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An Overview of Grounding System Ungrounded

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http://electrical-engineering-po rtal.co m/an-o verview-o f-gro unding-system-ungro unded

Asif Eqbal

An O ve rvie w O f G ro und ing Sys te m (Ung ro und e d ) (O n p ho to : ins talle d g ro und c lamp . The 2" x 0.022" c o p p e r s trip is

tre ate d with a c o p p e r b as e d anti o xid atio n g re as e and the n c lamp e d to the c le an c o p p e r p late d 8' g ro und ro d - b y

b e e vo .c o m )

Topics:

Bef ore 1950 power system were of ten without neutral grounding. Such system had repeated arcing

grounds, insulation failure and difficult earth fault protection.

Every phase has inherent distributed capacitance with respect to earth. If earth f ault occurs on phase B,

the distributed capacitance discharges through the f ault. T he capacitance again gets charged and gets

discharged. Because of this sever voltage oscillation is reached in healthy phases.

T hese voltage oscillation causes stress on insulation of connected equipment.

Ic2 = jCwv2

Ic3 = jCwv3

Ic = jCwv2 + jCwv3

Ic = jCw(v2 + v3) // Equation-01

Now by drawing the phaser diagram

as shown below wecan write:

VN + V2 = v2 // Equation-02

VN + V3 = v3 // Equation-03

Substituting equation -02 and

equation-03 in equation-01:

Ic = jCw(VN + V2 + VN + V3)

Ic = jCw(2VN + V2 + V3) // Equation-04

Voltage phasers V3 can be resolved in

the direction of VN and in direction

Similarly voltage phaser V2 can be resolved as V2Cosand

V2Sin

Hence:

V2 + V3 = V3Cos + V3Sin + V2Cos V2Sin // Equation-05

V3 = V2

V3Cos + V2Cos = VN

Substituting in equation-05 we get:

V2 + V3 = VN = V1 (Since V1 is shorted to ground soVN = V1) //

Equation-06

Substituting equation-06 in equation- 04 we get:

Ic = jCw(2VN + VN)

s ys te m

Ic = j3CwV1

For ungrounded system:

If = IC2 + IC3 = IC = j3CwV1 // Equation-07

As seen f rom equation -07, in unearthed system ground f ault current is totally dependent on capacitive

current returning via the network phase-earth capacitances. T his is the reason f or sever voltage stress in

healthy phases of ungrounded system.

Since there is no return path available for fault current in ungrounded system so detection of earth f ault

current is dif f icult. T his is other disadvantage of ungrounded system.

Go back to Topics

1. Ungrounded system has negligible earth f ault current

2. Some continuous process or system and essential auxiliaries where single phase to ground f ault

should not trip the system.

Go back to Topics

However below listed disadvantages of ungrounded system are more adverse than advantages:

1. Unearthed system experience repeated arcing grounds.

2. Insulation f ailure occurs during single phase to ground f aults.

3. Earth f ault protection f or unearthed system is dif f icult.

4. Voltage due to lightning surges do not f ind path to earth.

In order to overcome the above mentioned technical and operation issues the concept of system grounding

was introduced. System grounding is connecting the neutral of system to earth.

At every voltage level neutral of transf ormer is considered as neutral of system.

1. Effective grounding: Ef f ective grounding is also called solid grounding that is without resistance or

reactance. In this case co-ef f icient of earthing ismore than 80%

2. Non effective grounding: When neutral to earth connection is made through resistance or

reactance than the system is said to be non-ef f ectively grounded. In this case coef f icient of earthing

is greater than 80%

Go back to Topics

Coef f icient of earthing is the ratio which is measured during single phase to ground f ault:

Ce = Highest phase to ground voltage of healthy phase / Phase to phase voltage

In a system without neutral earth (refer Figure 1), phase to earth voltage phase-1 and phase-2 rises to

3times phase to phase voltage Vrms during single phase to earth f ault on phase 3. In a neutral earthed

system the voltage of healthy phase rises to Ce times Vrms.

Therefore value of Ce:

For non-ef f ectively earthed system Ce = 1

For ef f ectively earthed system Ce < 0.8. Hence surge arrester rated voltage is > 0.8 V rms

Surge voltage kV instantaneous is taken as 2.5 times of critical flashover voltage (CFOV) of line

insulation. T hus discharge current is given as:

I = (2.5(CFOV) Residual voltage of arrester) / Surge impedance of line

Earth fault factor is a ratio calculated at selected point of the power system f or a given system. Earth

fault factor = V1/V2

V1 = Highest RMS phase to phase voltage of healthy phases (phase 2 and 3 refer to Figure 1) during

earth f aulton pahse-1

V2 = RMS value of phase to earth voltage at same location with f ault on f aulty phases removed

Go back to Topics

Re f e re nce s :

2. Switchgear protection & power system By Sunil S Rao, Khanna publications

3. EART HING: Your questions answered By Geof f Cronshaw

4. IEEE Recommended Practice f or Electric Power Distribution f or Industrial Plants

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