You are on page 1of 31

1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 SCOPE AND NATURE OF RESEARCH


Human Resource department used HRIS from many years, but with the development and
new technologies it is used by HR department more strategically. The content of jobs and
the responsibilities of HR manager have been changed from last few years, with the
increase in functional and strategic pressure (Armstrong, 1984, 1994; Kinnie and Arthurs,
1996; Ball, 2000; Mabey et al., 2000). Change in structure of organization taking place
due to growing Economic pressure. The myth and sayings about Hr job role was the job
that no had expertise in and nobody wanted to do. In organization senior managers used
HR managers to smoothen the changes in organization, by leaving them free to do
strategic work to gain competitive advantage. With these changes it is seen that theres
gained status for the role of HR manager (Personnel Management, 1993: p69). HR
activities add the value and uniqueness in every organizational activity. This value added
can be easily evaluated by organization. These activities not only slimming-down the HR
functions but also fundamentally change the job role of HR specialists. So the new role of
HR managers in organization contributes in strategic development of business (Personnel
Management, 1993). The use of information technology for analytical decision support
activities has been confirmed in UK based research work (Kinnie and Arthurs, 1992;
Ball, 2000). But other evidence argues that to match the changing need of HR managers
in organization strategic support are offered at different level by developing HRIS at
different level In contrast, other evidence argues that HRIS developments closely to
match the changing need of HR (Softworld Report, 1996,1997; Robinson, 1999).
Increase in adoption of HRIS in organization befitted for both HR department and HR
managers and emphasis on the change in job role of HR manager. The HR managers
adopt HRIS in increasing pace to achieve improved performance and by remove

traditional system of routine administration and become professional consultants for rest
of organization (Softworld Report, 1996, 1997). It helps HR professional to provide
quality information to top management and support in decision making activities
(Softworld Report, 1996, 1997:p16). This leads to emerge in new role of HR i.e.
Consultancy. Edward (cited in Softworld Report, 1996) stated that HRIS helps to
facilitate strategic as well as lower level working in organization such as designing
employees reward system. Information system used at different levels of organizational
hierarchy and information varies at all the levels. For example the information required
by top management and board of directors are executive reports and summaries and
manager required day to day management information at departmental level and HRIS
are categorized according to it (Liff, 1997; Laudon and Laudon, 2002). Edward (cited in
Softworld Report, 1996) gives more emphasis on the visible benefits of HRIS such as
faster responses by HR managers to organizational management, she believes:
By focusing on knowledge of market and their specialty in services HR managers can
improve both their own status and companys performance (Softworld, 1996:p23).
Both Rees and Edward (both cited in Softworld Report, 1996), stated that HRIS is a
means for HR managers to perform their job roles more effectively. Gallagher (1997)
argues that HRIS can be effective in four ways; firstly by increasing productivity of work
force, recruitment, temporary, short term working and redundancies, secondly, by dealing
with increasing demand of legislation related HR practices and to produce statistics for
government, thirdly by increase in rate of development of technology and finally by the
availability of HRIS at lower cost.The effective HRIS leads to efficiency (CIPD, 1999).In
this research it will investigate whether Human Resource Information System helps HR
manager to fulfill their job role more professionally.
The rapid emergence of the information technology (IT) sector has placed India on the
global stage during the last one and half decades. An increase in the free flow of
information and ideas has brought knowledge and its applications to the global front. The
sector has acted as a catalyst for growth across the Indian economy, including in areas
such as real estate, automobiles, travel and tourism, railway and mortgage banking
industries. It is contributing to better governance and efficiency, and helping in changing

the image of India abroad .With the development of Information technology during the
last two decades has increased the implementation and use of electronic human resource
management (e- HRM) (Strohmeier ,2007). According to various surveys it is evidenced
that organization adopts HRIS in large number and their application increasing
continually (Cedar Crestone, 2005).
There has various changes seen in Human Resource (HR) function of organizations, in
respond to the changing social and organizational environment and rapidly evolving
information technologies. These organizational and technological changes exert pressure
on HR manager to adopt these changes and provide high quality of services by
developing HRIS (Pfeffer, 1997).Information technologies (IT), helps HR managers to
integrate HR activities with Information system and assist HR professional for delivery of
services, and increases the quality of services and expectations of stake holders.Snell,
Stueber and lepak (2002) by using information technology HR can meet the challenges
and simultaneously become more strategic, cost-efficient, and flexible and customer
oriented. They identified that it has the potential to reduced administrative costs, increase
in productivity, increase response times, improve decision-making and enhance customer
service all at the same time. For cost reduction, higher quality service and cultural
changes are the driven forces for organization to adopt information technology driven HR
solution (Yeung&Brockbank 1995). More and more companies use an HRIS, to actively
support both their HR management and their business management (Shrivastava and
Shaw, 2004; Hussain et al., 2006; lepak et al., 2007). An HRIS is defined as the system
used by organization to acquire data and to store it, manipulate it, analyze it, retrieve and
distribute pertinent information of organizations human resources. [Tannenbaum,
1990].

