13 views

Uploaded by Elston Pang

- CBSE 2015 All India QN. PAPER WITH SOLUTION
- maths handbook-jeemain.guru.pdf
- XI Math Ch3 Trigonometry Chapter Notes Aug
- Analytical Trigonometry With Applications 1
- lemerande - module 8
- Calculus 2 Summary
- maths T (chap 1)
- Yearly Lesson Oct
- Euler Integrals
- 461hw3sol
- EEC 652 DSP Lab
- Ylp Ad Math f5 05012017
- 6 multimedia lesson idea 2016 1
- Yearly Lesson Plan Add Math F5
- part 3 - formative and summative assessments and rubrics - tom merse
- GECM08LA
- Statics Review Slides 2
- Basic Maths 0
- Trigonometry Revision
- March_2009

You are on page 1of 15

A formula is an equality relating two or more variables.

Consider the formula A = 3b - 8.

(i) When b = 2, by the method of

A=3(2)-8=-2

to b,

A = 3b- 8

A

+ 8 = 3b

A+8=b

3

b = A +8

<.1

When a is multiplied by itself n times,

aXaX ... XaXa=a

n times

In the index notation eI', a is the base (&J)::) and n is the index or exponent (ttJ)::).

If a #- 0,

(1)

(2)

=1

a-I! = ~ , where n is a positive integer

aO

a"

If m and n are integers and a, b #- 0,

(1) am X an

111

(2) ~

a

/I

= am + n

= am.. :. . an = am-"

(4) (ab )"

(5)

= an b"

(~r = ~:

= h 3 + 4 = h7

6

e.g. h = h 6 - 2 = h4

e.g. h3 x h4

h2

e.g. (-2n)3

e.g.

= k6

= (-2)3 X n3 =-8n 3

b is expressed

in term s of A.

'nomia's

A monomial (iiJ&i\) is an algebraic expression which can be either a number, a variable or the

product of a number and one or more variables, e.g. 3, x, r3, -2y, 4a 2b.

A polynomial

3a

( ~ JJ'!i\)

(i)

Coefficient (1*19:)

( ~ J.l'ii\S1 /~19:)

For example,

(a)

Polynomial

(b)

Coefficient of

Number of

3

Constant

Degree of

term

polynomial

terms

4x 3 + 3x 2 - 2x

-2

_2X2+ 3x- 9

-2

-9

(i) arranged in descending powers of x: - 3x 3 + x 2 + 5x - 8

- 3x 3

The terms that contain the same variable(s) to the same power(s) are called like terms

Otherwise, they are called unlike terms

(~~~JJ'!).

For example:

(i)

(ii) -x and 6y, 3y and 2i, a2b and 3ab 2 are unlike terms.

(~~~J.l'i) .

Polynomials

(a) Addition and subtraction of polynomials can be performed by combining like terms.

fflM,3;t,W!dcl

(a) (3x + 7) + (x 4) = 3x + 7 + x 4

= 3x+ x + 7 -

= 4x+ 3

(b) (3x + 7) - (x 4) = 3x + 7 x + 4

= 3x-x+ 7 +4

=2x+ll

muJtipJication Ul~5t;;53'1lc~).

a~) = ax+ay

,I

~

(a) 3(b + 2)

or

(X~l = xa+ ya

F"~

= 3(b) + 3(2)

=-bc + 4c

= 3b+ 6

2 .3 Introduction to Factorization

In general, the process of expressing an algebraic expression as a product of its factors is called

factorization

(~ i\: 53'~~).

Expansion

~

a (x + y) = ax + ay

~

Factorization

For example,

Method 1: Taking out common factors

(i;~i\:)

3p - 6q

= 3p - 3 2q

= 3(p - 2q)

11

ax + ay + 3x + 3y

= a (x + y) + 3 (x + y)

=(x+y)(a+3)

(ffi~j\:)

a 2 -b 2 :=(a+b)(a-b)

x 2 - 25 = x 2 52

=(x+ 5)(x- 5)

(b) Perfect square

a 2+2ab+b 2 :=(a+b)2

a 2 -2ab+b 2 :=(a-b)2

(a)

x 2+6x+9=x 2 +2(x)(3)+3 2

= (x

+ 3)2

(b) /-14y+49=/-2(y)(7)+7 2

=(y_7)2

@(c)

Method 4:

a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 - ab + b 2)

a 3 _ b3 = (a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2)

(a)

(+~t* >t)

x 2 - 5x + 6

product = x2 ..

