You are on page 1of 15

# ormulas and Laws of Indices

## 1.1 Form ulas (1}~)

A formula is an equality relating two or more variables.
Consider the formula A = 3b - 8.
(i) When b = 2, by the method of

A=3(2)-8=-2

to b,

A = 3b- 8
A

+ 8 = 3b

A+8=b
3

b = A +8

<.1

## 1.2 Index Notation (f~~~c'~)!)

When a is multiplied by itself n times,
aXaX ... XaXa=a

n times

In the index notation eI', a is the base (&J)::) and n is the index or exponent (ttJ)::).

## 1.3 Zero a nd Negative Integral Indices

If a #- 0,
(1)

(2)

=1
a-I! = ~ , where n is a positive integer
aO

a"

## 1.4 Laws of Inte gral In dices (~~m~~)

If m and n are integers and a, b #- 0,
(1) am X an
111

(2) ~
a

/I

= am + n

= am.. :. . an = am-"

## (3) (a m)" = a mx "

(4) (ab )"

(5)

= an b"

(~r = ~:

= h 3 + 4 = h7
6
e.g. h = h 6 - 2 = h4
e.g. h3 x h4
h2

## e.g. (k3) 2 = k 3X2

e.g. (-2n)3
e.g.

= k6

= (-2)3 X n3 =-8n 3

b is expressed
in term s of A.

'nomia's

## 2.1 Basic Concepts of Polynomia ls

A monomial (iiJ&i\) is an algebraic expression which can be either a number, a variable or the
product of a number and one or more variables, e.g. 3, x, r3, -2y, 4a 2b.
A polynomial

3a

( ~ JJ'!i\)

## The following are some other key terms about polynomials:

(i)

Coefficient (1*19:)

## - the highest degree of all the term(s) in a polynomial

( ~ J.l'ii\S1 /~19:)

For example,

(a)
Polynomial

(b)

Coefficient of

Number of
3

Constant

Degree of

term

polynomial

terms

4x 3 + 3x 2 - 2x

-2

_2X2+ 3x- 9

-2

-9

## For the polynomial 5x - 3x 3 + x 2 - 8,

(i) arranged in descending powers of x: - 3x 3 + x 2 + 5x - 8

- 3x 3

## 2.2 Addition, Su btraction a nd Multiplication of Polynomials

The terms that contain the same variable(s) to the same power(s) are called like terms
Otherwise, they are called unlike terms

(~~~JJ'!).

For example:

(i)

## x and -5x, 3xi and xi, 2 and -6 are like terms.

(ii) -x and 6y, 3y and 2i, a2b and 3ab 2 are unlike terms.

(~~~J.l'i) .

Polynomials

(a) Addition and subtraction of polynomials can be performed by combining like terms.

fflM,3;t,W!dcl
(a) (3x + 7) + (x 4) = 3x + 7 + x 4

= 3x+ x + 7 -

= 4x+ 3
(b) (3x + 7) - (x 4) = 3x + 7 x + 4

= 3x-x+ 7 +4
=2x+ll

## (b) Multiplication of polynomials can be performed by using the distributive Jaw of

muJtipJication Ul~5t;;53'1lc~).

a~) = ax+ay
,I
~

(a) 3(b + 2)

or

(X~l = xa+ ya

F"~

= 3(b) + 3(2)

## (b) (b 4)( - c) = (b) (- c) (4) (- c)

=-bc + 4c

= 3b+ 6

2 .3 Introduction to Factorization
In general, the process of expressing an algebraic expression as a product of its factors is called

factorization

(~ i\: 53'~~).

Expansion

~
a (x + y) = ax + ay
~

Factorization

For example,

## 2.4 Methods of Factorization

Method 1: Taking out common factors

(i;~i\:)

3p - 6q

= 3p - 3 2q
= 3(p - 2q)

11

## Method 2: Grouping terms ({#J~)

ax + ay + 3x + 3y

## = (ax + ay) + (3x + 3y)

= a (x + y) + 3 (x + y)
=(x+y)(a+3)

(ffi~j\:)

## (a) Difference of two squares

a 2 -b 2 :=(a+b)(a-b)
x 2 - 25 = x 2 52

=(x+ 5)(x- 5)
(b) Perfect square
a 2+2ab+b 2 :=(a+b)2
a 2 -2ab+b 2 :=(a-b)2

(a)

x 2+6x+9=x 2 +2(x)(3)+3 2
= (x

+ 3)2

(b) /-14y+49=/-2(y)(7)+7 2
=(y_7)2

@(c)

Method 4:

## Sum and difference of two cubes

a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 - ab + b 2)
a 3 _ b3 = (a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2)

## Using the cross-method

(a)

(+~t* >t)

x 2 - 5x + 6

product = x2 ..

