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ormulas and Laws of Indices

1.1 Form ulas (1}~)


A formula is an equality relating two or more variables.
Consider the formula A = 3b - 8.
(i) When b = 2, by the method of

(ii) By changing the subject of the formula

substitution (1-~ A5t::) ,

( :'b:~ S{J :rJl! )

A=3(2)-8=-2

to b,

A = 3b- 8
A

+ 8 = 3b

A+8=b
3

b = A +8

<.1

1.2 Index Notation (f~~~c'~)!)


When a is multiplied by itself n times,
aXaX ... XaXa=a

n times

In the index notation eI', a is the base (&J)::) and n is the index or exponent (ttJ)::).

1.3 Zero a nd Negative Integral Indices


If a #- 0,
(1)

(2)

=1
a-I! = ~ , where n is a positive integer
aO

a"

1.4 Laws of Inte gral In dices (~~m~~)


If m and n are integers and a, b #- 0,
(1) am X an
111

(2) ~
a

/I

= am + n

= am.. :. . an = am-"

(3) (a m)" = a mx "


(4) (ab )"

(5)

= an b"

(~r = ~:

= h 3 + 4 = h7
6
e.g. h = h 6 - 2 = h4
e.g. h3 x h4
h2

e.g. (k3) 2 = k 3X2


e.g. (-2n)3
e.g.

= k6

= (-2)3 X n3 =-8n 3

(~1 = :1: = ';;

b is expressed
in term s of A.

'nomia's

2.1 Basic Concepts of Polynomia ls


A monomial (iiJ&i\) is an algebraic expression which can be either a number, a variable or the
product of a number and one or more variables, e.g. 3, x, r3, -2y, 4a 2b.
A polynomial

3a

( ~ JJ'!i\)

can be a monomial or the sum of two or more monomials, e.g. 5xy ,

4, 3 + x - 2y. Each monomial in a polynomial is called a term (JJ'!).

The following are some other key terms about polynomials:


(i)

Coefficient (1*19:)

- the numerical part of a term

(ii) Constant term ('m'19: J.l'i)

- the term that does not contain any variable

(iii) Degree of the polynomial

- the highest degree of all the term(s) in a polynomial

( ~ J.l'ii\S1 /~19:)

For example,

(a)
Polynomial

(b)

Coefficient of

Number of
3

Constant

Degree of

term

polynomial

terms

4x 3 + 3x 2 - 2x

-2

_2X2+ 3x- 9

-2

-9

For the polynomial 5x - 3x 3 + x 2 - 8,


(i) arranged in descending powers of x: - 3x 3 + x 2 + 5x - 8

(ii) arranged in ascending powers of x: - 8 + 5x + x 2


- 3x 3

2.2 Addition, Su btraction a nd Multiplication of Polynomials


The terms that contain the same variable(s) to the same power(s) are called like terms
Otherwise, they are called unlike terms

(~~~JJ'!).

For example:

(i)

x and -5x, 3xi and xi, 2 and -6 are like terms.

(ii) -x and 6y, 3y and 2i, a2b and 3ab 2 are unlike terms.

(~~~J.l'i) .

Polynomials

(a) Addition and subtraction of polynomials can be performed by combining like terms.

fflM,3;t,W!dcl
(a) (3x + 7) + (x 4) = 3x + 7 + x 4

= 3x+ x + 7 -

= 4x+ 3
(b) (3x + 7) - (x 4) = 3x + 7 x + 4

= 3x-x+ 7 +4
=2x+ll

(b) Multiplication of polynomials can be performed by using the distributive Jaw of


muJtipJication Ul~5t;;53'1lc~).

a~) = ax+ay
,I
~

(a) 3(b + 2)

or

(X~l = xa+ ya

F"~

= 3(b) + 3(2)

(b) (b 4)( - c) = (b) (- c) (4) (- c)

=-bc + 4c

= 3b+ 6

2 .3 Introduction to Factorization
In general, the process of expressing an algebraic expression as a product of its factors is called

factorization

(~ i\: 53'~~).

