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WASTE & RECYCLED MATERIAL IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

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ABSTRACT
World wide consumption of concrete amounts to more than 1000 Kgs/person
The demand is expected to increase in future
Concrete comprises in quantity the largest of man made material
INTRODUCTION
Concrete made with Portland cement ,water admixtures and aggregates comprises
in quantity the largest of all man made material
Historically whenever new compounds were produced ,or waste materials
accumulated in industries ,they were incorporated as one of ingredients of
concrete. Typical examples are fly ash phosphogypsum,blast furnace slag, saw mil
waste, rice husk, cotton etc.The wide spread need for conserving resources &
environment will be reflected major emphasis on the use of wastes & by products.
Recycling of concrete materials also offers some promise. Attempts are already
being made to use municipal refuse & waste oil as partial substitutes for the fuel
in the production of cement clinker
NEED OF RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS
Rise in population
Large scale demand for housing
Over stressing the reserves of traditional building materials
Cement material presently not in a position to cope the millions of the country
The enormous amount of waste materials
Recycling becoming imperative & mandatory
ROLE OF WASTE MATERIAL IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION
Many waste materials contain basic ingredients that are needed for the
manufacturing of cement clinker
Fly ash can also be used as a source of raw material
Lime sludge can be used as a substitutes for lime stone
Red mud a waste material from the production of alumina used as a raw material
for cement clinker production
Phosphogypsum as a mineralizer for making clinker
PORTLAND CEMENT MANUFACTURED FROM WASTE MATERIALS
FLY ASH CEMENT
BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT
RICE HUSK ASH CEMENT
FLY ASH CEMENT
Fly ash is the ash component of Coal liberated during combustion .
Fly ash can be incorporated into Portland cement in one of the three ways.
Fly ash can be used as a admixture or as replacement of Portland cement.
Fly ash addition to Portland cement results in increased workability.
In fly ash cement development of compressive strength is slow
At longer periods of curing Fly ash concrete develops higher strengths than the
normal concrete
INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT IN CONCRETE

PERMEABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE


ADVANTAGES OF FLY ASH CONCRETE
Addition of fly ash to concrete minimize or eliminates the expansion due to alkali
aggregate reaction
WORKABILITY
TIME OF SETTING
DURABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE
Sufficiently cured fly ash concrete has dense structure & hence more resistance to
deleterious substances.
This reduces the corrosion of reinforcement.
Class F fly ash reduces alkali-silica reactivity because of the dense structure &
hence expansion is reduced which increases durability.
Because of the reduced permeability the chloride ingress is reduced.
STRUCTURES USED FLY ASH ASH
BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT
Portland blast furnace slag cement can replace Portland cement where high
strength is not required.
It is produced by intergrinding Portland cement clinker & granulated blast furnace
slag.
The workability of this cement is as good as Portland cement concrete.
This is resistant to a number of aggressive agents including sulphates of
Al,Mg,NH4 etc
The rate of hardening is slower than the normal Portland cement concrete.
The 90 days strength is of Portland cement concrete.
More resistant to sea water &other chemical agents than Portland cement.
RICE HUSK ASH CEMENT
In the rice milling operation one ton of rice paddy produces 400 kg of husk.
Burning of the husk results in 20% by a weight of ash. Blending this ash with
cement produces a suitable blended cement
ADVANTAGE
The rice husk ash cement on hydration produces practically no Ca(OH)2 &hence is
superior to Portland.
RECYCLING OF CONCRETE
Except structures which have to be preserved as moments a great number of
them have to be demolished sooner or later.
Concrete accounts of nearly 75% by weight of all construction material.
Millions of tons of concrete debris are generated by natural disaster.
Depletion of normal aggregate sources, stricter environmental laws & waste
disposal problems make recycling of concrete.
RECYCLING PROCESS
USES OF RECYCLED CONCRETE
Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects.
Sub base gravels laid down as the lowest layer in a road.
Recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete.
Larger pieces can be used for erosion control.

