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- part-1

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116003

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ASSIGNMENT NO. 01

SUBJECT

Design-1

Advance

Reinforced

NAME

PROGRAMME

: MTECH (CIVIL)

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CONTENTS

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

Question

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

1

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9

10

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No

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Question No.1

(a) Design the spandrel beam as shown in fig. given below Fc = 4000 psi , fy =

60000psi

Answer:

Plasticity

fy= 60,000 psi

fc= 4,000 psi

Actual steel ratio,

= 5.64 / (12 x 16) = 0.0294

from equation 13, the minimum allowable reinforcement ratio

min = 3 cf' / fy

= 3 4000/ 60000 = 0.0032

but not less than 200/fy= 200/60000 = 0.0033 < 0.0294 " "" "OK

Depth of compressive block from equation 5:

a = Asfy/ 0.85fcb = 5.64 x 60,000 / 0.85 x 4,000 x 12 = 8.29 in

1= 0.85

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c / dt= 9.76 / 16 = 0.61 > 0.60

Check the strain in the steel from equation 12:

t= 0.003 ( dt c)/ c = 0.003 (16 9.76)/9.76 = 0.0019 < y = 0.0021" ""

"NG

Since t is less than the yield strain y, brittle behavior governs, and the

section is in the compression-controlled zone and does not satisfy the ACI code

requirements for flexural beams

Question No. 2

(a)

What are the main types of structural cracks in a beam and non

structural cracks in a building ?

Answer:

STRUCTURAL CRACKS

(a) Flexural Cracks

Cracking in reinforced concrete flexural members subjected to bending

starts in the tensile zone, e.g: at the soffit of beams. Generally beams and slabs

may be subjected to significant loads and deflection under these loads, with the

steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete subject to tension and

stretching. When the tension exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, a

transverse or flexural crack is formed. Although in the short term the width of

flexural cracks narrows from the surface to the steel, in the long-term under

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sustained loading, the crack width increases and becomes more uniform across

the member.

(b) Shear Cracks

These are caused by structural loading or movement after the concrete has

hardened. Shear cracks are better described as diagonal tension cracks due to the

combined effects of bending and shearing action. Beams and columns are

generally prone to such cracking.

(c)

Internal Micro-Cracks

Micro cracking can occur in severe stress zones, due to large differential

cracks which can become continuous and become a visible sign of impending

structural problems.

Cracks in concrete beams due to increased shear stress

Fig 2.1

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Fig 2.2

Cracks in concrete beams due to corrosion or insufficient concrete cover

Fig 2.3

Fig 2.4

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Fig 2.5

Cracks due to compression failure in beams

Fig 2.6

The severity of a crack can be characterized in terms of its direction, width, and depth; cracks may

be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random. Different risks for cracking exist for cured

versus uncured concrete, and for reinforced concrete. Breakages occur through thermal, chemical or

mechanical processes causing shrinkage, expansion or flexural stress. Below is a list of types of

concrete cracks, and some of their possible causes:

A. Plastic-shrinkage cracking: Cracks that run to the mid-depth of the concrete, are distributed

across the surface unevenly, and are usually short in length.

Most often occurs while concrete is curing, due to the surface of the concrete drying too

rapidly relative to the concrete below.

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B. Crazing/Map cracking/Checking: A web of fine, shallow cracks across the surface of the

concrete.

Also occur during curing due to the surface of concrete drying faster than the interior

concrete, but the surface drying occurs at a lesser depth.

Because this type of cracking is limited to the surface, it does not usually pose serious

structural problems.

Due to their depth, these cracks can allow for more serious cracking once the concrete is

hardened.

Occurs when a piece of aggregate near the concrete surface is particularly absorbent,

causing it to expand and pop out of the surface of the concrete.

E. Scaling: Small pock marks in the concrete surface, exposing aggregate underneath.

Once cured, if concrete does have an adequate finish to prevent water penetration, water

that seeps into the concrete will expand when it freezes, pushing off pieces of the

concrete surface.

Scaling can also be caused by delamination, which occurs when too much water (due to

insufficient curing) or air (due to insufficient vibrating) remains in the concrete when it

is finished. The water and air rise to the top and form pockets below the surface. These

pockets may form blisters or which may break open to create scaling.