= (x - 2)(x - 3)

-2

X

.. product = +6

x

-3

x

"

-2x

(b) 3x 2 - x - 2

= (3x + 2) (x -

1)

3xX+2

x

-1

+2x

+ 8xy + 5/

= (x + y)(3x + 5y)

(c) 3x

.~

-3x =-5x

-3x =-x

xX+ y

3x

+5y

+3xy

+5xy =+8xy

I'nequalitie

'

'

(a) A linear equation in one unknown (-lC-)!\JJt.) consists of only one unknown and the

We can solve a linear equation in one unknown by transposing terms, combining like

terms, removing brackets and eliminating denominators.

2x=9-x

2x+x

=9

3x = 9

x=3

(b) A linear equation in two unknowns (.=lC-)!\JJt.) consists of two unknowns and the highest

A linear equation in two unknowns has an infinite number of solutions.

~lMtnl'Umk.

The solutions of x + y

3 are

x = 0, y = 3;

x = 1, y = 2;

x = 2, y = 1 ...

<; We can express these solutions using ordered pair (x, y),

A pair of linear equations with two common unknowns is called simultaneous linear equations

Ix - y= 15 and ly = 2x8 + 4'1 It can be solved

/!\JJt,). For example, 2

x+y=

y= x-

21

By drawing the graphs of the two linear equations, the solution can be obtained by rea

the intersection of the two graphs.

, J r:,

It'

" '< )

x- y

=I

2x+ Y = 5

is x = 2, y = 1.

We can solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations by the method of substitution (1~ i

lC )!) or the method of elimination (jJD )JjJb~lC;Z;:).

'"

Solve

I:

~y :

7 .. .... (l).

y - I ...... (2)

Method of substitution

M ethod ofeliminatiol1

=72y = 6

=I

y=3

(7 - y) - y

=7 -

y .. .... (3)

-2y =-6

By substituting y

y=3

By substituting y

x=7-3

=4

The solution is x

x+3=7

x=4

The solution is x = 4, y

= 4, y

= 3.

= 3.

"

An inequality

(1'~i\:)

Inequality sign

Meaning

>

greater than

<

less than

Example

9> 2

-6

not equal to

=/=

15

13 > 2

< 10

(1'~ 5JX).

-2

< 10

7~7

~-1

-1

~-1

-4 =/= 4

23 =/= 32

x>2

y

< 10

m~7

n ~-l

p=/=O

For an inequality in one unknown, the values of the unknown that satisfy the inequality are

called the solutions of the inequality

0.2, 18 and 2.9 are some

4

< 3.

We can represent the solutions of inequalities graphically using the number line.

For example:

(a) x > -2

(b)

I:

"

-2

x <-2

..

)

oE

-2

Note: The hollow circle '0' means that '-2' is not included.

(c)

x~2

(d)

"

1

2

""

=:J

o

---

---

Example

Property

(1) Transitive property (1~ li '11~)

If x < y and y

(i) a + e

< 7, then

x + 3 <7+ 3

and

(ii) a -

x + 3 < 10

and

If a

then a

> c.

If a > b, then

If x

> b + e,

e > b - e.

(i) If a > band e > 0, then ae > be.

(ii) If a > band e < 0, then ae < be.

(4) Reciprocal property

If y > 2, then 3y

3y

x - 5 <7- 5

x - 5 <2

> 3(2)

and

~<2

>6

and

-y < - 2

-1

(iiU~'11~)

If a

If t

5

(ii) If a

If s

5

(i)

-1

a b

1 1

These properties still hold when the inequality signs' >' and

by':=:::' and ':S'.

If an inequality contains only one unknown and its degree is 1, then the inequality is called

(-j[,- /):::/f~:i\,) .

~:m

-3x+13:S1

- 3x + 13 - 13 :S 1 - 13

- 3x :S-12

-3x -12

->-3 - -3

... If 0 :S b, th en

0 -

c :S b - e.

x:=:::4

"'

24

.... :,::,.,.

Converse,

4.1 Pythagoras' Theorern (~aJEl!.)

In a right-angled triangle, the side opposite to the right angle is called

the hypotenuse (*4~). In 6ABC as shown, the square of the hypotenuse

is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two shorter sides.

l.e.

In 6ABC,

if LC = 90,

L~J

a

then a 2 + b 2 = c 2

.

[Abbreviation: Pyth. theorem]

~W!"43' ''ilUG

p

In 6PQR,

PQ2 = P R2 + QR2 (Pyth. theorem)

x 2 =9 2 +122

= 225

x = /225

n:

12

= 15

In a triangle, if the square of the longest side is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two

sides, then the triangle is a right-angled triangle and the angle opposite to the longest side is a

right angle.

l.e. In 6ABC,

~b

if a 2 + b 2 = c 2,

then 6ABC is a right-angled triangle, where LC = 90.

[Abbreviation: converse of Pyth. theorem]

&

its Converse

In L.XYZ,

XZ2+ YZ 2 = 52 + 122

= 169

~y

13

= 13 = 169

2

XY2

XZ 2 + YZ 2 = Xy2

L.XYZ is a right-angled triangle, where LZ = 90. (converse of Pyth . theorem)

#!f" ,I 'Hi"

(a) AB,

(b)

AD.

