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Solutions for the Winding of

Nonwovens

2014
David Roisum, Ph.D.
Finishing Technologies, Inc.

INDA 2014
80.1

What is a Web?
Long

Thin

Flexible

All webs follow the same laws of physics


If we know the physics, we know the behavior

80.2

What Is Web Handling?


Web Handling
Rollers (3)

Wrinkling
Wrinkle Cause/Cure
Spreading

Tension Control (2)


Web Converting
Nip Control (2)
Slitting
Temperature/Moisture
Winding
Effects and Control
Guiding (Path Control)

Other
Material Properties
Physical Properties
Problem Solving

80.3

Why Study Web-Handling?

Baggy Webs
Curl
Length & Width (dimension)
Registration (location)
Web Breaks
Winding Defects
Wrinkling
etc
80.4

Why a Nonwovens Focus?


Material Properties are quite different

Low modulus (favors different defects)


Rough surface (no air entrainment)
Looser web/machine tolerances
Your cousins are tissue

Winding
Different defect set
Different winder settings
Different quality measure
80.5

Winders are Found in

Web-to-roll

Paper machine
Film extrusion
Foil mill
Textile loom
etc

Cut large master rolls into smaller


diameter and/or smaller width shipping
rolls

Roll-to-roll

Converting at high speeds such as

(Slitter) Rewinder

Manufacturing such as

Calendering
Coating
Laminating
Metallizing
Printing
etc

Offline roll-to-roll process used where


inline is to restrictive or too unreliable
Roll changes may be automated and
made at speed to keep process running
Flying splice unwind, winder turret,
accumulator

Winding enables Web Handling

Salvage (Rewinder)

Some roll defects can be fixed by


rewinding
Offsets, telescope, soft rolls
Also, edit/splice out web defects
Invaluable for trials and product
inspection

80.6

Winder Classes - # Knobs


Center Wind

M1

Tension

Ni p

Center Wind w
Layon Roller

M1

Tension

Ni p

Surface Wind

M2

Tension

Ni p

Center- Surface
Wind Tension
M1

( M1+ M2)
M2

Knobs to adjust Wound


Roll Tightness
Web Tension
Nip
Centerwind Torque
differential
s - some products are
speed dependent (due
to air entrainment)
Known at the TNTs
of winding

Centerwind Torq. Diff.


( M1-M2)

80.7

Winder Classes - Range


Loose

Tight

Center Wind

M
1

Tension

Nip

Center Wind w
Layon Roller

M
1

Tension

Nip

Surface Wind

M
2

Tension

Nip

Center-Surface
WindTension

M
1

(M1+ M2)
M
2

Centerwind range is
from min to max web
tension
Layon roll nip adds
additional tightness
Surface wind cant get
as loose because of
required nip
Center-Surface has
widest range

Tightness

Centerwind Torq.
Diff.

80.8

Winder Type - Turret


Continuous production winder
Wind one spindle, index over to new spindle
Wide range of products and processes
Core(shaft) support
Large rolls a challenge
Center, Center w Layon
or Center-Surface class
or Gap
Spindle B

Index
Layon Roller

f er
s
n
t r a ho w n
d
n
a
tS
Cut No

Turret

Spindle A

Turret Mech

80.9

Winder Type - Reel


Continuous production winder
Start on primary, move to secondary arm
Follows almost every paper machine
Primary Arm
Secondary Arm
Index

Core(shaft) support
Upsets at bottom of roll
Surface wind class

Reel Mech

80.10

Winder Type Duplex


Offline slitter-rewinder
Duplex: wind every other roll wound Inboard Roll
on opposite side of drum or machine
Extreme Application Range
Converting: small narrow rolls w/o
spreading
Paper Mills: $20M magazine grades

Out board Roll

Drum

View
From
Top

Duplex Mech

80.11

Winder Type Two* Drum


Offline slitter-rewinder
*Optional 3rd roller known as Rider Roller
Mostly paper, rubber and textiles
Rider Roller

Wound Roll

Drums

Shaftess or Shafted
Surface wind class
Very Durable
Very Productive
Two Drum Mech
Programmed Nip

80.12

TNTs and Tightness


Tension: makes roll tighter
Nip: makes roll tighter,
especially soft materials or
smooth materials at high
speeds
Torque diff: makes roll
tighter (or looser)
s: makes the roll tighter
(when you slow down)