F. Spalling: Surface depressions that are larger and deeper than scaling, often linear when

following the length of a rebar.

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Most often occur due to improperly constructed joints or the corrosion of rebar in the

concrete

Corrosion creates pressure as rust forms, which can push away large chunks of concrete,

and expose the corroded metal below.

Spalling that exposes corroded metal can be particularly problematic because the

corrosion is likely to accelerate due to exposure to air and water.

G. D-Cracking: Cracks that runs roughly parallel or stem from a concrete joint and are deeper than

surface cracks.

H. Offset cracking: Cracks where the concrete on one side of the crack is lower than the concrete

on the other side.

Due to uneven surfaces below the concrete, such as subgrade settlement or pressure

from objects such as tree roots, previously-placed concrete, or rebar.

I. Diagonal corner cracking: Cracks that run from one joint to its perpendicular joint at the corner

of a slab

The corners of concrete slabs can be prone to curling (due to differences in temperature

at different depths in the curing concrete) or warping (due to differences in moisture

evaporation at different depths in the curing concrete). The dryer or colder level of

concrete will shrink more and create cracks as the concrete dries.

Because the warped or curled-up corners often have some empty space below them, they

are also prone to cracking after curing due to weight overload causing the corner to snap

downward into the empty space.

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Question No.3

Design the part AB of the continuous beam as shown in the following fig.

fc=3000psi

Fy= 60000psi

D.L = 800 Ib/ft including self weight

L.L= 200 Ib/ft

Answer:

To compute the positive moment at mid span of beam B3andnegative moment at the exterior end of beam B3, it is necessary to load spans AB and CD with

live load. Because the majority of the moment in the left span results from loads

onthat span, we shall take the tributary area to be the area over beam B3,

extending halfway to the adjacent beams:

From Eq. (2-12), the reduced live load is where the unreduced live load,

is100 psf and for a typical floor beam

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Question No. 4

A typical floor panel measuring 16 X 20 feet on centers of of 9 thick wall with its

two adjacent edges are continuous as shown in the following fig. carries a service

of live load of 100 psf in addition to its own weight . floor finishing includes 50 psf

Using fc = 3000psi and fy= 60000 psi, calculate +ve and ve bending mements.

Answer:

The

ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation

1. There are two or more spans.2. Spans are approximately equal. The two adjacent spans shall not be

more than 20 percent difference inlength.3. Load distributes uniformly.4. Live load shall not exceed

three times of dead load.5. Members are prismatic.

Factored Moments: Three or more spans Positive moment:

Interior span:

Mu= Wuln2 /16

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End span (discontinuous integral with support): Mu= Wuln2 /14

Negative moments:

Negative moments at exterior face of first interior support: Mu= Wuln2 /10

Negative moments at other face of first interior support: Mu= Wuln2 /11

Negative moments at interior face of exterior support by spandrel beam: Mu= Wul n2/24

Negative moments at interior face of exterior support by column: Mu= Wul n2 /16

At ultimate stress situation, the concrete at top portion is subjected to compression. The

compressive stresses distribute uniformly over a depth a. The resultant of compressive stress, C is

located at a distance/2, from the top surface. Tensile force is taken by rebars at an effective distance, d,

from the top surface. By equilibrium, the tensile force is equal to the compression resultant

T= Asfy= C = 0.85fc ab

Where fy is the yield strength of reinforcing steel and As is the area of steel. Therefore, The depth of

stress block,

a = Asfy /(0.85fcb), or a = Asfyd/(0.85fcbd),

Let the reinforcement ratio,

= As/bd, then

a =fyd/0.85fc

Let m = fy /0.85fc, then,

a =d m The nominal moment strength of the section,

Mn= C (d-a/2) = 0.85fc ab(d-a/2)

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Mn = Asfy(d-a/2) = Asfy(d-dm/2) = Asfyd- Asfydm/2

ACI code requires that the factored moment,

Mu Mn

Where, = 0.9, is the strength reduction factor for beam design.

