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omain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.

ce of all concerned.
Military Forces, is pub-


omain, Google-digitized /





289-294 408



14-319 468


g stock 152

dress uniforms. (The black

rm indicates the


onoscimento) 171

rsonate) 173

(Glisenti) 181


30 (Breda) 189

el 37 (Breda) 190

, model 38 (Breda) 192

el 35 (Fiat-Revelli) 194

el 07/12 (Schwarzlose) 195

(Beretta) 197

l 35 (Breda) 199

xia) 204



4 (Ansaldo) 216

gun, model 34 (Ansaldo). 217

(Breda) 219

(Breda), ready for trans-

odel 37 225

omain, Google-digitized /

d model 227

s 241

ne 305



oder 321

-' 324

ne switchboard (with

es of telephone wire 329

ph set. (The black holes


phantom telephony and

1928) (with circuit

tical signaling apparatus.- 336

aling apparatus 337

he 180-mm phototelephonic

and applications of storage



5 352

5, showing nozzle 353

omain, Google-digitized /

0 355

5, with trailer 356

arate type canister is

omain, Google-digitized /

y followed in the text by

. Likewise, in cases where

ul, they are also given in

ms and names, such as rag-

Alpini, which are in com-

nerally used in this form

ten no exact English or

for the ranks of maresei-

metimes given, but not used

e more misleading than

ral principal of pronun-

those Italian sounds that

e placed on Italian words

the last syllable but one.

changes and additions

o the Dissemination Unit,

omain, Google-digitized /

artment, Washington,

omain, Google-digitized /


mimilitary body (see

he senior position in the Army.

rabineers, formed in Pied-

egime. At the time of the

861), the Corps assumed

s that had been exercising

alian states. It has always

ant force, and is participating

The triangular hat, charac-

mbat, recalls the original

rs (see plate II, following

on of the Grenadiers

y in Piedmont, where com-

among infantry regiments.

diers was constituted, and

Brigade of Guards (Brigata

called the Brigade of Grena-

di Sardcgna).

irst employed in Pied-

when the advantages of a

smanship and experienced in

e apparent. Even before

ad been mounted upon

rely transformed into a

with motorcycles. To the

men of superior physical

ck feathers worn on their

y La Marmora's original


in mountain warfare.

would be a great advantage

from the same Alpine

hrough the whole infantry.

omain, Google-digitized /

as completed the follow-


li, or CC.RR.).a.

monly called the ''first arm

ect corps of well-trained,

y police. The organiza-

ne of this arm are under

ar, and it is the senior

unctions are variously

or, the Ministry of the


n of the Royal Carabi-

400 officers, 11.550 noncom-

s as follows:

army corps general.


egioni territoriali).

ed to the Rome territorial

nd Palermo territorial legions.

ins one group of squadrons

Carabinieri. The latter form

ardie del Re), popularly

re is also an independent

ean Islands.

aid than the personnel of

k is senior to correspond-

mple, is the equivalent in

n the other branches of the

vided for the use of Cara-

ked infantry, as well as a

that they are so used only

omain, Google-digitized /

ty, they are organized into


ormed by Mussolini after

munists. In 1923, on the

e Fascist Militia was declared

f the State, while retaining

o recall imperial Romp

the fascio (fasces), the

ancient Romans, has been

Party (Partito Nazionale

mentary or local unit of

e units collectively form the

herents to the fascio."' Duce

several instances the

by the Italian version of the

the Fascist Militia cen-

nder the Commanding Gen-

s the executive commander.

een merged into the regular

f the militia is under

ff. The ordinary Militia,

anized as follows: 14 zone

army corps areas of the

legioni); 133 legions; and

d smaller units. The esti-

g both permanent forces


the Fascist Militia is

ngthening of the present

rtant police duties, mainly

in the colonies. These duties

. The main military tasks

combatant Black Shirt

omain, Google-digitized /

sions; provision of per-


e personnel is drawn from

telegraph, and telephone

a (MiUzia Forestale),

cers and 4,600 enlisted men,

lture and Forests. It ex-

n of forests, fisheries, and

ecial military training, and

n the Ethiopian and Greek

with the Army for sup-

e preparation of camp and

tc. The organization con-

gions, several motorized

cademy of Forestry Militia,

listed personnel, and 1 Al-

al legion for service in

ia (MiUzia Straddle),

ers and 1,185 noncommis-

der the Ministry of Public

e duties generally. In

nieri in traffic control; it

ed to it by the headquarters

d as a combat force only in

of a headquarters, 5 inspec-

departments, and 47 de-

llery Militia.Units of

litia (MiUzia Artiglieria

own as DIG AT) and MiU-

ormerly known as MIL-

strength of 90,000 men. Al-

adquarters, the units of each

artime units of both bodies

omain, Google-digitized /

territorial defense head-


er) Militia (Milizia

ime strength of 2,400, is com-

e ordinary Fascist Militia

ontier. It cooperates with

ng frontiers against illegal

cooperative function with the

the suppression of smuggling

ar. 12) in making investiga-

eers with an intimate knowl-

anization consists of a

Tolmezzo), and 4 legions.

dia di Finanza).a.

an integral part of the

rs being recruited largely from

edge of the frontier dis-

inistry of Finance except

he Ministry of War; its

of its thorough elementary

nt is unequal to that of a

e field is limited tactically.

the Royal Finance

officers and 30,000 enlisted


army corps general (as-

nance Guard as second in

om the Regular Army).

up commanded by a

d and comprising four

o battalions).

omain, Google-digitized /



net. To cover an 886-kilom-

uvers of the Army of the Po

talion (equipped with 424

d the following stations:

ntrol posts.

d groups.

ng eight mobile sta-

on and control of traffic,

y the officers in charge of

nd expansion.

nd strength of the con-

control posts.

ties in the localities where

e, and at the fuel stations.

e regular civil police

erior, with the Chief of

tion to this regular police

formazione Milifare), and

per la Repressione deWAn-

ligence organization

ief of the Supreme General

Navy, and Air Forces, and

ngly well-organized, and

d supervision of all foreign

r foreigners insofar as their

omain, Google-digitized /

rity of the country. The

mobilization 20-27




ll Italian male citizens

sive, are legally liable to mili-

to periods as follows:


nning after the 21st

mpletion of service with

me of war (33 to 54,


ses according to year of

omain, Google-digitized /

entering premilitary


dow over 64," "the first-born

may have their service de-

tion, but not later than the

r residing in foreign coun-

t, in practice, the majority

esidence abroad or, under

6 months. In 1942, persons

ed from military service, if,

possessed the nationality

zens of the Aegean Islands,

an East Africa are not re-

reigners who become nat-

vice only if over 32 years old.

commands.To fa-

corps, and division com-

y in matters of mobilization,

i territoriali) has been estab-

command; each division

the military zones are further

h there are one hundred and

ricts (distretti militari),

ral offices, are organized in two

ement and registration of

r mobilization of reserve man-

communes (commit), which

n the United States. Early

sh the district command a list

he age of 18 years during the

e spring, conscripts are called

heir identity cards and state-

ations are made in the vari-

ns" (eommdssioni mobili) sent

oards (consigli di leva),

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /



ntinue to wear the collar

s normally reinforced

nit in Italy. Thus the 3d

ced from the depot of the

battalions and companies

numbers as those of the first-

ay arise, since the 1st Bat-

y be the depot unit in Sicily

onally, but not very often,

is (repeated).

a. Combat ele-

ist Militia {Milizia Volon^

. V. S. N.), popularly known

en who volunteer for 10 years

hs service. In theory, the 10

use of the lack of trained

the law has, for the most

of Militia reservists is

to the colors.

ave now (1943) been

merly officered by Italians,

grades. Officers were re-

all. They were chosen from

Royal Finance Guards, the

r selection, they attended

School before going out to

e was also a recruiting and

vince of the colonies.

Carabinieri {Carabinieri

eri are probably nearly as

lian organizations, they are

with police duties. Some

omain, Google-digitized /

the Army, but roughly two-


hose who have the right

y service may enlist if they


corps for which they

n general.

t is, not guilty of cer-

e Royal Finance Guard,

zations included in the armed

istment. In time of war,

n may be accepted.

rst phase.Plans for

ed for five field armies, to-

ps and services. This phase

nd phase provided for a

he first. The special corps

in the peacetime plan. The

s in Albania and Greece re-

rtain Alpine and mountain

armies, 24 army corps, and

armored, motorized celeri,

rps, army, GHQ troops, and

ation had been accomplished

ompleted by the end of May

of equipment and armament.

omain, Google-digitized /

received weapons of the older


oximately the following

vice 1,250,000


45 to 55

m strength unless the

le from the supplies of some

. There being little prospect

e present mobilized forces

pacity. Given a sufficient sup-

n probably maintain her

ervizio permanente

lciali di complemento) i 29

n servizio perma-

lieutenants are drawn

academies at Turin (ar-

her arms) and from non-

pleted a special course for ap-

n intake from complemen-

pleting their ordinary train-

ofession. A small percentage

omain, Google-digitized /

become regular officers. A


age of well-trained, long-

ower in the Italian Army than

an Army is the out-

ry training in various organ-

d of the participation of Army

5-36), the Spanish Civil

1940-41), and the Libyan

prolonged but unsuccessful

rovided no training of

oldier.In the Fascist

soldier are regarded as in-

ral part of national edu-

n is capable of learning, and

carrying arms. The military


ject of preparing the

ily in the period previous to


t of improving and com-


omain, Google-digitized /

he object of keeping the


a technical professional prepa-


ung men from 21 to 22

18 months in the Army (see

usted to the Fascist

of 32.

l military instruction in

aining given by premilitary

n aims to make good citi-

ilitary spirit, patriotism, and

uction in the schools in-

for 5 scholastic years, spread

hool to the second year of

s is divided into 3 grades:

vers the final year of

ntary military knowledge (or-

etation of topographic

ng their academic course,

officers and specialists. Use

phy, drawings, diagrams,

s, covers the final 2 years

wledge (organization of

elementary knowledge of

become complementary (re-

universities. Its purpose is to

ow the close connection be-

economic life of the nation,

and a sense of discipline,

covers the first 2 years of

military preparation of a

omain, Google-digitized /

warfare, with discussion


or mobile (cavalry),

antiaircraft) (Net-


illery (Turin).

gineers (Turin).


missioned officers (two

for engineers).

ve officers (five for in-





r officers.Training is

cers were required periodically

cs. Considerable effort was

ity to handle troops in all

enlisted men.As far

en thorough individual and

ique of combat. In peace-

ained for service in the type of

to serve in the event of war.

loma, or the equivalent, were

rs' Training Schools in the

ualified exceeded in number

rs to be enrolled for that year.

aim of each unit is to

omain, Google-digitized /

able it to meet successfully


re, the general fitness for high

e Army has a professional

rresponding in general to

ers of the first four grades.

lected, and are promoted or

on under a combined selective

d at special service schools

y are well equipped for

s of conscript troops.

oned officers and the

officers come from the ranks

cation is not at all com-

missioned officers. The

nd experienced noncommis-

knesses of the Italian army.

ning of the conscript

s out soldiers of a fixed

essarily limited and rather

mewhat increased by pre-

all to duty. While the in-

is not remarkable, he has

ent that makes discipline

and hardy, and is able to

nt food. He is an extremely

ms and do 14 hours of hard

sent war, Fascist Militia

nd-line troops, and their record

category. Also based on its

egular Army combat units

howing may be partially

he war on 10 June 1940 was

nprovoked and completely

omain, Google-digitized /

ctober 1940 was even more


masters) 851. 00

ted men2 (per month):

ition to the maximum

receives an allotment of

80 for each child.

