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Eng3901 - Problem Sets

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Problem Set 1

1. (2-31 Moran & Shapiro, 6e) Warm air is contained in a piston-cylinder assembly oriented horizontally
as shown. The air cools slowly from an initial volume of 0:003 m3 to a …nal volume of 0:002 m3 . During
the process, the spring exerts a force that varies linearly from an initial value of 900 N to a …nal value of
zero. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, and the are of the piston face is 0:018 m2 . Friction between
the piston and the cylinder wall can be neglected. For the air, determine the initial and …nal presures,
in kPa, and the work, in kJ. (p1 = 150 kPa, p2 = 100 kPa, W12 = 0:125 kJ)

2. (2-33 Moran & Shapiro, 6e) Carbon monoxide gas (CO) contained within a piston-cylinder assembly
undergoes three processes in series:
Process 1-2: Expansion from p1 = 5 bar, V1 = 0:2 m3 , to V2 = 1 m3 , during which the pressurevolume relationship is pV = c, where c is a constant.
Process 2-3: Constant-volume heating from state 2 to state 3, where p3 = 5 bar.
Process 3-1: Constant-pressure compression to the initial state.
Sketch the processes in series on p-V co-ordinates and evaluate the work for each process, in kJ.
(W12 = 160:9 kJ, W23 = 400 kJ, W31 = 0 kJ)
3. (2-66 Moran & Shapiro, 6e) Steam in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a polytropic process with
n = 2, from an initial state where p1 = 500 lbf= in2 , v1 = 1:701 ft3 = lb, u1 = 1363:3 Btu= lb to a …nal state
where u2 = 990:58 Btu= lb. During the process, there is a heat transfer from the steam of 342:9 Btu.
The mass of steam is 1:2 lb. Neglecting changes in kinetic and potential energies, determine the work,
in Btu, and the …nal speci…c volume, in ft3 = lb. (W12 = 104:4 Btu, v2 = 3:8 ft3 = lb)
4. (2-68 Moran & Shapiro, 6e) Air is contained in a vertical piston-cylinder assembly by a piston of mass
50 kg and having a face area of 0:01 m2 . The mass of the air is 5 g, and initially the air occupies a
volume of 5 l. The atmosphere exerts a pressure of 100 kPa on the top of the piston. The volume of
the air slowly decreases to 0:002 m3 as the speci…c internal energy of the air decreases by 260 kJ= kg.
Neglecting friction between the piston and the cylinder wall, determine the heat transfer to the air, in
kJ. (Q12 = 1:747 kJ)
5. (2-76 Moran & Shapiro, 6e) A gas within a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a thermodynamic cycle
consisting of three processes:
Process 1-2: Constant volume, V = 0:028 m3 , U2

U1 = 26:4 kJ.

Process 2-3: Expansion with pV = const, U3 = U2 .
Process 3-1: Constant pressure, p = 1:4 bar, W31 =

10:5 kJ.

There are no signi…cant changes in kinetic or potential energies.
(a) Sketch the cycle on a p-V diagram.