1.2 Purpose of the study:


The aim of study is to find out the impact of Human resource information system (HRIS)
on HR managers present and future roles and in decision making activities of
organization. It will investigate at what extent HRIS enables HR managers to enhance
their job roles professionally.

1.3 Significance of the study:


Human Resource is an important asset for any organization. Integrating HR with
information system helps organization to perform HR activities strategically and HRIS
helps HR manager to enhance their job role more professionally. So it helps to strategic
use of HR function for organization decision making activities.

1.4 Objective of the study:

To explore the role of Human Resource managers and their use of IS in fulfilling

these roles.
To focus on contribution of IS in developing professional status.
To what extent is IS assisting HR manager to deal with emerging roles.

1.5 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES:

As per Strategic theoretical perspectives reviewed by Wright and McMahan


(1992), implementing an HRIS may be a strategic reaction to, or an attempt to
simulate, environmental forces that can or do affect the firm (Porter,1980,1985)

According to resource- based view of the firm, an HRIS may be a strategic ,


value-adding,

rare,

imperfectly

imitable,

non-substitutable

resource

(Barney,1991),one that provides a competitive advantage(Broderick and


Boudreau,1992)

As per behavioral perspective, an HRIS may serve to elicit and control employee
attitudes and behaviors domestically (Jackson, Schuler and Rivero, 1989; Schuler,
1992; Schular and Jackson, 1987) and globally (Schuler et al, 1993).

In terms of a cybernetic system (Boulding, 1956; katz and kahn 1978; Thompson,
1967), and from a control theory perspective (Snell, 1992), an HRIS may be
thought of as the tool to control inputs (people and their training), throughputs
(behavior- based component of performance and reward systems) outputs (outputbased components of performance and reward systems).

Agency theory (Jensen and Meckling, 1976) suggest that an HIRS could be an
effective monitoring device to minimizes the agency costs attributable to agents
(managers acting on behalf of owners) hiding their actions or hiding information.

TRADITIONAL VIEW OF HRIS


In an organization HRIS is designed to provide information required for effective
management of the organization such as for decision making activities of HR. Human
resource departments holds all the data and information aboutthe employees of the
organization which includes personal details, education qualification, performance
related, salary of employees etc. Most commonly HRIS is used in organization to manage
employment relationships of the organization and employees. Earlier organizations used
HRIS for tracking data on paper and spreadsheets which take a lot of time to manage data
properly. Mainly HRIS Records employees information, their wage and salary data,
review dates, incentives and benefits, education and training, attendance, performance
data,/ appraisal results etc.

MORDEN VIEWS HRIS


Various management thinkers stated that its not only technology solely, but the art of
human and human- management. That is seen as continuous challenge for executives in
the 21st century. (Drucker,dyson, Handy, saffo,&Senge 1997). Similarly, Smith and
kelly1997 believe that strategic advantage and economic development of organization
that will effectively attract, retain and develop the human talent of market. To gain
competitive advantage in market place it is required to be available with accurate
information and at correct time in potential labor market place. The information

requirement has been greatly enhanced with the development of IT and its integration
with HR. By HRIS, it becomes easier for organization to keep record of data and
allowing it to manipulate for different organizational activities. HRIS is a system which is
designed to control, monitor and evaluate the different HR activities and influence the
employees movements from their joining period till to the time they leave the
organization. HRIS helps to reduce manual work of HR and enhance their job role in
more professional way. It also helps to abandon paper work by making it available all
information in computerized system.

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Human Resource Information System (HRIS):
Rapid changes in technology and Information system in last few years have a great
influence on organization system (Avison and Shah, 1997; Chaffey, 2003). In most of the
organization information system is used as a system to increase efficiency of
organization. This is consistent with the writings of IS writers like Edwards et al (1995),
Elliott and Starkings (1998), Renkema (2000), and, Laudon and Laudon (2002) in most
of the organization HRIS is widely used by employees and department as an information
system and they are heavily reliant on them. With the use of information system one can
easily increase the effectiveness, efficiency and integration of organization. Most
commonly Information system used by organization is to carry day to day business
operations, Management of organization and for strategic objectives, such as long term
objectives and goals. With the implementation of information system in organization it
has become easier to make strategic use of them, as mentioned by Tyson and Fell.
In organization various types of Information system are used such as:

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): It is used for day-to-day activities,


transactions and functions at different operational level. These systems help to make
Operational Decisions such as stock control.

Management Information Systems (MIS): MIS are used for the financial
operations of the organization as well as graphical models to provide a visual illustration
of the information. These systems help to make Management Decisions related to finance
such as comparisons of data or budget data.

