GAS PROCESSES
2.1 Introduction
As described in art. 1.5, whenever one or more of the properties (such a pressure,
volume, temperature, internal energy etc.) of a system change, we may say that a change
in state has occurred. The path of the succession of states through which the system
passes is called the process. The change in one or more properties takes place during
the process as a result of flow of energy (in the form of work and/or heat) across the
boundary of the system. The different thermodynamic processes of gases may be classified
as under :
 Constant volume (or Isochloric or Isometric),
 Constant pressure (or Isothermal),
 Constant temperature (or Isothermal),
 Frictionless adiabatic (or Reversible adiabatic or Isentropic),
 Polytropic, and
 Throttling or Restricted flow.
Processes stated above, except throttling, are considered to be reversible* non flow
processes, and throttling process is an irreversible flow process.
Many of the above thermodynamic processes can be represented graphically by
plotting simultaneous values of pressure and volume. Curves, thus, obtained from a
diagram showing the changing states of the working substance is called pv diagram, and
it can be proved that the area under the curve plotted on such a diagram represents
work done during the process if friction in the process is negligible, i.e. if the process
is assumed to be reversible.
Consider a certain quantity of gas of volume vi in a cylinder at a pressure pi. Now,
if this substance is allowed to expand, work will be done. As the substance expands,
the pressure normally drops and the state of the substance changes along some path
12 as shown in the fig. 21. Since the pressure, and therefore the force acting on the
face of the piston is variable, it will be necessary to integrate to find the work done.
Consider a small change of state (fig. 21), so small that the pressure is essentially
constant during the change. The force acting on the piston will be the pressure times
the area of the piston (p x A). The distance that the piston moves is differential quantity
dL, and the work is force times distance = (p x A) dL = p(A x dL) = pdv.
Thus, the work done for this small displacement of the piston, dW = pdv.
If changes of pressure and volume are plotted as shown in fig. 21, the area of the
elementary strip shown dotted is pdv. If the pressure and volume changes from state 1
28
2,
pdv.
Work done, W =
pdv
(2 . 1)
.. (2.2)
Vtkimt
.. (2.3)
p\v\ = pzv*
T\
Tz
Pi = h
(2.4)
Pz
Problem1 : 0 3 m3 of a gas is filled in a closed tank at an initial condition of 275 bar
and 40'C. The gas is heated until the pressure in the tank becomes 4 bar. Find the
Hence,
GAS PROCESSES
29
change in internal energy of the gas and heat added. Assume R = 0287 kJ/kg K and
kv = 0 711 kJ/kg K for gas.
Given : p 1  2 75 bar  275 kPa, T1 = 40 + 273 = 313 K, p2 = 4bar = 400kPa
and v 1 = v2 = 03 m .
Taking
P1V]
P2.V2.*
^ r = ~~~ and during the change, vi * V2,
Tz
Pz
f , p,
Pz
T
400
A  u
= p.' x r < 275 X 313 455 K
ni
m = ^
275 x 0*3
= q.287 x 3 1 3 = 0 9 2 kg
in
estimated by applyingcharacteristicequation
_
.
pi vi
200 x 045
Final mass of air (m2)in the receiver after pumping = 1089 + 09 = 1989 kg.
Final pressure of air in the receiver after pumping additional air can beestimated
by applying gas equation for final state,
i.e. P2V2 = m2RT2
.
mzRTz
1989 x 0287 x 288
n4
i.e. P2 = =  = 36534 kPa
V\
V)
1p(v2  v i)
.. (2.5)
ir
( a ) H*a<ing
= mRT2  mRTi
>lont
= mR(T2  Ti)
.. (2.6)
.. (2.7)
rnk^Tg
7 /)
.. (2.8)
PzV2
Tz
Pl^1
TV
Hence,
v\ = J i
v2
T2
and pi  p i ,
T = 2 x 7i = 025 x 450
T2
aos
(b) Mass of the gas, m
pi vi
RTi
Tz V2.
r< = ^
1.400 x 0 08 = 0 8672 kg
0 287 x 450
Problem4 : Two kilograms of air at 700 kPa and having a volume of 0 3 m is expanded
to a volume of 15 m3. If theexpansion takes place at constant pressure, find the final
temperature, the work done and the heat absorbed or rejected by the air during the
process. Assume R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and kv = 0711 kJ/kg K for air.
Given : pr = p2 = 700 kPa, vi = 03 m3, v2 = 15 m3 and m = 2 kg.
31
GAS PROCESSES
From p m . mRTi. T,  ^
Sim ilarly, T i 
= 366 K
= f ^
5 
o r k  1 , 556'C
U2  u i = m k ^ j2  Ti)
m 2 X 0711
(1,829
 840kJ

366)
2,080 kJ (increase)
Positive sign indicates that 2,920 kJ are received or absorbed by the air.