Let Mu=Mn, We have Mu= (Asfyd- Asfy dm/2)

Divide both side by bd2, we have Mu / bd = (As /bd)fy-(As /bd) fy m/2) =fy- fy 2m/2)

Let Rn= Mu/ bd2, and we cab rewrite the equation as

2(m/2) -- Rn /fy= 0Solving the equation, the reinforcement ratio,= (1/m)(1-2mRn /fy)1/2

The area of reinforcement is As=b d

Question No. 5

Find out the depth of slab and steel reinforcement in both directions for the slab

panel of Q#4 and draw the sketch.

For square panels, the span ratio = la/lb= 1.0, for all the panels. As mentioned, panel A, B and C

represents Case 4, 8

(or 9) and 2 respectively. Therefore,

In Panel A, Ca(D)+ = Cb(D)+ = 0.027, Ca(L)+ = Cb(L)+ = 0.032, Ca = Cb = 0.050

In Panel B, Ca(D)+ = 0.020, Cb(D)+ = 0.023, Ca(L)+ = 0.028, Cb(L)+ = 0.030, Ca = 0.033, Cb = 0.061

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Assumed slab thickness, t = (13 + 19) 2/180 = 4.33; i.e., 4.5

d = 3.5 (or 3 for Mmin)

Self Wt.= 56.25 psf

DL = 56.25 + 30 + 50 = 136.25 psf = 0.136 ksf

LL = 60 psf = 0.06 ksf

Total Load per slab area = 0.136 + 0.06 = 0.196 ksf

Factored DL = 1.4 x 136.25 = 190.75 psf = 0.191 ksf,

LL = 1.7 x 60 = 102 psf = 0.102 ksf

Total factored load per slab area = 0.191 + 0.102 = 0.293 ksf

Question No. 6

Write a note on different types of loads for design of RCC structure ?

Answer:

The loads are broadly classified as vertical loads, horizontal loads and longitudinal loads. The

vertical loads consist of dead load, live load and impact load. The horizontal loads comprises of wind

load and earthquake load. The longitudinal loads i.e. tractive and braking forces are considered in

special case of design of bridges, gantry girders etc.

Imposed loads or live loads:

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Live loads are either movable or moving loads with out any acceleration or impact. There are

assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of the building including weights of movable

partitions or furniture etc. The floor slabs have to be designed to carry either uniformly distributed

loads or concentrated loads whichever produce greater stresses in the part under consideration. Since it

is unlikely that any one particular time all floors will not be simultaneously carrying maximum loading,

the code permits some reduction in imposed loads in designing columns, load bearing walls, piers

supports and foundations.

Dead load:

Dead loads are permanent or stationary loads which are transferred to structure throughout the

life span. Dead load is primarily due to self weight of structural members, permanent partition walls,

fixed permanent equipments and weight of different materials.

Impact loads:

Impact load is caused by vibration or impact or acceleration. Thus, impact load is equal to

imposed load incremented by some percentage called impact factor or impact allowance depending

upon the intensity of impact.

Wind loads:

Wind load is primarily horizontal load caused by the movement of air relative to earth. Wind

load is required to be considered in design especially when the heath of the building exceeds two times

the dimensions transverse to the exposed wind surface.

For low rise building say up to four to five storeys, the wind load is not critical because the

moment of resistance provided by the continuity of floor system to column connection and walls

provided between columns are sufficient to accommodate the effect of these forces. Further in limit

state method the factor for design load is reduced to 1.2 (DL+LL+WL) when wind is considered as

against the factor of 1.5(DL+LL) when wind is not considered. IS 1893 (part 3) code book is to be used

for design purpose.

Earthquake load:

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Earthquake loads are horizontal loads caused by the earthquake and shall be computed in

accordance with IS 1893. For monolithic reinforced concrete structures located in the seismic zone 2,

and 3 without more than 5 storey high and importance factor less than 1, the seismic forces are not

critical.

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Question No. 7

Design the cantilever beam of span 10 feet as shown in the following fig to carry a

service load of 4 Kip/ft and live load of 3 Kip/ft. use fc= 4000 psi , fy=60000 psi.