Strategic Information Systems (SIS): It provides information to senior executive


managers on strategic areas of a business organizations activities, to aid strategic

decision-making (Lucey, 1997:p232). These systems help to take Strategic Decisions


that involve decisions based on ill-defined problem.
HRIS is an information system that can be used to accomplish all types of tasks at
different levels of organization (Chaffey et al., 2003). It is observed that organization is
categories in three levels: strategic, middle and operational level and hence three types of
information systems are used at different levels. As HRIS becomes more advanced in
functionality so it is more used at strategic level but in early days it was used at
operational level. Due to advance in technology IS used for strategic level work (Laudon
and Laudon, 2002; Lucey, 1997; Avison and Shah, 1997, Chaffey et al., 2003, Robson,
1997). HRIS are used at different levels of the organization to help HR managers to
accomplish different tasks at different level hence HRIS impacts on the role of a HR
manager is likely to be a major one. According to Laudon and Laudon (2002) HRIS are
used at three levels of organization to offer a comprehensive set of functionality, such as
training, career path and compensation analysis.

EIS
MIS
TPS

Figure 2.1: Different level of IS use

In recent year the requirement of HR changes with the introduction of HRIS (Gallagher,
1986:p89; Softworld, 1996, 1997). In market wide range of HRIS are available. Some of
the vendors offer fully developed HRIS while some of the vendors also offer partially
developed system. Fully developed HRIS are available with number of modules from
strategic to operational. Usually when we use the term HRIS, we indicate a fully
developed HRIS. Softworld (1997:p4) identified a general rise in the use of HRIS.
Norman and Edwards (cited in Softworld, 1997) highlight that these modules are
developed in system according to their popularity and demand by HR department. There
is an effort to influence line management to increase their use of HRIS. Management

Today (1993:p23) found line management held an adverse suggestion about HRIS and

Personal record and report


generation.
Disciplinary Control

Holiday Management
Time and Attendance
Shift schedule Management
Selection
Company Car Management
Performance Assessment
Recruitment Management

Payroll
Organizational charting
Testing of skills and
aptitudes
Personnel Development
Needs Assessment
Job Evaluation
Data Interface

Grievance Procedure
Nationalities & Permit
Processing
Absence Monitoring

Flexible Benefits
Buildings Management
Self-Assessment
Success Planning
Test Development &
Evaluation
Job analysis
Health and Safety
Records
Training Management
Expenses
Redeployment

that this needed to adopt if professionals were to develop their status. Softworld (1996/7)
has carried out a survey of people other than the HR managers who use HRIS. The
evidence identified the majority of users were the HR/Personnel departments staff
Table2.1: HRIS Functions

(87.9%) followed by the departments directors (56.9%) and training managers (54.3%).
Potential future users were identified as line managers (66.4%), and HR/Personnel
directors (38.8%). The significant growth of use by line managers (up 48.3%) (Softworld
1997:p33). This increased use of IS could empower HR professionals.

2.2 Human Resource Management (HRM):


It is significant to focus on the traditional roles of HR managers as well as the new
emergent changes to their roles, such as HR consultancy, developing HR plans and
strategy and integrating them to organizational level strategy. HRIS have been adopted by
various HR managers in organization so that they can perform all level of work both from
routine to strategic level. But do HRIS allow HR managers to accomplish their roles
more professionally generally and gain better status in organization? The HR professions
has been changing constantly and brings the wider changes to the organizations, to the
nature of the work, professional recognition and even the use of IS depends on the
proposed changes in the job role. The perceived importance of HR profession by
organization has a great impact on the Human resource information system use by HR
managers. HR professionals are more varied than the traditional professionals. Another

10

issue that is seen is how Human Resource Professionals can gain power and status in the
organizations.Shipton and McAuley (1990, p12) and Grant et al (1998) explored that one
can enhance professional status by enhancing personnel function by positioning the roles
itself within an organization.

2.2.1 Types of HR Specialists/Managers


Guest and Horwood (1981: cited in Armstrong, 1984) according to occupational category
and organizational hierarchy in management five types of HR specialists are identified.
Cole (1997) argued, HR manager play a central role in their organizations despite of their
diverse job role. McKinlays linked this importance of role with notion of central wise
man. In an organization the purpose of the role of HR manager is to achieve
organizational objective with their role (Armstrong, 1984). (Hussain, 2002) discussed
about three broad roles of HR mangers i.e. advisory, service and functional.

