You are on page 1of 16


2. What is Communication?

Communication is the process of creating meaning between two or more people

through the expression and interpretation of messages. ‘Communication’ refers to the
linking process between business people or management and staff members to convey
messages of various kinds.
Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared
symbols, e.g. language, words, phrases. Communication can also be defined as a two-
way process whereby information (message) is sent from one person (sender) through
a channel to another (receive) who in turn reacts by providing feedback.

3. What is the aim of communication?

Effective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people clearly
and unambiguously. It's also about receiving information that others are sending to
you, with as little distortion as possible. To convey thoughts and ideas, gain power
and influence, develop social relationships and maintain our culture.
Doing this involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. And
it's a process that can be fraught with error, with messages muddled by the sender, or
misinterpreted by the recipient. When this isn't detected, it can cause tremendous
confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity.
In fact, communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver
understand the same information as a result of the communication.
By successfully getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas
effectively. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you actually send do not
necessarily reflect what you think, causing a communications breakdown and creating
roadblocks that stand in the way of your goals – both personally and professionally.

4. Explain the different models and elements of communication

in detail:
As the sender of the message, you need to be clear about why you're communicating,
and what you want to communicate. You also need to be confident that the
information you're communicating is useful and accurate.
The message is the information that you want to communicate. How,When,Where,To
whom and Why
This is the process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a
form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. Your success in
encoding depends partly on your ability to convey information clearly and simply, but
also on your ability to anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for example,
cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.)
A key part of this is knowing your audience: Failure to understand who you are
communicating with will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood.
Messages are conveyed through different mediums, e.g.: verbal communication like
face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written communication
like letters, emails, memos and reports.
Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not
particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly
cause problems if you give someone negative feedback using email.
Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example,
taking the time to read a message carefully, or listen actively to it.) Just as confusion
can arise from errors in encoding, it can also arise from decoding errors. This is
particularly the case if the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to understand the
message. Effective Listening skills apply.

Your message is delivered to individual members of your audience. Barriers of
communication is very important. Have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your
message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these
individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will
undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message, and their response. To be
a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message,
and act appropriately.
Your audience will provide you with feedback, as verbal and nonverbal reactions to
your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback, as it is the only
thing that can give you the confidence that your audience has understood your
message. If you find that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you have the
opportunity to send the message a second time.
The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the
surrounding environment or broader culture (corporate culture, international
cultures, and so on).
To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the
barriers that exist within each of these stages of the communication process.
Let’s begin with the message itself. If your message is too lengthy, disorganized,
or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and
misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the
Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too
fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the
demands on other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-busy society.
Once you understand this, you need to work to understand your audience’s
culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of
different backgrounds and cultures within your own organization, in your country
and even abroad.

5. What are the barriers to encoding and decoding?

• If your message is too lengthy or contains errors, you can expect the message
to be misunderstood.
• If your message is disorganized it can be misinterpreted.
• When your message is inaccurate it can lead to barriers in communication.
• When your message is not well- planned it can be misunderstood.
• The use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message.
• Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information
too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more.
• It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people’s time, especially in
today’s ultra-busy society.
• Other barriers include noise, intelligence, gender, fear of rejection, language,
culture, education, listening, physiological, physical, and stereo-typing and

1. What is verbal communication?

Verbal communication can be defined as the spoken word, writing, reading and
Oral communication
• Used when communicating face-to-face with one person, with up to five people
during meetings, during interviews, during formal or informal group
discussions, or when receiving a client. It includes instructions giving and
receiving, dealing with visitors, explaining a problem to a superior, or
marketing a product or idea to a client.
• Written communication can be both direct and indirect.
Direct – includes business letters, memos, faxes, notices, agendas and reports
which are addressed to a specific individual.
Indirect – includes newspapers reports, press release and advertisements which
are directed at the general public.
• Indirect oral communication refers to communication used in telephone
conversations and in public addresses e.g. not face to face communication.

1. What is non verbal communication and what does it include?

Non-verbal communication can strengthen, contradict, complement or substitute a
verbal message. Non verbal communication is using means other than words to
communicate. Research shows that 97% of communication is non-verbal.
Non verbal communication can be subdivided into five different categories:
1. Environment- it can be the aroma, the layout of the office or sounds.
2. Tone of voice
3. Facial expressions- it refers to the expression a sender or receiver portrays
on their face when expressing how they feel about something e.g. smiling,
4. Signs- this can be any recognizable symbol or a certain language a source
may use to communicate a message.
5. Posture- posture refers to the body language of a sender or a source.
6. Tone of voice
7. Language used
8. Silence
Non- verbal communication can also include:
 How you hold your body e.g. posture, figure
 What you wear e.g. personal appearance
 The distance you keep e.g. interpersonal distance
 Eye contact e.g. focus
 Gestures
 Voice quality e.g. tone
 How you listen to a conversation
 Time e.g. how you use time

