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Category: Mathematics
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Inequalities
An inequality in algebra is usually seen as an equation that is not
=. Instead, both sides of the equation are separated by either >, <,
>=, or <=.
You are usually given an inequality with a variable on one side.
Example: 5x > 10
To solve this we solve it the same way we would with a normal
equation. We divide both sides by 5 and are left with x > 2.
It is very important to know that if you ever divide by a negative
number you must switch the sign.
Example: -5x > 10.
To solve this we again divide both sides by 5 but this time, since
we divide by a negative number, we switch the sign. We are left
with x < -2. This is one of the most common errors that algebra
students make, so be careful.

October24,2015 Mathematics

Adding a Sequence of Numbers

Below we will cover a math trick to add a sequence in the form: 1


+ 2 + + n:
Look at sequence 1 + 2 + + 14 = ?
Multiply the last number in the sequence (14) by 1 number
higher (15). Then divide by 2.
(14 * 15) / 2 = 105
To make the math easier you can simplify to 7 * 15 = 105
ANSWER is 105
Look at sequence 2 + 3 + + 31 = ?
Multiply the last number in the sequence (31) by 1 number
higher (32). Then divide by 2
(31 * 32) / 2 = ?
Simplify to 31 * 16 = 496
Use the FOIL Method if you need a trick to multiply two
digit numbers
Subtract 1 from 496 since the sequence started with 2
ANSWER is 495

October24,2015 Mathematics

Multiply when 10s Digits are


Equal
In our last post, we discussed FOIL method. Many times, we use
the FOIL method to multiply two digit numbers but if the tens
digits are the same and the ones digits add up to 10 there is a
much easier way to solve the problem.
Look at the math problem 43 x 47 = ?
Lets see how the trick works.

Take the tens digit and multiply it by the next highest number.
In this example 4 X 5 = 20. Write 20.
Next multiply 3 x 7 = 21. Write 21.
ANSWER is 2021
Lets look at another example. 84 x 86 = ?
Multiply 8 by the next greatest number. 8 x 9 = 72. Write 72.
Multiply 4 x 6 = 24. Write 24.
ANSWER is 7224

October23,2015 Mathematics

FOIL Method Multiplication


Trick
The FOIL (First, Outside, Inside, Last) multiplication method is
the most important trick that anyone can learn. It allows you to
multiply any two digits numbers together very quickly. There are
other tricks that are slightly better in specific instances but if you
learn the FOIL method you will be all set.
Look at the math problem 46 x 27 = ?
Multiply ones digits
6 x 7 = 42
Write 2 and carry the 4
Multiply the ones digit of each number by the tens digit of the
other
6 x 2 = 12
4 x 7 = 28
Add these together
12 + 28 = 40
Add the 4 you carried
40 + 4 = 44

Write 4 and carry the 4


Multiply the tens digits
4*2=8
Add the 4 you carried
4 + 8 = 12
Write 12
ANSWER is 1242
Look at the math problem 53 x 71 = ?
Multiply ones digits
3x1=3
Write 3
Multiply the ones digit of each number by the tens digit of the
other
3 x 7 = 21
5x1=5
Add these together
21 + 5 = 26
Write 6 and carry the 2
Multiply the tens digits
5 * 7 = 35
Add the 2 you carried. 35 + 2 = 37
Write 37
ANSWER is 3763

October22,2015 Mathematics

Squaring 50s
Squaring numbers between 50 and 59 can be very easy if you
know this nice little trick.
Look at the math problem 522 = ?

Square the ones digit


22 = 4. It needs to take up two digits so write down 04
Add 25 to the ones digit
25 + 2 = 27
Write down 27
ANSWER is 2704

October21,2015 Mathematics

Difference of Squared Numbers


Many times you will subtract squared numbers so this trick will
help make your life easier.
Look at the math problem 542 512 = ?
Add the two numbers together
54 + 51 = 105
Subtract the right number from the left number
54 51 = 3
Multiply these two answers
105 x 3 = 315
ANSWER is 315
Look at the math problem 342 212 = ?
Add the two numbers together
34 + 21 = 55
Subtract the right number from the left number
34 21 = 13
Multiply these two answers
55 x 13 = 715
ANSWER is 715

If you are wondering how this trick works, just recall the formula:
a2 b2 = (a+b) (a-b)

October20,2015 Mathematics

Beggars Method

Problem:
In how many ways we can distribute n identical coins among r
Beggars?
Solution:
C(n+r-1,r-1)
Explanation:
Take r-1 identical
stones and n coins
and place them in a
row.
In how many different ways we can arrange them??
Ans:C(n+r-1,r-1)
By theory of permutation and Combination: Take any r-1 positons
among n+r-1.
Now see that these r-1 stones divided our total coins in r sets.We

can always assign 1st set to 1st beggar , 2nd to 2nd beggar and so
on. Thus providing us number of ways to distribute n coins to r
beggars.