2.3 New emerging role of HR specialist: HR consultancy


This argument is concerned aboutstudying emerging strategic roles of HR specialists,
where HR managers act like internal/external consultants and provide services at strategic
levels for organizational planning and strategy (Hussain, 2002). HR professionals,
especially, those who occupy higher positions in top management are becoming more
alike internal/external organizational HR consultants. The term consultant is
takengenerally as management, organizational and HR consultantancy. Since HR
consultant is a management/organizational consultant (Armstrong, 1994). Different
writers have written about the different roles of a consultant (Schein, 1987; Clark, 1995;
Nees and Greiner, 1987) by conveyingspecific image and roles of consultants. The type
of consultant is usually described by (Clark, 1995), for example doctor-patient type of
consultant (Schein, 1987). In essence some of the characteristics of the roles of a
consultant are to: provide the information that is generally difficult to acquire; explore
information that is not known to the client; investigate complex organizational problems;
train clients to use diagnostics models that he/she may have developed. There are
different roles of consultant but the main purpose of consultant in organization are to
motivate employees, to understand , have knowledge related to task, good communicator,

11

explorative, be neutral, empathetic and envisioned (Markham,1998). A good consultant


should be cooperative, effective, determined, enthusiastic, creative, and honest and have
good leadership skills so that it is easier to him to work with team (Cole, 1997). Schein
(1987) believes that a number of consultants will mainly take on specific roles more than
other roles depending on their nature or on the basis of consultancy assignment. He
provides different types of consultants, as shown in table 2 below. Each type of
consultant places importance on certain roles than the others, offering different types of
service in different organizations, and, may use all the roles provide in Table 2. Block
(1991) also notes that the main goals of a consultant are to create a mutual relationship,
solve problems so they stay solved and make sure attention is given to both the
technical/business problems and the relationships. He sees the roles of a consultant as a
specialist, extra pair-of-hands and partner. He believes that developing client commitment
is an important aspect of consulting act. Therefore when comparing the various roles and
responsibilities of HR professional to a consultant it is obvious that in different situation a
HR professionals role may conform to Scheins (1987) expert, doctor/patient and the
process consultant roles. They may offer several types of services using different types of
styles of consulting within their organization. In that respect they can be referred to as
consultants. HR professionals are consultants when required by an (their) organization to
provide manager consultation on various HR and even organizational issues. Armstrong
(1994) believed that the main areas of HR consultancy are: general HR advice, HR
problems, systems development (such as new policies and procedures), process
consulting (work set-ups), training, recruitment and selection and benchmarking the
performance or practice. Having experience of wider range of HR and organizational
issues improves the expertise of HR professionals to develop as more effective role in
consultancy than those offering very specialized services. Finally, the process followed
by a typical consultant in his/her work is different to that followed by a HR professional.
A consultant has to gain an entry and then follow a well-defined process (protocol that
they are used to) in establishing what needs to be done, although the final output may be
similar from both. There are two issues. Firstly, the structured consultancy procedure
should not be a determining factor in deciding whether a HR professional is a consultant
or not. Secondly, the lengthy process adopted by external consultants only exists to

12

compensate for the lack of knowledge and relationship with the client. Organizations
have recently begun to realize the potential of using HR professionals for consultancy
assignments, as Armstrong (1994: p.viii) stated: It is worth noting that the structural
changes in organizations have led to changes in the roles of HR specialists, many of
whom are becoming internal consultants. We believe that two main reasons for engaging
HR consultants in HR/organizational consultancy are to innovate new systems and
procedures, and solve organizational/professional problems. Finally, in providing good
consultancy and advice it is important for HR manager to have up-to-date and accurate
information. HRIS can make this possible for them.

2.4 New emerging role of HR specialist: Strategy and planning


For achieving a better competitive advantage Organizations have begun to realize the
importance of HRM (Greer 1995:p130-2; Husleid, 1995; Hussain, 2002). This
appreciation along with greater pressure to control costs, increased environmental
uncertainty and increased governmental labor initiative have emerging the strategic role
of HRM (Peters and Waterman, 1982) and the need to change organizational culture in
1990s to bring it in line with the new economic change (Johnson and Scholes, 1993;
Miles and Snow, 1986; Pettigrew and Whipp, 1991). Greer (1995) stated that HRM refers
to the application of HR to meet organizations objective in an effective way and fulfill
the strategic requirements. So it involves: ... implementing the strategy of business in
most effective way by involving everyone from the top of the organizational hierarchy to
the bottom so that can achieve success in business p13. Schuler and Jackson (1987)
suggest that HRM is primarily about addition and variation. Its concern is to ensure that:
(i) HRM is fully integrated with the strategy and the strategic needs of the organization;
(ii) HR policies are coherent both across policy areas and across hierarchies; and, (iii) HR
practices and policies are adjusted, accepted, and applied by line managers and
employees as part of their routine work. Various other authors expressed same views in
this area (Wright and McMahan, 1992:p116; Mabey et al, 2000:p16; Hales, 1994:p51).
Although there are a vary of models to show the importance of HR managers as
professionals (discussed further in Hussain, 2002), the researchers have suggest two for
further analysis - (1) McKinseys 7Ss model and (2) Wright and McMahans strategic