Expansion

~
a (x + y) = ax + ay
~

< Factorization is the reverse process

of expansion, and vice versa.

Factorization

For example,

6x + 6y can be factorized into 6(x + y).

2.4 Methods of Factorization


Method 1: Taking out common factors

(i;~i\:)

3p - 6q

= 3p - 3 2q
= 3(p - 2q)

11

Longman Secondary Mathematics

Method 2: Grouping terms ({#J~)


ax + ay + 3x + 3y

= (ax + ay) + (3x + 3y)


= a (x + y) + 3 (x + y)
=(x+y)(a+3)

Method 3: Using identities

(ffi~j\:)

(a) Difference of two squares


a 2 -b 2 :=(a+b)(a-b)
x 2 - 25 = x 2 52

=(x+ 5)(x- 5)
(b) Perfect square
a 2+2ab+b 2 :=(a+b)2
a 2 -2ab+b 2 :=(a-b)2

(a)

x 2+6x+9=x 2 +2(x)(3)+3 2
= (x

+ 3)2

(b) /-14y+49=/-2(y)(7)+7 2
=(y_7)2

@(c)

Method 4:

Sum and difference of two cubes


a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 - ab + b 2)
a 3 _ b3 = (a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2)

Using the cross-method

(a)

(+~t* >t)

x 2 - 5x + 6

product = x2 ..

= (x - 2)(x - 3)

-2
X
.. product = +6
x
-3
x

"

-2x

(b) 3x 2 - x - 2

= (3x + 2) (x -

1)

3xX+2
x
-1
+2x

+ 8xy + 5/
= (x + y)(3x + 5y)

(c) 3x

.~

-3x =-5x

-3x =-x

xX+ y
3x
+5y
+3xy
+5xy =+8xy

Linear Eq!uations and' Linear


I'nequalitie

.......... .. ............................ .......... .

'

'

3.1 Solvi ng Linear Equations


(a) A linear equation in one unknown (-lC-)!\JJt.) consists of only one unknown and the

degree of the unknown is 1. For example, 2x = 9 - x, 2y = 1 and ~ - 1 = 0.


We can solve a linear equation in one unknown by transposing terms, combining like
terms, removing brackets and eliminating denominators.

2x=9-x

2x+x

=9

3x = 9

"II Transpose the term x.

," Combine the like terms.

x=3

(b) A linear equation in two unknowns (.=lC-)!\JJt.) consists of two unknowns and the highest

degree of the terms is 1. For example, x + y = 3, y = 3x - 1 and x - y + 2 = 0.


A linear equation in two unknowns has an infinite number of solutions.
~lMtnl'Umk.

The solutions of x + y

3 are

x = 0, y = 3;

x = 1, y = 2;

x = 2, y = 1 ...

<; We can express these solutions using ordered pair (x, y),

i.e. (0, 3), (1,2), (2, 1), ...

3.2 Solving Simultaneous Linear Eq uations in Two Unknowns


A pair of linear equations with two common unknowns is called simultaneous linear equations

.m two unknowns (&gp}L=lC~ - ,


Ix - y= 15 and ly = 2x8 + 4'1 It can be solved
/!\JJt,). For example, 2
x+y=

y= x-

by graphical method or algebraic method.

21

Longman Secondary Mathematics

(a) Graphical method


By drawing the graphs of the two linear equations, the solution can be obtained by rea
the intersection of the two graphs.
, J r:,

It'

" '< )

From the graph, the solution of

x- y

=I

2x+ Y = 5

is x = 2, y = 1.

(b) Algebraic method


We can solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations by the method of substitution (1~ i
lC )!) or the method of elimination (jJD )JjJb~lC;Z;:).