October18,2015 Mathematics

Multiplication by 101
One of the easiest tricks that you will learn is multiplying by 101.
If you are multiplying 101 by a two digit number, finding the answer is as simple as writing down that number down twice. For
example:
73 x 101 = 7373
83 x 101 = 8383
If instead you are multiplying by a three digit number, you first
want to add the first digit to the entire number
For example: 101 x 345 = ?
3 + 345 = 348
348 are the first three numbers in your answer. Then copy the
last two digits of your number (45 in this example) to the end.
ANSWER 101 X 345 = 34845

October15,2015 Mathematics

Math Tricks
Here are some tips that will help you multiply numbers quickly
in your head:

Tip #1: Multiplying by Powers of 5


Use this technique if you have to multiply one number by another
number that happens to be a power of 5. For example, lets say
you need to find 36 x 5 (which, of course, fits the bill since 5 is the
first power of 5). The trick is to recognize the fact that 5 = 10 / 2.
Why is that helpful? Because it means that we can find 36 x 5 by
instead finding 36 x 10 (which is easy) and then dividing the result by 2. In this case, 36 x 10 = 360, and 360 / 2 = 180. Impressively speedy, right?
But were not done! What if we instead need to solve the problem
36 x 25? Well, this trick is all about multiplying by powers of
5and 25 = 52 is certainly that. So how does it work in this case?
The trick here is to recognize that 25 = 100 / 4. And in general, the
trick with powers of 5 is to recognize that they are always some
multiple of 10 divided by an integer. This tells us that 36 x 25 = 36
x 100 / 4. Since we can quickly figure out that 36 x 100 = 3,600, its
easy to find that 36 x 25 = 3,600 / 4 = 900.
Tip #2: Squaring Numbers Ending in 5
Its very easy to square a two-digit number that ends in 5. Heres
the trick: Any time you square a two-digit number that ends in 5,
the last digits of the answer will be 25 and the digits before that
are given by multiplying the first digit of the number by the number thats one greater.
For example, this trick says that the last two digits of 452 must be
25, and the digits before that are given by 4 x 5 = 20. So 452 =
2,025. How about 752? Well, once again we know that the last two
digits will be 25 (since they always are for this kind of problem),
and the previous digits are given by 7 x 8 (thats the first digit
times the number thats one greater). So the answer is 752 = 5,625.
Fast and easy!
Tip #3: Easily Multiplying Lots of 9s
The third trick for today has to do with multiplying any number
by 9, 99, 999, or any other number thats 1 less than a power of 10.
What makes all of these wild 9 numbers special? In a problem
like 44 x 9, the trick is to recognize that 44 x 9 = 44 x (10 1). The
distributive property of multiplication tells us that this is the

same as 44 x 10 44. And since its easy to multiply by a power of


10, looking at the problem this way makes it much easier to solve.
In particular, it tells us that 44 x 9 = 44 x 10 44 = 440 44 = 440
40 4 = 396.
If were instead trying to solve 44 x 99, the trick is to recognize
that this is the same as 44 x (100 1) = (44 x 100) 44. In other
words, any time youre multiplying by one of these numbers that
are all 9s, the trick is to know that you can simply multiply the
other number by the next higher power of 10 and then subtract
the original number. Give it a try and youll see just how much
faster this is.
Tip #4: Multiplying by Powers of 2
You can use todays fourth tip any time youre multiplying one
number by another number thats a power of 2. Which means
that any time youre multiplying some number by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,
64, and so on, this is your ticket to mental math bliss. Instead of
going through the usual multiplication process, in this case all
you have to do is double the number youre multiplying for each
power of 2 in the other number.
For example, the problem 12 x 8 is the same thing as 12 x 23 or 12
x 2 x 2 x 2. Which means that we can quickly find the answer by
continually doubling 12 three times. So the first doubling of 12
gives 24, the second doubling takes us to 48, and the third doubling gives 96. So 12 x 8 = 96.
Tip #5: Double and Halve to Multiply Fast
The previous trick is really just a special case of todays fifth and
final (and I think coolest) trick that you can use whenever one of
the numbers youre multiplying is even. Lets say youre multiplying 47 x 24. Since 24 is an even number, lets use the idea of doubling and halving to solve this problem quickly.
What do I mean by doubling and halving? Well, the trick is to
continually double one number while halving the other. In this
case, this means that we turn the problem 47 x 24 into the problem 94 x 12 by simultaneously doubling 47 and halving 24. We
can then do the same thing and turn the problem into 188 x 6,