Tension

Ni p

M2

M1

Centerwind Torq. Diff ( M1-M2)

80.13

TNTs add up to WIT


Wound-In-Tension is the tension in the
WIT
current outer layer of the roll

Tension +
Nip +
Torque

WIT +
Mat erial
propert ies

Wound Roll:
WIT,
tight ness,
hardness,
Stresses, etc

80.14

TNTs > Same Tightness


If TENSION is giving
you trouble, lower it
and RAISE NIP in its
place

If NIP is giving you


trouble, lower it and
RAISE TENSION in
its place

If you need to tighten, raise both


If you need to loosen, loosen both
Nip most effective with compressible materials80.15

Nip and Compressible Materials


WIT is a result of
interlayer slippage
under the nip
Non-uniform slippage
can cause defects

Nip is extremely effective


for bulky materials such
as nonwovens, textiles
and tissue
Nip tightening requires
a pad of soft material to
work
Thus, the layers just
above the core are a bit
looser than elsewhere
Thus, the possible
justification for centersurface winding
80.16

Programmed Nip

Cam
PLC
Calculation
Lookup table

Outside

Core

Nip Cylinder Pressure

( Current ) Roll Diameter

Outside

Core

( Current ) Roll Diameter

Swinging Arm Wgt

Variable Mech. Advantage


Rider Roller

Roll Weight Compensat ion

Roll Wgt

Drum Nip

( Current ) Roll Diameter

Outside

How

Looser Finish

Core

Structure a roll
Compensate for geometry
Compensate for gravity
All of the above

Nip Cylinder Pressure

Tight Start

Geometry Compensation

Nip Cylinder Pressure

What > Automatically


vary nip pressure as a
function of current
diameter
Why

Roll Structure

80.17

Nip Calibration Example


Here is a modern twodrum with two gross
calibration oversights
Rider Roller Nip ( PLI)

Zero was offset by 7.8


PLI on tissue!
Hysteresis
(uncertainty) was
greater than the range
of the fancy roll
structure computer
program being run

30

Actual
Actual

20

P
ro
10

10

gr

am

20

me

22.9

7.8

30

40

Current Roll Diamet er ( in)


80.18

How Tight to Wind the Roll?


Baby Bear Theory:

Not too tight to damage web


Not too loose to allow roll damage

80.19

Defects and Tightness


Loose Defects >
Damage Roll

Flat spots
Out-of-Round
Telescoping
Etc.

Tight Defects >


Damage Web

Blocking
Core Crush*
Corrugations
Gage Bands > Bag
Tin Canning, etc.

Defects Not affected by Tightness


Offset core
Wrong roll width

Tight and Loose Defects

80.20

What
Tight Start
Smooth Transition
Looser Finish

How

T,N, T or WIT

Wound Roll Structure

Core
Outside
Current Roll Diameter

Taper any of the TNTs

Why: reduce defects due to


Roll Handling
Starring
Telescoping
80.21

Radial Stress or Pressure


ZD Radial St resses
-Interlayer Pressure

10

Int erlayer Pressure

30 Roll

10 Roll

-10

20 Roll

40 Roll

Outside

-20
-30
Core

Radial Stress (psi)

-40
0

10
15
20
Radial Position (in)

25

Pressure is highest
at core
Without taper,
pressure is
roughly level
through most of
the roll
S-shaped pattern is
the trend common
to most winding
situations
80.22

Width Will Be Nonuniform


Physics allows only three solutions
Wind under zero tension
Variable width slitting
(variable width when unwound)
Saw cut roll (variable web
width when unwound)

80.23

Bulk (Thickness) Loss


Interlayer pressure can cause a loss of bulk
(thickness, caliper etc) if the product creeps (with
time) under those loads
Permanent losses can vary from less than 5% on
a newsprint reel to more than 50% on finished
rolls of tender nonwovens
More durable material

Position

OD

Core

Position

OD

Core

Caliper

Pressure

Lower winding tightness

80.24

Bulk Loss and Core Support


Pressure over the
core/mandrel can
cause bulk loss
Which source of
pressure is bigger?
Calculation (very
difficult)
Compare losses of
size and full size rolls
wound under same
tension