1. What are the barriers to communication and describe them in

1. Semantics- occur when the meaning of words used to communicate is
misunderstood or when different meanings are attached to a specific word or

Factors that could lead to semantic barriers:

Jargon – this refers to the new language that is being developed by the younger
generation today. Not everyone understands it and therefore will also present itself as
a barrier to the communication process. Words used in a certain trade or profession.
Different interpretations and vague wording – sender and receiver might attach
different meanings to the same word. “Just now”.
Slang – informal phrases or words are used and understood by specific groups only. Do
not use this in the work environment.
Accent – this may prevent people from following instructions properly.

2. Kinetics- This refers to body movement like gestures, facial expressions and
posture in communication.

Facial Expressions – smiling conveys a message of welcome or approval of an idea.

Frowning can show lack of understanding or that the person is not happy with a

Gestures – loosening a tie is a sign of nervousness or a signal that it is time to relax.

Rolling up ones sleeves can be a sign of aggressiveness or a signal for getting down to
work. Finger drumming shows impatience or tension.
Posture – resting ones head on ones arms shows boredom, lack of interest or
tiredness. Drooping shoulders convey that the person is discouraged, unmotivated,
disappointed or pessimistic. Just remember Kinetics is very cultural-specific.

3. Paralanguage- The sound, pitch, intensity and accent that a person talks
with. Provide examples

4. Proxemics- this is the study of distance, space or contact in human

communication. We can divide the space around us into 4 zones:

Intimate zone – a distance of half a meter between sender and receiver. In African
cultures this zone is used comfortably by strangers or business associates talking
to each other. In other cultures this zone is reserved for lovers, good friends, and
family members in caressing, holding an intimate conversation or showing
Entering this zone for any other reason could be threatening to the receiver and
cause the person to retreat, avoid eye contact and feel uncomfortable. Beware of
violating somebody’s intimate zone too often – especially in the business
environment. Your non-verbal signs my convey the wrong message and offend a
colleague or make a client feel uncomfortable and threatened.

Personal zone – a distance of one and a half meters between sender and receiver.
The space around workers working together usually falls around this zone. If
people are crowded too closely together, they may feel threatened and this can
lead to conflict.

Spatial zone – a distance of two meters between sender and receiver.

Public zone – distance of more than three meters between sender and receiver. A
speaker addressing a group of business people should maintain this distance
between himself/herself and the audience.

5. Physical- Pertain to the physical distance between people communicating. E.g.

this is noise which confuses a message or prevents a message from being received.
There is much more:Intelligence, EQ, Headaches, Aircon, Culture, Health ect.


6. Psychological- poor health, physical disability, pain or discomfort may

interfere with a message or prevent a message from being received. Any state such as
anger, depression, fear, nervousness, boredom or distrust can affect a message. A
positive or negative attitude on the part of the sender or the receiver will also have
an effect.

7. Demographics- information is conveyed by means of symbols, graphic signs,

illustrations, graphs and types of lettering in the business world. (MORE could be 10
mark question)

8. Language- Not everybody speaks the same language and if you cannot get your
message across it becomes a barrier in the communication process.(MORE could be 10
mark question)

9. Perceptual- this is how people of different backgrounds, culture, sex,

personality, education and interest see the world differently and interpret or
understand situations and simple communication messages differently.

Factors that play a role in forming perceptual barriers are: background, education and
training, intelligence, occupation, needs, personality, age, sex, religion.


2. What are the different communication contexts?

Could be 20 mark question
Small – group communication
Small-group communication refers to communication between three to fifteen or
twenty persons.

• Advantages of small groups

Greater efficiency through dividing responsibilities
More heads mean more ideas
A greater sense of commitment to agreed-upon decisions

• Disadvantages of small groups

Group work can be time-consuming
Group effectiveness is dependent on the individual ability of members
Groups sometimes tend to talk rather than act
Cliques often develop within a group
Groups can become too large to be effective
Members sometimes lose the feeling of personal responsibility

Intrapersonal communication
This is communication with oneself. This context cannot be ignored and is concerned
with an individual debating a topic in his or her mind, making decisions or
experiencing internal conflict.
Interpersonal communication deals with relationships between people, usually in
face-to-face private settings.
Interpersonal communication is the primary way relationships are created,
maintained, and changed.

Interpersonal Communication
This is communication that takes place between two persons, and has to adhere to
the following conditions before it can be seen as interpersonal communication.