Answer:

D.L + L.L

10 Ft

Length of beam

: 10 ft

D.L/S.L

: 4 Kip/ft

L.L

: 3 kip/ft

fc

: 4000 psi

fy

: 60000 psi

wu

= 1.2(DL) + 1.6(LL)

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= 1.2( 4)

+ 1.6 (3)

= 9.6 kips/ft

Maximum Reaction:

RA =

qL

RA =

9.6 X 10

RA = 96 kips / ft

Maximum Reaction:

Mu

Mu

Mu

= Wu

L2 / 2

2

= 9.6 x 10 / 2

= 480 kip-ft

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Zx

M n 186(12)

61.9 in.3

Fy

36

From try W 16 36

For beam weight, wu = 1.2(0.036) = 0.0432 kips/ft

New Mn = 190 kip-ft, Zx = 63.3 in.3, selection still OK

Question No. 8

Design a short tied column axially loaded to support a service D.L of 250000 ibs

and L.L of 300000 Ibs. Use fc = 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi

Answer:

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Question No. 9

Write a note on different kinds of ties in RCC structures. What are the different

codes for earthquake resistant design of structures ?

Answer:

Different type of structure ties in RCC structures.

Columns

Beams

Plates

Arches

Shells

Catenaries

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Many of these elements can be classified according to form (straight, plane/curve) and dimensionality

(one-dimensional/two-dimensional):

Columns

Columns are elements that carry only axial forceeither tension or compressionor both axial

force and bending (which is technically called a beam-column but practically, just a column). The

design of a column must check the axial capacity of the element, and the buckling capacity.

The buckling capacity is the capacity of the element to withstand the propensity to buckle. Its capacity

depends upon its geometry, material, and the effective length of the column, which depends upon the

restraint conditions at the top and bottom of the column. The effective length is

where is the real

length of the column.

The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and

vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship.

Beams

A beam may be:

Cantilevered (supported at one end only with a fixed connection)

Simply supported (supported vertically at each end but able to rotate at the supports)

Continuous (supported by three or more supports)

A combination of the above (ex. supported at one end and in the middle)

Beams are elements which carry pure bending only. Bending causes one section of a beam (divided

along its length) to go into compression and the other section into tension. The compression section

must be designed to resist buckling and crushing, while the tension section must be able to adequately

resist the tension.

A truss is a structure comprising two types of structural element, ie struts and ties. A strut is a

relatively lightweight column and a tie is a slender element designed to withstand tension forces. In a

pin-jointed truss (where all joints are essentially hinges), the individual elements of a truss theoretically

carry only axial load. From experiments it can be shown that even trusses with rigid joints will behave

as though the joints are pinned.

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Trusses are usually utilized to span large distances, where it would be uneconomical and

unattractive to use solid beams.

Plates

Plates carry bending in two directions. A concrete flat slab is an example of a plate. Plates are

understood by using continuum mechanics, but due to the complexity involved they are most often

designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.

They can also be designed with yield line theory, where an assumed collapse mechanism is

analyzed to give an upper bound on the collapse load (see Plasticity). This is rarely used in practice.

Shells

Shells derive their strength from their form, and carry forces in compression in two directions.

A dome is an example of a shell. They can be designed by making a hanging-chain model, which will

act as a catenary in pure tension, and inverting the form to achieve pure compression.

Arches

Arches carry forces in compression in one direction only, which is why it is appropriate to build arches

out of masonry. They are designed by ensuring that the line of thrust of the force remains within the

depth of the arch.

Catenaries

Catenaries derive their strength from their form, and carry transverse forces in pure tension by

deflecting (just as a tightrope will sag when someone walks on it). They are almost always cable or

fabric structures. A fabric structure acts as a centenary in two directions.

Earthquake resistant building design guidelines are provided by set of Indian Standard codes

(IS Codes). After observing Indian earthquakes for several years Bureau of Indian Standard has divided

the country into five zones depending upon the severity of earthquake. IS 1893-1984 shows the various

zones.

The following IS codes will be of great importance for the structural design engineers:

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Buildings. (2nd revision).

Building.

IS: 139201997: Code of practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Subjected to Seismic Forces.

Question No. 10

Analyze the frame as shown in the following fig.

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Answer:

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References:

http://theconstructor.org

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org

https://en.wikipedia.org

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com

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