(m = 1:064 kg. u = 587:82 kJ= kg) 6. T = 140 C. v = 0:9 m3 = kg. …nd v in m3 = kg and h in kJ= kg. in bar. T = 400 C. or saturated liquid and vapour) p = 5 bar. (p1 = 6:178 bar. T = 280 C. (v = 0:00236 m3 = kg. u = 2059:9 kJ= kg) (c) At p = 12 bar. u = 2827:5 kJ= kg) (e) At p = 32 MPa. h = 2055:9 kJ= kg) (f) At T = 200 C.Problem Sets (b) (c) (d) (e) 2 2 Calculate the net work for the cycle. (b) Evaluate the work. x = 80%. Determine the …nal mass of vapour in the tank. (Ice) 2. (p = 0:9177 MPa. (3-6 Moran & Shapiro. Kinetic and potential energy e¤ects are negligible. in kJ= kg. (a) At p = 1:5 bar. 6e) Water vapour is heated in a closed rigid tank from saturated vapour at 160 C to a …nal temperature of 400 C. Determine the work for the process. (3-24 Moran & Shapiro. h = 3260:7 kJ= kg) (d) At T = 320 C. T = 151:9 C. p2 = 9:99 bar) 4. 6e) Ammonia in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a constant-pressure process at 2:5 bar from T1 = 30 C to saturated vapour. Heat transfer occurs until the tank contains only saturated vapour. 6e) Water is contained in a closed. in kJ. 3e) Determine the speci…ed property data for H2 O at the states indicated and locate each state on carefully labelled p-v and T -v diagrams. …nd v in m3 = kg and u in kJ= kg. T = 200 C. h = 354:09 kJ= kg) (h) At p = 2:5 MPa. in kJ= kg. (p = 15:54 bar. …nd p in kPa and h in kJ= kg. u = 2778:6 kJ= kg) (b) At p = 1:5 bar. (T = 111:4 C. T = 12 C. and the …nal pressure. in kJ= kg of refrigerant. (Q31 = 36:9 kJ) Is this a power cycle or a refrigeration cycle? (Power) Problem Set 2 1. 0:2 m3 tank at an initial pressure of 5 bar and a quality of 50%. (3-51 Moran & Shapiro. …nd T in C and u in kJ= kg. (3-38 Moran & Shapiro. (Superheated vapour) p = 2:5 MPa. 6e) Determine the phase or phases in a system consisting of H2 O at the following conditions and sketch p-v and T -v diagrams showing the location of each state. …nd p in bar and v in m3 = kg. (Superheated vapour) p = 1 bar. in bar. (v = 0:2652 m3 = kg. (w12 = 23:84 kJ= kg) 5. T = 160 C. (v = 1:695 m3 = kg. T = 400 C. Determine the initial and …nal pressures. or saturated vapour. For the propane: (a) Show the process on a p-v diagram. in kJ. …nd v in m3 = kg and h in kJ= kg. (Saturated liquid. (p = 0:2602 kPa. (3-28 Moran & Shapiro. …nd p in MPa and u in kJ= kg. v = 0:1022 m3 = kg) (g) At T = 10 C. and (w12 = 10:2 kJ= kg) (c) Evaluate the heat transfer. 6e) Propane within a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a constant-pressure process from saturated vapour at 400 kPa to a temperature of 40 C. (3-34 Moran & Shapiro. (Wnet = 8:28 kJ) Calculate the heat transfer for process 2-3. and sketch the process on T -v and p-v diagrams. (q12 = 80:3 kJ= kg) . rigid. v = 1:0891 10 3 m3 = kg. in kg. …nd v in m3 = kg and u in kJ= kg. v = 0:3 m3 = kg. (Compressed liquid) p = 4:8 bar.Eng3901 . in kJ. (Q23 = 18:78 kJ) Calculate the heat transfer for process 3-1. p = 10:51 bar) 3. (v = 1:0784 10 3 m3 = kg. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) p = 5 bar. T = 200 C.

initially at 100 kPa and 25 C. determine the work and heat transfer. Friction between the piston and the cylinder wall. (3-81 Moran & Shapiro. initially at 5 bar. initially at 0:8 bar and 10 C. 450 K are con…ned to opposite sides of a rigid. Heat transfer to the water continues at constant volume until the pressure is 150 kPa. a piston-cylinder assembly whose piston is resting on a set of stops contains 0:5 kg of helium gas. The mass of the piston and the e¤ect of the atmospheric pressure acting on the piston are such that a pressure of 500 kPa is required to raise it. as shown. the pressure and speci…c volume are related by pv = const. in kJ. (W13 = 0:106 kJ. How much energy must be transferred by heat to the helium. 6e) A piston-cylinder assembly contains ammonia. (W13 = 4884:3 kJ. Q13 = 4877:1 kJ) 3. (Q12 = 1857:1 kJ) 4. (3-70 Moran & Shapiro. The ammonia is compressed to a pressure of 5:5 bar. The mass of the piston is 10 kg. The pressure of the surroundings is 100 kPa. determine the work and heat transfer. well-insulated container by a . and kinetic and potential energy e¤ects are negligible. the pressure inside the cylinder remains constant until the piston hits the stops.Problem Sets 3 3 Problem Set 3 1. 350 K and 4 kg of carbon monoxide (CO) initially at 2 bar. For 20 kg of ammonia. Q13 = 1:43 kJ) 2. During the process. before the piston starts rising? Assume ideal gas behaviour for the helium. For the overall process of the water. 6e) Two kilograms of air. initially at x = 30% and a pressure of 100 kPa. in kJ. (3-119 Moran & Shapiro. each in kJ. and its diameter is 15 cm. 6e) As shown below. (3-124 Moran & Shapiro. 6e) A two-phase mixture of H2 O.Eng3901 . is contained in a piston-cylinder assembly. As the water is heated.