13

model, in that they describe about integrative features of HRM. Firstly, McKinsey
discussed about strategic approach of HRM in which he mentioned about seven
interrelated features. These features are jointly considered and interrelated to each other
for better integration of organizational strategy and HR practices. These features are
interlinked and HRM department needs to focus on these for better efficiency, flexibility,
quality and control in the strategic aspects of HRM in organization. Secondly, Wright and
McMahans (1992) framework that consists of theoretical influences adopting (1) the
resources-based view aims to explain how to achieve competitive advantage through
allocation of the organization resources, organizational culture, capabilities of employees
and achieving core competencies. For example, resources could be used to design a new
staff appraisal system in order to build their core competence. (2) The behavioral view is
based on contingency theories that aim to give details practices designed to control and
influence attitudes and behaviors. It shows the instrumentality of such practices in
achieving strategic objectives. (3) The cybernetics systems view aims to explain the
acceptance and rejection of practices resulting from feedback on contributions to strategy,
where existing ways of doing things such as training may be revamped to achieve the
objectives. (4) The agency/ transaction costs view aims to explain why organizational use
control mechanisms, such as performance evaluation and reward systems. In the absence
of performance review systems linked to reward systems, strategies may be difficult to
pursue. (5) The resource dependence and power theories view aims to explain practices
that are followed due to changes in the political atmosphere such as legislation,
unionization, and control of resources and expectations of social responsibility. (6)
Finally, the institutional theory view aims to explain that practices, because of informal
reasons and inertia rather than being planned systematically. Thirdly, according to Mabey
et al (2000) and Hendry and Pettigrew (1990) the idea of HRM has been around for some
time and it goes back to the writings of Drucker (1954) who realized that well-trained and
co-operative workforce was required for the well-being of the organization and its
economic development. HRM advocates a close, two-way relationship between
organizational strategy and HR practice through use of HRM strategy (Beaumont, 1992:
p40).

14

EXPERT CONSULTANT

Provision of expertise and information


Specific, clear task boundaries.
Client diagnosis is correct
Client accepts responsibility for consultant solution

DOCTOR/PATIENT

Examination of organizational human process

CONSULTANT

Task boundaries can be developed through diagnosis


Client has appropriate information for correct consultant
diagnosis
Consultant prescription given, based on diagnosis

PROCESS CONSULTANT

Learning and development for future organizational use


Wide task boundaries - agreed by client and consultant
Joint client/consultant diagnosis of problems
Joint client/consultant responsibility for outcomes

TABLE 2.2: SCHEINS CONSULTANCY ROLES

2.5 Professionalism vs. HR Specialism


As far as expertise of HR manager is concerned several HR practitioners have written on
this, for example, Armstrong (1984) stated professionalism: skill based on academic
knowledge, the provision of training and education, a test of competence of members
managed by a professional body; a formal professional organization which has the
authority to regulate entry to the profession; and a professional code of conduct p27.
Furthermore, several years ago CIPD (then IPD) claimed its associates were professional
because their organization providesexpert professional knowledge, advice,and support
for effective use of human resources (p2, CIPD Rules and Regulations Book). Both
Armstrongs (1984) and CIPDs definition of HR manager are consistent to the Inventory
model of professionalism that givesimportance to the knowledge, experience and
training. These are general requirements for a HR manager, as the chairman of British
Rail Sir Peter Parker in his applause for HR managers said that: Hes ardent advocate of
professionalism in personnel management (Personnel Management September,

15

1993:p20) There are various concepts of professionalism that could be used to assess the
role of HR managers for its professionalism and in seeing the importance of HRIS in
helping HR managers to maintain and improve their professional image (Hussain, 2002).
We have chosen trait and conflict theories for analysis, which are shown in table 3 below.
Overall professionalism is associated with having a great degree of intelligence that is
proved by relevant qualifications and training. Two writers provide views on the image of
professionals in society. Firstly McKinlay (1973) states: The degree of control they
exercise over their specialized and indeed knowledge...the level of public acceptance and
support of professionals. Secondly Johnson (1972) writes: professionals - the
technocrats, expert, organizational man, manager, have each in turn been seen as at
least populating the corridors of control p9. Professionalism is also associated with
specialty, proficiency, autonomy, expert and legality. Johnson (1972) views that
autonomy as important in achieving professionalism recognition and in distinguishing
professionals from non-professionals. Overall professionals have authority over nonprofessional occupations and ordinary members of the public. The development of HRIS
had a great impact on HR managers and they can utilize HRIS to work differently,
perhaps more efficiently. But at the same time organizational management and line
management are aware about that automation of HR functions can be attained. So HR
managers can continue to see an increase in their status or have they hit a fork in the
road? The use of HRIS increases the information base for HR managers and allows them
to perform their job roles more professionally. The strategic use of HRIS enables HR
manager to take informed decisions and conclusions. This would help them to increase
their personal recognition within their organizations.

16

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this section description about the methodology chosen out to fulfill the work .It plays
an important role for the successful completion of research work. For the successful
completion of research work it is necessary to properly select the methodology as
effectiveness of research is fully depends upon the correctness of the research
methodology.