dered for 12 months there-

d their families receive the

red, effective from 28

the mobilized be doubled, but

omain, Google-digitized /

rest for the delay, will be paid


Ministers. Under the

taneously the Head of the

Minister of War, Navy,

trol of all armed forces and

upreme Commander. (See

f the Supreme Commis-

ma di Difesa), an inter-

rmed forces, and was re-

licies and practices of total

s the highest officials of

f the armed forces, is as


of State.


med Forces.

esidency of the Council

anian affairs.


anufacture of War

ssion of Defense.

omain, Google-digitized /

le matters that come espe-

r) in time of national


ization Center.

cture of War Materials.

eme Commander is the

apo di Stato Maggiore

nking officers of any of the

ponsible only to the Head

al advisor in all matters con-

nd the conduct of land, sea,

ggiore Generate).

d by the Supreme Com-

vy, and Air Force. It is his

he respective Ministries as

services. It is composed of

o Maggiore) and the Gen-

aggiore). The head of the

Army General Staff (Capo

he Army. After a 3-year

recommendation of a board

selected for the Supreme

ar to the headquarters of

n of this assignment they

and serve as heads of the vari-

uarters, where they are as-

rs who may be temporarily

a unit of his own arm for

he is again assigned to the

n to the rank of lieuten-

sfactorily fulfilled his duties,

al Staff Corps. There are nor-

colonels in the Corps, while

omain, Google-digitized /

s unlimited. All Chiefs of


This committee studies

necessary for the conduct of

on, and utilization of all na-

resident selected by the

ative from each of the three

rs representing commerce,


Arms and Munitions.

s and experiments of com-

Air Force.

Military Electrical Serv-

mittee has functions similar

mmittee for Arms and

ices consist of the fol-


ich generally administers

e of the following offices:


and reserve).

omain, Google-digitized /



ata) 56

lere) 58

) 59

utista) 60

, or O.a.F.) 62

y are modeled to a

erman Army. In contrast

rganization is extremely

m followed in practice and

ised units called regroup-

In general, the three


an army.

d army (armata).

armies (with the exception

ed only by the headquarters

ommand them in war.

an army group and of an

es. So far as is known, at

army, with two attached

army corps in any army

oops include heavy ar-

artiglieria suppletwa),

al, and survey units.

mmanded by an army gen-

The composition of

frequently transferred

my corps overseas will usually

omain, Google-digitized /

s from those which it would



a). a. The infan-

e bindria) owing to the

ts instead of the old three-

rom 1 March 1940, a

was attached to infantry

ease the number of infantry

ack Shirt troops with Regu-

, described as an independ-

axwlto) troops.1 During the

he binary division became evi-

avy losses had to be re-

vailable or even by merging

ry divisions in the Balkans

me have been given a third

hether this is a reverse or

le of organization. (For the

e fig. 5.)

egral part of a division, but is'ordinarily

omain, Google-digitized /

n view. Many divisions have lost their legion.


e ordinary infantry division.

decentralization of heavy

81-mm mortars) from regi-

t support weapons (machine

lion to company control.

engineers and rock-climbers

for combined operations.

mpares with an ordinary

e latter part of 1941 and is

ary infantry divisions.

mando di divi-

omain, Google-digitized /

rs, with a strength of 34

ts of the following components:


als. All the guns of the

in horse-drawn wagon

s not specially trained in

part recruited from moun-

e regions). It is believed

operate at a higher altitude

orizzata).Each of

ed to operate with an

the motorized division

headquarters, two motorized

ment, a support and anti-

an engineer battalion, and

th of the motorized


heavy trucks)- 850

a. General.The

fantry division, that is,

re (par. 55), its personnel

standard of physique and

re expert in the manhan-

have their own detach-

iliary services permanently

elf-supporting and capable

omain, Google-digitized /

ble period. Decentraliza-


could be truck-borne if

two motorized batteries

cludes a support group

orized division was de-

which, though moun-

rized units in a reconnaissance

sacrificed to this end, and

se. There are indications

ize these divisions completely,

ge of trained personnel and

ade on the divisions. Some

nverted into armored divi-

bile (cavalry) division,

zata)a. General.

fore the war, was a mixture

vier than 11 tons and the

able of more than light

has changed radically in

with an improved type of

self-propelling (semovente)

g weapons. In addition to

alions, the division now has

divisional artillery regiment

and probably an armored

ns were destroyed in North

being converted into

er, these converted divi-

ized cavalry regiments

and perhaps some self-pro-

uns mounted on the chassis

ether these converted

omain, Google-digitized /

e normal type of armored



rmed in Italy to replace the

d while fighting as infantry

sts of a headquarters, two

illery regiment, parachute

signal company.

a).Little is known

rganization of these troops

recent evidence indicates that

rm of an ordinary field

al units suggests that a

ommand all or some of the

5 coastal regiments, con-

s; 1 antitank battalion; 1 or 2

defense battalions; 1 mortar

panies; 1 engineers attached

iera, or G. a. FJ.

ponsible for the fortress

rmy corps stationed in the

quarters are attached to

nd are allotted a certain length

are further subdivided into

ber of fortified positions

inly by the army corps, but

tier Guard infantry regi-

menti of Frontier Guard

my corps Frontier Guard

ed the artillery units per-

ectors. A large part of the

e been taken from frontier

efense in southern Italy and

garrison duties in occupied

pose a large number of

omain, Google-digitized /

e been created.


giment 76'

cycle or motorized)

anization of the Italian

n a new conception of the

neuverability has been

ciency in attack and capacity

my position. In contrast,

lecting first-class personnel

e mainstay of forces in the

ordinated infantry to other

of pool into which are di-

itted for one of the more

the Italian Metropolitan

er the control of the Inspec-

annon designed to furnish

are an integral part of the

se of the new (binary)

ely 7,000 fewer men than

ch more easily maneuvered

e, the assault troops have

f the command, a 12-percent

ced to 2 sections. In-

been achieved by increasing

d arming them with 2 machine

units has been reduced

or movement of supplies.

ts draw upon the

ey do not have their own

omain, Google-digitized /

e noted that the bicycle'is


ness. Its normal total war

and 3,161 enlisted men, al-

n in these figures. (For an

of infantry regiment, see

es in other types of the

type, which may have as

nfantry regiment (bi-

ers; a headquarters com-

six mortars); a 47-mm

; three battalions; an ac-

een 45-mm mortars and eight

battalion consists of a

ny, and three rifle companies,

e rifle platoons each.

ed consecutively through-

nt. Every fourth company

e accompanying arms

platoon, two machine-gun

omain, Google-digitized /

and two 45-mm mortar

omain, Google-digitized /



three sections, each armed

f the former platoon of two

ght machine guns. The war

ated at 118 officers and 3,281

fantry regi-

e infantry regiment con-

rs company; 3 battalions; an

rs): a 47-mm accompanying

ying arms company (of eight

mortars). The regiment has

icers and 3,078 enlisted men.

nfantry regiment (par. 66)

-wheeled truck), of which it

mountain infantry

e of infantry regiment (par.

rain, the strength of which

omain, Google-digitized /

hich is added to the mountain


e motorized in-

arters; a headquarters com-

ix 81-mm mortars) and

eadquarters: and a head-

platoon (of nine 45-mm

ach of which includes three

latoon. The estimated war

giment is 70 officers and 1,765

1) The battalion is the

organization, A regiment

ions, though three is the nor-

nt has formed at its depot

hich may be distinguished by

n with Val or Monte. These

ne artillery units, in inde-

enti), and groups of varying

nt battle casualties of the

attalion, which is provided

regiment, does not usually

ch is necessitated by

in mountain conditions,

ndependent supply and trans-

and including companies.

n, only an administrative

reek campaign, normally

full complement of support-

, and even companies, may

ent missions. However, or-

ith their parent organization

Alpine regiment (see fig.

omain, Google-digitized /

dquarters company, three


a medical section, a field hos-

nsport detachment. Each

a headquarters company, and

a machine-gun platoon (of

d total war strength of the"

ers and enlisted men.

e Bersaglieri cy-

the mobile (cavalry) division

corps. The Bersaglieri

of a headquarters, a head-

pany, and three battalions,

headquarters company, three

gun company (of twelve ma-

mated war strength of 106

The motorized Ber-

uarters, a headquarters pla-

ting of a headquarters platoon,

s and three machine guns),

ment has an estimated

enlisted men.

In the mobile (cav-

motorcycle company is

visional commander. Un-

also have a motorcycle com-

mpany (see fig. 11) consists

ifles and one machine gun);

ifles each); and a machine-

he company has an esti-

172 men.

t legion (see fig. 12)

arters platoon, and two bat-

rters company and three

omain, Google-digitized /

uarters platoon and three rifle

omain, Google-digitized /



fig. 14) normally con-

rs troop of two platoons, and

one cavalry troop and one

onsists of a headquarters

ections each. The head-

cessary personnel for the

ernal liaison of the troop,

as a horseshoer and medical

machine-gun troop (of

eadquarters and four platoons

omain, Google-digitized /

espects differs in organization


an cavalry horses are

cavalry officers are gen-

minent classes, and horse-

est. Hence, the training of

In spite of this, ordinary

standards. Government

he Country.

ome extent in summer

age known as energon is

pounds of hay and 8y2

ance detachments of the

lere) (par. 58) furnish the

e front of the large units of

or if special conditions

missions are entrusted to

nfantry division.

otorizzata) (par. 56)

ry) division in strategical re-

uard action. It is preceded

d (of motorcyclists, tanks,

ione corozzata) (par.

fantry to perform advance

on missions.

connaissance de-

omain, Google-digitized /

ision are units of Bersag-


(divisione celere) 90


a-delVartiglieria) of the

of Artillery, which is a con-

for War and the Chief of

training, organization,

he artillery. Antiaircraft

trol of this office.

my corps headquar-

quarters commanded by a

e orders all the artillery in

visional artillery. The corps

ectorate of Artillery on tech-

rdnance officer and three

s classify artillery as

ughly correspond to field,

artillery classified by the

rtillery regiments of some

ns, whereas much of the

y regiments is of calibers

omain, Google-digitized /

" and "corps," respectively.


ber of 100/22 Skoda how-

coast defense in southern Italy

fantry divisions. It must

lete types of guns are not neces-

rts of Italy pack or horse-


y artillery is motorized.

ivision is either pack or

an be horse-drawn or tractor-

un carrier known as a earrello.

tractor-drawn, but there is

es are sometimes impro-

s of moving artillery

d rubber tires which

els, giving a 15-inch clearance.

da, and the 708-cm, which

g the 75/18 gun-howitzer.

ot track-laying vehicles.

truck which carries a

s of infantry divisions,

eated divisions (those with

me number as the division.

same number as the

egiments has no con-


nal artillery are nor-


rtillery battalions and

omain, Google-digitized /

hroughout the arm, with many


gnal personnel are al-


l are allotted as follows:

n, and 100/17 howitzer

omain, Google-digitized /

tzers (corps artillery).

and batteries of Alpine

mber of spare personnel for

n and liaison patrols.

rtillery battalion has its

ch comprises a unit head-

d supply sections as there


borne division (divisione

ree motorized battalions

howitzer) and a 20-mm anti-

ment contains about 3.000

omain, Google-digitized /

otor vehicles.


mmunition and supply

al of personnel in the regi-


and requires a total of

been added a battalion of

us increasing the regimental

isted men, and approximately

The artillery regi-

consists of two 75/27 gun

ed), one 105-mm gun bat-

ne 90/53 gun battalion of

self-propelled howizer bat-

omain, Google-digitized /

s; and three 20-mm antiair-




omain, Google-digitized /

sponding corps artillery

ry regiment in an army corps.

