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Math tricks

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Category: Mathematics

Get Mathematics tips & tricks, concepts and important questions

here

Inequalities

An inequality in algebra is usually seen as an equation that is not

=. Instead, both sides of the equation are separated by either >, <,

>=, or <=.

You are usually given an inequality with a variable on one side.

Example: 5x > 10

To solve this we solve it the same way we would with a normal

equation. We divide both sides by 5 and are left with x > 2.

It is very important to know that if you ever divide by a negative

number you must switch the sign.

Example: -5x > 10.

To solve this we again divide both sides by 5 but this time, since

we divide by a negative number, we switch the sign. We are left

with x < -2. This is one of the most common errors that algebra

students make, so be careful.

October24,2015 Mathematics

+ 2 + + n:

Look at sequence 1 + 2 + + 14 = ?

Multiply the last number in the sequence (14) by 1 number

higher (15). Then divide by 2.

(14 * 15) / 2 = 105

To make the math easier you can simplify to 7 * 15 = 105

ANSWER is 105

Look at sequence 2 + 3 + + 31 = ?

Multiply the last number in the sequence (31) by 1 number

higher (32). Then divide by 2

(31 * 32) / 2 = ?

Simplify to 31 * 16 = 496

Use the FOIL Method if you need a trick to multiply two

digit numbers

Subtract 1 from 496 since the sequence started with 2

ANSWER is 495

October24,2015 Mathematics

Equal

In our last post, we discussed FOIL method. Many times, we use

the FOIL method to multiply two digit numbers but if the tens

digits are the same and the ones digits add up to 10 there is a

much easier way to solve the problem.

Look at the math problem 43 x 47 = ?

Lets see how the trick works.

Take the tens digit and multiply it by the next highest number.

In this example 4 X 5 = 20. Write 20.

Next multiply 3 x 7 = 21. Write 21.

ANSWER is 2021

Lets look at another example. 84 x 86 = ?

Multiply 8 by the next greatest number. 8 x 9 = 72. Write 72.

Multiply 4 x 6 = 24. Write 24.

ANSWER is 7224

October23,2015 Mathematics

Trick

The FOIL (First, Outside, Inside, Last) multiplication method is

the most important trick that anyone can learn. It allows you to

multiply any two digits numbers together very quickly. There are

other tricks that are slightly better in specific instances but if you

learn the FOIL method you will be all set.

Look at the math problem 46 x 27 = ?

Multiply ones digits

6 x 7 = 42

Write 2 and carry the 4

Multiply the ones digit of each number by the tens digit of the

other

6 x 2 = 12

4 x 7 = 28

Add these together

12 + 28 = 40

Add the 4 you carried

40 + 4 = 44

Multiply the tens digits

4*2=8

Add the 4 you carried

4 + 8 = 12

Write 12

ANSWER is 1242

Look at the math problem 53 x 71 = ?

Multiply ones digits

3x1=3

Write 3

Multiply the ones digit of each number by the tens digit of the

other

3 x 7 = 21

5x1=5

Add these together

21 + 5 = 26

Write 6 and carry the 2

Multiply the tens digits

5 * 7 = 35

Add the 2 you carried. 35 + 2 = 37

Write 37

ANSWER is 3763

October22,2015 Mathematics

Squaring 50s

Squaring numbers between 50 and 59 can be very easy if you

know this nice little trick.

Look at the math problem 522 = ?

22 = 4. It needs to take up two digits so write down 04

Add 25 to the ones digit

25 + 2 = 27

Write down 27

ANSWER is 2704

October21,2015 Mathematics

Many times you will subtract squared numbers so this trick will

help make your life easier.

Look at the math problem 542 512 = ?

Add the two numbers together

54 + 51 = 105

Subtract the right number from the left number

54 51 = 3

Multiply these two answers

105 x 3 = 315

ANSWER is 315

Look at the math problem 342 212 = ?

Add the two numbers together

34 + 21 = 55

Subtract the right number from the left number

34 21 = 13

Multiply these two answers

55 x 13 = 715

ANSWER is 715

If you are wondering how this trick works, just recall the formula:

a2 b2 = (a+b) (a-b)

October20,2015 Mathematics

Beggars Method

Problem:

In how many ways we can distribute n identical coins among r

Beggars?

Solution:

C(n+r-1,r-1)

Explanation:

Take r-1 identical

stones and n coins

and place them in a

row.

In how many different ways we can arrange them??