DISADVANTAGES
Lead paint contamination.
MINING & QUARRYING WASTES
Large amount of wastes produced in mining & quarrying operations.
Mineral mining wastes are waste rock or mill tailings.
Manufacturing of bricks ,light weight aggregates & autoclaved concrete blocks.
APPLICATION OF MISCELLANEOUS WASTES
Collier spoil
Waste glass
Red mud
Burnt clay
Saw dust
COLLIERY SOIL
In coal operations about one half of the material is separated & discarded as
colliery soil.
This soil is used to fill in road embankments.
It can also be used to produce light weight concrete.
WASTE GLASS
Millions of tons of waste glass are generated annually..
The strength of concrete less than with gravel aggregate.

Reference: http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-waste-recycled-material-inconcrete-technology#ixzz4L5kiFx5P

It makes a lot of material and ecological


sense to use recycled material and waste in
construction.
Think about it: construction happens to be among
the top three polluting industries of our era. No
surprises here, because concrete, cement, glass,
aluminium composite panels (ACP) and ceramic
tiles which have become the material' language
of architecture today consume huge amounts of
raw material, generate pollution and require huge
amounts of energy to make and maintain. So, does
it make sense to persist with these materials?
Recycled alternatives
Many architects now use green bricks' bricks
and blocks made with fly ash, the ash from
burning coal at power plants. Then, there are
compressed mud blocks. But opting for greener
materials like mud cannot be a universal
alternative. The solution has to be diverse,
inventive, and sensitive to the needs, location, and
materials available. Aluminium, if it is newly
made from bauxite ore is very eco-unfriendly, but
when it is recycled from previous use, becomes far

more ecologically harmful than a fired brick, or in


some cases, even wood. So, there is no one
solution or answer...everything needs to be
weighed, points out Bangalore-based architect
and MD of Biome Environmental Solutions,
Chitra Vishwanath, whose buildings have become
famous for the happy confluence of great design
and eco-sustainability.
Are such buildings structurally sound and longlasting? Actually, yes. Fly ash bricks are strong. In
fact, old wood (if maintained dry) can be stronger
than new wood, because it has had a long time to
cure'. Adds Ms. Vishwanath, Structural
soundness is a need, but no building should be so
long-lasting that it becomes a burden to the future
generation and rob them of the right to have new
buildings. The buildings should be built
structurally sound, but cheap. The building should
be such that, it itself serves as the quarry for
another building that will eventually come up.
How do you do that? Well, old mud blocks can be
degraded and recycled into new mud blocks.
Likewise is the case with fly ash bricks. Steel in
buildings can be recycled if un-corroded. So, an
arch panel made of clay tiles with steel beams

become totally recyclable, she points out.


Industrial waste such as computer keyboards
which cannot be degraded (as it affects human
health) can be used as filler slabs, as Ms.
Vishwanath has done in a few of her buildings.
We use old Mangalore tiles as filler slabs as a
routine, says architect Gautam Seetharaman of
the Centre for Vernacular Architecture. In fact,
anything can be recycled, with ingenuity.
Of course, all of us do salvage doors, windows,
frames, pillars, sinks, plumbing and electrical
fixtures, ducts, hardware, insulation, cabinets,
fencing and so on, but recycling can acquire a
larger and creative dimension.
At an office space designed by architect Sriram
Ganapathi, you find discarded bicycle wheels and
plumbing pipes forming table legs, shower arms
as task lighting supports, packing wood for
benches, modified second-hand stools as bar
stools, all of which make the place not just funky
but also low cost. Then, rather than going for fresh
tiles, you can fix waste and broken bits of tile in
interesting shapes and patterns to form feature
walls.

Gautam Seetharaman has used granite waste


blocks from granite processing factories to create
random rubble walls using cement mortar. These
walls are not just sturdy stone stuff, but look nice
too.
Recycling prevents wastage of resources. By using
recycled material and incorporating waste
material in the construction of buildings and in
interior dcor, we avert the energy and rawmaterial-consuming and pollution-generating
process of creation and transport of the new
building material. It can be challenging, but
extremely interesting to reuse old building
material. And done right, recycling can even end
up cost-saving.
In any case, as Ms. Vishwanath remarks,
Recycled materials will certainly be cheaper in
terms of ecological cost. With intelligent clients
and designers, cost is not a material-specific
issue. Going in for second-hand stuff is no longer
pass. In an increasingly eco-sensitive world, it is
fashionable.
HEMA VIJA