32 guns, and 149/13 and

ations of these weapons to

llery regiment in an

battalions, one tractor unit,

re very frequently detached

alion consists of a head-

uniform armament. Each

d four sections (except if

ar, where there are two sec-

ery raggruppamenti. The

mated to be approximately

he training of all the

material issued to a tractor




ll mobile antiaircraft

s and lower units as required.

administrative purposes,

battalions. Battalions,

rational units, are normally

visions. Battalions normally

ee batteries, a searchlight and

ition and supply section.

ated at 18 officers and 541

is equipped with 78 motor

2 light machine guns for local

ntiaircraft regiment, see

. 21.)

aft Artillery Militia

C.) mans all fixed anti-

th the Coast Defense

ttima, or C. A. M.),

utenant general of the com-

s of the Antiaircraft

illery Militia, and a cen-

militia is responsible to

ptions: for recruiting,

d mobilization of person-

omain, Google-digitized /

uarters; and it is assumed

omain, Google-digitized /



nistrative matters, it is

or technical matters and

mployment, it is responsible

f. The territorial distribu-

tia is established by Mili-

he Ministry of Marine.

mand, the command of a

the defense against

e group are manned by

ery Militia, is assumed by

rom among the commanders

commands come directly


equipment furnished

aft defense of localities, in

y the office of the Navy

) 106

battalion (battagliorw del

le (cavalry), division-- 114

ntry division 115

omain, Google-digitized /


ed by the weight figure. The

year of adoption is a further

example, L 6/40 or M 11/39.

zzata).a. Compo-

a mechanized force of all



ns (motorized).


ificers and communica-

al tactical concept of the

e that of a mobile reserve to

or to counter enemy penetra-

sance with mobile units, or

nk, infiltration through gaps,

defensive position. This

of an armored division, has.

on as a result of the lessons

however, that Italian tank

udimentary until the armored

and and German training and

nce it is weak in inherent

nized and trained primarily

y, motorized, or celere, or

signed to operate ahead

nt terrain, as the Italians as-

omain, Google-digitized /

r celere divisions. The


motorcycle-mounted Bersaglieri regiment is

The tank regiment

and five battalions of medium

giment is 84 officers and 1,040

mament and equipment of

k unsatisfactory in com-

e supplanting light tanks

ks, and medium tanks

uxiliaries, presumably,

hat the Italians are in-

heavy tank battalion when

ation of this heavy bat-

at of the medium. The

eadquarters company and

omain, Google-digitized /

headquarters platoon and


arters, a headquarters bat-

The exact composition of

e trains of an army corps

ups of 10 trucks and 20

f trucks. There is also a

nt of this may be used

on has 12 75-mm truck-

batteries have 4 guns

ach AA/AT battery

s (of 2 guns each), and a com-

y is 4 officers and 95 men.

e twelve 20-mm AA AT

and thirty-four cargo trucks.

ions battalion (bat-

Its unit strength is as

, or mobile (cav-

e divisions, each having a

robable that the tanks

omain, Google-digitized /

light machine guns. Its


Inspectorate of Engineers.

ngineer corps regiments. 2

s, 1 railway regiment. 2 work-

omain, Google-digitized /

most important units are


uastatori).The pio-

ee pioneer shock units {re-

ormed into the following:

ection, a close-combat section

t machine-gun section.

are nearly always carried out

pproached during the night.

ainst tanks at night. Per-

ed in removing them should

lt Engineer School (Souola

vecchia. It was instituted

ed by Colonel Steiner of the

hock units which are

atori. These naval units work

omain, Google-digitized /

lt pioneer battalion.

omain, Google-digitized /



elegraph battalion in an army.

The radiotelegraph liaison


mpany has the following

y corps.a. Organi-

telegraph company in the


raph section is equipped

graph section also has


a. Organization.

y division and in the Alpine

h, radiotelegraph, and com-

te engineer company for

hich unit is shown in

telegraph section is


composite engineer sec-

totelephones and three

ntry division head-

that a supplementary unit

adquarters, according to the

ide communications be-

units of the division in the

engineer company assigned

omain, Google-digitized /

strength of 2 officers and


wever, that it must serve

imilar battalion in the infantry

hat is, it provides com-

neer company fails to do so.

ers and 140 enlisted men.

his battalion are distrib-

e radiotelegraph posts as

has the following trans-


In the armored

d by the radiotelegraph squad

ped with 1 motorcycle, 2

telegraph units.

ation of the telephone, tele-

ganization of the pho-

omain, Google-digitized /



le (cavalry) division

motorized division. It

s and division had a

d, but at least 11 chemical


talian publication in

nt, commanded by a colonel,

mical battalion, composed of

d battalion, composed of two

ining company, and one non-

any; one flame-thrower bat-

r companies; and one chemical

acetime organization still

al regiment has been reported,

ctions of a central training

e the regiment (or parts

army troops, and it may

mixed chemical group.

ral.The nucleus of

e mixed chemical group,

o consist of one chemical bat-

talions, several flame-thrower


n, only one of which is

companies and one light

aid to be provided with

with the equipment and pro-

spersion, as well as meteoro-

on the other hand, is

moke and teargas generators.

function as a depot for

lion as nebu, but this may possibly be a typo-

omain, Google-digitized /

ally, "cloud").


s measure, and to carry out

protective clothing.

tamination sections are

HQ, army, corps, and division.

rs platoon (of 1 officer and

on platoons (each of 1 officer

and supply platoon. The

d with protective clothing for

minating headquarters and

tico) 139

bilistico) 140

practice of keeping

control. The size and com-

dictated by the situation



under the Automobile Corps,

ters (autocentri), made up

two motor transport groups

ons (autosezione) consisting

e). Organization is ex-

eneral throughout the

for any higher unit.


omobile Service to provide

of motor transport vehicles,

omain, Google-digitized /




dance.One of the

General Staff is divided comes

"Intendance" (Intendema).

ifies all departments of

hief of Staff for Intend-

on, transportation, and the

ce is designed to combine

g and issuing ordnance

es, and to provide for certain

such matters, the Intendant

Supreme Command.

my, an "inspector"

n arm or service in the U. S.

rs for the Under Secretary

ers pertaining to the admin-

omain, Google-digitized /

ment, and equipment of


e been changed by the new

y for individual purchases

nches to the central

activity 147

hin different types of

vices of the Italian

C' ommissariato).


Servizio delle Tappe).








pectorate or Directorate at

territorial corps headquar-

itorial districts, and units

o the above, the follow-

omain, Google-digitized /

ssistenza Spirituale).


nly in unexpected cases, or,

ere there is an interruption


ial Services procure,

ces the means for conducting

k between the Territorial

ey must supply the troops

itorial Services and not ob-

ervices are organized

anization: "coordinative,"

represented in every unit

ose the Commander-in-

neral, while in each army the

ntendant. The coordinative

s being carried out or

ze the necessary services.

nd location of the means

ssary means in order that

of the operation.

mander (coordinative

and always keeping him in-


ces in the unit and their

within the unit.

e units each Service comes

on (headquarters, office of

omain, Google-digitized /

officers), which is charged


, his control is practically

to the corps are of con-

because of the tactical char-

has the personnel and

the first necessities of com-

oodstuffs and materials.

llery and engineer) which

al operations, a number of

additional services are as-

lso the director of certain

but he is assisted by the

e corps staff. Each corps has

er the chief of the respective

luding a mobile repair

air shop.

s many sections as there

on for corps troops.

est of the large units.

mally encadree within the

ecessary for daily life, since


charged with the direc-

mall arms and ammunition),

nd Postal Services. Spe-

ision in case Services of a

sariat, and Veterinary) are

rs of the army (artillery and

nal means can be assigned

omain, Google-digitized /

mobile (cavalry), division


Their location depends on

n the availability of railroads

hed neither too close to the

heir action) nor too far

ult the daily supplying of

they are close to a railroad

es are supplied by terri-

al cases can be supplied

may be assigned to armies,

and, in which case they

entral supply stores and are

They are supplied from

ial to the territorial stores.

y store is divided into

mobile sections following

materials are made in

n of the particular service,

the troops and by the sup-

ded, through channels, to

h issues orders for the fill-

ply stores (second-line

equested by the army In-

r from the territorial

ing the exploitation of

ndant General or by the army

rced by special boards ap-

equisitioned or purchased

omain, Google-digitized /

irst-line supply stores.


matters concerning the Serv-

rmy in all questions con-

ing of the Commissariat

As regards studies and

and opinions on the organi-

of personnel; reports on

ssary purchases and costs;

on and upkeep of establish-

ateriel and supervises tests of

n and revision of regulations

the service; makes directive

issary personnel and advises

bution of personnel; and

ies of civilians to be employed

ere two zone inspectors.

Inspector General, make

es, supervise and check on

heir zones.

s.These are responsible

unctioning of the Service

s from higher authority;

nd materials; request neces-

s and removals; make recom-

according to the availability

ations for the best use of local

vage service: forward through

mmend officers for assign-

ervice within the unit.

ema).These are execu-

ne regiments, corps head-

izations and detached

omain, Google-digitized /

yal decree upon recommen-


each train carrying a day's

my. The central stores are

es, however, and must be

ots {magazzini) are formed

he army Intendant. If the

orward daily from the supply

the army Intendant, who

ues and determines the roads

ansport being provided

column proceeds to di-

tribuzione ed avviamento)

port Service. Here the sup-

ections which break bulk and

distributing posts, supplies

s. If a line of communica-

workable, advance supply

e scale of one per army corps.

ormal ration situation'

with unit.


ly section.

thin the division. Alpine

ns in a special supply

nary for long periods,

ganized within corps and

functioning of these stores

corps and units remain

y sections build up a supply

d, and the supply may be


ch, the troops normally *

omain, Google-digitized /

each march, from supply


e under the same directive

delegations) but have

ferroviari e per via

ed by general headquarters

ater Transport, the terri-

commands at railroad

s, military ticket offices, and

ment of railroad lines,

ion, and the means for sea

of Communications, in ac-

also in charge of the main-

water communications and

e railroad net is sub-

ns, including all lines

orial zone which


including all other

nets is determined by

on the boundary belong

ns, where the net is con-

e army Intendants, and the

r via aerea').This

onnel, material, and stores

ice it is probably very

orti per via ordi-

e for the transportation

omain, Google-digitized /

rects the coordination of


ical Service and Mo-


t and motor transport

or transport assigned to

Extra motor transport

the case of motorized, mobile,

onal motor transport de-

truck-borne divisions from

ansport needed to move

ed that the material-carry-

5 men. Pack animals are

eled trucks attached, at the

p-carrying trucks have an

e total motor transport re-

estimated to be approxi-

sport loads are shown

(Srrv'zio della

th the maintenance of the

n of vulnerable points, and



nd evacuation of motor


the central depots to

e to the divisional "fuel and

t needed to allow each

omain, Google-digitized /

50 km.


di Amministra-

r the administration and

torate General at the

ices at corps headquarters.

istration of all mobilized

d the control of expend-

ds of soldiers.

te the inconvenience of

atively dependent on their

missary Service of the re-

ol expenditure.

lieria).a. Func-

e study, production, supply,

n of arms, ammunition,

ness needed by the Army.

al branch and the technical

e is organized as follows:

rvice functions under the


dant is responsible for the

perational control and issues

supply depots. At army

on is the superior Artillery

e Army depots are issued

om other units.

directorate as for other

ing carried out by corps

Chief of Staff. Artillery

f artillery ammunition, and

omain, Google-digitized /

upply ammunition for small


dated by the the corps Gen-


arded from batteries

orps artillery where they

e army Intendance, which

sed on the basis of a day's

0 for medium. 100 for

ortion of a day's fire.