= (x - 2)(x - 3)

-2
X
.. product = +6
x
-3
x

"

-2x

(b) 3x 2 - x - 2

= (3x + 2) (x -

1)

3xX+2
x
-1
+2x

+ 8xy + 5/
= (x + y)(3x + 5y)

(c) 3x

.~

-3x =-5x

-3x =-x

xX+ y
3x
+5y
+3xy
+5xy =+8xy

I'nequalitie

'

'

## 3.1 Solvi ng Linear Equations

(a) A linear equation in one unknown (-lC-)!\JJt.) consists of only one unknown and the

## degree of the unknown is 1. For example, 2x = 9 - x, 2y = 1 and ~ - 1 = 0.

We can solve a linear equation in one unknown by transposing terms, combining like
terms, removing brackets and eliminating denominators.

2x=9-x

2x+x

=9

3x = 9

## ," Combine the like terms.

x=3

(b) A linear equation in two unknowns (.=lC-)!\JJt.) consists of two unknowns and the highest

## degree of the terms is 1. For example, x + y = 3, y = 3x - 1 and x - y + 2 = 0.

A linear equation in two unknowns has an infinite number of solutions.
~lMtnl'Umk.

The solutions of x + y

3 are

x = 0, y = 3;

x = 1, y = 2;

x = 2, y = 1 ...

<; We can express these solutions using ordered pair (x, y),

## 3.2 Solving Simultaneous Linear Eq uations in Two Unknowns

A pair of linear equations with two common unknowns is called simultaneous linear equations

## .m two unknowns (&gp}L=lC~ - ,

Ix - y= 15 and ly = 2x8 + 4'1 It can be solved
/!\JJt,). For example, 2
x+y=

y= x-

21

## (a) Graphical method

By drawing the graphs of the two linear equations, the solution can be obtained by rea
the intersection of the two graphs.
, J r:,

It'

" '< )

x- y

=I

2x+ Y = 5

is x = 2, y = 1.

## (b) Algebraic method

We can solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations by the method of substitution (1~ i
lC )!) or the method of elimination (jJD )JjJb~lC;Z;:).

## ('. rrm!l;S8' lii'U~

'"

Solve

I:

~y :

7 .. .... (l).
y - I ...... (2)

Method of substitution

M ethod ofeliminatiol1

=72y = 6

=I

y=3

## From (1), we have x

(7 - y) - y

=7 -

y .. .... (3)

-2y =-6

By substituting y

y=3
By substituting y

## = 3 into (3), we have

x=7-3
=4
The solution is x

## = 3 into (1), we have

x+3=7
x=4
The solution is x = 4, y

= 4, y

= 3.

= 3.

"

An inequality

(1'~i\:)

Inequality sign

Meaning

>

greater than

<

less than

Example
9> 2

-6

not equal to

=/=

15

13 > 2

< 10

## greater than or equal to

(1'~ 5JX).

-2

< 10

7~7

~-1

-1

~-1

-4 =/= 4

23 =/= 32

x>2
y

< 10

m~7

n ~-l

p=/=O

For an inequality in one unknown, the values of the unknown that satisfy the inequality are
called the solutions of the inequality

## (1'~i\:8i~~). For example, -!,

0.2, 18 and 2.9 are some
4

## of the solutions of the inequality x

< 3.

We can represent the solutions of inequalities graphically using the number line.
For example:

(a) x > -2

(b)

I:

"

-2

x <-2

..
)

oE

-2

Note: The hollow circle '0' means that '-2' is not included.
(c)

x~2

(d)

"

1
2

""

=:J
o

---

---

## 3.4 Basic Properties of Inequa lities

Example

Property
(1) Transitive property (1~ li '11~)

If x < y and y

(i) a + e

< 7, then
x + 3 <7+ 3

and

(ii) a -

x + 3 < 10

and

If a

then a

> c.