Ans:C(n+r-1,r-1)

By theory of permutation and Combination: Take any r-1 positons

among n+r-1.

Now see that these r-1 stones divided our total coins in r sets.We

can always assign 1st set to 1st beggar , 2nd to 2nd beggar and so

on. Thus providing us number of ways to distribute n coins to r

beggars.

October18,2015 Mathematics

Multiplication by 101

One of the easiest tricks that you will learn is multiplying by 101.

If you are multiplying 101 by a two digit number, finding the answer is as simple as writing down that number down twice. For

example:

73 x 101 = 7373

83 x 101 = 8383

If instead you are multiplying by a three digit number, you first

want to add the first digit to the entire number

For example: 101 x 345 = ?

3 + 345 = 348

348 are the first three numbers in your answer. Then copy the

last two digits of your number (45 in this example) to the end.

ANSWER 101 X 345 = 34845

October15,2015 Mathematics

Math Tricks

Here are some tips that will help you multiply numbers quickly

in your head:

Use this technique if you have to multiply one number by another

number that happens to be a power of 5. For example, lets say

you need to find 36 x 5 (which, of course, fits the bill since 5 is the

first power of 5). The trick is to recognize the fact that 5 = 10 / 2.

Why is that helpful? Because it means that we can find 36 x 5 by

instead finding 36 x 10 (which is easy) and then dividing the result by 2. In this case, 36 x 10 = 360, and 360 / 2 = 180. Impressively speedy, right?

But were not done! What if we instead need to solve the problem

36 x 25? Well, this trick is all about multiplying by powers of

5and 25 = 52 is certainly that. So how does it work in this case?

The trick here is to recognize that 25 = 100 / 4. And in general, the

trick with powers of 5 is to recognize that they are always some

multiple of 10 divided by an integer. This tells us that 36 x 25 = 36

x 100 / 4. Since we can quickly figure out that 36 x 100 = 3,600, its

easy to find that 36 x 25 = 3,600 / 4 = 900.

Tip #2: Squaring Numbers Ending in 5

Its very easy to square a two-digit number that ends in 5. Heres

the trick: Any time you square a two-digit number that ends in 5,

the last digits of the answer will be 25 and the digits before that

are given by multiplying the first digit of the number by the number thats one greater.

For example, this trick says that the last two digits of 452 must be

25, and the digits before that are given by 4 x 5 = 20. So 452 =

2,025. How about 752? Well, once again we know that the last two

digits will be 25 (since they always are for this kind of problem),

and the previous digits are given by 7 x 8 (thats the first digit

times the number thats one greater). So the answer is 752 = 5,625.

Fast and easy!

Tip #3: Easily Multiplying Lots of 9s

The third trick for today has to do with multiplying any number

by 9, 99, 999, or any other number thats 1 less than a power of 10.

What makes all of these wild 9 numbers special? In a problem

like 44 x 9, the trick is to recognize that 44 x 9 = 44 x (10 1). The

distributive property of multiplication tells us that this is the

10, looking at the problem this way makes it much easier to solve.

In particular, it tells us that 44 x 9 = 44 x 10 44 = 440 44 = 440

40 4 = 396.

If were instead trying to solve 44 x 99, the trick is to recognize

that this is the same as 44 x (100 1) = (44 x 100) 44. In other

words, any time youre multiplying by one of these numbers that

are all 9s, the trick is to know that you can simply multiply the

other number by the next higher power of 10 and then subtract

the original number. Give it a try and youll see just how much

faster this is.

Tip #4: Multiplying by Powers of 2

You can use todays fourth tip any time youre multiplying one

number by another number thats a power of 2. Which means

that any time youre multiplying some number by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,

64, and so on, this is your ticket to mental math bliss. Instead of

going through the usual multiplication process, in this case all

you have to do is double the number youre multiplying for each

power of 2 in the other number.

For example, the problem 12 x 8 is the same thing as 12 x 23 or 12

x 2 x 2 x 2. Which means that we can quickly find the answer by

continually doubling 12 three times. So the first doubling of 12

gives 24, the second doubling takes us to 48, and the third doubling gives 96. So 12 x 8 = 96.

Tip #5: Double and Halve to Multiply Fast

The previous trick is really just a special case of todays fifth and

final (and I think coolest) trick that you can use whenever one of

the numbers youre multiplying is even. Lets say youre multiplying 47 x 24. Since 24 is an even number, lets use the idea of doubling and halving to solve this problem quickly.