The army Artillery Di-

sts of the corps, divisions,

tral ammunition depot, or

arsenals or depots.

ined by the army In-

efs of Staff and artillery

ey should be located within

pot, close to good roads so

umns. Transport is pro-

orate at army headquarters

s from the army Intendance

ting posts is supplied by

g it.

pplies from the terri-

ded by the territorial au-

warded to central artillery

railroad communications

rectly to the distributing

se. The central depots usu-

nt immediately upon request.

consumption of ammuni-

e units and artillery head-

ve at each distributing point.

above is elastic, and in

s likely to be variable, com-

omain, Google-digitized /

st ammunition from any


y out experiments and


ical institute, a great

for the technical and in-

f medicines and medical


spective duties. The

re directly under the Min-

technical duties, and

nary duties. These inspec-

g the functioning of the


posals advanced by the

rds the mobilization of the

estions concerning the

obilized Medical Services.

wounds or disabilities as

f War, make inspections

ments in the zone of their

l culture of medical of-

rs to the Medical Director-

ctors in the zone in

rvices of other armed forces,

erform directive func-

unctioning of the Medi-

e unit in compliance with

higher authority.

omain, Google-digitized /

nd prophylaxis.


ment, etc., are organized from

hen required.

) situated within the

di sanita di armata) keep

th the necessary medical

isinfezione) is attached

bonifiche) are under the

otted to units as required.

es but are also available for

o each corps and a

laboratory to each army.

on of the Medical Service

stationary, on the march or

it, a medical examina-

nal troops needing hos-

given localities from which

means of motor ambulances.

ted to hospitals directly.

ing only a short hospital

infirmaries within the unit.

y is discontinued and the

examination is made

ck men are sent to hospitals.

y sick follow on vehicles

sick are picked up and

omain, Google-digitized /

shape remain on the road,


Field hospitals (50 beds,

corps may, in case of absolute

divisions. They are erected

my fire. If possible, existing

and motor cars available,

a certain distance from the

spitals are full of wounded,

and of divisions and other

f the army, who will either

ls to the rear or assign to the

will not move, but will

e zone of operations. This

g units its field hospitals

t by the division head-

men is sent by the corps

ns of the divisions.

ck behind the medical

cluded between the

corps hospitals.

e included within army

boundary line

he territorial zone.

ncludes territorial


wounded are removed directly

nes of removal. The selection

of operations or in the terri-

zone of removal. Those to be

sported by railroad trains

rains of the Eed Cross or of

omain, Google-digitized /

s, river ambulances are used.


equest for personnel and


nd forage.

ithin the unit.

Service administers six

one for artillery) and three

s between the ages of 2 and 4

units are attached to the

ed by the Ministry of Agri-

ded animals are visited

ch have no veterinary

est unit having an officer, or

troops remain stationary,

orary infirmary. When the

ved to corps and army in-

equiring long treatment and

ir transportation. Special

ase of epidemic diseases.

elongs advances, the in-

is assigned to the unit.

the convalescence of animals.

r returned to their units

s for horseshoeing are

army veterinary depot,

Troops of the corps receive

s, which obtain them from

s' Service (ServU

ction,The Spiritual

esponsible for the spiritual

e Air Force. The Service

omain, Google-digitized /

ian priests.


a. This Service,

m, supplies water to troops,

of the Service is entrusted

sisted by the directive organi-

Engineers, Road and Water,

n, also assist with executive

ponsible for ascertaining

rmining the potability of the

tallations for conveying it

furnishing the necessary

and means for its storage;

ter resources in the zone; and

the related Services as


o headquarters and units


Services ascertain

recommendations of projects

hen authorized, they carry

necessary equipment (pumps,

t of water sections or civilians.

he necessary vehicles for

sources to the places of

ami).a. This Service

, timber, and firewood.


e Telegrafico).a.

for the distribution and

omain, Google-digitized /

rrespondence, for savings


ion problem by recourse

s been hampered by delay

of handling by rail such

er, and cotton. Italy has

r the sea route to Germany.

an railways (see fig.

port for troops and war

the most strategic rail-

e inland cities of Turin, Milan,

e great seaports of Genoa,

ption of sea-borne traffic,

with markets accessible by

onnecting Italy with the rest

and economically indispen-

re along the northwestern,

il net, defined by areas,

ns three railway lines,

quata via the Giove

ce which traverses the

ontier at Ventimiglia.

crosses into France

carriers of raw materials

ain to Italy within 2 months

e Alps between Switzer-

onnections with Germany:

the more important because

omain, Google-digitized /

fficult grades, and the other


ea has three railways:

e Italo-German border at

hich crosses at Tarvisio;

ough the Brenner Pass.

ortant, having a daily

0 cars each. It was a prin-

roops passing through Italy

od deal of northbound

struction resulting from

rail connection across the

lly restored Fiume-Zagrab

novo since the Italian

her reconstruction, this

ving between Germany and

It involves many detours

tion of Brindisi and

important centers in Italy

ys. Some are electrically

ic railroads are the com-

nian coast. These transport

nd traffic moving through

most at the southernmost

ws the coast by way of

ossing the French frontier at

ome, goes north to Milan

m Bologna a branch line

eginning at Genoa, con-

ffich leads northeast to

an and Verona, to the


rable spots in the Italian

omain, Google-digitized /

The railroads run through


current Italian railroad

lectrification of a number

of new electric lines. Rail-

the war include:


uth of Naples on the

s long) of the Fano

Adriatic coast).

rack, 72 miles long),

Tarvisio and Bo-


omain, Google-digitized /

projects were under

omain, Google-digitized /


d tank cars, and all passenger and baggage cars are classified

y of rolling stock.

n the railroads in moving


y to November by way

Bernard. Little Saint Ber-

a. and Stelvio Passes, and

Trident and the Dolomite

ade Highway, which


ks Reggio Calabria in

ay of Auletta, Salerno,

a, Turin, and Milan, and

noa, Ventimiglia, and

Galatone on the Gulf of

i. Bari. Foggia, Ancona,

o in northern Italy, one

by way of Milan, Brescia,

horn with Trieste by way

in central Italy, one linking

ng with Pescara; and two

with Foggia. and the other

tone by way of Taranto.

ations of Italian automo-

port, are indicated by the

cles in Italy as of 20 May

00 commercial trucks; 2,000

ith trailers, which have an

er truck and trailer; 1,000

with an average capacity of

; and 220.000 motorcycles.

eed to move in their own

omain, Google-digitized /

tured Italian equipment will


and waterways, which

t of all commercial traffic,

mportant navigable rivers

butaries; the Milanese and

Rivers; and the Venetian

erways extend through the

ombardy, Veneto, and

principal Italian rivers

st to west; these include

mpty into the Gulf of

a, Adige. Po, and their

of Venice; the Reno and

driatic Sea; and the Arno

enian Sea. These rivers

cause the bulk of Italian

terways open to com-

t 248 miles of rivers and

00 tons, while 300-ton vessels

es of inland navigation and

ted vessels of only 100 tons or

ffic on Italy's inland

ut 2.000 boats, nearly all con-

ad a gross weight of more

an average weight of only

lakes, including Mag-

d Orta, and on the water-

not important either com-

ng the rainy season, the

omain, Google-digitized /

uct military transport are

omain, Google-digitized /


generale) and major general

. S. major general and briga-

ed for the artillery, engineer,

captain {primo capitano)

re given to captains and

espective ranks for 12 years.

e the rank of capitano in

he Navy. Band leaders and

tot tenente.

fHciali) and enlisted

officers.There are five




gory, and inasmuch as there

. S. Army, these titles are

s not the equivalent of

ale) in the Italian Army

is classed with the private,

eing called graduate.

andidate {aspiranvte

e Navy it corresponds to

ith precedence over the mare-

Air Force.

commissioned of-

by the Italian form of the

titles in the Air Force

omain, Google-digitized /

my, the simpler Army form


n garrison cap, or "en-

or steel helmet (casco, ehno,

ds, pack artillery per-

wear their special headgear

ed with blue berets or

my helmet is composed

reated, varnished with a gray-

rench helmet is also

en with open collar (with

ay-green buttons (four for

with collar and necktie.

tain specific cases worn

reen without stripes, now


een wrapped leggings.

ed men, cavalry, and some ar-

onnel wear black leather

eather leggings with straps

k boots.

r mountain troops.

is divided into compart-

xternally, it has two

d with rings on both sides

enades may be attached.

ps, which may also be used

or blanket, half of a camou-

, it has adjustable, rounded

at it may be worn on the

omain, Google-digitized /

unition carriers may wear


combat troops whose duties

ons. The suit consists of an

s up to the neck; draw-straps

ts tightly over the neck;

e of double-woven cloth of a

he outside and treated on the

nce (plate II).

plains on duty with

d are authorized to wear the

ed rank, but are required to

ecclesiastical cassock.

Material of a much

-verde characterizes the

late I and fig. 36.)

star is the distinc-

g to the regular armed forces.

each side (plate I) of the

plate I), the star is in

he lower edge. When the

nter below the point where

al, it is sometimes merely

s are being introduced.

ascist symbol (plate XII)

ve-pointed star worn by the

neral officers and of white

n's five-pointed star has a

a of arm is worn on

nciled in the case of helmets),

cers in tropical uniform.

ia were embroidered (usually

e soldier's insignia in metal

embroidered insignia are

omain, Google-digitized /

fficers in tropical uniform


in the case of the services,

General.In addi-

wear colored collar patches

ollar just above the lapel,

tinguished by a variety of

ostreggiature). Collar

n the tropical uniform. On

or service is worn on the

patches take the following

riped (plate IX). When

antry. On the other hand,

evice, superimposed upon

of the arm or service charac-

d plain blue rectangles,

d troops, respectively, are

kground for other devices,

so denote infantry regiments.

st and 52d Regiments, and

h Regiments.) Careful dis-


ed background by the

ardinia, and the General

ecisely the same significance

lso be used in combination

una punta).These denote

the Frontier Guard, geo-

omain, Google-digitized /

e either in plain colors or in


do).a. Commis-

d with the gray-green uni-

rn as follows:

above cuff.They take the

alled galloni and galloncini,

milar to that worn by the

fficer's overcoat, in-

es that button to the sleeve.)

white artificial silk and in-

below the bands. The King

po del Governo) wear a

w the rank of general have

shirt-sleeve uniform is

appear above the left pocket.