and again to get 376 x 3. At this point, we cant double and halve
any further, so we just have to do the remainingmuch easier!
multiplication problem to find that 47 x 24 = 376 x 3 = 1,128.
Tip #6: Here is a really cool trick to multiply two numbers between 100-109. Look at the problem 102 x 104 = ?, Multiply ones
digits, 4 x 2 = 08. Add ones digits. 4 + 2 = 06. Write 1. So answer
will be 10608.
Below is a really cool trick to multiply two numbers between
100-109.
Look at the math problem 102 x 104 = ?
Multiply ones digits.
4 x 2 = 8. It needs to be two digits so write 08.
Add ones digits.
4 + 2 = 6. It needs to be two digits so write 06
Write 1.
Tip #7: If the tens digits are the same and the ones digits add up
to 10 there is a much easier way to solve the problem.
Look at the problem 43 x 47 = ? Lets see how the trick works.
Take the tens digit and multiply it by the next highest number. In
this example 4 X 5 = 20. Write 20.
Next multiply 3 x 7 = 21. Write 21.
ANSWER is 2021.
Lets look at another example. 84 x 86 = ?
Tip #8: There are many tricks to multiply two digit numbers but
there is a special trick to square numbers that range from 90-99.
Lets look at 932 = ?
Find the difference between the number (93) and 100.
100 93 = 7
Square that number:
72 = 49
Write 49.
It has to take up 2 digits so if it was 22 you would need to write
down 04.
Subtract the original answer (7) from the number (93)
93 7 = 86. Write 86.

ANSWER is 8649.
Tip #9: When given two fractions, there is a cool little trick to help
figure out which fraction is the larger.
Lets compare 3/8 and 4/9.
Multiply the numerator of the first fraction (the top number in
the fraction) by the denominator (the bottom number in the fraction) of the second fraction. Then compare the two answers.
3 * 9 = 27
4 * 8 = 32
Since 32 is larger than 27 we know that 4/9 > 3/8. Make sure that
the answers relate to the numerator. In this example 27 relates to
3/8 and 32 to 4/9.
Tip #10: There are many different fractions that you will encounter in math. If you see one with the setup a/b + b/a then the
trick below will help you solve it in seconds.
Look at the problem 3/8 + 8/3= ?
Find the difference in the numbers.
83=5
Square the result
52 = 25.
25 is the numerator.
Multiply the two numbers.
8 * 3 = 24
24 is the denominator.
If the fraction is a proper fraction, write down 2. This is the whole
number added to the proper fraction.
If the fraction is improper, turn it into a mixed number and add 2
to the whole number.
25/24 is improper so we convert it to 1 and 1/24.
We add 2 which gives us 3 and 1/24
ANSWER is 3 and 1/24.
Tip #11: Below we will cover a math trick to add a sequence in
the form: 1 + 2 + + n:
Look at sequence 1 + 2 + + 14 = ?
Multiply the last number in the sequence (14) by 1 number
higher (15). Then divide by 2.

(14 * 15) / 2 = 105.


To make the math easier you can simplify to 7 * 15 = 105
ANSWER is 105.
Tip #12: Many times you will subtract squared numbers so this
trick will help make your life easier.
Look at the math problem 542 512 = ?
Add the two numbers together.
54 + 51 = 105.
Subtract the right number from the left number.
54 51 = 3.
Multiply these two answers.
105 x 3 = 315.
ANSWER is 315.
Tip #13: One of the easiest tricks that you will learn is multiplying
by 101.
If you are multiplying 101 by a two digit number, finding the answer is as simple as writing down that number down twice. For
example:
73 x 101 = 7373
83 x 101 = 8383
If instead you are multiplying by a three digit number, you first
want to add the first digit to the entire number
For example: 101 x 345 = ?
3 + 345 = 348
348 are the first three numbers in your answer. Then copy the
last two digits of your number (45 in this example) to the end.
ANSWER 101 X 345 = 34845
Youll definitely need to practice these techniques to get comfortable (and fast) using themso I highly encourage you to make up
some multiplication problems to work through. It will take some
time and energy, but your effort will certainly be rewarded!

October4,2015 Mathematics

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