If a > b, then

If x

> b + e,
e > b - e.

## (3) Multiplicative property (* 5z:11~)

(i) If a > band e > 0, then ae > be.
(ii) If a > band e < 0, then ae < be.
(4) Reciprocal property

If y > 2, then 3y
3y

x - 5 <7- 5
x - 5 <2

> 3(2)

and

~<2

>6

and

-y < - 2

-1

(iiU~'11~)

If a

If t

5

(ii) If a

If s

## < -5, then -s > --.

5

(i)

-1

a b

1 1

These properties still hold when the inequality signs' >' and
by':=:::' and ':S'.

## 3.5 Solving Line ar Ineq ualities in One Unknown

If an inequality contains only one unknown and its degree is 1, then the inequality is called

## linear inequality in one unknown

(-j[,- /):::/f~:i\,) .

## We can solve inequalities by using the properties of inequalities.

~:m
-3x+13:S1
- 3x + 13 - 13 :S 1 - 13
- 3x :S-12

-3x -12

->-3 - -3

... If 0 :S b, th en

0 -

c :S b - e.

x:=:::4

"'
24

## 'ythagoras' Theorem,and its

.... :,::,.,.

Converse,

4.1 Pythagoras' Theorern (~aJEl!.)
In a right-angled triangle, the side opposite to the right angle is called
the hypotenuse (*4~). In 6ABC as shown, the square of the hypotenuse

is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two shorter sides.
l.e.

In 6ABC,
if LC = 90,

L~J
a

## ... c is the hypotenuse.

then a 2 + b 2 = c 2
.
[Abbreviation: Pyth. theorem]

~W!"43' ''ilUG
p

In 6PQR,
PQ2 = P R2 + QR2 (Pyth. theorem)

x 2 =9 2 +122

= 225

x = /225

n:

12

= 15

## 4.2 Converse of Pythagoras' Theorem (*aJEI'B'9~:iEI')

In a triangle, if the square of the longest side is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two
sides, then the triangle is a right-angled triangle and the angle opposite to the longest side is a
right angle.
l.e. In 6ABC,

~b

if a 2 + b 2 = c 2,
then 6ABC is a right-angled triangle, where LC = 90.
[Abbreviation: converse of Pyth. theorem]

&

its Converse

## ~~~.t " 'I':J!Jl

In L.XYZ,
XZ2+ YZ 2 = 52 + 122

= 169

~y
13

= 13 = 169
2

XY2

XZ 2 + YZ 2 = Xy2
L.XYZ is a right-angled triangle, where LZ = 90. (converse of Pyth . theorem)

#!f" ,I 'Hi"

(a) AB,
(b)

AD.

## L.....l...._ _----''----_ _-''-

Solution
(a) Consider the right-angled triangle ABC.

AB2 + BC2
x

= A C2

+ 6 = 10

(Pyth. theorem)

x 2 = 10 2 _ 6 2

x=J64
=8

AD2

= AB2 + BD2

(Pyth. theorem)

i=8 2 +(6+5) 2

= 8

Y=

+ 112

Ii85

## = 13.6 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

The length of AD is 13.6 em.

6cm

Scm

Trigon metry

## 5.1 Trigonometric Ratios of an Acute Angle (~fi.I) (J

The trigonometric ratios (= ftltt) applied to a right-angled triangle is defined by:
.

opposite side

sme=---
hypotenuse

adjacent side

hypotenuse

cose=---

opposite side of

hypotenuse

opposite side

tane=---

adjacent side

adjacent side of

, .

sine

554

zj

50
2121
30

45

J3

30 0

sine

cose

tane

13

_1 [or 13]
3
13

60 0

45 0

/2 /2]
/2 /2]

_1 [or

_1 [or

13

1
2

13

....:.....,

## 5.3 Finding Trigonometric Ratios by Constructing Right-angled

Triangles
If one of the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle e is given, we can find the other two
trigonometric ratios without evaluating e.
For example, if sin e =

## ~, we can find cos e and tan e by the following steps:

Step 1

Step 2
sm
.
S mce

Construct a right-angled
triangle ABC with
LA = e and LB = 90.