Solution

(a) Consider the right-angled triangle ABC.

AB2 + BC2

x

= A C2

+ 6 = 10

(Pyth. theorem)

x 2 = 10 2 _ 6 2

x=J64

=8

AD2

= AB2 + BD2

(Pyth. theorem)

i=8 2 +(6+5) 2

= 8

Y=

+ 112

Ii85

The length of AD is 13.6 em.

6cm

Scm

Trigon metry

The trigonometric ratios (= ftltt) applied to a right-angled triangle is defined by:

.

opposite side

sme=---

hypotenuse

adjacent side

hypotenuse

cose=---

opposite side of

hypotenuse

opposite side

tane=---

adjacent side

adjacent side of

, .

sine

554

zj

50

2121

30

45

J3

30 0

sine

cose

tane

13

_1 [or 13]

3

13

60 0

45 0

/2 /2]

/2 /2]

_1 [or

_1 [or

13

1

2

13

....:.....,

Triangles

If one of the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle e is given, we can find the other two

trigonometric ratios without evaluating e.

For example, if sin e =

Step 1

Step 2

sm

.

S mce

Construct a right-angled

triangle ABC with

LA = e and LB = 90.

BC = 4 and A C = 5.

4

A'

'8 1

Step 3

Step 4

Pythagoras' theorem.

trigonometric ratios by

their definitions.

AB =) AC2 - BC2

=)5 2

_4 2

=3

e = -4 , we set

e

;.)/

14

AB 3

cose =AC

-=

5

BC 4

tane = -

AB 3

sine

case

tan e = -

sin 2 e+cos 2 e= 1

complementary angles (~fil). We have

sin (90 cos (90 -

90 -

e) = cos e

e) = sin e

1

tane

tan (90 - e) =

8"

e

a

e

b

'e

inate Geometry

8m

The distance d between any two points A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,y;)

011 a rectangular coordinate plane is given by:

(iE~ ~i\ )

~-~yr---~

x2

Xl

--+-----------------~ x

= ;[4 -

AB

= j 8 2 + 6 2 uni ts

= hoo units

= 10

---r-----t----~x

units

(a) The slope (*4$) m of a straight line passing through A (xt,Yt) and B(x 2,Y;) is given by:

Y" - YI

X z- XI

m=-

The following are some cases:

y

horizontal line L

Slope of L

=0

Slope of L is undefined.

y

L

..-J

vertical line L

V

/

Lx

Slope of L

~

0

>0

~Lx

Slope of L

<0

55

._

' .....-.

.-;.."

(b) In the figure, e is the angle that the straight line L makes with the

positive x-axis (measured anti-clockwise from the x-axis to L).

y

L

slope of L = tan e.

8- 2

4-(-4)

(a) Slope of AB = - -

(b) tan

e = slope of AB = '4

e=

<

)V

Let m, and m 2 be the slopes of the straight lines I I and L 2 respectively.

(i) If L, II L 2, then

(ii) If 111, =

111 2 ,

In, =

m 2.

," ,.

y

L) t.

(a)

then L, II L 2 .

y

L)

L2

1\

LI II L2

Slope of L,

) x

= slope of L2

=-3

(i) If L, ..L L 2, then

(ii) If 1111 x

11'12

(b)

/11,

/11 2 =

L)

-1.

y

;/

L2

'<)

Slope of LI x slope of L2

"

>, ) x

=--x2

2

=-1

) X

...../) ~

LI..L L2

Coordinate Geometry

A. Mid-point formula (r:p il1ti'Li:i\:)

y

XI

+ X2

YI

. / 8 ( X2'Y2)

+ Y2

x = - - and Y=--.

2

2

/~(X'Y)

A (x" y,)

-o~------------~x

(fj[) B.

Y

then

x=

SX\ + rX 2

r+s

"I

I

~ ,. ...

sY\ + rY2

P(x, y)

and y = - -

r+s

A (x" y,)

-o~------------~x

..

C8D (b)

Bv the mid-point formula

.

Coordmates

of M

2+8)

= (-5+4

- 2 -' -2-

= (~I ,

Coord mates 0 N

I~)

= (-~, 5)

~ '#if",i U*"

=

=

(I(-

2+1

'

2+1

(~3' ~)

3

= (l , 6)

y

In the figure, A(- 2, 0), B(3, 0) and C(2, 3) are the vertices of a triangle.

