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Goals

Low-level image processing operations

Feature enhancement!

(if you know how to model that noise specifically!)

median filter

Outline

Linear filtering

Convolution operations

Smoothing

Low-pass and high-pass filters

Sharpen

Rank filters

4

Linear Mappings

L1 is a linear operation if

L[I1 + I2]

= L[I1] + L[I2]

and

L[ Ii]

= L[Ii]

(additive)

(homogeneous)

Equivalently, L is linear if

L[I1 + I2] = L[I1] + L[I2]

(i.e. L preserves linear combinations)

5

Image == Heightfield

I

z = Is intensity

Selectively

7

(Airsan Grease Filter, but pretend...)

13

12

16

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23

10

13

12

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15

23

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??

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K

I

13

12

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1/3

1/3

1/3

??

??

15

23

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Neighborhood: N(x) = x 1

Operation:

Average

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??

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1/3

1/3

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1/3

13.66

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1/3

1/3

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1/3

10

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1/3

13.66 14.33

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23

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1/3

1/3

1/3

13.66 14.33

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??

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13

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23

10

1/3

1/3

1/3

13.66 14.33

18

16

16

Correlation

Linear operation in 1D:

I ( x)

K (i) I ( x i)

i a

K is the kernel of the operation; many choices!

N(x) is a neighbourhood of size (2a+1)

17

Correlation

Linear operation in 1D:

I ( x)

K (i) I ( x i)

i a

I ( x, y )

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

K is the kernel of the operation; many choices!

N(x,y) is a neighbourhood of size (2a+1) x (2b+1)

18

Correlation

(Template-Matching Preview)

10 11 10 0 0 1

9 10 11 1 0 1

10 9 10 0 2 1

11 10 9 10 9 11

9 10 11 9 99 11

10 9 9 11 10 10

1/9

I

K

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

X X

X 10

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X X X X

19

1/9.( 90) = 10

Slide credit: Christopher Rasmussen

Correlation

(Template-Matching Preview)

10 11 10 0 0 1

9 10 11 1 0 1

10 9 10 0 2 1

11 10 9 10 9 11

9 10 11 9 99 11

10 9 9 11 10 10

1/9

(again)

1

1

1

1

1

1

X X

X X

X 10

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X X

K (i, j ) I ( x i, y j )

I ( x, y )

i a j b

1/9.( 90) = 10

20

I

I

_0

0

_

7

_

6

_

5

_

_0

0

_

_0

Matlab:

filter2( [5 6 7], [0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0] )

> ans = 0 0 7 6 5 0 0 0

result that is NOT rotated!

(Ideas?)

Correlation

I ( x, y )

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

Convolution

I ( x, y)

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

23

Correlation

I ( x, y )

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

Convolution

I ( x, y)

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

I K I

Matlab:

conv2([0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0], [5 6 7], 'same' )

> ans = 0 0 5 6 7 0 0 0

24

Linear Filtering

(warm-up)

0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

Original

25

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Linear Filtering

(warm-up)

0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

Original

Filtered

(no change)

26

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

I ( x, y)

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

Original

27

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

I ( x, y)

K (i, j) I ( x i, y j)

i a j b

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

Original

Shifted left

By 1 pixel

28

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Linear Filtering

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

Original

29

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Linear Filtering

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

Original

Blur (with a

box filter)

30

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Linear Filtering

0 0 0

0 2 0

0 0 0

Original

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

31

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Linear Filtering

0 0 0

0 2 0

0 0 0

Original

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

Sharpening filter

- Accentuates differences

with local average

- Also known as Laplacian

32

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

33

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Example

K=ones(9,9);

I2=conv2(I,K);

34

Yucky details

When filter window falls off the edge of the

image?

need to extrapolate

methods:

2006 Steve

Marschner 35

wrap around

copy edge

reflect across edge

vary filter near edge

Smoothing Kernels

(Low-pass filters)

Mean filter:

