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Air Pollution

ATMOSPHERE

Troposphere: First Layer


Stratosphere: Ozone ?
Temperature Profile ?
Greenhouse effect ?

Air : Composition (by volume)

Air & Its Pollution

A person needs
1.4 kg of water
0.7 kg of food
14 kg of air ( How many liters ????)

Feel Discomforts; Exhaust Fumes, etc., ;


Air Pollution
Presence of certain substances in air in
high concentrations and for long duration
to cause undesirable effects.

Air Pollution and Public Opinion

Not a new phenomena: Smoke from Burning of Coal


Problems in many urban areas in late 1800s and early
1900 due to coal use
1000s of deaths attributed to air pollution episodes in
London
large number of pollution sources
restricted air volume
failure to recognize problem
Photochemical smog: CO + NOx+ HC + Light
Bhopal Gas Tragedy

Air Pollution

Combustion
Fuel (H, C, S, N, Pb, ash) + Air
(N2 + O2) ------ CO2, CO, NOx,
SOx, Pb, Particulate matter PM
(Primary Pollutants)
Primary Pollutants + Air
components (moisture etc) ------Secondary Pollutants (Acid Rain,
Smog)
Criteria pollutants are: Carbon
monoxide (CO), particulate
matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SOx),
nitrogen oxides (NOx), lead (Pb),
and ozone (O3)

Common pollutants detrimental to human welfare

TYPES AND SOURCES OF AIR


POLLUTANTS

Stationary

Mobile: On-road sources

Mobile: Non-road sources

LINE SOURCES & AREA SOURCES ?????

Line & Area Sources

Transport
PM10
10%

Sox
1%

VOC
17%

CO
36%

Nox
21%

Pb
15%

Sox
CO
Pb
Nox
VOC
PM10

Fuel Combustion
PM10
23%

Sox
43%

VOC
1%

Nox
25%

Pb
5%

CO
3%

Sox
CO
Pb
Nox
VOC
PM10

Industrial
Sox
8%
PM10
28%

CO
Pb 6%
4%
Nox
3%

Sox
CO
Pb
Nox
VOC
PM10

Air Pollution Standards


Concentration in ambient air
Pollutants

Time-weighted
average

Industrial
Areas

Residential,
Rural &
other Areas

Sensitive
Areas

Method of measurement

SO2

Annual Average*

80 g/m3

60 g/m3

15 g/m3

- Improved West and Geake Method Ultraviolet Fluorescence

24 hours**

120 g/m3

80 g/m3

30 g/m3

Annual Average*

80 g/m3

60 g/m3

15 g/m3

- Jacob & Hochheiser Modified (NaArsenite) Method

24 hours**

120 g/m3

80 g/m3

30 g/m3

- Gas Phase Chemiluminescence

Annual Average*

360 g/m3

140 g/m3

70 g/m3

- High Volume Sampling, (Average flow rate


not less than 1.1 m3/minute).

24 hours**

500 g/m3

200 g/m3

100 g/m3

Annual Average*

120 g/m3

60 g/m3

50 g/m3

24 hours**

150 g/m3

100 g/m3

75 g/m3

Annual Average*

1.0 g/m3

0.75 g/m3

0.50 g/m3

- AAS Method after sampling using EPM


2000 or equivalent Filter paper

24 hours**

1.5 g/m3

1.00 g/m3

0.75 g/m3

Annual Average*

0.1 mg/ m3

0.1 mg/ m3

0.1 mg/m3

24 hours**

0.4 mg/ m3

0.4 mg/m3

0.4 mg/m3

8 hours**

5.0 mg/m3

2.0 mg/m3

1.0 mg/ m3

- Non Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR)

1 hour

10.0 mg/m3

4.0 mg/m3

2.0 mg/m3

Spectroscopy

(NO2)

SPM

RSPM

Lead (Pb)

Ammonia

CO

- Respirable particulate matter sampler

Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform
interval.

**

24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed
but not on two consecutive

Stack Emission Standards


Indian emission standards

World Bank
guidelines

Parameters

Capacity

Standards

Standards (mg/m3)

Particulate matter

200/210 MW and above

150 mg/Nm3

50, if it is not
achievable, 99.9%
removal efficiency for
all the plants.

Sulphur dioxide

200 MW and less than


500 MW

220 m stack height

2000, Max. level 0.2


TPD per MW upto 500
MW plus; 0.1 TPD per
MW for each
additional MW over
500 MW

500 MW and above

275 m stack height

But nor more than 500


TPD for any plant

750mg/m3 (365 PPM)


(coal)

Oxides of nitrogen

PPM ?????