Here the system is one

and VII). Field officers

ctangles with a red back-

a and Air Force use

below for the hat. These are

tally in the Air Force,

orn, the insignia consists

ust as for the sleeves, but


type of cap, the system

ns worn on the left side,

rn in this chevron (nap-

omain, Google-digitized /

above, and black for all

worn, the officer's insignia

t, taking either the form of


lowest rank is equivalent

of the Carabinieri have

d, silver braid, and a blue

th the duties of the rank

round of deep red in the

charged with the duties

the insignia of rank of a

bars and within the loop).

neral's eagle in black, bor-

have a red border. Gen-

her rank add a small bar

ar worn in the loop of the

the wearer is an aide to

lonels in actual command

a deep red background

same red around the insignia

vices wear between the

the cuff and on the service

al, red; commissariat,

ration, dark blue.) Mem-

s considered a combatant arm,

40.a. Commis-


r peak, except the Alpini,

sonnel, and the Bersaglieri

olored collars according

er general in fig. 36), colored

e, and metal buttons.

d necktie.

es down each side and

omain, Google-digitized /

f service.


a of arm or service ap-

adgear (maintained); on the

ed in gold thread (discon-

and embossed on the but-

or colored collars denoted

red collar patch (maintained)

e of the collar. Colored

down the breeches of officers

niform still further distin-

numbers were worn in the

ia (maintained). Company

on the shoulder strap (discon-

worn on the left arm

ments.There has been

ches of infantry line regi-

ly larger than, at present,

n a black collar, around the

piping. They had this same

d, black stripes with red pip-

eir breeches.

.The following more

e Nizza, Genova, Novara,

iments, complete collars,

ve colors; by the Piemonte, a

k edging; by the Savoia, a

t edging; by Saluzzo Monte-

gna, complete collars in the

angles only, with three-pointed

present flames; for Milano, a

ck edging; by Firenze, a com-

omain, Google-digitized /

ging; by the Cavalry School


book (libretto di valu-

he eleventh to the thirty-

ation regarding the physical

evaluation of his intellec-

litary activities. No em-

oldier's individual rec-

records age, name, rank,

ny or equivalent level. It

culars regarding the holder's

ishments. It also gives de-

thing on issue to him. - It does

personale only is issued to

military career. The front

name, number, regiment, and

stamp). Many personal

nd 2 of the book; page 3 deals

romotion, and discharge;

records the transfer to another

and inoculations.

marescialli is almost ex-

every year. Much less in-

ge, name, rank, and unit are

er's book gives no informa-

us personal particulars.

omain, Google-digitized /

actical use to an examining

omain, Google-digitized /


bretto personate).

omain, Google-digitized /

ed Men

omain, Google-digitized /


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marescialli, all insignia appear on the sleeves and

omain, Google-digitized /

ia of rank on the shoulder straps.

omain, Google-digitized /



omain, Google-digitized /


Decorazione deW Ordine

Eagle (Ordine cavaller-

r was instituted in 1942 for

contributions toward Italy's


ers named above have

re), officer (cavaliere uffi-

, grand officer (grande wffi-

The name of the grade

le, Cavaliere Carlo Annibile

nteria. If a person has an

sually called by this title

hough both may be used: for

rancesco Scema, Capitano di

dals for Valor"

ds in Italy. The Gold

o the U. S. Medal of Honor;

corresponds roughly to

and the Bronze Medal

ghly to the U. S. Silver

tions or their families re-

d Medal. 1,500 lire (about

8) : Bronze Medal, 300 lire

y awarded posthumously.

h of service is re-

ce (Croce per Anzianita

er 16 years of service

e ribbon after 25 years.

and (Lungo Comando),

omain, Google-digitized /

nd and worn with a gold


aft in flight. The gold

hen the Air Ministry attaches

tical Feata.Gold, silver,

he Air Ministry according to

the bold, intelligent, and

e crew of an aircraft in an

cial medal for men who


ternating red and green

esent in the war zones of the

ths. A star is added for

presented by ribbons

in rank does not affect the

e ribbons. The grade of an

own, laurel branch, palm, or

le, the Medal for Valor,

onze, is represented by a

ar of gold, silver, or bronze,

the ribbon represents the

won on the ribbons for

omain, Google-digitized /

5-1918 represents 1 year of

omain, Google-digitized /



(Beretta).This pistol

el, and a recoiling breech

mm type which is inter-

tion used in the .38 Colt

ore the present war the

r of the rifle and light ma-

and a new rifle and carbine

d (see fig. 42). It seems,

ot yet progressed very far,

since rifles of the new 1938

with a 6.5-mm barrel. Older

the Vetterli-Vitali type,

rica, include a 10.35-mm

toon). Some details of these

till appear to be used in

-Carcano) (fig. 42).

, which is embodied in all

he Mannlicher system of

Mauser type developed by

actory. With the Mann-

nserted in the magazine to-

all the cartridges have been

lever known as the "ele-

omain, Google-digitized /

ole in the bottom.



10.35-mm., P model 70

xcept for caliber. Both are

ps up to 2,000 meters. The

del 91. The safety catch pre-

fig. 42) is based on the

eing the increased caliber and

s a light folding bayonet

rel but can be removed and

s are fitted with a 6.5-mm


This rifle, fixed for a bay-

omain, Google-digitized /

y a 10-round magazine and




S."This carbine (fig.

, but has a separate bayonet

ppe speciali) means "for


0.35-mm, model 70.These

er. They are also identical

he magazine is of the pistol

carbine (fig. 42) compares

del 38 rifle compares with

95 {long).Both the

ve been used by the Italians

nctive in that the bolt is

omain, Google-digitized /

o that of the Canadian


the antiaircraft-gun


pe from

le only;


omain, Google-digitized /

machine gun, model

omain, Google-digitized /



hine gun, model 38 (Breda).

0 settings; the gun may be

ainsprings; the gun has

e (2-1



gun, model38 (Breda).

s the model 30, except for

omain, Google-digitized /

as the model 38 rifle.

omain, Google-digitized /


un, model 35 (Fiat-Revelli).


Fraschini).This is an


Beretta) (fig. 49).Ma-

vely used by the Italians;

del 38 Beretta a weapon which

h as regards functioning and

erns were fitted to take a

with the model 38 rifle.

mmunition of British,

n this respect is similar

eces is kept in the butt.

omain, Google-digitized /

1 ounce.


35 {Breda).This dual-

scribed as a heavier version

model 37 (see b above).

a. 12.7-mm. aircraft

n design and operation to

ult to adapt for ground use

75/18 howitzers, and 100/17-mm howitzers,

-mm antiaircraft guns and the 47/32-mm

omain, Google-digitized /

ee section III, paragraph 224c.


for use as an antiaircraft

da Safat).This gun will


The 65/17 infantry gun

made 65-mm mountain gun.

ain gun by the 75/13 howitzer.

omain, Google-digitized /

h a fore carriage.


type. There are three

mor-piercing shell), and

The Italian Army

rtar known as the 45-mm

medium 81 (3-inch), model

good points, including a

and the fact that it folds

nd other advantages, which

nse of an unusually elaborate

fragmentation of the mortar

eapon of conventional

% pound bomb, it has a

mainly to the use of six large

ation of both the light and

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


ven (numbered 0-6).

e (numbered 0-4).


omain, Google-digitized /



renade is very similar

and fired in the same way.

parts, namely, a cylindrical

per part in the form of a

y a truncated cone.

al, it may be said

ly equipped. During the

s rapidly deteriorated.

and troops are often with-

ar. The shortage of steel

s and many other items.

ryman has been reduced

ation of reserve articles of

ted for issue to the en-

ersack, belt and suspenders,

helter quarter, two reserve

he cape (mantellina),

e an insufficient substi-

d quantities of other obso-

omain, Google-digitized /

ack into use.


on to rations, a

s of machine-gun and 60

y personnel carry the follow-

t weapons 226

signed to antiaircraft

Galileo) 22S

antiaircraft guns are

27 {2.95-inch) A A

yment as an antiaircraft

ed against ground targets,

rmored forces. It is used to

omain, Google-digitized /

ons, but is unwieldly and poor

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /




5 (Breda). (1) Gen-

al-purpose AA or AT with

by motor transport or in

e gunners. It is designed

d by plate charges holding

atic rate of fire can be ob-

ger immediately after the

the most effective against

t serves for antiaircraft

nd targets, as it already

stance of the target.

y employed for antiair-

antitank weapon. The con-

egulations is as follows:

ing of the march, for

omain, Google-digitized /

ile it is breaking camp


model 35 (Breda), ready for transport.

anced positions the

o stop from

y have succeeded


s) (HE

omain, Google-digitized /



e required to defend a

a heavy machine gun.

maximum vertical range

ocity at this height being

n. Tracer is easy to observe

nion. The equipment

much longer to bring into

are simplicity of construc-

enience with which it is


r minute.

omain, Google-digitized /



ank gun {Breda).

wheel- or tripod-mounted with

cond, a maximum rate of fire

e of 6.000 yards. It is trans-

n a truck. It will penetrate

al impact, and 15 mm

ghs 680 pounds in action

n found fitted to a M II

have been used as a ground

ly AP ammunition has

del 37.(1) General.

sign and was introduced in

e of fire, and may be fired

It may be used as an in-

ntitank role. Its disad-

vided for the detachment,

on's hitting power is inferior

s HE or AP ammunition,





omain, Google-digitized /

paragraph 208, above.


econd (2.067

second (820


eters (220 to

r minute.

er minute.

ported by man power,

by one mule; carried by a

omain, Google-digitized /

d into five pack loads.

gun (fig. 65) which is

very effective gun, but is in-

ulously clean. It is normally

ailer. A self-propelled

mounted on the chassis of a


ion scales are graduated

al deflection scale is also

ange for several types of







omain, Google-digitized /


provided for making

neral-This gun (fig.

dual-purpose: for antiair-

transmission is used to

guns, which is an improve-

lephone transmission was

uipped with a telescopic sight,

tly of the predictor in an

an average rate of fire of

er minute for barrage work,

en fired at this rate, the

ng. The buffer and recupera-

omain, Google-digitized /

and two spring recuperators.

omain, Google-digitized /


s, though the effect, allowing

pear to be familiar.

ge (complete


aircraft. 48

nts (Galileo).a.

ring instrument provided

nsmitting the angle of sight

lotting table. It is gradu-

ns to the circle).

al stereoscopic type, with

meter (106.3-inch) base

to the plotting table. Mag-

w is 3 or 130'. The range

00 meters.

table, with open windows

e of sight, bearing, and slant

diction is advanced by a

onds. On the order fire

d, and exact readings are

ll time is over, the "hooter"

then restarted and fire

en allowed for the gun dials

m the plotting table to the

A gun, but with earlier

n from the goniometer to

This is a system of tele-

main plotting table and the gun

omain, Google-digitized /

ery and connection box and


0.5512 inch).


alileo).A searchlight of

0 yards has been reported in

at scale, if any, it is actually

an altazimuth locator

d-lag corrector is of the

requiring an operator. Cor-

by a second operator. The

based on a guessed air speed,

stinguished by two

oke. The first number indi-

econd number gives the length

omain, Google-digitized /

lassified as follows:

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /



0 kg.

2 (.figs. 68 and 69).

omain, Google-digitized /




This gun is electrically



omain, Google-digitized /


1929 (AA and coast




omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /



A. M., and type G.

mortar has three

omain, Google-digitized /


d on a rigid mount.

omain, Google-digitized /


high and it has a climbing

This tank (fig. 76) is a

e superstructure surmounted

un and light machine gun

front of the turret. This

he large swan-necked canti-

to the hull. There are two

here are five bogie wheels,

forward of the rear idler

e 1917 model of French

it stopped in 1930, though

ne units.

k (see fig. 77) carries

ed in pairs, each sprung by a

ar. The fifth bogie at the

d carrier and to return the

One 20-mm and one 8-mm

n the revolving turret.

completely obscured by

prayer or a flame thrower.

ig. 78) has a cast tur-

On top of the turret is a

as five bogie wheels and

ch scissor t3rpe; one is

n bulges. One 47-mm and

coaxially in the hull, and one

ntiaircraft. (The Germans

pril 1941.)