Determine the work and heat transfer for each process. 395 kg= s) 2. k = 1:395. 6e) As shown below. The air undergoes a power cycle consisting of four processes in series: Process Process Process Process 1-2: 2-3: 3-4: 4-1: Constant-temperature expansion at 600 K from p1 = 0:5 MPa to p2 = 0:4 MPa. k = 1:4. (T = 417:4 K. and heat transfer is negligible. in C. and the thermal e¢ ciency of the cycle. (4-78 Moran & Shapiro. the river has a volumetric ‡ow rate of 2 105 m3 = h and a temperature of 15 C. VCO = 2:073 m3 ) 5. Determine at equilibrium: (a) the temperature. (3-135 Moran & Shapiro. in kJ= kg.Problem Sets 4 partition. and (c) the volume occupied by each gas. in m3 . ( T = 0:573 C) . in bar. p = 239:2 bar. (w12 = 38:38 kJ= kg. as shown. Constant-volume heating. 305 K and exits with a pressure of 680 kPa and a temperature of 400 K. Measurements indicate that several hundred meters upstream of the plant. The water passes through the turbine with no signi…cant changes in temperature or pressure between the inlet and exit. 6e) The intake to a hydraulic turbine installed in a ‡ood control dam is located at an elevation of 10 m above the turbine exit. (b) the pressure. q41 = 172:61 kJ= kg. a condenser using river water to condense steam with a mass ‡ow rate of 2 105 kg= h from saturated vapour to saturated liquid at a pressure of 0:1 bar is proposed for an inductrial plant. in kg= s? (m _ = 10. The air and CO each behave as ideal gases with constant speci…c heat ratio. (4-63 Moran & Shapiro. q23 = 0:54 kJ= kg. The acceleration of gravity is constant at g = 9:81 m= s2 . Determine the temperature increase of the cooling water. in K. ( T = 11:1 K) 3. Sketch the cycle on a p-v diagram. (4-49 Moran & Shapiro. determine the river-water temperature rise. w34 = 55:2 kJ= kg. 6e) Air enters a water-jacketed air compressor operating at steady state with a volumetric ‡ow rate of 37 m3 = min at 136 kPa. th = 0:081) 4 Problem Set 4 1. w23 = 34:0 kJ= kg. VAir = 1:002 m3 . Heat transfer from the outside of the jacket as well as all kinetic and potential energy e¤ects can be neglected. The power input to the compressor is 155 kW. if the cooling water mass ‡ow rate is 82 kg= min. what is the mass ‡ow rate of the water. If the power output at steady state is 500 kW. downstream of the plant traceable to use of such a condenser. 6e) A piston-cylinder assembly contains air modelled as an ideal gas with a constant speci…c heat ratio. w41 = 0 kJ= kg. and comment. in K. Polytropic expansion with n = k to p3 = 0:3 MPa. Energy transfer by heat from the compressed air to the cooling water circulating in the water jacket results in an increase in the temperature of the cooling water from inlet to exit with no change in pressure. The partition is free to move and allows conduction from one gas to the other without energy storage in the partition itself. For operation at steady state and ignoring changes in kinetic and potential energies. q12 = 38:38 kJ= kg. Constant-pressure compression to V4 = V1 .Eng3901 . q34 = 193:27 kJ= kg. Water enters at 20 C with negligible velocity and exits from the turbine at 10 m= s.

In a separate stream. 190 kW) . liquid water enters the heat exchnager at T4 = 20 C and exits as a liquid at T5 = 10 C. Determine: (a) the pressure at state 2. Saturated liquid refrigerant 134a enters the valve at T1 = 36 C with a mass ‡ow rate of 0:26 kg= s and is throttled to T2 = 8 C. and (b) The mass ‡ow rate of the liquid water stream. Stray heat transfer and kinetic and potential energy e¤ects can be ignored. m _ 4 = 0:882 kg= s) 5. exiting as saturated vapour with no signi…cant decrease in pressure.Eng3901 . (4-95 Moran & Shapiro. 6e) The …gure below provides steady-state data for a throttling valve in series with a heat exchanger. and (b) the power output of the second turbine.Problem Sets 5 4. Heat transfer with the surroundings can be neglected. (p2 = 217:04 kPa. (T3 = 849:3 C. in kW. Deter_ t2 . in C. W _ Wt2 = 16. The refrigerant then enters the heat exchanger. in kPa. (4-105 Moran & Shapiro. as can all kinetic and potential energy e¤ects. mine: (a) T3 . Steady-state operating data are provided on the …gure. 6e) separate streams of steam and air ‡ow through the turbine and heat exchanger arrangement shown below.