Converting ppm to g /m3

ppm (by volume) = 1 volume of gaseous pollutant/106 volume of air

g (gas)/m3 (air) = ppm x10-6 x mol. Wt (g/mol)/22.4 (L/mol)

= ppm x 10-6 x g mol. Wt/ 22.4 L

= ppm x10-6 x mol wt x 109/22.4 (g/m3) at 0oC & 1 atm

= ppm x mol wt x 103/22.4 (g/m3) at 0oC & 1 atm

g (gas)/m3 (air) = ppm x mol wt x 1000/22.4 x (273.15 K/Temp K) x P atm/1 atm

Converting g /m3 to ppm


x g /m3= x* 10-6 g/m3

Convert g into m3
x*10-6 g= 22.4 {liter}/mol. wt. {g} * x*10-6 {g}*10-3 {m3/liter}

ppm = 22.4 {liter}/mol. wt. {g} * x*10-6 {g}*10-3 {m3/liter} /10-6


m3

ppm = x * 22.4/ mol. wt. *10-3

ppm = x * 22.4/ mol. wt. *10-3 * Temp K/273.15 * 1 atm/P (atm)

g (gas)/m3 (air) = ppm x mol wt x 1000/22.4 x (273.15 K/Temp


K) x P atm/1 atm

Particulate Matter

Solid or liquid particles with sizes from 0.005


100 m
General term is aerosols
Dust originates from grinding or crushing
Fumes are solid particles formed when vapors
condense
Smoke describes particles released in
combustion processes
Smog used to describe air pollution particles

Sources of Particulate Matter


PM10
Misc
0%
Transport
22%
Industrial
32%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Fuel Combustion
46%

Health Effects of Particulate


Matter

Impact depends on particle size, shape and


composition
Large particles trapped in nose
Particles >10 m removed in tracheobronchial
system
Particles <0.5 m reach lungs but are exhaled
with air
Particles 2 4 m most effectively deposited in
lungs

Particulate Matter: Health


Effects

Inhalable PM includes both fine and coarse particles.


Coarse particles
aggravation of respiratory conditions, such as asthma.

Fine particles
increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits
for heart and lung disease
increased respiratory symptoms and disease
decreased lung function
premature death

Particulate Matter:
Environmental Effects

Decreased visibility
Damage to paints and
building materials

"The deposition of SPM


on the shimmering white
marble of the Taj Mahal
imparts yellow tinge to
the marble surface

Jaipur House SPM - 440


microgram/m3
http://www.epa.gov/oar/vis/bryce.html

Standard & Case Study

SPM Standard is 200 microgram/m3 (24 h avg)


RSPM or PM10 is 100 microgram/m3 (24 h avg)
The highest SPM level of 4,772 microgram/m3 was recorded
at Meera Bagh while the lowest of 1,068 microgram/m3 at
Defence Colony.
The highest RSPM level was 2,292 microgram per cubic
meter at Meera Bagh and minimum was 586 in Rajpur Road,
near the Delhi University.
Police claimed to have fined around 500 people for bursting
crackers after 10:00 IST. The maximum punishment is
imprisonment up to five years and fine up to Rs 100,000.

Carbon Monoxide

Most abundant air pollutant


Produced by incomplete
combustion
insufficient O2
low temperature
short residence time
poor mixing
Major source (~ 77%) is
motor vehicle exhaust
http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd97/brochure/co.html

Carbon Monoxide
Misc
10%
Industrial
7%

Fuel Combustion
6%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Figure: Sources of CO
Transport
77%

Carbon Monoxide

Colorless and odorless


When inhaled, binds to haemoglobin in blood to form
carboxyhaemoglobin, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity
brain function reduced, heart rate increased at lower levels
asphyxiation occurs at higher levels

% COHb = (1- e-t) (CO)

% COHb = Carboxyhemoglobin as % saturation


CO = Carbonmonoxide conc. in ppm
= 0.402 h-1
= 0.15 %/ ppm CO
t = exposure time in hours

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide

Typical Levels
busy roadways: 5 50 ppm
congested highways: up to 100 ppm

Vehicle emission rates:

Model year

Precontrol (before 1968)


1996-2003
2004-2006

Hydrocarbons
(grams/km)
6.59
0.155
0.0777

Carbon
monoxide
(grams/km)
52.2
2.11
1.06

Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

SO2, SO3, SO42formed during


combustion of fuel
containing sulfur
H2S released is
converted to SO2
10 Tg/yr natural
sources
75 Tg/yr
anthropogenic sources

SOx

Transport
3%

Misc
0%

Industrial
9%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Fuel Combustion
88%

Figure: Sources of SOx

Sulfur Dioxide: Health Effects

High concentrations of SO2 can result in temporary


breathing impairment.
Longer-term exposures to high concentrations of SO2,
in conjunction with high levels of PM, include
respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs' defenses,
and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease
Short-term exposures of asthmatic individuals to
elevated SO2 levels may result in reduced lung
function.
Standards ??