An example would be a secretary taking notes from his/her boss:

• The people have to be face-to-face to ensure observation of non-verbal
• Both parties have to be in close physical distance to one another.
• Both are able to send and receive messages.
• There has to be interaction between the two persons.
• There has to be equal opportunity for feedback.
• And both verbal and non-verbal communication can be observed.

Organizational communication
Organizational communication “Is use by management and employees in a business to
achieve organizational goals”.
Horizontal,Vertical,Diagonally ect

Public communication
This context is more formal and structured, with one person addressing a large
number of persons.MORE

Intercultural Communication
This is when members of different cultures interact and communicate. Cultures have
different ways of communicating, verbally and non-verbally, and to be able to
communicate effectively cross-cultural barriers have to be overcome.

 A stereotype is a generalization about a class of people, objects, or events that

is widely held by a given culture.
 We cannot say categorically that all stereotypes are false.
 Some of them are accurate enough to provide a very limited basis for making
judgment about a group of people we hardly know.
 But when applied to a specific individual, most stereotypes are inappropriate
and highly inaccurate, and many are false.
 Relying on stereotypes rather than on direct perception can result in
embarrassing social situations.
Mass Communication
In this context, the sender and receiver communicate through a mass medium
(electronic: radio and television or print: newspapers and magazines). More than one
person is involved in formulating the message (Public Relations practitioners,
newspaper editors, layout artists etc.)

Electronic communication
This communication involves using any form of technological device such as a cell
phone, or email, or Skype ex. It is cheap, quick and easy for short messages or notices

1. Effective communication
 The job will get done faster.
 No mistakes will be made therefore no problems will arise and time will not
be wasted.
 People will know what is expected of them.
 It will prevent the feeling of confusion and inadequacy.
 When people know what is expected of them they tend to be more
motivated to get the work done.
 Understanding
 Love
 Patients
 Productivity
 Creativity

What effect would effective communication have on the

different communication contexts?
 Effective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people
clearly and unambiguously.
 It is about receiving information that others are sending to you, with as little
distortion as possible.
 To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are
sending it to, and how it will be perceived.
 You can state an idea, position or opinions.
 Provide feedback to others.
 Get information from others.
 Gain power and influence.
 Develop social relationships.
 Maintain self- expressions and our culture.
 Give effective instructions or directions.
10. What are the benefits of effective communication?
 The job will get done faster, no mistakes will be made therefore no problems
will arise and time will not be wasted.
 People will know what is expected of them. It will prevent the feeling of
confusion and inadequacy.
 When people know what is expected of them they tend to be more motivated
to get the work done.
 It helps you to find out accurate facts and details
 You can get accurate directions and instructions- everybody will know what is
expected of them
 You can try to understand another’s point of view
 Effective communication can help you solve work problems
 It can help you resolve a team conflict
 You can help someone solve a problem

11. Effect of ineffective communication

 There will be delays in work due to misunderstanding.

 There will be feelings of confusion and workers will not be able to perform at
their best.
 People will not know what is expected of them.
 People will not be motivated due to the confusion.
 Misunderstanding
 Conflict
 Fights
 Disagreements

12. What is effective listening?

 Listening is an active process of concentrating, absorbing, interpreting,
judging, visualizing, trying to understand and acting on what you hear. It is a
purposeful and systematic response to messages.
 Effective listening is the receiver’s responsibility.
 The receiver owes effective listening to the speaker if the communication is to
be successful.
 Receiver needs to listen actively, critically and appreciatively.
 The listener should provide constant feedback so that the speaker knows that
the communication is effective.

Advantages of effective listening:

 Achieve better interpersonal relationships

 Saving time, money and energy
 Avoiding mistakes and misunderstandings
 Identifying problems and grievances before it is too late.
 Create a work climate of openness and sensitivity
 Improving motivational and persuasive abilities.

13. Listening tips

 Prepare to listen by focusing on the speaker.
 Control and eliminate distractions so that you can focus on the message.
Don’t do anything else (writing, reading, email) but listen.
 Establish appropriate eye contact to show interest. Display the appropriate
facial expression.
 See listening as an opportunity to get information, share another’s views,
and broaden your own knowledge.
 Create a need to listen by thinking about what you can learn from the
 Set aside the time to listen so that you won’t feel rushed or become
distracted by other responsibilities.
 Don’t prejudge the message based on who is delivering it. Focus instead on
the content of the message.
 Monitor the way you listen by asking yourself questions such as “Did I really
pay attention or was I thinking about what I was going to say next”? “Was
there information I missed because I allowed myself to become distracted”?
 Use appropriate gestures
 Encourage speaker to keep speaking by asking questions.
 Give advice only when asked.
14. Advantages and Disadvantages of group work
 Many minds are better than one.
 You can get the job/task done faster.
 If one does not understand the question there are more people in the group
who might have understood it better and can explain.
 Can divide responsibilities.
 Greater sense of commitment to agreed-upon decisions.
 Task can be divided between group members.
 More creative ideas can be put together.
 The task can be done quicker.