1 1 1

1

1 1 1

9

1 1 1

1 1 1

Weighted

1

1

2

1

smoothing filters: 10

1 1 1

1 2 1

1

2 4 2

16

1 2 1

37

Gaussian Kernel

Weight contributions of neighboring pixels by

nearness

0.003

0.013

0.022

0.013

0.003

0.013

0.059

0.097

0.059

0.013

0.022

0.097

0.159

0.097

0.022

0.013

0.059

0.097

0.059

0.013

0.003

0.013

0.022

0.013

0.003

5 x 5, = 1

38

Slide credit: Christopher Rasmussen

Review of

= sigma = standard deviation = (variance)

Data, d [d1

d2

Mean :

d 3 ... d n ]

n

2

Variance : (d i )

StdDeviation : Variance

Matlab: mean(d), var(d), std(d)

39

40

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

41

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

X =

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.5000

-0.2500

-0.2500

-0.2500

-0.2500

-0.2500

-0.2500

-0.2500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.2500

0.2500

0.2500

0.2500

0.2500

0.2500

0.2500

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.7500

0.7500

0.7500

0.7500

0.7500

0.7500

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

Y =

-0.7500

-0.5000

-0.2500

0

0.2500

0.5000

0.7500

>> surf(X,Y,Z)

42

Separable Kernels

Separable filters can be written

K(m,n) = f(m)g(n)

For a rectangular neighbourhood with size

(2M+1)x(2N+1), I (m, n ) f ( g I ( N (m, n )))

I ( m, n )

g ( j ) I ( m, n j )

j N

I ( m, n )

f (i )I (m i, n)

i M

43

2

2

1

x y

g ( x, y)

exp

2

2

2

2

x2

exp 2

2

2

2

g ( x) g ( y )

1

y2

exp 2

2

2

2

1

Separable!

44

Amount of smoothing depends on and

window size.

Width > 3

7x7; =1.

7x7; =9.

19x19; =1.

19x19; =9.

45

Scale Space

Convolution of a Gaussian with standard

deviation with itself is a Gaussian

standard deviation 2.

Repeated convolution by a Gaussian filter

produces the scale space of an image.

46

1

11x11; =3.

47

1. Rotationally symmetric

2. Has a single lobe

- Neighbors influence decreases monotonically

- No corruption from high frequencies

4. Simple relationship to

5. Easy to implement efficiently

48

Smoothing Integration, i.e.

z = Is

intensity

Summing

Sand-papering the height fields slope

Subtracting

Accentuating the height fields slope

49

f

f ( x 1) f ( x)

x

(Look ahead)

f

f ( x 1) f ( x 1) 2 f ( x)

x

2

50

f ( x 1) f ( x)

f ( x 1) f ( x 1) 2 f ( x)

51

Figure from DIP by Gonzalez+Woods, 2008

Recall, for 2D

function, f(x,y):

f

f x , y f x, y

lim

shift invariant, so

the result of a

convolution

We could

approximate this as

f f xn1 , y f xn , y

x

x

(which is obviously

a convolution)

-1

1

52

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

differences

53

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Differential Filters

Prewitt operator:

1 0 1

1 0 1

1 0 1

Sobel operator:

1 0 1

2 0 2

1 0 1

54

f

x g x

f

f ( x 1) f ( x) in 1D 2D: f

f

x

g y

y

Gradient is anisotropic

mag(f )

g g

2

x

2

y

is isotropic

gy

Orientation of gradient: ( x, y) tan

gx

1

The result of vector-addition would point perpendicular to the

55

gradient, so we want the hypotenuse instead!

2

2

2 f

f

2

f ( x 1) f ( x 1) 2 f ( x) in 1D 2D: f

2

2

x

x

y

2 f

f ( x 1, y) f ( x 1, y) 2 f ( x, y)

2

x

2 f

f ( x, y 1) f ( x, y 1) 2 f ( x, y)

2

y

1

1

1

1

-8

1

1

1

1

Incorporating diagonals,

isotropic in increments of 45

-1

-1

-1

0

1

0

-1

8

-1

1

-4

1

0

1

0

-1

-1

-1

of kernel for convenience

Image Sharpening

Also known as Enhancement

Increases the high frequency components to

enhance edges

I = I + (k*I), where k is a high-pass filter

kernel and is a scalar in [0,1]

57

I ' I I I ( K * I )

2

-1

-1

-1

-1

8

-1

-1

-1

-1

58

I ' I I I ( K * I )

2

K*I

59

60

I ' I ( I K * I ) " Unsharp Mask"