p1 = 100 kPa. State all assumptions when answering the following questions. Two well-insulated air compressors and a mixing chamber are shown below. T1 = 300 K). Water exits the LP turbine at state 5 (p5 = 10 kPa. x2 = 0:95). Use the air properties given below. The LP compressor requires a power input of 572:45 kW. T3 = 300 K) in a constant pressure process. A two-stage turbine with a moisture separator is used in a steam powerplant.Eng3901 . The mixed air stream then exits the mixing chamber at state 4 and enters the HP compressor. The process in the moisture separator occurs at a constant pressure. Air enters the LP compressor at state 1 (m _ 1 = 5 kg= s. and state all assumptions when answering the following questions. The water exits the the HP turbine at state 2 (p2 = 500 kPa. Water enters the HP turbine at state 1 (p1 = 4 MPa. p3 = 500 kPa.Problem Sets 5 6 Problem Set 5 1. x5 = 0:9). The moisture separator is a well-insulated device used to remove the liquid water from the steam that will enter the LP turbine. The air exits the HP compressor at 2 MPa. (a) What is the mass ‡ow rate of the steam entering the LP turbine? (m _ 4 = 38 kg= s) _ (b) What is the total power output of the two-stage turbine? (W = 27:9 MW) 2. with the same exponent n. m _ 1 = 40 kg= s). Saturated liquid exits the moisture separator at state 3 and saturated vapour enters the LP turbine at state 4. (a) What is the polytropic exponent n for the processes in the compressors? (n = 1:25) . The air exits the LP compressor at state 2 (p2 = 500 kPa) and enters an adiabatic mixing chamber where it mixes with a second air stream at state 3 (m _ 3 = 2 kg= s. Assume the processes in both compressors are polytropic. T1 = 300 C.

The remaining steam exits the turbine at state 3 (p3 = 10 kPa. Heat is rejected by the steam at the rate of jQ_ C j = 19:215 MW in the condenser. The preheated water exits the feedwater heater at state 6 (p6 = 500 kPa). Te = 35 C. and (b) the mass ‡ow rate of the cooling water through the condenser. It then eneters the condenser and exits at state 3 (p3 = 0:08 bar. Ti = 20 C. p1 = 100 bar. T5 = 36 C). R = 0:287 kJ= kg K 3. x3 = 0:95) and enters the condenser. See the …gure on the solutions page. A simple steam power plant consists of a boiler. T1 = 520 C) and exits at state 2 (p2 = 0:08 bar. A simple steam power plant consists of a boiler. and exits at state e. ( th = 0:332. th .Problem Sets 7 _ HP = 857:6 kW) (b) What is the required power input to the HP compressor? ( W Air properties: cp = 1:005 kJ= kg K. m _ i . The power requirements of the low and high pressure _ LP j = 5 kW and jW _ HP j = 30 kW. The pressure of the water is increased in a pump to state 4 (p4 = 100 bar. Steam enters the turbine at state 1 (m _ 1 = 109 kg= s. is pressurized to state 7 (p7 = 3 MPa) in the high pressure pump and enters the boiler. Determine: (a) the thermal e¢ ciency. is pressurized by the low pressure pump. and two pumps as shown below. a condenser. T2 = 180 C) to be used in the open feedwater heater. respectively. turbine condenser and pump. x2 = 0:9). The steam enters the turbine at state 1 (m_ 1 = 10 kg= s. The water exits the condenser at state 4 (p4 = 10 kPa). and enters the open feedwater heater at state 5 (p5 = 500 kPa. ( th = 0:268) . a turbine. p1 = 3 MPa. Some of the steam is bled from the turbine at state 2 (p2 = 500 kPa.Eng3901 . T4 = 43 C) and then enters the boiler. The liquid cooling water enters the turbine at state i . in kg= s. Determine the thermal e¢ ciency of the pumps are jW power plant. T1 = 400 C). an open feedwater heater. m _ i = 3758:7 kg= s) 4. saturated liquid).

