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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
(Statics of Rigid Bodies)
ENGR. JOSHUA DLS. PERANTE
Instructor
MECH 313
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Introduction
Engineering Mechanics science which considers the effects
of forces on rigid bodies.
Engineering
Mechanics
Statics
Dynamics
Force
Applications
Kinematics
Kinetics
Systems
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# Force that which changes, or tends to change, the state of motion of a body.

Characteristics
1. Magnitude
2.
Position of its line of action
3.
Direction or sense
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# Isolate the body being considered

A
pp
lied Forces forces actin
g
on the free bod
y
Reaction Forces those exerted by the free body upon other
bodies.
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# Scalar Quantities which possess magnitude only and can be added arithmetically

Vector can be combined only by geometric addition
(has magnitude and direction)
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# Graphical method by arranging the given vectors in tip-to- tail fashion and connecting the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one

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Law of cosines,
C
22
2
B
RP
Q
2
PQ
cos
B
RP
Q
C
Law of sines,
sin A
sin
B
sin C
Q
R
A
B
PQ
QP
Vector subtraction
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F1
R
F1
R
F2
F2
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# Polygon Rule by arranging the given vectors in tip-to-tail fashion and connecting the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one (used in computing several concurrent forces)

F2
F3
F1
R
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Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces
Concurrent forces: set of forces which all
pass through the same point.
A set of concurrent forces applied to a
particle may be replaced by a single
resultant force which is the vector sum of
the applied forces.
Vector force components: two or more force
vectors which, together, have the same
effect as a single force vector.
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Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Graphical Method)
Parallelogram method
Tip to tail method
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Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
Using law of cosines:
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Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
Using law of sines:
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Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
A.
Using triangle rule
Using law of sines
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Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
B.
Note: minimum value of T2 occurs
when T1 and T2 are perpendicular
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Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
B.
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Rectangular Components of a Force
May resolve a force vector into perpendicular
components so that the resulting parallelogram is a
rectangle.
FF
and
are referred to as rectangular
xy
vector components and
FF
F
xy
D
e ne perpen
fi
di
cu ar un t vectors
l
i
i and j
wc
hi
h
are parallel to the x and y axes.
Vector components may be expressed as products
of the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes of
the vector components.
FF iF
j
xy
F x and F y are referred to as the scalar components of
F
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Unit Vectors
Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along
the positive x and y axes,denoted by i and j
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Unit Vectors
Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along
the positive x and y axes,denoted by i and j
(angle defining its direction)
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Sample Problem
A force of 800 N is exerted on a bolt A as shown in determine
the horizontal and vertical components of the force
Solution:
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Addition of Forces by Summing X and Y
Components
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Sample Problem
Four forces act on bolt A as
shown. Determine the resultant of
the forces on the bolt.
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Sample Problem
1. Figure/Given:
2. Required: Resultant R
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Sample Problem
3. Solution:
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Sample Problem
3. Solution:
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Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero, the
particle is in equilibrium.
Newton s First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle
will remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.
Particle acted upon by two
forces:
Particle acted upon by three or more forces:
-
graphical solution yields a closed polygon
-
equal magnitude
-
algebraic solution
-
same line of action
RF
0
-
opposite sense
F
0
F
0
x
y
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Free-Body Diagrams
Space Diagram: A sketch showing
Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing
the physical conditions of the
only the forces on the selected
problem.
particle.
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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at the junction of the rope and cable.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium by
creating a closed polygon from the forces
applied to the particle.
Apply trigonometric relations to determine
the unknown force magnitudes.
automobile is supported by a cable. A
rope is tied to the cable and pulled to
center the automobile over its intended
position. What is the tension in the
rope?
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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at A.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium.
Solve for the unknown force magnitudes.
TT
3500lb
AB
AC
sin120
sin 2
sin58
T
3570lb
AB
T
144lb
AC
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Rectangular Components in Space
The vector
is
Resolve
into
Resolve
F
into
F
F
h
contained in the
horizontal and
rectangular components
plane OBAC.
vertical components.
FF
cos 
xh
F
F cos
y
y
F sin

cos
y
F
F sin
h
y
FF
sin 
yh
F sin
sin 
y
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Rectangular Components in Space
With the angles between F and the axes,
FF
cos
F
F
cos
FF
cos
x
xy
yz
z
FF iF
jF k
xy
z
Fi
cos

cos
jk
cos
x
y
z
F 

cos
ij
cos

cos
k
x
y
z
is a unit vector along the line of action of
F
and
cos
, cos
, and cos
are the direction
xy
z
cosines for
MECH 313
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Rectangular Components in Space
Direction of the force is defined by
the location of two points,
Mx ,y ,z
and Nx ,y
,z
11
1
22
2
d
vector joining
MN
and
di
dj
dk
xy
z
dx
xd
yy
dz
z
x
21
y
21
z
21
FF
1
xy
di
dj
dk
z
d
Fd
Fd
y
Fd
x
z
F
F
F
x
y
z
d
d
d
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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Based on the relative locations of the
points A and B, determine the unit vector
pointing from A towards B.
Apply the unit vector to determine the
components o te orce acting on
f
h
f
A
.
Noting that the components of the unit
vector are the direction cosines for the
The tension in the guy wire is 2500 N.
vector, calculate the corresponding
Determine:
angles.
a)
components F x ,F y ,F z of the force
acting on the bolt at A,
b) the angles q
x ,q
y ,q z defining the
direction of the force
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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Determine the unit vector pointing from A
towards B.
AB
40m
ij
80m
30m
k
2
2
2
AB
40m
80m
30m
94.3 m
40
80
30
ij
k
94.3
94.3
94.3
0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
Determine the components of the force.
FF
2500 N0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
k
1060 N
i
2120 N
j
795 N
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Sample Problem
Noting that the components of the unit vector are
the direction cosines for the vector, calculate the
corresponding angles.
cos
ij
cos
cos
k
x
y
z
0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
115.1
x
32.0
y
71.5
z
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# Sources

## Engineering Mechanics, Singer, Ferdinand

E
ng neer ng
i
i
Mh
ec
an cs,
i
Ti
mos
hk
en
o an
d Y
oung
Engineering Mechanics, Hibbeler, R.C
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