Sulfur Dioxide: Environmental


Effects

Acid Rain

Decreased Visibility

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

Primarily NO and NO2


NO3, N2O, N2O3, N2O4,
N2O5 are also known to
occur
Thermal NOx created by
oxidation of atmospheric
N2 when T > 1000 K
Fuel NOx from
oxidation of N in fuel

NOx
Misc
1%

Transport
45%

Industrial
4%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport
Fuel Combustion
50%

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

NO has few health effects, but is oxidized to


NO2
NO2 irritates lungs and promotes respiratory
infections
NO2 reacts with hydrocarbons in presence of
sunlight to produce smog
NO2 reacts with hydroxyl radicals to produce
nitric acid acid precipitation

Lead

Sources:
gasoline (historical)
metals processing

Highest air Pb
concentrations
in the vicinity of
nonferrous and
ferrous smelters, and
battery manufacturers.

Pb
Misc
0%

Industrial
33%

Misc
Industrial
Fuel Combustion
Transport

Transport
57%

Fuel Combustion
10%

Lead emission sources 1970 & 1997

Lead: Health Effects

Accumulates in the blood,


bones, and soft tissues.
Adversely affects the kidneys,
liver, nervous system, and
other organs.
Excessive exposure to Pb may
cause neurological impairments,
such as seizures, mental
retardation, and behavioral
disorders.
May be a factor in high blood
pressure and subsequent heart
disease.

Indian coal with calorific value 24 kJ/g is burned at a rate of 1.00 kg per
second. If the analysis of coal reveals a sulphur content of 1.00 %. What is
the rate of emission of SO2 in Tpd/MW. Assume 3 units of heat energy
delivers 1 unit of electrical energy.
The sulphur in the ash is assumed as 5 %.

How much Electrical Energy is produced?


1 kW = 1 kJ/s
Heat Input to the Plant = 24 kJ/g x 1000 g/s = 24000 kJ/s
Electricity Produced = 8000 kW or 8 MW
Sulphur burnt = 1.00 x 1/100 = 0.01 kg/s
Sulphur Emission = 0.01 x 0.95 = 0.0095kg/s
S + O2 = SO2
SO2 Emissions = 0.0095 x 64/32 = 0.019 kg/s or 1.64 TPD/8
MW = 0.2 TPD/MW

Photochemical Smog
hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight
photochemical smog (oxidants)

Photochemical
oxidants
produced:
ozone (O3)
formaldehyde
peroxyacetyl
nitrate (PAN)

Ozone
The NO-NO2-O3 Photochemical Reaction Sequence
N2+O2 -----> 2NO
2NO+O2 -----> 2NO2
NO2+hv -----> NO+O
O2+O +M -----> O3 + M
Where M represents usually a molecule (usually O2 or N2) whose
presence is necessary to absorb excess energy from the reaction
Without M, the ozone would have too much energy to be stable, and it
would dissociate back to O and O2
O3+NO -----> NO2

Notice the general tendency forNO2 to create O3 while NO


tends to destroy O3. These sets of reactions creates a cycle

Ozone

Photochemical Smog

Ozone: Health Effects

Increased incidents of respiratory distress.


Repeated exposures to ozone:
Increased susceptibility to respiratory infection
Lung inflammation
Aggravation of pre-existing respiratory diseases
such as asthma.
Decreases in lung function and increased
respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and
cough.

Ozone: Environmental Effects

Ozone also affects vegetation


and ecosystems
reductions in agricultural and
commercial forest yields ($0.5
billion/yr in US alone)
reduced growth and
survivability of tree seedlings
increased plant susceptibility to
disease, pests, and other
environmental stresses (e.g.,
harsh weather).

Ozone Revised Standards

In 1997, the 1-hour ozone standard of 0.12


parts per million (ppm) was replaced with a
new 8-hour 0.08 ppm standard.
Areas that do not meet the new 8-hour
standard was not be designated
"nonattainment" 2000 this year.

Air Pollution Control


Mobile Emissions
Stationary Emissions

Emission Control of Internal


Combustion Engines

Three
Way
Catalytic
Converter

Three-Way Catalytic Converter


A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks:
1. Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx xO2 + N2
2. Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2

3. Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2


+ 2xO2 xCO2 + 2xH2O

Cleaner/Alternative Fuel

Vaporization of Gasoline should be reduced.