3.1 Research Strategy:


A positivist approach involve structured questionnaire was used because of the large
number of responses necessary within a short time period. It consists of a various number
of organizations of Delhi-NCR. The questionnaires were definite and structured to get the
data about the role of HRIS.

3.2 Sources of Data Collection Methods:


Primary Data
Primary data was collect from survey method by distribute questionnaires to HR
professionals of the organization of delhi-ncr. The questionnaires were carefully designed
by taking into account the parameters of my study.
Secondary Data
Secondary data was collect from different web sites, handbooks of organization, articles
in news papers etc. These data was collected and recorded by someone else for the
purpose of other than those of our particular research study.

3.3 Data Collection


Questionnaire was used to ask a specific number of questions on HRIS, professionals,
HR specialists, and the specific roles of HR manager, topic that are linked to the research
aims and sub-research questions.

17

3.4 Research Design


Sampling technique:
Judgmental Sampling Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which
the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher. Target
population and
Sample:
In this survey, 100 questionnaires were sent out to HR managers and to other HR
professionals. The format of the questionnaire was chosen based on the research
objectives and the findings from the literature search. The questions mainly used multiple
choice typology that analyzed and linked back to the existing literature to test the
historical evolution of job roles, recognition of HRM managers status and the use of
HRIS to aid strategic decision making.
Sample Size
It includes the sample size of 100 employees of HR Department.
Framework to analysis
1. Questionnaire was printed out.
2. Explanation on how to fill the questionnaire was delivered through sessions to
the respondents.
3. Information on how to fill the questionnaire was also printed on the
questionnaire.
4. Questionnaires were distributed to the members of HR team.
5. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed.
6. Data retrieved from analysis of the questionnaires individually was fed into excel
to derive.

CHAPTER 4

18

DATA ANALYSIS
The questionnaire was distributed to the respondent whether they used HRIS or they are
intended use one in the future. The questionnaire generated with the number of questions
based on objective of research:

To explore the role of Human Resource managers and their use of IS in fulfilling

these roles.
To focus on contribution of IS in developing professional status.
To what extent is information system assisting HR manager to deal with emerging
roles.

4.1 Analysis of Data


1. What is your job role?
As questionnaire was circulated to different HR professionals in Delhi-NCR through
various social networking it is analyzed that most of them are HR Recruiters (about
60%), few of them are Hr Generalist, Hr analyst, Hr managers, training, Hr Head etc. As
response is on text based so data trend is not available for this.
2. What type of organization do you work for?

Organisation Type
25

15

Private
Small/ Medium
Large

60

Figure 4.1 Type of Organization

Factors
Private
Small/Medium

No. of respondents
15
60

% of Respondents
15%
60%

19

Large

25

25%

TABLE 4.1 Type of Organization

Interpretation:
It is analyzed that about 60% of respondents work in small/ medium firm, 15% of in
private firm while rest 25 % in large firm.
3. Do you view yourself as HR professional? Why?

View as Hr Professional
100
80

View as Hr Professional

60
40
20
0
Yes

No
FIGURE 4.2: View yourself as HR professional

FACTORS
Yes
No

No. of respondents
94
6
Table 4.2: View yourself as HR professional

Table4.3 Statistics for view yourself as HR Professional

% of respondents
94%
6%

20

Interpretation:
When it was asked whether they view themselves as a HR professional, Out of 100
respondents about 94% respond yes while other as no. Their reason was like that, some of
them answer that their job roles enables them to be a professional, while other said that
the experience and skills that they possessed with them is only reason of being
professional status in organization.
4. In which of the following categories do your work duties fall into?

Categories of work duty


50
40
Categories of work
duty

30
20
10
0
Advisory

Service

Functional

Figure 4.3 Categories of Work

Factors
Advisory
Service
Functional

No. of respondents
28
30
42
Table 4.4: Categories of Work

Table 4.5: Statistics of Categories of work

Interpretation:

% of respondents
28%
30%
42%

21

It is analyzed that most of the respondents job duties lies in Functional (42%) in which
communication and interpretation of HR policies, and involve with top management
activities, while about 30 % is of service and rest of 28% is in advisory role.
5. How has your work role changed over the years?

Role changed over the years


50
45
40
35

Role changed over the


years

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
It has not changed in anyway
Figure4.4: Role changed over years

Factors
No changed in anyway
Become more specialized
Become more general
Become more like an

No. of respondents
14
50
24
12

consultant
TABLE4.6: Role change over year

% of respondents
14%
50%
24%
12%

22

Table 4.7: Stats of change in job role over year

Interpretation:
It is analyzed that over the year there are changes in job roles of respondents their role
become more specialized in one or fewer aspect. About 50% of respondents agreed that
there job role become more specialized while 14% said that theres no change in job role.
6. Do you use HRIS in your organization?