('. rrm!l;S8' lii'U~

'"

Solve

I:

~y :

7 .. .... (l).
y - I ...... (2)

Method of substitution

M ethod ofeliminatiol1

By substituting (3) into (2), we have

=72y = 6

=I

y=3

From (1), we have x


(7 - y) - y

=7 -

y .. .... (3)

-2y =-6

By substituting y

y=3
By substituting y

= 3 into (3), we have

x=7-3
=4
The solution is x

(1) - (2): y - (-y)

= 3 into (1), we have

x+3=7
x=4
The solution is x = 4, y

= 4, y

= 3.

= 3.

Linear Equations and Linear Inequalities

3.3 Basic Concept of Inequalities


"

An inequality

(1'~i\:)

is formed by connecting two expressions with an inequality sign

Inequality sign

Meaning

>

greater than

<

less than

Example
9> 2

less than or equal to

-6

(i.e. not greater than)


not equal to

=/=

15

(i.e. not less than)

13 > 2

< 10

greater than or equal to

(1'~ 5JX).

-2

< 10

7~7

~-1

-1

~-1

-4 =/= 4

23 =/= 32

x>2
y

< 10

m~7

n ~-l

p=/=O

For an inequality in one unknown, the values of the unknown that satisfy the inequality are
called the solutions of the inequality

(1'~i\:8i~~). For example, -!,


0.2, 18 and 2.9 are some
4

of the solutions of the inequality x

< 3.

We can represent the solutions of inequalities graphically using the number line.
For example:

(a) x > -2

(b)

I:

"

-2

x <-2

..
)

oE

-2

Note: The hollow circle '0' means that '-2' is not included.
(c)

x~2

(d)

"

1
2

""

=:J
o

Note: The solid circle' ' means that '2' is included .

---

---

Longman Secondaty Mathematics

3.4 Basic Properties of Inequa lities


Example

Property
(1) Transitive property (1~ li '11~)

If x < y and y

< 5, then x < 5.

(i) a + e

< 7, then
x + 3 <7+ 3

and

(ii) a -

x + 3 < 10

and

If a

> band b > e,

then a

> c.

(2) Additive property (JJ0 5tH1~)

If a > b, then

If x

> b + e,
e > b - e.

(3) Multiplicative property (* 5z:11~)


(i) If a > band e > 0, then ae > be.
(ii) If a > band e < 0, then ae < be.
(4) Reciprocal property

If y > 2, then 3y
3y

x - 5 <7- 5
x - 5 <2

> 3(2)

and

~<2

>6

and

-y < - 2

-1

(iiU~'11~)

If a

> b > 0, then ~ < ~.

If t

> 5, then -t < -.


5

(ii) If a

< b < 0, then ~a > ~b

If s

< -5, then -s > --.


5

(i)

-1

a b

1 1

These properties still hold when the inequality signs' >' and
by':=:::' and ':S'.

'<' in the table above are replao

3.5 Solving Line ar Ineq ualities in One Unknown


If an inequality contains only one unknown and its degree is 1, then the inequality is called

linear inequality in one unknown

(-j[,- /):::/f~:i\,) .

We can solve inequalities by using the properties of inequalities.

~:m
-3x+13:S1
- 3x + 13 - 13 :S 1 - 13
- 3x :S-12

-3x -12

->-3 - -3

... If 0 :S b, th en

0 -

c :S b - e.

... If 0 :S band c < 0, then oc ~ be.

x:=:::4

Graphical represen tation:

"'
24

'ythagoras' Theorem,and its

.... :,::,.,.

Converse,


4.1 Pythagoras' Theorern (~aJEl!.)
In a right-angled triangle, the side opposite to the right angle is called
the hypotenuse (*4~). In 6ABC as shown, the square of the hypotenuse

is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two shorter sides.
l.e.