79), mounted offset

of a truncated cone mounted

omain, Google-digitized /

n the right side of hull

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /



rain is composed of one

n. The combat section is

otives, one fire-control car,

section remains perma-

of the armored train. It is

officers and noncommissioned

one kitchen car, and one

ns where barracks are avail-

The order of the cars

omain, Google-digitized /

with two antiaircraft guns,


n on each car, one fire-control

r gun on each car, one am-

mored cars are built in such

k of the recoil of the gun

nstalled on the cars in order

ning of the cars during the

s usually placed near the

bout 25 miles long. One train

miles of coast line.

pical gun employed on

way gun, the characteristics

omain, Google-digitized /

eir approximate dimen-


n is about 7 miles per gallon.

1 in 2y2 fully loaded. The

tocaretta will be able not

ut to travel in places in-

will also replace pack trans-

vailable even if only 4 feet

y for armored forces, it

possibly as a personnel car-

ed, but may mount a

Fiat).This truck

d by the Fiat Company to

an) truck (Fiat).

1940 was in quantity pro-

omain, Google-digitized /

dius of action, remarkable

omain, Google-digitized /


ng equipment used by the

.a. General.For


2.Footbridges nos. 1

ctures supported on kapok-

re as shown. It appears

omain, Google-digitized /

llic*)) no. 1.


s, over dry gaps and, up

he table, the cableways

pounds. (For a sketch

andard Italian ponton

ge equipment no. 3 (figs. 94

the piers are made up

about 2,000 pounds. The

omain, Google-digitized /

of Herbert trusses (see b

omain, Google-digitized /




xplosives, and ammonium

safety fuze, which is

hich is black. The safety

out 2 feet per minute; but,


ator is pull- (rather

ency for the Italians to

molitions. Sometimes they

ing the order to fire. The

pletely responsible for

of friction igniter

talian design. As com-


e is very simple in construc-

figure 98 is also of simple,

emolition charge. This

hed German practice; there

es for which this igniter

e delay in this igniter

is enclosed in an aluminum

hes wide and 0.27 inches in

omain, Google-digitized /

tor filling (2), which con-


gth. To the other end of

daptor (10) which is threaded

e. At (11) is a galvanized

to a groove above the in-

tor, where is possessed a

A detonator (12) with a

ts open end is fitted into the

s unscrewed sufficiently to

ted from the side via the

d the head of the adaptor.

ed by screwing up the

e milled nut (6) is un-

omain, Google-digitized /

9) to retain the spring (4).


ire obstacles spaced at in-

re commonly laid as close

ovised types, see par.

ription.The weight of

ut a quarter of a pound and

ds. The mine consists of two

ther. The space between

. The outer cylinder (1) is

e are six sharp projections

post. Two clips (6) are

ng the mine by special

eir common base (8) and

d of the brass molding (10),

striker (12) and the spring

n cap (14) in the holder

The lower portion of the

the charge (17). The open

ug (18). The cavity between

der is filled with powdered

trip key (19) having a ring

e attached. The key is held

11) so that it can move

end of the mine. This

n the striker when in the

e cords which are wound

red by a hinged flap (24)

25) is used as the safety

he mine, when a cord at-

own in figures 100 and 101. It

omain, Google-digitized /

he cover (9) which is set

omain, Google-digitized /



s).(a) Dimensions.


included because it is

omain, Google-digitized /

rest on the ground. It is.


mb a sufficient jerk to detonate

e bomb will give protection

of rope not less than 200

when he gives the necessary

bomb on the surface is 100

ents is obtained at 300 yards.

e bomb should be moved, it

angerous position for the fuze

pointing upward. Hence

nly be done in most excep-

rried horizontally, and in

or should avoid passing the

must be exercised in lifting,

o insure that there shall be

must be slow and deliberate

mb must be avoided.

e are three types of B2

nged lid" type have, to a

r of the more recent design

mine is used in the gaps

The spacing between mines

han three rows have yet been

two rows, but sometimes

o has been used on a

5. It is similar in shape to

being the placing of the

d of at the two ends and the

ead of one at the center.

the D type, which is

designed arming lever on the

omain, Google-digitized /

ntered in large numbers.


ns.The dimensions of




st development of the

nd (4) below. It consists

a metal lid (2) resting on

ngs covered by hinged

itions of the striker assem-

spectively. At the ends

f eight 200-gra'm slabs of

d two short lengths of

s (3). Two similar lengths

box, and, together with those

. The explosive compart-

ion mechanism are of wood

8) which is located

h these guides passes a

triker (11) to the brass

sists of the body (13),

on cap and holder (15), and

. The nut (17) retains

(18) takes the nut (19)

d toward the percussion

omain, Google-digitized /

us detonating fuze, (20) and


, dusting away the

through the hole

ve the cap holder

he detonator from

pring (16) by turning


s.The dimensions of

iest type of steel-cased

rseded by the mine described

owing differences

pening' with


ox is by means

omain, Google-digitized /

ead of


noted are as

ad of the

-gram blocks


is used as for the B2

used as for the B2 mine

imensions.The di-

s follows:

earliest type of B2 anti-

x (I) with a hinged lid

ings hold the lid slightly

e method of firing depends

he striker. In this model

wood block (5) to the striker

d by the screw (7). The

mpression. A cap and

den dividing strip (11).

12). When sufficient pres-

omain, Google-digitized /

the knife (13) severs the wire


ne is made of steel and is

g the lower section (2) at (3).

rong steel springs (4), and

by the lip of the cover (5),

which is placed in a slot

circumferential pressed

d plug (9), below which

liding fit on the striker

the spring (12), the striker

and the striker (15).

nel-shaped piece (16)

the striker (15). Figure

s operated by a toggle (18)

etween two stops (20

gainst the stop (20) and is

22). By moving the arm

slides back the channel (16)

he mine is armed. Cou-

ck (23), which engages

e action of its spring (25)

hen the arm (19) is moved

s toward the center, and

on is prevented by the new

over (1), the plug (9)

scends until the steel balls

d of the plunger. The striker

(12) strikes the detonator

omain, Google-digitized /

ges (27) and (28) respec-

omain, Google-digitized /



rs (11), and when these are

ole (12) in the end of each

ure 109 , 0 and .

essed, the flange (14) of the

e U-shaped spring clip (16).

dated in the holder (18), and

n the side of the mine. The

pace (20) in the striker body

spring (21) engaging in

nserted through a hole

ion between the actuating

(16) carrying the cotter

r of the mine, the actuat-

e spring (6) until it comes

). This causes the U-

ed against the retaining

d allows the striker (11)

d fire the detonator at (25).

mines the copper pins,

perating pressure can be

the use of copper pins

through the hole (12)

11). It may be

omain, Google-digitized /

fore these holes


.The dimensions of

een reported as having

tal tube, plugged with

at one end. An iron band

ameter is placed over the

). This latter holds the

r (3) passes through the

and has the guide plate (4)

hrough the striker and

(7), the latter being held

passing through a hole in

g (9) is held away from

hich forms part of the

sses through a hole bored

explosive filling. The

he pressure plate which is 5

he head of the pressure

f the safety pin, the stop

trike to fire the detonator.

sensitive to pressure.

safety-pin hole.

long under the head

omain, Google-digitized /

h striker and safety


a light alloy. The lid

our bolts (2) is recessed

id (1) is supported On

e striker (4) away from


ndition the striker with

side of the mine at (6).

omain, Google-digitized /

th a percussion cap (7)


made in two parts (1) and

ar metal pressure plate (3)

secured to the lower part

. In the specimen examined,

en removed, had a length

ower part, which has rounded

nob (5) in one side. The

late (6) having heavy leather

ach end.

as removed may have

The bakelite knob (5) is

e-delay initiator.

nel {%-kg) pressure

ions of this mine are as

sed from the 2-kg anti-

t. There are two types of

figure 1130, consists of

The explosive charge (3) is

space (4) is filled with steel

cond type, figure 113 (S)

arge (5) and the single con-

side with strip metal (7).

113. For use in the mine,

he safety rod (9) is un-

r (10) is placed centrally and

ng (11) and striker (12) are

wn in (T). The mine is then set.

ze from the lid of the

omain, Google-digitized /



he metal collar (10) , thus

ovides {or two test wires

gh the lid of the mine

bridged at (13) by means

yout of this type of

ugh the underlying prin-


thorough examination of

before neutralizing is

ription.This mine

drum (1) open at both ends,

overed by the wooden lid

nds the circular body

omain, Google-digitized /

ase by means of steel wires


in (2) above, and illus-

), contact is made be-

gle pieces (8), and the elec-

s then fired.

r test wires.

and insulate them

he rubber and care-

it to the

or and remove the

(a) Dimension*.The

as follows:


f wooden box (1) hav-

e (3), and a striker mecha-

) and (6). The striker

antitank mine described in

lever is not used. The trip

r end acts as a stop against

(10) are run out from

omain, Google-digitized /

e mine and fastened with


the safety slot at

up to the box.

spring, holding the

e trip lever is

rtridge holder by


nsions.This mine (fig.

d as an antipersonnel

actly similar to that de-

e is only one initiator.

) (<?) and (d) below.

omain, Google-digitized /

nsions.The dimensions


he striker (6). The deto-

onator (13) fitted in the open

he holder (15).

metal strip (16), is placed

be and the end of the car-

tained through the access

over should be diffi-

s of wood between

1) so as to prevent

ssure be exerted.

f metal of similar

tridge holder by

The dimensions of this

onsists of a wooden box

ving a metal cover plate

with the surroundings, and

g handles. The under side

ning to which is attached the

omain, Google-digitized /

ad of each striker (5) is held


of an inverted U-shaped piece

g held in position by two

is positioned in a steel

). Pressure on the metal

steel strips (6) outward and

omain, Google-digitized /

rs (6) are then free to move


d initiates the detonators,

ransport the detonators

steel strips are laid flat in


side fastenings.


their side, close down

ons.The dimensions

s follows:

wood, with the base

al sheet about 1-mm

pe handles, and the metal

mit downward movement.

for the exploders, is held

(5) are provided, and

emical tjrpe. The remaining

rtridges of gelignite or

contained in a cylinder

meter. The striker (6) is re-

per shear wire (7). For

f the shear wire is 1.4 mm;

omain, Google-digitized /

r wire is 2 mm. Above the


e under side of the lid (2)

es square.

1891 cartridge (9) from

been removed. A de-

dge case with its open end

r (11) is placed between

artridge is closed with plas-

nished black. The cap end

ting plates together

the inner lid (3).

dimensions of the mine

of a wooden box (1) with

cured to the body by wires

pegs in the side. The firing

oted at (4) retaining one end

ever is cranked to provide

) and the lower end of the

omain, Google-digitized /

gh to the base of the mine


9). The striker mechanism

s of a cam (10) which sup-

e stop (7) in place. The

sure on the lug (11) by way

, the latter being 3 to 5

is rotated so as to allow

mine is armed.

r or tension on the trip-

he flange on the striker (8).

e spring (5), fires the cap and

14), and the two shells (15).

engages with the

he box, retaining the

r mechanism together.

onator, pulling the

slight rotating

oder. (a) Dimensions.