Use HRIS in Organisation


70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Use HRIS in
Organisation

Yes

No

Intended to

Figure4.5: Use of HRIS


FACTOR
Yes
No
Intended to

No. of Respondents
66
18
16
Table 4.8: Use of HRIS

Table 4.9: Stats of use of HRIS

% of respondents
66%
18%
16%

23

Interpretation:
As questionnaire was circulated among Hr professionals whether they used HRIS or not,
it is analyzed that about 16% of them used HRIS in organization, 18% are not yet while
16% are intend to use in future.

7. At what level do you use HRIS?

At what level do you use HRIS?


50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

At what level do you use


HRIS?

FIGURE 4.6: LEVEL OF HRIS

Table 4.10: Level of HRIS

Table 4.11: Statistics of level of HRIS

24

Interpretation:
It is analyzed that HRIS in organization used by knowledge workers for planning
activities (26%), about 46% at operational level and rest of by top management for
decision making activities.

8. What is your view for further deployment of HRIS in your


organization?

Further deployment of HRIS


40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Further deployment of
HRIS

FIGURE 4.7: Deployment of HRIS

FACTORS
More routine
Operational Level
More medium level
decision making
Strategic use of HRIS

No. Of Respondents
26

% of Respondents
26%

28

28%

46

46%

Total

100

100%

Table4.12: Deployment of HRIS

25

Table 4.13: Statistics of deployment of HRIS

CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

It is analyzed from the responses of questions that majority of the respondents


(96%) used HRIS or intended to use one, and just 4% respondents said they did
not use HRIS but intended to use one. It indicates that HRIS are widely used and

26

are important in day to day working of HR departments and the successful


working of HR managers.
The use of Information system in organization can enable them to increase
efficiency, effectiveness and integration. This may be one of the reasons why the
responses suggest a wide use of HRIS in organizations at all levels of HR work.

When asked about the level at which they were using HRIS in their daily
organizational work, the respondents stated that such systems are being used at
various different levels, from very operational level used in undertaking routine
work to more strategic level work for making judgments. Almost all respondents
who indicated that they were using some sort of HRIS and said that they were
using HRIS at operational level (43% respondents), whereas 28% respondents
said that they used HRIS for strategic tasks and for taking more unstructured and
complex decisions.

The use of HRIS has increased by more senior level HR managers and in some
cases by strategic organizational management as they work closely with HR
specialists. Overall, we found that all three functions are being used by HR
managers in most organizations.

The respondents were asked about the types of HRIS functionality that they used.
As HRIS can be very large systems that come with many different functions, and
not all organizations, at least in the past, used to purchase all the modules offered
by such systems due to the expense involved. Some functionality is more
advanced than the other and allows HR managers to accomplish more strategic
tasks.

The respondents were asked as to how important HRIS are or could be in


allowing them to perform their jobs. The replies overall suggests that respondents

27

do view HRIS as very important in allowing them to perform their jobs more
professionally. The respondents provided the following reasons:
HRIS were very important in achieving greater professional
recognition (50%
respondents)
HRIS were important in helping them to provide up to minute
information to management (25% respondents),
Important for providing HR information to line management and
13% respondents did not comment about how it would allow them to
work more professionally.

The respondents were asked how they or their organization could deploy HRIS to
yield increased value. This question was asked to envisage the future use of HRIS
in their organizations. The following responses were received: 26% respondents
said that more routine use of HRIS will be made in their organizations, 28
respondents said that HRIS would be used to make medium level decisions and in
determining the policy, and 46% respondents said the HRIS would be used even
more strategically and in long range planning.

The questionnaire asked respondents to evaluate and envisage the future of their
profession since the role of HR professional has been changing constantly. Their
response suggested that their role was becoming more important in the future.
(With 44% saying that it has become more strategic). Others replied that they and
their profession were becoming more important because, they were becoming
internal/external consultants

The respondents were asked to indicate which HR posts they held. It was strategy
of the researcher not to include the respondents who were not HR managers or
their associates. But all respondents who completed questionnaires were HR
specialists, although in several hierarchical ranks.

The development of HRIS has had a major impact on HR managers and they can
utilize HRIS to work differently, perhaps more efficiently. But at the same time

28

organizational management and line management are becoming aware that


automation of HR functions can be achieved.

The use of HRIS increases the data and information system base of HR managers
and allows them to achieve their job roles more professionally. In fact a strategic
use of HRIS enables them to make more informed decisions and judgments. This
would hopefully enable them to increase their personal recognition within their
organizations.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

In this research study it is analyzed that how HRIS in organization is a support system for
HR managers to perform their job role more efficiently. This research focused on the role
of HRIS in assisting HR managers to perform their roles more professionally. It looks at

29

the affect of HRIS on HR managers role - both traditional and for new emerging roles.
The results suggested that HRIS were playing an important role for HR Managers. Most
were using HRIS, at least, for operational level tasks and some were using it for strategic
level tasks. The strategic level use of HRIS was smaller. The respondents in general
believed that HRIS were significant in allowing them to perform their work more
efficiently, effectively and professionally in their organizations. This confirms that HRIS
are vital in helping HR managers to meet the ever-increasing demands on their job and
quality of service.
Alternatively, the use of HRIS is leading to many changes in the workings of HR
managers, such learning new technical skills and focus on the flow of HR information in
their departments and organizations.