61

I ' 2 I K * I " Unsharp Mask"

62

63

I= Unsharp Mask

(from Example 2)

64

I=I + Laplacian

(from Example 1)

65

Filter at some point can be

seen as taking a dotproduct between the

image and some vector

Filtering the image is a set

of dot products

they are intended to find

- filters find effects they

look like

66

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

We need scaled

representations

Find correlations/convolutions at all scales

e.g., when finding hands or faces, we dont know what

size they will be in a particular image

Template size is constant, but image size changes

Efficient search for correspondence

look at coarse scales, then refine with finer scales

much less cost, but may miss best match

Examining all levels of detail

Find edges with different amounts of blur

Find textures with different spatial frequencies (levels

of detail)

67

Slide credit: D.A. Forsyth

Fourier Domain

68

Fourier Domain

The Fourier Domain represents the image

by the sum of weighted frequency

components

Many image processing operations are

simpler in the Fourier Domain

Convolutions are simpler in the Fourier

Domain

69

(1768-1830)

Fourier Series:

Any periodic function

can be rewritten as a

weighted sum of sines

and cosines of different

frequencies.

70

Geometry Review

Matlab:

= atan2(y, x)

(unit-vector on x-axis)

x component C x cos

71

Geometry Review

y component C y sin

72

Geometry Review

C C x cos y sin

coordinates to

represent imaginary

numbers!

73

Geometry Review

C C cos j sin

Apply Euler's formula*

C

Imaginary

component

cos j sin

C C e j

( e j cos j sin )

Real component

*Feynman:

Now lets represent all points using this polar notation. If the

one points

of the most

remarkable,

almost astounding,

in all

mathematics

came

from a periodic

functionformulas

(of space

oroftime,

using74

variable t here), we could model them using a Fourier Series!

Fourier Transform

(Continuous, 1D)

F { f (t )} F ( )

f (t )e

j 2t

dt

Inverse Fourier Transform (more later):

j 2t

f (t )

F ( )e

d

75

Fourier Transform

(Continuous, 1D)

F { f (t )} F ( )

f (t )e

j 2t

dt

(according to units of t)

Inverse Fourier Transform (more later):

j 2t

f (t )

F ( )e

d

76

Frequency Spectra

Visualize the Fourier Transform

integral as summing the contribution

=

+

of signals with different frequencies

(and amplitudes) to reconstruct a

spatially or temporally (i.e. usual)

periodic signal

=

Frequency Spectra

Frequency Spectra

Frequency Spectra

Frequency Spectra

x2 Example

(1D)

F (u )

M 1

f ( x )e

j 2ux / M

u = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

x 0

indexed by x) and returns a new (complex) function of length M

that is indexed by u.

What is u? It represents frequency of sinusoidal component

(1D)

F (u )

M 1

f ( x )e

j 2ux / M

u = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

x 0

To understand this

apply Euler's formula*

e j cos j sin

F (u )

M 1

x 0

Can think of this as a change of basis: we move from space in which signal is

represented as coefficients of delta functions to frequency where signal is

88

represented as coefficients of sinusoidal basis functions

Fourier Transform

(again)

F ( )

f (t )e

j 2t

dt

with a sampling function:

~

f (t )

f (t ) (t xt )

~

F ( )

why does this give

us a comb-filter?

~

j 2t

f (t )e

dt

(continued)

~

F ( )

~

j 2t

f (t )e

dt

f (t ) (t xt )e

j 2t

dt

xt )e

dt

f (t ) (t (Integral

is only non - zero when t xt )

j 2t

f ( x )e

j 2xt

(continued)

90

~

F ( )

f ( x )e

j 2xt

1

freq

and we want M equally-spaced samples,

t

so sweep continuous frequency-space

u 1

with samples , where

M t

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

F (u )

M 1

f ( x )e

j 2ux / M

u = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

x 0

1

f ( x)

M

M 1

F (u )e

u 0

j 2ux / M

x = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

91

(2D)

F (u , v)

M 1 N 1

f ( x, y )e

ux vy

j 2 ( )

M N

x 0 y 0

1

f ( x, y )

MN

M 1 N 1

F (u, v)e

u 0 v 0

where:

u = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

v = 0, 1, 2, , N-1

j 2 (

ux vy

)

M N

where:

x = 0, 1, 2, , M-1

y = 0, 1, 2, ,92N-1

0

3

94

Full image

First 1 basis fn

95

Full image

First 1 basis fn

Nave DFT is O(N4).

in O(N2 log2N) time if N=2M

FFTW = Fastest FT in the West (http://www.fftw.org/)

97

Image Spectra

F is a 2D MxN array of complex numbers.