What do I mean by doubling and halving? Well, the trick is to

continually double one number while halving the other. In this

case, this means that we turn the problem 47 x 24 into the problem 94 x 12 by simultaneously doubling 47 and halving 24. We

can then do the same thing and turn the problem into 188 x 6,

and again to get 376 x 3. At this point, we cant double and halve

any further, so we just have to do the remainingmuch easier!

multiplication problem to find that 47 x 24 = 376 x 3 = 1,128.

Tip #6: Here is a really cool trick to multiply two numbers between 100-109. Look at the problem 102 x 104 = ?, Multiply ones

digits, 4 x 2 = 08. Add ones digits. 4 + 2 = 06. Write 1. So answer

will be 10608.

Below is a really cool trick to multiply two numbers between

100-109.

Look at the math problem 102 x 104 = ?

Multiply ones digits.

4 x 2 = 8. It needs to be two digits so write 08.

Add ones digits.

4 + 2 = 6. It needs to be two digits so write 06

Write 1.

Tip #7: If the tens digits are the same and the ones digits add up

to 10 there is a much easier way to solve the problem.

Look at the problem 43 x 47 = ? Lets see how the trick works.

Take the tens digit and multiply it by the next highest number. In

this example 4 X 5 = 20. Write 20.

Next multiply 3 x 7 = 21. Write 21.

ANSWER is 2021.

Lets look at another example. 84 x 86 = ?

Tip #8: There are many tricks to multiply two digit numbers but

there is a special trick to square numbers that range from 90-99.

Lets look at 932 = ?

Find the difference between the number (93) and 100.

100 93 = 7

Square that number:

72 = 49

Write 49.

It has to take up 2 digits so if it was 22 you would need to write

down 04.

Subtract the original answer (7) from the number (93)

93 7 = 86. Write 86.

ANSWER is 8649.

Tip #9: When given two fractions, there is a cool little trick to help

figure out which fraction is the larger.

Lets compare 3/8 and 4/9.

Multiply the numerator of the first fraction (the top number in

the fraction) by the denominator (the bottom number in the fraction) of the second fraction. Then compare the two answers.

3 * 9 = 27

4 * 8 = 32

Since 32 is larger than 27 we know that 4/9 > 3/8. Make sure that

the answers relate to the numerator. In this example 27 relates to

3/8 and 32 to 4/9.

Tip #10: There are many different fractions that you will encounter in math. If you see one with the setup a/b + b/a then the

trick below will help you solve it in seconds.

Look at the problem 3/8 + 8/3= ?

Find the difference in the numbers.

83=5

Square the result

52 = 25.

25 is the numerator.

Multiply the two numbers.

8 * 3 = 24

24 is the denominator.

If the fraction is a proper fraction, write down 2. This is the whole

number added to the proper fraction.

If the fraction is improper, turn it into a mixed number and add 2

to the whole number.

25/24 is improper so we convert it to 1 and 1/24.

We add 2 which gives us 3 and 1/24

ANSWER is 3 and 1/24.

Tip #11: Below we will cover a math trick to add a sequence in

the form: 1 + 2 + + n:

Look at sequence 1 + 2 + + 14 = ?

Multiply the last number in the sequence (14) by 1 number

higher (15). Then divide by 2.

To make the math easier you can simplify to 7 * 15 = 105

ANSWER is 105.

Tip #12: Many times you will subtract squared numbers so this

trick will help make your life easier.

Look at the math problem 542 512 = ?

Add the two numbers together.

54 + 51 = 105.

Subtract the right number from the left number.

54 51 = 3.

Multiply these two answers.

105 x 3 = 315.

ANSWER is 315.

Tip #13: One of the easiest tricks that you will learn is multiplying

by 101.

If you are multiplying 101 by a two digit number, finding the answer is as simple as writing down that number down twice. For

example:

73 x 101 = 7373

83 x 101 = 8383

If instead you are multiplying by a three digit number, you first

want to add the first digit to the entire number

For example: 101 x 345 = ?

3 + 345 = 348

348 are the first three numbers in your answer. Then copy the

last two digits of your number (45 in this example) to the end.

ANSWER 101 X 345 = 34845

Youll definitely need to practice these techniques to get comfortable (and fast) using themso I highly encourage you to make up

some multiplication problems to work through. It will take some

time and energy, but your effort will certainly be rewarded!

October4,2015 Mathematics

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