) are as follows:

may be fitted with the

omain, Google-digitized /

de. The striker (1) is held


shovels, hammers,

lian engineer equipment.

en equipment is also utilized.

nd type of air compressors



nts, a motorized pump, power-

man make, a portable mor-

omain, Google-digitized /

mobile generators.


ther the connecting plug

e "set excluded" jack.


for testing the effi-

wire on reels. It has two

d to pierce the insulation of

set (fig. 126) weighs

s may be connected to the

o all of the others or to

calling the rest. A call

rates to select a decentral-

thout secrecy (busy signal).


key type for 10 lines.

g. 127) permits the

ng lines. It also permits

here are pairs of

themselves or with

any desired

g posts and a microphone

omain, Google-digitized /

in switch.

omain, Google-digitized /


telephone switchboard (with circuit diagram


s 31 circular commuta-

ming lines and the other serv-

nes. There are 17 different

which are for the connection

tered L and C) for the rest

is made by means of the

er. The board has 60 spring

he characteristics of the



nditions; will op-

et connect the positive

nterior anvil of key; the

e output of the writing

bars to the left of the

he vertical bar tO the right.

6 to 18 battery cells are

coils in series, has a resistance

omain, Google-digitized /

2 amperes to operate it).


n moist ground or placed

connected to the set by

ot available, a large iron

Stations may be connected

e 129.

tstorw. Transmission

matic, a perforated tape being

y is used. Specially trained

tion of the tape unless the

ps are used, the signal con-

positive current and spaces

ent of given amplitude (dots

a single transmission in a

nsmission on different circuits.

The rate of transmission

minute, and it is possible to

the Creed perforator. Syn-

in the field by the com-

manual by means of a key.

t must be accustomed to har-

tiated on the basis of elapsed

system permits a single

onization is necessary.

per minute with a capacity

e received message is printed

ent, manual transmis-

though at times the system

d personnel are required.

signals consisting of different

and negative current. This

omain, Google-digitized /

ons simultaneously in the


ntom telephony and sim-

8). (1) Characteristics.

) is connected to two

om telephone circuit, two.

egraph circuits.

iler for corps head-

er is of the Viberti type,

long, 2.07 meters wide, and

en tracks of 1.70 meters. It

has a speed fully loaded of

permits making a complete

ater than 5.5 meters.

standard switchboards

acity of 1 board is 110 lines,

ntral battery); 1 main dis-

th a capacity of 110 lines;

's set; and 1 terminal re-

es (Creed tape type) : two

egraph sets; and four re-

phantom circuits) and

ttery is of 24 element


de type for voltages from

e-electric type, with a

power engine develops a

omain, Google-digitized /

o 45 volts.


d in the field by the com-

anually by means of a

rated automatically if desired.

nel. Five-letter groups are

binations of positive and

nding of "start" and followed

ection is possible. In

ed on a tape or sheet of paper.

unit is powered by dry

0-mm optical signaling apparatus.

nomotor, or by commercial

mate speed of transmission

optical signaling ap-

his apparatus is used only

s (4 of which are in reserve)

orted in 3 boxes containing,

omain, Google-digitized /

od, and batteries and acces-


nsforms acoustic vibra-

current and then into

eam. By means of a caesium

n transforms the variations

acoustic vibrations. This

erter of the 180-mm phototelephonic set.

ire communication in that it

radio communication in that

omain, Google-digitized /

nd cannot readily be

omain, Google-digitized /

omain, Google-digitized /

Italian radio equipRCES

omain, Google-digitized /

e diagrams shown in fig.

ation nets.


of coal, coal tar prod-

fluorides, but this shortage

plies from Germany, Hun-

aly does not possess

storage points have been

ght to exist.

(1) Should Italy re-

mustard gas, phosgene,

e the principal agents that

believed, would be used

y in combination with toxic

y the Italians to indi-


s in green

Cross in White

oss in black

s in red

the Italians in the Abys-

5-cm artillery shells filled

arly 5,000 air-burst air-

Among the chemical war-

s of mustard gas, but none

The Greeks, however, re-

0 of drums of blister gas of

ately equal parts by weight


ells for artillery, among

nuary 1941, mention was

nd also with a mixture of 80

loracetophenone. That the

omain, Google-digitized /

ator as well as a lung irri-


ery. One, called fumogeno

ed with white phosphorus

ke), with a smoke mixture,

mmunition of both types

10-cm, and 10.5-cm guns.

of hand grenades and

d with a short bomb-

which projects all types of

ds. In the many Italian docu-

s made of the guns or howitz-

moke candles.Italian

be of the following types:

candelotto) contains

25 percent kieselkguhr, and

e), and weights 380 grams

g is 220 grains (73,4

ded for use as a hand

a) has the same com-

kg (6.16 pounds). This

burns 2 minutes.

a) contains 54 percent

kieselguhr, and 30 percent

a), with the same com-

3 pounds). The weight of

y candles are of the

e small tear-gas gener-

nd grenade, and the 2-kg and

chloracetophenone). 50 per-

e small candle burns 1

omain, Google-digitized /

ns 2 minutes.


nutes, and it may be com-

ma barellato).This

ing smoke, consists of two

nder mounted on a hand bar-

orted that one container

nd the other for ammonia,

h two liters (6 gallons) each

ssion with one nozzle is 50

s. Six minutes are required

a carrellato).This name

e apparatus when it is mounted

ems to be no reason why

ying blister gas.

d gas truck (autodo-

-country truck carries four

ons) of mustard gas, com-

piping for ground contami-

utes and the drums may be

a smoke weapon the vehicle

s-country smoke truck). It

f chlorsulfonic acid in two

mission is 100 minutes;

autocarretta yperite).

0 liters) of mustard gas, a

ed piping for ground con-

minutes and the drums may

as a smoke weapon, the ve-

our-wheeled smoke truck).

n) drum of smoke liquid

omain, Google-digitized /

ard gas" ; the Italian form is iprite.


orts regarding the use

sprays in the Abyssinian cam-

ct evidence that Italian

apparatus, but Italian docu-

oratore B, two of which are

aplane Cantiere Z. 501. Each

5 gallons) of mustard gas or

me of 20 seconds. When

e following results are

100 feet):

4 yards).

s (88 yards).

0 yards).

as listed in figure 137,

uments and other reliable

these bombs are painted

o indicate the filling (see

of type 500 C. and the bomba

A (diphenylchlorarsine).

mately double the weight

percussion fuzes. The 500

all bursting charge, indi-

and is designed for air burst-

led with tear gas and is


G. bomb, the weights of

their nomenclature. No

e it has the same external

d would fit the same bomb

the same dimensions, hav-

omain, Google-digitized /

nsiderably lighter in weight.

omain, Google-digitized /


d each contains nitro-

h is taken off the lower end

. Ignition is effected by a

ithout a wick, or on some

nd wick, which burns for 2

nd light oil having a

capable of throwing a

e a zone of 35 yards long by

rmittent bursts of flame or

d should not be used in a head

ratus (fig. 141) is similar

ng mainly in the ignition

ure gauge in the connecting

ylindrical containers. The

scharge piece through a small

to for ignition purposes.

ischarge piece to the nozzle

zle operated by a hand lever.

valve, a small proportion

mizing sprays adjacent to

e sprays discharge into

rd automobile spark plug

s the main jet. The spark

magneto. The fuel used

roleum distillate containing

er-driven magneto gives

of the impeller in the oil

omain, Google-digitized /

m range attainable is only


not confirmed, that the

wer for which a maximum

this apparatus is carried

er details of this weapon

stration of a flame-thrower

a. Gas masks.Italian

types. Group A is like the

te canister and corrugated

milar in appearance to the

ster attached directly to

ral.Facepieces of


obsolete model still in

en press moulded rubber, with

er Col. L. Penna, the first chief of the Italian

omain, Google-digitized /

nk, L 3/33, with trailer.


nner secondary mask of

r. A considerable improve-

hange in position of the eye-


differs from model M

have an inner secondary mask.

roviding a forked rubber

epieces. This model is desig-

Royal Navy, phonic type)

alve carrying a short trum-

f three concentrated horns on

s the speech characteristics

Marina, Royal Navy)

o external pockets carrying

i-dimming soap. They may

e side in the manner customary

al.Facepieces of group

ollowing p. ) is made

outlet valve is opposite the

d in the adaptor, in which

tlet valve.

avy version of T. 35. It

evice similar to that at-

canister (originally flat

tainer made of an aluminum

omain, Google-digitized /



36) made of Pirelli cloth,

his material is lighter in

on test resisted liquid mus-

7 hours. This garment may

boiling water for 30 minutes.

he protective clothing

n the form of a diving suit,

he heavy combination suit

ves, and oversleeves, are made

loth, type C. Also described

ton impregnated fabric, with

y rubber gloves. Wearing of

suits would be limited to 15

ur in cold weather; the over-all

er period.

equipment issued to

s suits, each consisting of an

vershoes, were issued to the

ut none were issued to other

ssue of a limited number of

ssumed that the Army would

mination squads similar to

assumption appears justified

e clothing worn by Italian

gure 144.

lophane garments for

destroyed after use, were

omain, Google-digitized /

Military Chemical Service).


wise, it was reported that

n impregnated silk, a com-

pounds. Neither type of


an document (Manual

cribes various types of

t chemical agents, for a num-

mand posts, telephone ex-

curtains, preferably at-

on. These curtains are to be

a gas attack. The number

sed without change of air

T=-^ where O represents

helter and N represents the

t be installed by technical

ans of a collective filter

d weighing 270 kg (600

necessary is that which

our, but in exceptional cases

, the air may be reduced

this type is designed for

placed before the entrance

oes that may have come into


dividual protective measures

omain, Google-digitized /

ouched by liquid mustard gas,


f these trucks and their


r content over an area ap-

ds long, at the rate of

The light truck presumably

area of approximately 100

30 kg (500 pounds) when

ation purposes. It con-

2 pounds) of chloride of lime,

compressed air during a period

ired to recharge the com-

ssure of 150 atmospheres)

six containers of bleaching

leaching powder is dry

recent information is

ded for decontamination of

Defense against Gas, 1930)

di boniftca truppa (motor-

omain, Google-digitized /

ersonnel), consisting of 1


ing information, and coop-

e measures. In some cases,

good results were obtained,

learned that the smaller

organization. Children in

duct. Air raid warning

pointed, and blackouts held,

rned that only about 1

he public. The Pirelli com-

ise to manufacture masks,

ld. It is assumed that recent

her centers have stimulated

omain, Google-digitized /

as masks.

omain, Google-digitized /




nd Tests.

viation and Air Traffic.

tions and Assistance to

s of Pre-Aeronautical

me Council for National

a member of the Supreme

onsultant to the Air

ions concerning military and

ded over by the Minister

nder Secretary of State for

he Air Army and Air Fleet,

certain persons from other

nizations who possess special

time organization and at

duration of the war.

The High Committee

n of the Air Ministry for

rganization, personnel, con-

nditures, and contracts. It is

Force and consists of six

member of the Central

n. Other individuals with

attend by the president.

nstallations, and Arms.

nstallations, and Arms is

nical matters concerning

omain, Google-digitized /

he president is a general


of the Air Force.

vided into four terri-

commands, each under

omain, Google-digitized /

follows (see fig. 146):


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /



mes, 37 landing fields, and

Sicily had 9 airdromes and

has 6 airdromes and 4 emer-

rfields and 7 emergency land-

e Islands have 3 airdromes

craft industry.(1)

engaged in the manufacture

rmany for assembly. This

duction. Completed planes,

engines have been received

Germany. The numbers are

s been estimated vari-

month. A recent, though un-

ates production at about 200

d the war, production was

ven though present produc-

s insufficient to meet expan-

ent losses. Production is



ber, seaplane.


marking (upper and lower surfaces).

