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ENGINEERING MECHANICS (Statics of Rigid Bodies) ENGR. JOSHUA DLS. PERANTE Instructor MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
(Statics of Rigid Bodies)
ENGR. JOSHUA DLS. PERANTE
Instructor
MECH 313
JSPERANTE
EVSU
Introduction Engineering Mechanics science which considers the effects of forces on rigid bodies. Engineering Mechanics Statics
Introduction
Engineering Mechanics science which considers the effects
of forces on rigid bodies.
Engineering
Mechanics
Statics
Dynamics
Force
Applications
Kinematics
Kinetics
Systems
MECH 313
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Fundamental Concepts

Rigid Bodies definite amount of matter the parts of which are fixed in position relative to each other.

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MECH 313
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Fundamental Concepts Rigid Bodies definite amount of matter the parts of which are fixed in position

Fundamental Concepts

Force that which changes, or tends to change, the state of motion of a body.

Characteristics 1. Magnitude 2. Position of its line of action 3. Direction or sense MECH 313
Characteristics
1. Magnitude
2.
Position of its line of action
3.
Direction or sense
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Free Body Diagram (FBD)

Isolate the body being considered

A pp lied Forces forces actin g on the free bod y Reaction Forces those
A
pp
lied Forces forces actin
g
on the free bod
y
Reaction Forces those exerted by the free body upon other
bodies.
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Free Body Diagram (FBD)

May consist of an entire assembled structure or an isolated part of it.

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MECH 313
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Scalar and Vector Quantities

Scalar Quantities which possess magnitude only and can be added arithmetically

Vector can be combined only by geometric addition (has magnitude and direction) MECH 313 JSPERANTE
Vector can be combined only by geometric addition
(has magnitude and direction)
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Vector Addition

Graphical method by arranging the given vectors in tip-to- tail fashion and connecting the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one

MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
MECH 313
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Vector Addition Graphical method by arranging the given vectors in tip-to- tail fashion and connecting the
Vector Addition Trapezoid rule for vector addition Triangle rule for vector addition Law of cosines, C
Vector Addition
Trapezoid rule for vector addition
Triangle rule for vector addition
Law of cosines,
C
22
2
B
RP
Q
2
PQ
cos
B
RP
Q
C
Law of sines,
sin A
sin
B
sin C
Q
R
A
B
Vector addition is commutative,
PQ
QP
Vector subtraction
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Vector Addition

Parallelogram Law The resultant of two forces is the diagonal of the parallelogram formed on the vectors of these forces

F1 R F1 R F2 F2 MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
F1
R
F1
R
F2
F2
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Vector Addition

Polygon Rule by arranging the given vectors in tip-to-tail fashion and connecting the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one (used in computing several concurrent forces)

F2 F3 F1 R MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
F2
F3
F1
R
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Vector Addition Polygon Rule by arranging the given vectors in tip-to-tail fashion and connecting the tail
Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces Concurrent forces: set of forces which all pass through the same
Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces
Concurrent forces: set of forces which all
pass through the same point.
A set of concurrent forces applied to a
particle may be replaced by a single
resultant force which is the vector sum of
the applied forces.
Vector force components: two or more force
vectors which, together, have the same
effect as a single force vector.
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Sample Problem 1 Find the resultant Solution: (Graphical Method) Parallelogram method Tip to tail method MECH
Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Graphical Method)
Parallelogram method
Tip to tail method
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Sample Problem 1 Find the resultant Solution: (Trigonometric Solution) Using law of cosines: MECH 313 JSPERANTE
Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
Using law of cosines:
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Sample Problem 1 Find the resultant Solution: (Trigonometric Solution) Using law of sines: MECH 313 JSPERANTE
Sample Problem 1
Find the resultant
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
Using law of sines:
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Sample Problem 2 A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the forces
Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
A.
Using triangle rule
Using law of sines
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Sample Problem 2 A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the forces
Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
B.
Note: minimum value of T2 occurs
when T1 and T2 are perpendicular
MECH 313
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Sample Problem 2 A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the forces
Sample Problem 2
A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the
forces exerted by the tugboats is a 5000-lb force
directed along the axis of the barge, determine
( a ) the tension in each of the ropes knowing that a 5 45°,
( b ) the value of a for which the tension in rope 2 is minimum
Solution:
(Trigonometric Solution)
B.
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Rectangular Components of a Force May resolve a force vector into perpendicular components so that the
Rectangular Components of a Force
May resolve a force vector into perpendicular
components so that the resulting parallelogram is a
rectangle.
FF
and
are referred to as rectangular
xy
vector components and
FF
F
xy
D
e ne perpen
fi
di
cu ar un t vectors
l
i
i and j
wc
hi
h
are parallel to the x and y axes.
Vector components may be expressed as products
of the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes of
the vector components.
FF iF
j
xy
F x and F y are referred to as the scalar components of
F
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Unit Vectors Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along the positive x and y axes,denoted
Unit Vectors
Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along
the positive x and y axes,denoted by i and j
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Unit Vectors Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along the positive x and y axes,denoted
Unit Vectors
Two vectors of unit magnitude, directed respectively along
the positive x and y axes,denoted by i and j
(angle defining its direction)
MECH 313
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Sample Problem A force of 800 N is exerted on a bolt A as shown in
Sample Problem
A force of 800 N is exerted on a bolt A as shown in determine
the horizontal and vertical components of the force
Solution:
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Addition of Forces by Summing X and Y Components MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
Addition of Forces by Summing X and Y
Components
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Sample Problem Four forces act on bolt A as shown. Determine the resultant of the forces
Sample Problem
Four forces act on bolt A as
shown. Determine the resultant of
the forces on the bolt.
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Sample Problem 1. Figure/Given: 2. Required: Resultant R MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
Sample Problem
1. Figure/Given:
2. Required: Resultant R
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Sample Problem 3. Solution: MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
Sample Problem
3. Solution:
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Sample Problem 3. Solution: MECH 313 JSPERANTE EVSU
Sample Problem
3. Solution:
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Equilibrium of a Particle When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero,
Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero, the
particle is in equilibrium.
Newton s First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle
will remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.
Particle acted upon by two
forces:
Particle acted upon by three or more forces:
-
graphical solution yields a closed polygon
-
equal magnitude
-
algebraic solution
-
same line of action
RF
0
-
opposite sense
F
0
F
0
x
y
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EVSU
Free-Body Diagrams Space Diagram: A sketch showing Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing the physical conditions of
Free-Body Diagrams
Space Diagram: A sketch showing
Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing
the physical conditions of the
only the forces on the selected
problem.
particle.
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Sample Problem SOLUTION: Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at the junction of the rope
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at the junction of the rope and cable.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium by
creating a closed polygon from the forces
applied to the particle.
Apply trigonometric relations to determine
the unknown force magnitudes.
In a ship-unloading operation, a 3500-lb
automobile is supported by a cable. A
rope is tied to the cable and pulled to
center the automobile over its intended
position. What is the tension in the
rope?
MECH 313
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Sample Problem SOLUTION: Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at the junction of the rope
Sample Problem SOLUTION: Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at A. Apply the conditions for
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Construct a free-body diagram for the
particle at A.
Apply the conditions for equilibrium.
Solve for the unknown force magnitudes.
TT
3500lb
AB
AC
sin120
sin 2
sin58
T
3570lb
AB
T
144lb
AC
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Rectangular Components in Space The vector is Resolve into Resolve F into F F h contained
Rectangular Components in Space
The vector
is
Resolve
into
Resolve
F
into
F
F
h
contained in the
horizontal and
rectangular components
plane OBAC.
vertical components.
FF
cos 
xh
F
F cos
y
y
F sin