Core Support Pressure

Winding Pressure

80.25

Telescoping Case IA - Initial


Winding core
supported roll
Roll begins wind OK

80.26

Telescoping Case IA - Latter


Winding core
supported roll
Roll begins to shift
Latter part of winding

26.27

Telescoping Case IA - Appearance


Winding core supported roll
When
It Slipped
Where
It Slipped

Min Safe Core Dia


For given condit ions
Max Safe OD
For given Core et c
80.28

Telescope Case IA - Remedies


Winding -Maximum taper (especially tension)
Product Re-Design

Diameter

OD

Min

Core

Sideguards
Living with waste

WIT

Operational

Max Slip Zone


Radius

Change Web
Increase web-web friction for torque induced
Increase density for nip induced
Core diameter increase
Max
Roll diameter decrease

80.29

Telescoping Case IV
More formally known as Progressive Outward Dishing
During Winding (most commonly a 2 Drum)
Multiple rolls wound on same axis grow in width due to
Interlayer pressure and
Poisson effect

Diagnostics
No J-line motion needed
Rolls wider above core than at outside
Progressive outward roll edge pattern

Remedies
Winding Minimum winding tightness (T, N and T)
Increase spreading of multiple rolls wound same axis
Web or roll product design

80.30

Rough Roll Edge - Other


Nip friction >
sawtooth edge
Web Vibration >
feathery edge
Machine Vibration >
feathery or corduroy
Unslit edges
Trim jump
Slitter Rings
80.31

Rough Roll Edge Tree


Simple tests can determine which branch
of the troubleshooting tree you are on
Of f set
Wr ap
Ro ug h
Ro l l Edge

Web Moved
Rol l Moved
Tensi on,

Wr ap
Wi dt h Var

Sl i t t er Moved
Wri nkl e at Sl t r
80.32

Winding With Gage Variation


Winding

Unwinding

The size of the diameter variation that might do this could be as little as 1/1,000
The web gage variation that caused this diameter variation could easily be below the
threshold of ordinary web measurements and controls
Roisum, David R. The Secrets of a Level Process and Product. Various venues, 2001.
80.33

Corrugation Description
A.K.A. Ropes, Chain Marks, Tin Can
Narrow annular band, wrinkles at an angle
Caused by Winding
A caliper-varying product
Tight, especially with nip

80.34

Corrugation Mechanics
Web
Gage
Profile

Wound
Roll
Diamet er
Profile

Out er layers in wound


roll shear and collapse
int o hollow
Large diameter
slowed down by nip
against roller

Small diameter
sped up by nip
against roller
80.35

Ridges (and Valleys)


You dont need a lab test or scanner to
know this web has gage variation issues

80.36

Buckles and Stars - Mechanics


What
Known as buckles, stars, wagon wheel
and spokes
Seen as wavy layers and/or spokes on
the end(s) of a roll
Caused by layers buckling due to MD
compression like earthquake faults

Observe
Symmetry of (angle between) points
Symmetric natural
Asymmetric unnatural often a blow
or squeeze due to handling

Symmetry of one end versus other


Symmetric symmetric gage
Asymmetric starred end is the low
gage side
80.37

Poor Roll Structure


OD tighter than ID
Tight over loose but

Collapse over unsupported


layers
Roll offset/dish/telescope
Core inset
Core collapse

Gage Variation
Intentional
Coating short of edges

Unintentional

Rough handling

Tightness

Buckle and Stars - Types

Core
Outside
Current Roll Diameter

Air Buckles

Wound-in entrained air escapes


Smooth low gage materials
High speed
1 hr to 1 day

Asymmetric pattern
Blow
Squeeze
80.38

Paro Roll (Hardness) Tester


Instrumented version of a billy club

80.39

(Overall) Roll Density


Measure Wound Roll Density

80.40

Winding Books
Roll and Web Defect Terminology by Duane
Smith 1995, 2007
Winding Machines, Mechanics and
Measurements Dr Keith Good and Dr David
Roisum 2007
Winding by Ken Frye 1990
The Mechanics of Winding by David Roisum
1994
Winders the Complete Guide by Jan Gronewold
1998.
Anthology of Winding by Jan Gronewold 2000
TAPPI PRESS, tappi.org, (770) 446-1400

80.41

Questions?

Answers:
David Roisum, Ph.D.
http://www.webhandlingblog.com/
http://www.roisum.com
drroisum@aol.com

920-725-7671 office
920-312-8466 cell

80.42