 You might have more than one leader personalities
 Everyone is an individual
 Schedules my clash and finding time to meet up to work on task at hand may
be difficult.
 Different cultures and religions may effect decisions
 Talk rather than act
 Members sometimes loose the feeling of personal responsibility
 Work can be time consuming.
 One might have to do all the work
 Misunderstandings
 Conflict can arise
15. What is the hallo effect?NB
The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a particular trait
is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence of interpretations.
Edward L. Thorndike was the first to support the halo effect with empirical research.
In a psychology study published in 1920, Thorndike asked commanding officers to rate
their soldiers; Thorndike found high cross-correlation between all positive and all
negative traits. People seem not to think of other individuals in mixed terms; instead
we seem to see each person as roughly good or roughly bad across all categories of
A study by Solomon Asch suggests that attractiveness is a central trait, so we presume
all the other traits of an attractive person are just as attractive and sought after.
The halo effect is involved in Harold Kelley's implicit personality theory, where the
first traits we recognize in other people influence our interpretation and perception
of later ones because of our expectations. Attractive people are often judged as
having a more desirable personality and more skills than someone of average
The term is commonly used in human resources recruitment. It refers to the risk of an
interviewer noticing a positive trait in an interviewee and as a result, paying less
attention to their negative traits (or vice versa).
16. Maslow (NB)
It has a huge impact in level 3 (social) and some impact in level 4 (esteem). Social
needs relate to gaining love and belonging, and this is linked to interpersonal
communication. Communication is important in each of our lives, from small talk, to
the intimate conversation of lovers. In order to gain the love and affection that we all
crave, we've got to learn to be interested in other people in return, and to always
keep a nice smile on your face. This will help is fulfil our social and esteem needs and
allow us to shift our focus towards needs of a higher level.

17. Johari’s Window Model (NB)

The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving
self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. The
Johari Window model can also be used to assess and improve a group's relationship
with other groups.
Johari window four regions:
1. What is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others -
open area, open self, free area, free self, or 'the arena'
2. What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know -
blind area, blind self, or 'blind spot'
3. What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know - hidden
area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or 'facade'
4. What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by
others - unknown area or unknown self

Self-disclosure brings information

from the hidden to the public.
While it may be challenging or
exposing from a personal point of
view it is within the control of the
individual and is likely to build
trust. Such revelation often
carries with it the fear that it will be abused or that someone will take advantage of
the increased vulnerability shown. We often need to protect and support the
Feedback moves information from the blind to the public arena. By definition it
always comes as a surprise and can be highly challenging or even shocking for the
receiver. It is difficult enough to listen to and assimilate when solicited, but is often
unsolicited in the heat of conflict and given in an attacking manner which tends to
trigger defensiveness. We can choose the content, timing, and manner of feedback to
ensure it is constructive. Honest feedback builds trust and awareness, especially if
the receiver is receptive and the giver benevolent in intent and manner.
For most of us this will entail developing self-awareness and learning the skills of self-
disclosure and feedback needed to enlighten rather than inflame. We can all be
resistant to information that challenges our self-concept and understanding of
ourselves; especially if it is something we might feel ashamed or embarrassed by. We
may need time and support to assimilate such information. Patience, courage,
sensitivity, skill and understanding are required to bring such information into the
public awareness in the heat of conflict and it would be foolhardy to do so without
developing such capability.
This is especially true of the inquiry needed to bring information from the unconscious
into the private or public arena. Some of this material may be so far below the
surface that we may never become aware of it. Other material, while below the
surface awareness of individual or group but can be made public by attending to and
amplifying nonverbal or bodily signals, double messages, incongruities between
intention and action, dreams, intuitions, and so on, so that they can be inquired into
and understood and integrated. This area may represent such things as transference
and projection of childhood experiences, disowned parts of our identity, latent
potentialities and unrecognised resources, emergent inspiration or leadership.
The model identifies trust as an environmental condition for encouraging disclosure
and feedback. It also implies that taking risks and engaging in disclosure and feedback
build trust, and that increased disclosure and feedback will enhance interpersonal
relationships. Providing such a framework during conflict helps illuminate what needs
to happen to release the transformational power of awareness and provides a basis
for contracting a process to enable it to take place. Clarity of expectation around the
process helps contain the disturbance and volatility and address the needs of people
exploring on the edges of their identities, awareness and comfort zones.