LIMITATIONS:
The sample size of study is less because of time shortage.
Some of the employees were not showing interest to give informations, which
leads to bias and half picture.
The study is based on current and past scenario it could change in future.
Due to personal biasness of some employees it may have chances of misguide
data.
Theres also shortage of time.

REFRENCES

Armstrong M (1984), A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice, 2nd

edition, Kogan Page Ltd. Cites within this book is: Guest and Horwood (1981).
Armstrong M (1994), Using the HR Consultant: Achieving results, adding values,

IPM.
Avison D and Shah H (1997) the Information Systems Development Life Cycle:

A First Course in Information Systems, McGraw-Hill.


Ball K (2000), the use of human resource management systems: a survey,
Personnel Review, 30(6), pp.677-693.

30

Block P (1991), Flawless Consulting: A guide to getting your expertise used,

Jossey Bass/University Associates.


Broderick, R. and Bourdreau, J.W. (1992), Human Resource Management,
Information Technology and the Competitive Edge`, Academy of Management

Executive, Vol.6, No.2, pp7 17.


Clark PA (1972), Action Research and Organizational Change, Harper & Row.
Clark T (1995), Managing Consultants: Consultancy as the Management of

Impressions, Open University Press.


Drucker PF (1954) The practice of Management, Harper.
Edwards C, Ward J and Bytheway A (1995),The Essence of Information Systems,

Prentice Hall.
Edward (1996). Softworld Report (1996), Human Resource Management

Software, Conspectus, PMP (UK) Ltd.


Elliott G and Starkings S (1998), Business Information Technology: Systems,

Theory and Practice, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.


Farnham D (1985), Personnel in Context, 3rd edition, IPM (cites in this book:

Lupton, 1978).
Gallagher (1997). Softworld Report (1997), Human Resource Management

Software, Conspectus, PMP (UK) Ltd.


Gallagher M (1986), Computers in Personnel Management, Heinemann.
Gill J and Johnson P (1991), Research Methods for Managers, Paul Chapman

Publishing Ltd.
Greer CR (1995), Strategy and Human Resources: A General Managerial

Perspective, Prentice Hall.


Hales C (1994), Internal Marketing as an Approach to Human Resource

Management, Journal of Management Studies, 5(1), pp.50-71.


Hammer M and Champy J (1992), Reengineering the Corporation, HarperCollins.
Hendry C and Pettigrew A (1990), Human Resource Management: An agenda for

the 1990s,
International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(1), pp.17-43.
Hussain ZI (2002), An investigation into the Strategic Use of Personnel
Management Information Systems (PMIS) by Human Resource (HR) Managers,
Masters Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, UK.

31

Kinnie N and Arthurs A (1996) Personnel Review found little potential


development of computers in the HR function (Personnel Specialists: Advanced

use of IT-Evidence and explanations, PR, 25(3), pp.3-19.


Laudon KC and Laudon JP (2002), Management Information Systems: Managing

the Digital Firm, 7th edition, Prentice Hall.


Liff S (1997), Constructing HR Information Systems, Human Resource

Management Journal, 7(2), pp.18-31.


Lucey T (1997), Management Information Systems, Letts Educational.
Mabey C, Slaman G and Storey J (2000), Human Resource Management: A

Strategic Introduction, 2nd edition, Blackwell Business.


Markham C (1998), The Top Consultant: Developing Your Skills For Greater

Effectiveness, Kogan Page Ltd.


Nees DB and Greiner LE (1985), Seeing Behind the Look-a-Like Consultants,

Organizational Dynamics, winter, pp.77-87.


Norman and Edwards (1997). Softworld Report (1997), Human Resource

Management Software, Conspectus, PMP (UK) Ltd.


Rees (1996). Softworld Report (1996), Human Resource Management Software,

Conspectus, PMP (UK) Ltd.


Robinson D (1999), HR Information Systems Audit, Cambridge Strategy

Publications.
Robson W (1997), Strategic Management and Information Systems: An integrated

approach, Prentice Hall.


Schein EH (1987), Process Consultation, 1&2, Addison Wesley.
Schuler RS and Jackson SE (1987), Linking competitive Strategies with Human
Resource Management Practices, Academy of Management Executive, 1(3),

pp.207-19.
Shipton, J. and McAuley, J. (1991) `Issues of Power and Marginality in

Personnel`, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol.4, No.1, pp-13.


Torstendahl R and Burrage M (1990), Professions in Theory and History, Sage
publications Ltd. Cites within this book are: Collins R: (1975/1986); F.Parkin

(1977); Hughes (1965).


Wright PM and McMahan GC (1992), Theoretical Perspective for Strategic
Human Resource Management, Journal of Management, 18(2), pp.299.