Neglecting kinetic and potential energy e¤ects. (Q12 = 30 kJ) 2. in kJ. Eventually. 6e (modi…ed)) A tiny hole develops in the wall of a rigid tank of volume 0:5 m3 . in kg.Problem Sets 6 8 Problem Set 6 1. and air from the surroundings at 1 bar. The process occurs slowly enough that heat transfer between the tank and the surroundings keeps the temperature of the air inside the tank constant at 21 C. in kJ. (4-106 Moran & Shapiro. Determine the amount of heat transfer. or (Q12 = 50 kJ) (b) contains air at 0:4 bar and 21 C. Q12 = 2546:5 kJ) . if heating continues until the …nal quality is x = 0:5. the pressure in the tank reaches 1 bar. determine the total mass of H2 O left in the tank. if initially the tank: (a) is evacuated. 21 C leaks in. (m2 = 0:903 kg.Eng3901 . and the amount of heat transfer. 6e) The rigid tank shown below has a volume of 0:06 m3 and initially contains a two-phase liquid-vapour mixture of H2 O at a pressure of 15 bar and a quality of 20%. a pressure-regulating valve keeps the pressure constant in the tank by allowing saturated vapour to escape. As the tank contents are heated. (4-110 Moran & Shapiro.

(T2 = 300 K. m2 = 0:0821 kg using Table A-22) . 6e) A well-insulated tank contains 25 kg of refrigerant R-134a. The valve is opened between the tank and a supply line carrying R-134a at 1 MPa and 120 C.8. and the diameter of the piston face is 0:3 m. in kg. The valve between the supply line and the tank is closed at the instant when all the liquid has vaporized. Determine the amount of refrigerant admitted to the tank. initially at 300 kPa with a quality of 0. and the …nal mass. of the air inside the cylinder. 6e) A well-insulated piston-cylinder assembly is connected by a valve to an air supply line at 8 bar and 300 K. 300 K. The valve is opened and air is admitted slowly until the volume of the air inside the cylinder has doubled. (mi = 9:03 kg) 4.Problem Sets 9 3. The weight of the piston and the friction between the piston and cylinder wall can be ignored. as shown. (4-118 Moran & Shapiro. (4-119 Moran & Shapiro. The pressure is maintained by N2 gas acting against a ‡exible bladder. as shown. in K. The pressure regulator allows the pressure in the tank to remain at 300 kPa as the bladder expands. Initially. and the piston is located 0:5 m above the bottom of the cylinder. Determine the …nal temperature.Eng3901 . in kg. The atmospheric pressure is 1 bar. the air inside the cylinder is at 1 bar. Try this problem assuming constant speci…c heats and table A-22 for air properties.