cos
y
F
F sin
h
y
FF
sin 
yh
F sin
sin 
y
MECH 313
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Rectangular Components in Space With the angles between F and the axes, FF cos F F
Rectangular Components in Space
With the angles between F and the axes,
FF
cos
F
F
cos
FF
cos
x
xy
yz
z
FF iF
jF k
xy
z
Fi
cos

cos
jk
cos
x
y
z
F 

cos
ij
cos

cos
k
x
y
z
is a unit vector along the line of action of
F
and
cos
, cos
, and cos
are the direction
xy
z
cosines for
MECH 313
F
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EVSU
Rectangular Components in Space Direction of the force is defined by the location of two points,
Rectangular Components in Space
Direction of the force is defined by
the location of two points,
Mx ,y ,z
and Nx ,y
,z
11
1
22
2
d
vector joining
MN
and
di
dj
dk
xy
z
dx
xd
yy
dz
z
x
21
y
21
z
21
FF
1
xy
di
dj
dk
z
d
Fd
Fd
y
Fd
x
z
F
F
F
x
y
z
d
d
d
MECH 313
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Sample Problem SOLUTION: Based on the relative locations of the points A and B, determine the
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Based on the relative locations of the
points A and B, determine the unit vector
pointing from A towards B.
Apply the unit vector to determine the
components o te orce acting on
f
h
f
A
.
Noting that the components of the unit
vector are the direction cosines for the
The tension in the guy wire is 2500 N.
vector, calculate the corresponding
Determine:
angles.
a)
components F x ,F y ,F z of the force
acting on the bolt at A,
b) the angles q
x ,q
y ,q z defining the
direction of the force
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Sample Problem SOLUTION: Determine the unit vector pointing from A towards B. AB 40m ij 80m
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Determine the unit vector pointing from A
towards B.
AB
40m
ij
80m
30m
k
2
2
2
AB
40m
80m
30m
94.3 m
40
80
30
ij
k
94.3
94.3
94.3
0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
Determine the components of the force.
FF
2500 N0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
k
1060 N
i
2120 N
j
795 N
MECH 313
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Sample Problem Noting that the components of the unit vector are the direction cosines for the
Sample Problem
Noting that the components of the unit vector are
the direction cosines for the vector, calculate the
corresponding angles.
cos
ij
cos
cos
k
x
y
z
0.424
ij
0.848
0.318
k
115.1
x
32.0
y
71.5
z
MECH 313
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Sources

STATICS, Engineering Mechanics, BedFord, Anthony and Fowler

Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Beer, Ferdinand

Engineering Mechanics, Singer, Ferdinand

E ng neer ng i i Mh ec an cs, i Ti mos hk en o
E
ng neer ng
i
i
Mh
ec
an cs,
i
Ti
mos
hk
en
o an
d Y
oung
Engineering Mechanics, Hibbeler, R.C
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