In 6ABC,
if LC = 90,

L~J
a

... c is the hypotenuse.

then a 2 + b 2 = c 2
.
[Abbreviation: Pyth. theorem]

~W!"43' ''ilUG
p

In 6PQR,
PQ2 = P R2 + QR2 (Pyth. theorem)

x 2 =9 2 +122

= 225

x = /225

n:

12

= 15

4.2 Converse of Pythagoras' Theorem (*aJEI'B'9~:iEI')


In a triangle, if the square of the longest side is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two
sides, then the triangle is a right-angled triangle and the angle opposite to the longest side is a
right angle.
l.e. In 6ABC,

~b

if a 2 + b 2 = c 2,
then 6ABC is a right-angled triangle, where LC = 90.
[Abbreviation: converse of Pyth. theorem]

&

Pythagoras' Theorem and

its Converse

~~~.t " 'I':J!Jl

In L.XYZ,
XZ2+ YZ 2 = 52 + 122

= 169

~y
13

= 13 = 169
2

XY2

XZ 2 + YZ 2 = Xy2
L.XYZ is a right-angled triangle, where LZ = 90. (converse of Pyth . theorem)

#!f" ,I 'Hi"

(Find the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle)

In the figure, BCD is a straight line. Find the lengths of

(a) AB,
(b)

AD.

(Give your answers correct to 3 significant figures if necessary.)

L.....l...._ _----''----_ _-''-

Solution
(a) Consider the right-angled triangle ABC.

Let x em be the length of AB.

AB2 + BC2
x

= A C2

+ 6 = 10

(Pyth. theorem)

x 2 = 10 2 _ 6 2

x=J64
=8

The length of A B is 8 em.

(b) Consider the right-angled triangle ABD.

Let y em be the length of AD.

AD2

= AB2 + BD2

(Pyth. theorem)

= AB2 + (BC + CD)2

i=8 2 +(6+5) 2

= 8

Y=

+ 112

Ii85

= 13.6 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)


The length of AD is 13.6 em.

6cm

Scm

Trigon metry

5.1 Trigonometric Ratios of an Acute Angle (~fi.I) (J


The trigonometric ratios (= ftltt) applied to a right-angled triangle is defined by:
.

opposite side

sme=---
hypotenuse

adjacent side

hypotenuse

cose=---

opposite side of

hypotenuse

opposite side

tane=---

adjacent side

adjacent side of

, .

Refer to the figure,

sine

=~, cose = ~ and tane = 2

554

5.2 Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angles

zj

50
2121
30

45

J3

30 0

sine

cose

tane

13

_1 [or 13]
3
13

60 0

45 0

/2 /2]
/2 /2]

_1 [or

_1 [or

13

1
2

13

....:.....,

Longman Secondary Mathematics

5.3 Finding Trigonometric Ratios by Constructing Right-angled


Triangles
If one of the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle e is given, we can find the other two
trigonometric ratios without evaluating e.
For example, if sin e =

~, we can find cos e and tan e by the following steps:

Step 1

Step 2
sm
.
S mce

Construct a right-angled
triangle ABC with
LA = e and LB = 90.

BC = 4 and A C = 5.
4

A'

'8 1

Step 3

Step 4

Find the unknown side AB by


Pythagoras' theorem.

Find the other two


trigonometric ratios by
their definitions.

AB =) AC2 - BC2
=)5 2

_4 2

=3

e = -4 , we set

e
;.)/

14

AB 3

cose =AC
-=
5
BC 4

tane = -

AB 3

5.4 Basic Trigonometric Identities (-~m~tC)


sine
case

tan e = -

sin 2 e+cos 2 e= 1

The figure shows a right-angled triangle ABC, where LA and LB are


complementary angles (~fil). We have
sin (90 cos (90 -

90 -

e) = cos e
e) = sin e
1
tane

tan (90 - e) =