QC = (c) QC = (d) th 300 Btu (Reversible) 400 Btu. (m _ ice = 147:6 kg= h) 6. and ($10. in kg= h. 6e) A refrigeration cycle operating between two reservoirs receives energy QC from a cold reservoir at TC = 280 K and rejects energy QH to a hot reservoir at TH = 320 K. each in $/day. operates irreversibly. or is impossible. Assume that 333 kJ= kg of energy must be removed by heat transfer to freeze water at 0 C. Based on the cost of fuel. (5-37 Moran & Shapiro. ($40/day) . If electricity costs 8 cents per kW h: (a) determine the actual operating cost and the minimum theoretical cost. subject to this constraint. and (b) the minimum fuel cost. For 8000 hours of operation annually. the cycle discharges energy by heat transfer to the atmosphere at 300 K at a rate no greater than 60 MW.8 provides energy at an average rate of 75. $5. _ max = 990 MW) (W 4. determine the maximum rate that ice can be produced. Owing to environmental considerations. and that the surroundings are at 20 C. 6e) A power cycle receives energy QH by heat transfer from a hot reservoir at TH = 1500 R and rejects energy QC to a cold reservoir at TC = 500 R. from liquid water at 0 C.08/ kW h.) 0:3 = 0:67. (5-39 Moran & Shapiro. determine: (a) the maximum value of the power generated. Wcycle = 450 Btu (Irreversible) (b) QH = 900 Btu.Problem Sets 7 10 Problem Set 7 1. Determine the maximum theoretical power that can be developed. Wcycle = 400 kJ (Irreversible) = 5 (Irreversible) 5. Wcycle = 600 Btu (Irreversible) = 0:7 (Impossible) 2. The power developed by the cycle is valued at $0.50/ GW. 6e) A power cycle operating at steady state receives energy by heat transfer from the combustion of fuel at an average temperature of 1000 K. Upstream of the power plant the river has volumetric ‡ow rate of 2512 ft3 = s and a temperature of 68 F. (5-56 Moran & Shapiro. in MW. operates irreversibly. (a) QH = 900 Btu. determine whether the cycle operates reversibly. (a) QC = 1500 kJ. so my 3. (5-66 Moran & Shapiro. the cost to supply the heat transfer is $4. 6e) A heat pump with a coe¢ cient of performance of 3. (5-18 Moran & Shapiro. 000 kJ= h to maintain a building at 21 C on a day when the outside temperature is 0 C. the temperature of the river downstream of the the plant can be no more than 72 F. but the method is OK. or is impossible. (5-43 Moran & Shapiro. From environmental considerations. Wcycle = (b) QC = 1400 kJ. For each of the following cases.11/day) (b) compare the results of part (a) with the cost of electrical-resistance heating.53/day. a power cycle receives energy by heat transfer at an average temperature of 865 F and discharges energy by heat transfer to a river. QH = (c) QH = (d) 150 kJ (Impossible) 1600 kJ (Reversible) 1600 kJ. determine whether the cycle operates reversibly. 6e) At steady state. For each of the following cases. 6e) For each kW of power input to an ice maker at steady state.Eng3901 . (Note: I used the new math in my solution where 1 numbers are wrong.

entering at 17 C and exiting at 25 C with a negligible change in pressure. in kW= K. for the enlarged system. (a) Determine the temperature Tb .Eng3901 . in kg of steam per kg of air exiting the compressor. determine the rate of entropy production. There is no signi…cant heat transfer from the outer surface of the water jacket. and To = 293 K. in kW= K. During this process. Cooling water is circulated through a water jacket enclosing the compressor at a rate of 8:6 kg= min. and the ambient air temperature. Assume the ideal gas model for air. (6-59 Moran & Shapiro. (b) For the motor as the system. The ouptut shaft rotates at 1000 rpm with a torque of 16 N m applied to an external load. and all kinetic and potential energy e¤ects are negligible. determine the power required. 4. To . 6e) An electric motor operating at steady state draws a current of 10 A with a voltage of 220 V. Tb . (a) Determine the mass ‡ow rate of the steam entering the turbine. For the water jacketed compressor as a control volume. determine if either or both of these pressure values can be correct. 2. in K. 3. and the rate of entropy production. with cp = 1:02 kJ= kg K. 6e) Two kilograms of refrigerant R-134a initially at 1:4 bar. A hard-to-read photocopy of the data sheet indicates that the pressure of the exiting stream is either 1:0 or 1:8 MPa. The rate of the heat transfer from the motor to its surroundings is related to the surface temperature. 6e) The …gure below shows the steady-state test data for a well-insulated control volume in which two entering streams of air mix to form a single exiting stream. (6-98 Moran & Shapiro. 160 C. (6-118 Moran & Shapiro. (b) Repeat part (a) if t = c = 100%. Assuming the ideal gas model for air. (c) If the system boundary is located to take in enough of the nearby surroundings for heat transfer to take place at temperature To . (6-52 Moran & Shapiro. . a steam turbine with an isentropic e¢ ciency of 90% drives an air compressor having an isentropic compressor e¢ ciency of 85%. where h = 100 W= m2 C. 5. 4e) Air enters a compressor at steady state at 100 kPa. by hA (Tb To ). A = 0:195 m2 . in kJ. Determine the minimum theoretical heat transfer from the refrigerant during the process.Problem Sets 8 11 Problem Set 8 1. Steady-state operating data are provided in the …gure. the temperature of the refrigerant departs by no more than 0:01 C from 60 C. 20 C with volumetric ‡ow rate of 9 m3 = min and exits at 500 kPa. 60 C are compressed to saturated vapour at 60 C. 6e) As shown below. (6-146 Moran & Shapiro. determine the rate of entropy production.

Eng3901 .Problem Sets 12 .