BC = 4 and A C = 5.
4

A'

'8 1

Step 3

Step 4

## Find the unknown side AB by

Pythagoras' theorem.

## Find the other two

trigonometric ratios by
their definitions.

AB =) AC2 - BC2
=)5 2

_4 2

=3

e = -4 , we set

e
;.)/

14

AB 3

cose =AC
-=
5
BC 4

tane = -

AB 3

## 5.4 Basic Trigonometric Identities (-~m~tC)

sine
case

tan e = -

sin 2 e+cos 2 e= 1

## The figure shows a right-angled triangle ABC, where LA and LB are

complementary angles (~fil). We have
sin (90 cos (90 -

90 -

e) = cos e
e) = sin e
1
tane

tan (90 - e) =

8"

e
a

e
b

'e

inate Geometry

8m

## 6.1 Distance between Any Two Points on a Plane

The distance d between any two points A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,y;)
011 a rectangular coordinate plane is given by:

## <II distance formula

(iE~ ~i\ )
~-~yr---~

x2

Xl

--+-----------------~ x

= ;[4 -

AB

## (- 4)]2 + (8 - 2)2 units

= j 8 2 + 6 2 uni ts
= hoo units

= 10

---r-----t----~x

units

## 6.2 Slope and Inclination of a Straight Line

(a) The slope (*4\$) m of a straight line passing through A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,Y;) is given by:
Y" - YI
X z- XI

m=-
The following are some cases:
y

horizontal line L

Slope of L

=0

Slope of L is undefined.

y
L

..-J

vertical line L

V
/

Lx

Slope of L

~
0

>0

~Lx

Slope of L

<0

55

._
' .....-.

## Longman Secondary Mathematics

.-;.."

(b) In the figure, e is the angle that the straight line L makes with the
positive x-axis (measured anti-clockwise from the x-axis to L).

y
L

## e is called the inclination (1~.l'L~) of Land

slope of L = tan e.

## Consider two points A(-4, 2) and B(4, 8).

8- 2

4-(-4)

(a) Slope of AB = - -

(b) tan

e = slope of AB = '4
e=

<

)V

## 6.3 Para llel Lines and Perpendicular Lines

Let m, and m 2 be the slopes of the straight lines I I and L 2 respectively.

## (a) Parallel lines

(i) If L, II L 2, then
(ii) If 111, =

111 2 ,

In, =

m 2.

," ,.
y
L) t.

(a)

then L, II L 2 .

y
L)

L2
1\

LI II L2
Slope of L,

) x

= slope of L2
=-3

## (b) Perpendicular lines

(i) If L, ..L L 2, then
(ii) If 1111 x

11'12

(b)
/11,

/11 2 =

L)

-1.

## -1, then LI ..L L 2.

y
;/

L2

'<)

Slope of LI x slope of L2
"

>, ) x

=--x2

2
=-1

) X

...../) ~

LI..L L2

Coordinate Geometry

## 6.4 Point of Division

A. Mid-point formula (r:p il1ti'Li:i\:)
y

## A (XI,Yl) and B(x 2,y;), then

XI

+ X2

YI

. / 8 ( X2'Y2)

+ Y2

x = - - and Y=--.
2
2

/~(X'Y)
A (x" y,)
-o~------------~x

(fj[) B.

Y

## segment joining A (xj,Yj) and B(xb Y;) such that AP : P B = r : s,

then
x=

SX\ + rX 2
r+s

"I
I

~ ,. ...

sY\ + rY2

P(x, y)

and y = - -
r+s

A (x" y,)
-o~------------~x

..

C8D (b)

## (a) M is the mid-point of AB.

Bv the mid-point formula
.
Coordmates
of M

2+8)
= (-5+4
- 2 -' -2-

= (~I ,

Coord mates 0 N

I~)

= (-~, 5)

~ '#if",i U*"

=
=

(I(-

2+1
'
2+1

(~3' ~)
3

= (l , 6)

## (Apply distanc formula )

y

In the figure, A(- 2, 0), B(3, 0) and C(2, 3) are the vertices of a triangle.

C(2,3)

## (b) Is /':;ABC an isosceles triangle? Explain your answer.

--.L....---t-------l....~ X

A(-2, 0) 0

8(3,0)