8"

e
a

e
b

'e

inate Geometry

8m

6.1 Distance between Any Two Points on a Plane


The distance d between any two points A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,y;)
011 a rectangular coordinate plane is given by:

<II distance formula


(iE~ ~i\ )
~-~yr---~

x2

Xl

--+-----------------~ x

Consider two points A(-4, 2) and B(4, 8).

= ;[4 -

AB

(- 4)]2 + (8 - 2)2 units

= j 8 2 + 6 2 uni ts
= hoo units

= 10

---r-----t----~x

units

6.2 Slope and Inclination of a Straight Line


(a) The slope (*4$) m of a straight line passing through A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,Y;) is given by:
Y" - YI
X z- XI

m=-
The following are some cases:
y

horizontal line L

Slope of L

=0

Slope of L is undefined.

y
L

..-J

vertical line L

V
/

Lx

Slope of L

~
0

>0

~Lx

Slope of L

<0

55

._
' .....-.

Longman Secondary Mathematics

.-;.."

(b) In the figure, e is the angle that the straight line L makes with the
positive x-axis (measured anti-clockwise from the x-axis to L).

y
L

e is called the inclination (1~.l'L~) of Land


slope of L = tan e.

Consider two points A(-4, 2) and B(4, 8).


8- 2

4-(-4)

(a) Slope of AB = - -

(b) tan

e = slope of AB = '4
e=

<

)V

36.9 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

6.3 Para llel Lines and Perpendicular Lines


Let m, and m 2 be the slopes of the straight lines I I and L 2 respectively.

(a) Parallel lines


(i) If L, II L 2, then
(ii) If 111, =

111 2 ,

In, =

m 2.

," ,.
y
L) t.

(a)

then L, II L 2 .

y
L)

L2
1\

LI II L2
Slope of L,

) x

= slope of L2
=-3

(b) Perpendicular lines


(i) If L, ..L L 2, then
(ii) If 1111 x

11'12

(b)
/11,

/11 2 =

L)

-1.

-1, then LI ..L L 2.

y
;/

L2

'<)

Slope of LI x slope of L2
"

>, ) x

=--x2

2
=-1

) X

...../) ~

LI..L L2

Coordinate Geometry

6.4 Point of Division


A. Mid-point formula (r:p il1ti'Li:i\:)
y

If M(x , y) is the mid-point (r:p !/i) of the line segment joining

A (XI,Yl) and B(x 2,y;), then


XI

+ X2

YI

. / 8 ( X2'Y2)

+ Y2

x = - - and Y=--.
2
2

/~(X'Y)
A (x" y,)
-o~------------~x

(fj[) B.

Section formula for internal division (pg53'i.l(/iS\JIDt~Ii 'Li:i\:)


Y

If P(x, y) is the internal point of division (pg53'l1!ti) of the line

segment joining A (xj,Yj) and B(xb Y;) such that AP : P B = r : s,


then
x=

SX\ + rX 2
r+s

"I
I

~ ,. ...

sY\ + rY2

P(x, y)

and y = - -
r+s

A (x" y,)
-o~------------~x

..

Consider two points A (-5 , 2) and B(4, 8).

C8D (b)

(a) M is the mid-point of AB.


Bv the mid-point formula
.
Coordmates
of M

Bv the section formula fo r internal division

2+8)
= (-5+4
- 2 -' -2-

= (~I ,

N is a point on AB such that AN : NB = 2 : 1.

Coord mates 0 N

I~)

= (-~, 5)

~ '#if",i U*"

=
=

(I(-

5) + 2(4) 1(2) + 2(8))


2+1
'
2+1

(~3' ~)
3

= (l , 6)

(Apply distanc formula )


y

In the figure, A(- 2, 0), B(3, 0) and C(2, 3) are the vertices of a triangle.

C(2,3)

(a) Find the lengths of AB, BC and AC.

(Leave your answers in surd form if necessary.)

(b) Is /':;ABC an isosceles triangle? Explain your answer.

--.L....---t-------l....~ X

A(-2, 0) 0

8(3,0)