Common to plot |F| and Arg(F) as images

|F| is the magnitude or amplitude spectrum

Arg(F) is the phase spectrum

F is periodic: F(u,v) = F(u+M,v) = F(u,v+N) =

F(u+M,v+N).

F has conjugate symmetry so |F(u,v)|=|F(-u,-v)|.

98

This is the

magnitude

transform

of the

cheetah pic

This is the

phase

transform

of the

cheetah pic

This is the

magnitude

transform

of the zebra

pic

This is the

phase

transform

of the zebra

pic

Oriented Components

images

The magnitude spectra of all natural images are quite similar

Heavy on low-frequencies, falling off in high frequences

Will any image be like that, or is it a property of the

world we live in?

Most information in the image is carried in the phase, not the

amplitude

Seems to be a fact of life

Not quite clear why

Reconstruction

with zebra

phase, cheetah

magnitude

Reconstruction

with cheetah

phase, zebra

magnitude

(This is the payoff for all that hard work!)

f g [ f ][ g ]

where denotes the Fourier Transform.

To convolve image f by kernel g:

Compute DFTs F and G of f and g

Multiply F by G

Compute the inverse DFT of FG.

110

function g = dftfilt(f, H)

%DFTFILT Performs frequency domain filtering.

%

From DIPUM by Gonzalez, Woods, and Eddins 2004

%

G = DFTFILT(F, H) filters F in the frequency domain using the

%

filter transfer function H. The output, G, is the filtered

%

image, which has the same size as F. DFTFILT automatically pads

%

F to be the same size as H. Function PADDEDSIZE can be used to

%

determine an appropriate size for H.

%

%

DFTFILT assumes that F is real and that H is a real, uncentered

%

circularly-symmetric filter function.

%

%

%

Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB, Prentice-Hall, 2004

$Revision: 1.5 $ $Date: 2003/08/25 14:28:22 $

F = fft2(f, size(H, 1), size(H, 2));

% Perform filtering.

g = real(ifft2(H.*F));

% Crop to original size.

g = g(1:size(f, 1), 1:size(f, 2));

See also: fftshift() and ifftshift()

111

|F(sx,sy)|

f(x,y)

*

g(x,y)

|G(sx,sy)|

h(x,y)

|H(sx,sy)|

Slide by Steve Seitz

0 u 2 v 2 r 2

K (u, v )

1 otherwise

113

0 u 2 v 2 r 2

K (u, v )

1 otherwise

114

Gaussian Low-Pass

Filter

u2 v2

K (u, v ) exp

2

2

115

0 u 2 v 2 r 2

K (u, v )

1 otherwise

116

Gaussian High-Pass

Filter

u2 v2

K (u, v ) 1 exp

2

2

117

Band-Stop Filter

K (u, v )

1

1 r

2n

1

/

2

2

2

2

u v r0

118

Band-Pass Filter

K (u, v ) 1

1

1 r

2n

1

/

2

u 2 v 2 r02

119

From Young, Gerbrands and van

Vliet; CVOnline.

filter

(c) Highpass

120

Orientation Filtering

Rank Filters

Simple non-linear filters based on the

ordering of the grey levels in the

neighbourhood.

123

Max Filter

I(m,n) = max{I(i,j) : (i,j)N(m,n)}

124

Min Filter

I(m,n) = min{I(i,j) : (i,j)N(m,n)}

125

Median Filter

I(m,n) = median{I(i,j) : (i,j)N(m,n)}

126

Range Filter

I(m,n) = max{I(i,j) : (i,j)N(m,n)}

- min{I(i,j) : (i,j)N(m,n)}

127

Summary

Linear filtering

Convolution in the image domain

Separable filters

Smoothing filters and Gaussian filters

Differential filters

Rank filters

128

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