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /




omain, Google-digitized /



omain, Google-digitized /



omain, Google-digitized /



omain, Google-digitized /



omain, Google-digitized /


), fighter.


omain, Google-digitized /


nderbolt), fighter.


aly joined the Axis, there

zed throughout Italy at which

ft, engines, and parts for all

ts were located at Ghadi,

edo, Lonate Pozzolo, Bo-

mo, and Cagliari. In ad-

Tripoli, supplying all units

pots in East Africa, supply-

d as follows:

Ciampino (Rome)

ino (Rome)

o (Rome)

le (Rome)

Ciampino (Rome)


ganized at available fields

ases were established. In

underground depots for the

ops for the overhaul of air-

re important air bases.

s 152 to 165, inclu-

me of the aircraft assigned

e. For all the aircraft

r has been increased only

bers and on some standard

omain, Google-digitized /

onal guns installed. It is


ion, bombardment, at-

e equipped with hydrau-

he Italians assert that the

ydraulic types, has been

attempt has been made to

bardment aircraft.

ans apparently prefer to

which plants are tooled,

equiring planning and retool-

types have been made to

es have not materially increased

anes. Because of lack of

armor protection for crews,

ervice aircraft. There have

speeds, bomb loads, and, in

been nothing to indicate that

e airplanes which can compare

he fastest Italian airplane is

ower than United States,

aining.Every Italian

nclusive, is compelled by law

Littorio, or G. I. L. Pre-

ementary schools and includes

odel construction; elemen-

tion; training and instruc-

ng instruction leading to a

ar officers are obtained

ical Academy, to which

by competitive examination.

3 years, during which students

he cadets are awarded

omain, Google-digitized /

on, and before the war, were


w the same course, except

d of which they may re-

ng in annual refresher

duty as noncommissioned

dvanced courses and on

e end of the period, they

eserve status, with annual

may, by promotion, reach


given at Punticello and

d at Como, Lido di

a, Rimini, Centocelle.

zo, Lucca, Siena, Naples,

ed at Portorose, Cameri,

oggia, Grottaglie, and Cas-

has flying schools at

l is at Florence.


signano, and Castiglion

ools are at Malpensa,

Navy officers are at

l is at Littoria.


omain, Google-digitized /

riggers, etc., are at


method of camouflage is

d paint to the buildings in

ndles of hay or ignite

s clouds of dense smoke, to

r raid.

ng bomb and fuel dumps,

uel is stored in camouflaged

semble thickets. Though it

tion is not impossible, if it

square in plan and that at

omain, Google-digitized /

or guards.


become predicated upon the

ned fire and movement.

sector of least resistance

ermit subsequent flanking

with supporting artillery

e of command except as

llery support.

actical and strategic doc-

hat of any other modern

ort to pattern the Italian

rmany but this has proved

n this chapter is mainly

tegic and tactical principles

common to all military

ement of the Italian

t of various arms, particularly

is designed to be used

e units of great fire power.

g a break-through, is fol-

s of exploitation. Mobil-

fundamental characteristics

e artillery's mission to

mission of engaging in

ver is mounted, but combat

hanization of the cavalry

d fire power. This has added,

mass to the common cavalry

e Italians to the possibility of employing air-

now the unsuitability of Italian aircraft for

omain, Google-digitized /

ion as a supporting arm.


h decidedly aggressive be-

take the initiative in

eeking victory in swiftness

iacy and power of impact."

eeded in doing anything

n might conceivably assert

ypt owed its success to

s of attack and pur-

modern army, though the

most recalls the pre-1914 doc-

maison. The 1940 Italian

to be recklessly pressed,

me the resistance with con-

erical appeals for initia-

rt of Italian troops have not

fectiveness in attack and

ne Greek tactical au-

lbanian campaign against

eristic of all Italian attacks

ure of officers rather than

most a proverb in the

s certain to flag after the

ad successfully sustained

ally felt that it had for all

was not, of course, what

Italian military doctrine

Mascia in 1939, "reaffirms

d Machiavelli's: the offen-

bring victory. There is a

atin and Italian spirit, be-

cessa sense of responsibility

are peculiarly Italian, manly

omain, Google-digitized /

to overcome difficulties. To


n ideal of the em-

possibility of an attack un-

tions. Supposedly suffi-

direct the effort to those

sured upon initial contact.

sion is the basic large

rly for impact and penetra-

on and is considered to be

gth must be made more

n, superior commands are

tional equipment and per-

ned that Italian ar-

the first to operate in direct

he first echelon; the second

urpose of lateral extension

is sought for the purpose,

almost to the point of risking

ng front.

llery commander regu-

ept in counterbattery and in-

nd for these functions is

ive action, and thus contribute

are sent far forward of the

he enemy to deploy and to

ations.a. Gen-

ns are modeled after the

esigned, by virtue of their

o the enemy rear, or to ar-

s a result of their exper-

he Germans have recognized

omain, Google-digitized /

dinary infantry to follow the

, or O. a. F.) 292

ties 293

rial acquisition fol-

rtification, Italy has

invasion from the north

s of the northern fron-

curity. The sea frontiers

and air power in addition

ion of terrain in depth

tensive use is made of ob-

and terrain with fire. The

rman and Russian de-

ed mountainous environment,

pensive excavations and roads.

ostly and difficult in prepa-

because of greater topo-

ver rugged natural barriers.

e.a. The fortifi-

ttorio (the Alpine Forti-

d to simply as the Alpine

great semicircle through

near Ventimiglia to the

omain, Google-digitized /

s face the German fron-


has been along the Swiss

ocularly referred to as the

Yugoslav-Italian fron-

a series barrier, and the topo-

ges are about the same for

ar the junction point of

s, the defense works are

e Alpine Line is irregular,

c and geologic features of

d of thick, reinforced con-

as well as machine guns and

ground as so situated as

al rock masses of the moun-

are often distinguishable

them. In addition to low

ering the main passes, sys-

shed. It is reported that

arbed-wire entanglements,

ave been constructed at passes.

the fortifications have been

eral fortifications are lo-

connected by passageways

n January 1943, a re-

fortifications facing south.

transferred to serve as a

the main line is said to be

o the Po, thence along the

hence the line runs

d along the Adige to the

from Chioggia to Carole

omain, Google-digitized /

Venice's Lido Beach. The


mited area. The Navy is in

ble for defense.

ri marittime):


he Dalmatian coast).

posed of groups of islands.

nsible for their defense.

itorial defense of these zones

officers and commandants

ari marittime):

of the Navy serving as home

pletely responsible for

The Navy is also in

antiaircraft batteries, and the

of the bases themselves.

of the naval commanding

on islands where there is

under this command in the

(1) The Army is

omain, Google-digitized /

sts outside the areas spe-


so of potential support

ane bombing group stations

disi, Pola, and Rodi.

Calabria.-L-The Cala-

ro has been fortified with

ts. Machine guns have


e fields to the Port of

ship channel by red lights,

rth coast is fully mined,

and of Capri (1941).

hips' turret guns (280-

les on a shelf cut in Cai-

Caijola Island. It is on

a shoal light buoy. One

ge-finder is located.

are located at Monte

ascio and at Monte Righi.

entre.At these places

re installed naval coastal

mm antiaircraft guns have

antiaircraft guns have

craft guns in Italy, 76-mm

omain, Google-digitized /

at the following centers:


placed in batteries of 4, plus

h battery (or a total of 16

e was about 300 yards be-

und). The barracks for gun


val guns of heavy cali-

al guns of heavy caliber

rs directly overlooking Trieste.

s are stationed in the

ange guns utilize the motor

well fortified on both

reater caliber are in position.


iber are installed.

ant but of unknown ex-

to Gulf of Corinth).

e north shore.

the town of Rhodes.

omain, Google-digitized /

the Turkish mainland.


ouflage nets are 1 to

urnished with buttons and

material colored with three

rames for overhead

ns of 1.50 meters or 4 to 5

flat metal and weighs 2.2

al and weighs 2.25 kg. Both

ons and two end pickets. The

o the outside span section.

on a tubular collar which

variable span. Both types

hine-gunners and

consists of a frame of

xtremity around a central

his frame is wrapped a

ng with bunches of hay or

o the poles with large-

strawstack an opening is

f these simulations in

atural to find haystacks,

ck, as illustrated, can con-

distances without attracting

ate that 10 trained men

is made of the following

ength, 25 meters of jute

straw, and tacks, string,

ative cloak is used by

batant who must remain

under the eye of the ad-

omain, Google-digitized /

oak becomes invisible, even


rasts with the terrain, and


osts, the Italians believe

ost revealing features and to

around them. The greatest

f natural screening forma-

one so far as to set up com-

nts characteristically adopted

a. How detected.

t difficult to find on good

e the shadows of poles,

d against a light background,

e to pole, and round spots

, the line should be

adows, or have them concealed

of natural and preexisting

ing trails, comouflage the

the poles, and, if possible,

methods of camouflag-

s with imitative netting in

ractices for flat tops,


How detected.On

ire entanglements appear

m gray to black according

p and according to the mate-

vaux de frise, etc.). Usually

ines of the trenches with fre-

ground without snow,

, a careful examination

omain, Google-digitized /

many white dots, geometri-

es use military ab-

organization, field orders,

are sometimes used in con-

are often a key to the specific

use many words are

r, and because abbrevia-

mpossible to have all Italian

d and most frequently

rule can be followed in

ons. It has been observed,

ns the Italians tend to follow

re one word is to be

several methods are used.

he first letter and another

ew syllable), of the word,

word are combined to form

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /






de head-

gade head-

ed carabineer


arabiniere cadet


ne inspectorate

Carabineer territorial

headquarters for Lazio


nor offenses


rters and

omain, Google-digitized /

arters and


an infantry

or a bersaglieri

or a tank regi-

or a cavalry regi-

or an antiaircraft


an infantry

n engineer

or a railroad en-

or an engineer

or a bridging en-

or the Sardinian



rps administra-


omain, Google-digitized /



stry of war




ecruiting of


aceist Militia


chief of public relations

army office

edical service

the general staff corps

fficer personnel

ary commissary

al antiair-


hemical war-



omain, Google-digitized /



llery and en-

re units

ched section



ount squadron

ary penal estab-

engineer studies

arms and



cal office at

omain, Google-digitized /

ice of the


columns given for the fol-

een inarch groups:

orized elements (foot,

g on wide roads, and 17%

lted or when moving at 2%

march abreast and 2 men

roads 3 men march abreast

ng when halted, and 2%

es per hour.

ng when halted, if using

when halted, if using heavy

moving at 15% miles per

nd 38 miles long when

g heavy motor transport.

s celere). (a) For

19/10 miles long when halted

ng when halted or when

long when halted, and

25 miles per hour.

light tanks) : 6% miles

omain, Google-digitized /

when moving at 15% miles


military train.

or ar-

or calculation, it can be

omain, Google-digitized /

res 60,000 tons of shipping,

omain, Google-digitized /



m is employed in Italy.

ning the words meter

omain, Google-digitized /

ro), with the six numerical

omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


omain, Google-digitized /


ggiore delli


o diarmata) 50 47

-203 175

omain, Google-digitized /

19 17

battalion 113 98


omain, Google-digitized /

re Generate) 41 42

h units 131 108

3 115



omain, Google-digitized /

omain, Google-digitized /

omain, Google-digitized /