-ni-

ar-Uryg__qvry.wv,n

u^W:
---

:,+"-o+,ffiEffitn

rar

'.
vwmartT4

CLv^ql-

f,fte-

hwwrhdho,t

chanaa
olvrdo

4resuro

Tu^Wy"tu.9
1*,zI r <,*

Mss

)rr,i

R*t awta,tf
unrkaYuz
uncWnqz

thqldL
d',ori t

-:.--l
ir.1.'l

t'

,l

bavtUWruv{t
Mill

UnrltinqO

un"laiaz

4tv|a
vru,lnintt,

hrilrb|un &na

zrhanu
-"|*f^L

/un

d"o,,riL
rmcLaioz,

7, 4 NlH.

1, y a^d
/ I/i{
pncws
:/,f'!,It,
Em rrq}+ Aor/?t" 'qle
ArYn{,
rTlut:
, . oi, _
't"+lltl-t,b)
to.^,
-Fi .
+:Nur$)
4jlJ*,,1,o"i";?y" -;E'\'a
'/i50o
grbe.r
flz

y/i'AO.

-n^-

c i )oo *r*

h e NHs

^ ,+Ei,|;h;;
vfrcnh"
V'(hnvnvttd
lrluc*u n )

.::

rb
\-/

t.

t'trri,*b\y*

l,

, P,?oi
/:a0-)i ),:t ql
/^^..

-,i1

.qll t-.Or

->s')..'

+to ' rgot


i-)"" Lqk c"rs-t.
-r60ofn
and.*'onst
dl
Hr
tso
"pt'm,
to

+L

^vs+ai{Yra*d Y'C; iu 1n:'diitfru

.hlr6)+3H,g) .-<--

...:';).".

f '
3. C(s) + Coz(9)
2co(g)
\ !''
Theenthalpy
changeof reaction,
AHfortheaboveequilibrium
is +188kJ mol-l.Explain
the effectof an increase
in temperature
on
(i)theconcentration
of eachcomponent
in theequilibrium I4l
(ii)the rateof attainment
of theequilibrium I4l

Ct";

3)
ti)

Forruqrd

-ieq.h'*

CO' (r) ==r 1C0ca)


-l

-rS
cndo+herrnic. lncreqsinq {he

+o rtqht H^rr,
eqwii;hnarn
.u_
J

cotcuft,ttin i

enle*odrlrz slrftr rhe

COr hoeo.v*.

bncenffiwt

t(

i4q(asaA'

iave

ci i )

d\.,+''no

:'=-

2. Sulphuric
acid,HzSOr,is manufactured
bytheContactprocess.
Oneof theimpodant
reactions
in thisprocess
is asfollols:
-=zSOz(9)+ oz(9)
zSos(g)
Explaintheeffecton theposition
of equilibrium
if
(i)thetotalpressure
of theequilibrium
is decreased t2l
(ii)lteiiumgasisaddedto themixture
butthetctalpressure
is maintained. t2)

(i) trwrnber note.t q4y^^s t?=qexnfa grove"Sp {ha q'.r'nlat# ^oh


" g4qqls
"$
sh'{ts
1odlt*. I\e .1"1,d''+rtL7osi,m

Exercise:
in equilibilum
to thesystem
(b)srlver
is addedseparately
nitrate
vrhen(a)sodiumchloride,
andexplain
witatwillhappen
1. Describe
temperature
, at constant
(aC) + 4H2O(li
lCuChl2]2.(aq) + 4 Cl-(aq)-=:-I Cu(HzO)r
- tllue
Yellow

cb)

+e rgir"m, luy c;.fftr*;

4 d, *

dec'a*set'

rd^
reaats urfl^Cl-or-t ft firm AaA'
"i,/
?rt*rda, +o l^c/aaEp the. ./\=ntt-frb| * cl-d\s,
.
rl ^'
,
A
4
'b71anpg,$f'Dnbt,?l shhFtg 4he, l*f . fl. ,nlo.r. clnqqq\ Qvn *. tlorl
(,ohrt[
Da]:rffiq+e ;s hr,tBd,
'tl

SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAANSACREDHEART


JflH
'ne.^*: ,SACREDHEART SECONDARYSCHOOL
tiM-i',
t...

i?o;, -l

, ar.sr'

No. Kad Pengenalan

No. PusaVAngka Giliran

Idetrtitt'Curd Nunrber,

....... CentreNumberllndetNunber .-..-....Tahun STPM

Kod dan Nama Kertas


CotleundNonteofPaper.....
* Potong yang tidak berkenaan

PenggaL/Ulangan*

YearofSTPM.

...... Ternt/Resit

Tahun MUET

I)eletc v'hcreoppropriate

Sesi

Yeu' of MUET.

lca) gi) Reag,,1* I hqCtoffn qas


Cond.ttunS'.Tentpe:aiurz

Jangan tulis
apa-apa di
ruang ini.
Do ttot v,rite
irt tltis colunm

...... Ses.rion..

ad, attrtrren -q(s .


. n k n o /r e

-T:JV

'

tE nor

OOV

L)

: n0-.250"w,

R^r^rra

l.o
N,* 3{= r^uas

Cot"l,{sf
Eqwfwts'.

nied-fu q deuae.
l. The{orrurd reacfi'on}s exo$ptmtc a^d, a.ccomP4

)n tAe numb)/ a( nde 4 o^


). Llence accordrv:q
fo lu

hd, Drersvrz-faw,tA

&o+AAt pirtc)pla, a lo,,o tenpenttre nd

+hP6Uoral eact bn

3 H"o,Jt*, ct loo rnperafurz, ttv

ra+e d+ taeF.bn's lot^: d^ol

*he tiile tabn

{o q't-tain eq'*,['brt,rrn b lorter.


.lh viald
rt. At A,.g\,ten7raire,
"+ dffir1oflrv rs /vt. 4nce

6aprofi& fenprafure

4 4b"C

5. Lon ls ur.;ize 4S cahtqgl 1o .wd


I

6, t}gl pwture
1

l,lutce

;s use/..
,JD tlz

,ate o( raehott,

po/uce'x rrtorearyrtorrid but -t'lz cotf rJ l,qln .

pl%turL 4

Y00 - L40 atm ,\ uil.

salts.
froi'narninonium
whiiein thelaberatory
amrncnia
is prepared
arnnronia
by the Haberprocess,
i (a)lrrindustry,
is manufactured
Explain
(i) Statethereagents,
forthemanurfacture
of ammoniabythe llaberprocess.
equation
conditions
andwritea balanced
the equilibriunrer"'f, if,e1idGffirs consiCereii iir-ii'?eHaber process.
-2.The

prociuction
Haberprocessis usedin theindustrial
equation
is as follows.
of ammonia.
Thereaction
gHr(s)
:
+
Nz(g)
(9)
zNl-l-.

a) At a temperature
whatis meantby
of 500oC
Explain
anda pressure
of 500atm,thesystemis in a stateaf dynamicequilibrium.
the lerm dynamicequilibrium.l2l
T
b) (i) Namea catalyst
fortheHaberProcess. JrorI '
ii) Explainwhyther:atalyst
position
in (i)doesnotaltertheequilibrium
inthisprccess.[2]

)c^ N\an ^sqsfumiq a *ate e( d:ilamrcequilbiun, fte rufe ot turdarot


5( e,-hsfuace* /o+ \
hla.
'&du,
and rwsrf,r- rcnehon ly flre sortB emc

a^ol /OQ/^e reaefuorttre ft? eW. aud flp dnodnt

cb) \ Tlrecd+al\*;,wrease's
tir,e,*tz ,l loraad

Calon hendaklah menggunakan kedua-dua belah muka surat.


Candidates are required to use both sides ofthe paper
KEJ UJURAN ME NCE RM INKA N KE PE RIBADIA N A N DA
HONESTY IS A REFLECTION OF CHARACTER