C(2,3)

--.L....---t-------l....~ X

A(-2, 0) 0

8(3,0)

- CBSE 2015 All India QN. PAPER WITH SOLUTIONUploaded byFaris Hamsa
- maths handbook-jeemain.guru.pdfUploaded byAditya
- XI Math Ch3 Trigonometry Chapter Notes AugUploaded byvivekantony
- Analytical Trigonometry With Applications 1Uploaded byIChikawa ARata Dewi
- lemerande - module 8Uploaded byapi-361482690
- Calculus 2 SummaryUploaded bydukefvr41
- maths T (chap 1)Uploaded bySiewLiZhen
- Yearly Lesson OctUploaded byMohd Hisam Mohd Hussain
- Euler IntegralsUploaded byDuncan Scott Bennie
- 461hw3solUploaded byDhelia
- EEC 652 DSP LabUploaded byShitansh Nigam
- Ylp Ad Math f5 05012017Uploaded byHasnol Esham
- 6 multimedia lesson idea 2016 1Uploaded byapi-391825883
- Yearly Lesson Plan Add Math F5Uploaded byjustin poh
- part 3 - formative and summative assessments and rubrics - tom merseUploaded byapi-242802487
- GECM08LAUploaded byKevin Booker
- Statics Review Slides 2Uploaded byHasen Bebba
- Basic Maths 0Uploaded byKushagra
- Trigonometry RevisionUploaded byBindiya Agarwal
- March_2009Uploaded byJason Hendricks
- Trig Gen04Uploaded byKirti Gupta
- Maths Xii Term-1 2010Uploaded byMoumita Banerjee
- sol_5_fall_04Uploaded byDaniel Cervantes Cabrera
- PRACTICE WORK SHEET SEQUENCE AND SERIES-02 IIT LEVEL.docUploaded byKAPIL SHARMA
- unit planUploaded byapi-316859396
- Coverage_UPCAT.docxUploaded byHwic Batangas SC
- finial unit 4 sum- difference double angleUploaded byapi-276566085
- Solomon DUploaded bynishit0157623637
- Cosecant, Secant & CotangentUploaded byRyan Mills
- January 2008 Qp - c1 AqaUploaded byTamannaBhatia

- ch04 trigonometry from text bookUploaded byapi-167135013
- 11.4 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem and Its ConverseUploaded byArthur Braga
- FPGA ProgrammingUploaded byVinodKotra
- NSM Bk 2 SIOUploaded byVincents Genesius Evans
- InterMaths_SB3_CD.pdfUploaded byCartmanTai
- ma005[1]Uploaded byuberuber12
- a a 45 pythagoreantheorem2Uploaded byapi-167924086
- Mechanics QuestionUploaded byAbhijeet P. Dash
- mathlabxUploaded byapi-3729489
- numeracy_gr_8.pdfUploaded byFande Prima Putri
- Learning Modern AlgebraUploaded bySimonSwifter
- Mathews - Neolithic oral tradition for the origin of mathematics<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <HTML><HEAD><META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"> <TITLE>ERROR: The requested URL could not be retrieved</TITLE> <STYLE type="text/css"><!--BODY{background-color:#ffffff;font-family:verdana,sans-serif}PRE{font-family:sans-serif}--></STYLE> </HEAD><BODY> <H1>ERROR</H1> <H2>The requested URL could not be retrieved</H2> <HR noshade size="1px"> <P> While trying to process the request: <PRE> TEXT http://www.scribd.com/titlecleaner?title=Mathews+-+Neolithic+oral+tradition+for+the+origin+of+mathematics.pdf HTTP/1.1 Host: www.scribd.com Proxy-Connection: keep-alive Accept: */* Origin: http://www.scribd.com X-CSRF-Token: ae6838aae3e154568a5e0f095aaa1baab67e1d03 User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/537.22 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/25.0.1364.172 Safari/537.22 X-ReUploaded byorlandofurioso2
- matf2Uploaded byapi-158285296
- appreciation lesson planUploaded byapi-121560518
- Perpendicular Lines DefinitionUploaded byRam Singh
- unit plan trigonometryUploaded byapi-310038973
- 50871217-Chapter-6Uploaded bydallaram
- PYTHAGORASUploaded byAlex Masson
- Math Formula.pptxUploaded byJohn Walter Camino Daison
- UntitledUploaded bywildmentor_boy
- eTextbook (Basic Geometry and Trigonometry)Uploaded bycloudlearningbooks
- quarter 4 cumulative final examUploaded byapi-280465014
- Tangram LessonUploaded bydbrizzolara191
- LECTURE-MATH.docUploaded byChristian Arlo Sikat Magadia
- CXC Physics Notes - Section AUploaded bypaulcampbell37
- List of Famous Mathematicians and Their ContributionsUploaded byDaaman
- Year 9 Teacher Pack 3Uploaded byMohamed Fouad
- TestUploaded bydalenemike
- 10th Sa-1 Mathematics Sample Paper 2012-11Uploaded byTapas Banerjee
- Geoboard ActivitiesUploaded byyiannis