Oxygen containing additives reduce air requirement.
Eg., ethanol, MTBE (Hazardous).
Methanol: (Less photochemically reactive VOC, but emits
HCHO (eye irritant), difficult to start in winters: Can be
overcome by M85 (85 % methanol, 15 % gasoline)
Ethanol: GASOHOL(10 % ethanol & 90% Gasoline),
CNG: Low HC, NOx high, Inconvenient refueling, leakage
hazard.
LPG: Propane, NOx high

Landmark Datelines to Capital Clean

April 1995: Mandatory fitting of catalytic convertors.


April 1996: Low sulphur diesel introduced.
April 1998: Introduction of CNG buses in Delhi.
Sept 1998: Complete removal of lead in petrol.
Dec 1998: Restrict plying of goods vehicles during the day.
Sept 1999: Amendment of Motor Vehicles Act to include
CNG.
April 2000: Private vehicles to be registered only if they
conform to Euro II standards.
April 2000: Eight-year-old commercial vehicles phased out.
Nov 2002: Conversion of all public transport buses to CNG.

Air Pollution Control Stationary


Sources

Pre-combustion Control
Switching to Less Sulphur and less N Fuel

Combustion Control

Improving the combustion process


New burners to reduce NOx
New Fluidized bed boilers
Integrated Gasification combined cycle*
Steam

Coal + Water Slurry

Post-Combustion Control
Particulate collection devices
Flue gas desulphurization

CO + H2

Clean & Burnt

Diagram of a typical coal-fired thermal power station

1. Cooling tower

10. Steam governor valve

19. Superheater

2. Cooling water pump

11. High pressure turbine

20. Forced draught fan

3. Transmission line (3-phase)

12. Deaerator

21. Reheater

4. Unit transformer (3-phase)

13. Feed heater

22. Air intake

5. Electric generator (3-phase)

14. Coal conveyor

23. Economizer

6. Low pressure turbine

15. Coal hopper

24. Air preheater

7. Boiler feed pump

16. Pulverized fuel mill

25. Precipitator

8. Condenser

17. Boiler drum

26. Induced draught fan

9. Intermediate pressure
turbine

18. Ash hopper

27. Chimney Stack

Schematic diagram of a fluidized-bed


combustion boiler

SO2+CaCO3 CaSO4+CO2

Control of Particulate Matter

Device Selection Depends on

Particle Size
Concentration
Corrosivity
Volumetric Flowrate
Required Collection Efficiency
Cost

Particulate Matter (Settling)

Stokes Law
Gravitational forces are balanced by drag and
buoyancy forces.
This will lead to stokes law - settling velocity of
particles.

mp g = p
Fd

d g

= 3 d v

When Fd = Fg the settling velocity is


given: as follows.

p
vt = g d
18
2

Where
g gravity acceleration 9.8 m/s2
d particle diameter (m)
rp particle density (g/m3)= 2 x 106 g/m3
- air viscosity = 0.0172 g/m.s

Vt (1 micrometer) = 0.006 cm/s

For a particle moving at high speed Vc in a circle, the centrifugal


acceleration is given by Vc*Vc/r. The centrifugal force is similar to the
gravity forces

v c2
Fc = m
r

Vc

Fg = mg

v c2
g
r
But Fc >> Fg
The equivalent settling velocity of the
centrifugal forces is taken from Stokes
Law and is given by the following
Equation:

vc
w=
r

v c2 2 p
vt
d
r
18

Example
For a particle of 1 m moving in a 0.3 diameter circle at 18.3
m/s:

vt

18.3 m/s
=

0.15 m

10

-6

= 1.8 10

-5

2000 kg/m 3
18

kg
m s

vt = 0.0136 cm/s
While Vt stokes is only 0.006 cm/s!!!

Cyclone

For PM > 5 micron


Efficiency > 90%
Maintenance Free
Inexpensive

Arrangement
Series

Parallel/
Battery

Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)

Wires are charged with high negative voltage. 100 KV


PM negatively charged & move towards grounded collector plates

ESP

Removal>98%, All size


Little pressure drop, low O&M cost, but
expensive
Occupy large space
Plate Area Requirement depends on Efficiency
required

Efficiency = 1-e-wA/Q
A is total area of collection plate
Q Volumetric flowrate of the gas
W is drift velocity

Fabric Filters

Eff 100 % Particles


>0.01-1 micron
Cannot operate in moist
environment
Large & Expensive
Competitive with ESP

Sulfur Dioxide Control