Problem5 : One kg of air is expanded at constant pressure of 300 kPa from a volume
of 0 3 m3 to 0 5 m3. Find the value of : (a) the heat transferred, (b) the increase in
internal energy, and (c) the external work done by the air during the process. Take kv
b 07165 kJ/kg K and kp = 10035 kJ/kg K for air.
p2= 300 kPa, vi = 03 m3, V2 = 05 m3.
(a) Given : p i =
r
r, = Pi vi
kJ/kg K
300x0 3 = 313.6 K
T
P2V2
300x05
cooe
Similarly, T ,  ^
= 1 x 0 2 8 7 = 5226
Heat transferred, Q = mk/^T2  Ti) t x 10035 x (5226 
p(v2
W =
03)
= 60kJ.
Problem6 : The diameter of the cylinder of a Diesel engine is 200 mm and the stroke
is 300 mm. The clearance volume is 1,500 cm3. At the commencement of the working
stroke, the clearance volume is full of gas at pressure of 4.2 MPa and 285' C. During
the first onetenth of the working strtike the gas expands at constant pressure. Assuming
R as 0287 kJ/kg K and y as 14, find : (a) the temperature of gas, (b) the work done
by the gas, and (c) the heat absorbed by the gas at the end of thisperiod.
(a) Clearance volume, vi = 1,500 cm3 = 1,500 x ^0~G m3,
p 1  4 2 MPa  4,200 kPa  p *
Considering the condition in the clearance space,
. ..
Mass ol the gas, m .
p iv i
Strokevolume =
4,200x1,500x10
.
=0287 x ( 2 8 5 2 j 3,  00393 kg.
106 + 10 x
9,430_ 2,442 3
106 10
32
a l = 909 3 K or
00393 x 0287
fe = 6363C
*
1 I'
Y
f 14
141
= 10045 kJ/kg K
Y 1
Thus, heat received, O = mkf^Tz  T1)
00393 x 1 0045 x (9093  558)  1387 kJ
= 0287
kp 
Problem7 : 012 m3 of gas at 11 bar and 92C is compressed to a volume of 003 n r,
pressure of 6 bar and a temperature of 240C. The .:ork done on the gas during the
compression process is 201 kJ.
Calculate : (a) the mass of gas compressed, (b) the increase in internal energy of
the gas, and (c) the heat received or rejected by the gas during compression. Assume
R m 0295 kJ/kg K and y => 14 for the gas.
Given : p i * 11 bar * 110 kPa, v/  012 m3, f* 92C, v2 * 003 m3,
p2 = 6 bar  600 kPa, t2  240C, W . 201 kJ. and f l = 0 295 kJ/kg K.
(a) Using characteristic gas equation,
Mass of the gas, m  ^
= 0 ,22 6 k9'
kb
(b) Combining the relation, y = ? and R = kp  kv , we have,
Ky
kv . R x
(y 1 )
= 0295 x
~   = 07375 kJ/kg K.
(1 4 1 )
33
PROCESSES
(a)
Work done : When heat is added or received,
the process is an expansion and work is done by
the gas, and when heat is rejected, the process is
compression and work is done on the gas. Work done
by the gas,
W = shaded area under the curve 12 (fig. 24)
Votum*
v,
 J p  dv
But, pv = p,Vf = C
i.e. p =
P i V1
expansion process.
Vz
Hence, W =
p 
v2
'dv = p^v^ j ~ = p\v\ (loge vz logevi)
= Pi ^ log*
^1
.. (2. 10)
= P1V1 loge (0
= U2  Ui = 0
.. (2 . 11)
loge(/)
(2.12)
P1v\
M
P2V2
and temperature remains constant, i.e. = T1 = T2,
Tz
(2.13)
P1 V1 = P2 V2
Problem8 : 01 m3 of air at 6 bar is expanded isothermally to 0 5 m . Calculate the
final pressure and the heat supplied during the expansion process.
Given : p i = 6 bar = 600 kPa,
During isothermal process in the case of perfect gases, the relationship between
pressure and volume is given by p iv i = p^v2, i.e. 600 x 01 = p2 x 05.
Final pressure, p2 = 120 kPa or 12 bar.
Using eqn. (2.10), the work done during isothermal expansion 12,
/ \
r 1v2
 600 x 01 x loge 5 = 96 57 kJ.
W = p ,v r loge
vi
34
Problem9 : 04 kg u air at a
pressure of 100 kPa and a temperatureof 288 K,is
compressed isothermaliy to 500 kPa. Calculate the final volume and theheat rejected
during the compression process. Take R = 0287 kJ/kg K for air.
Given : p 1 = 100 kPa, 7/ =288 K, pz = 500 kPa, m = 04 kg, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K.
As p iv i = mRTi,
= 0 3306 m3
vi =
02
Work done on the gas during isothermal compression from state 1 to state 2,
Work of some nature must be done by the gas during expansion or work
on the gas during its compression, and
should be done
35
GAS PROCESSES
For a small change in one kilogram of the gas, it can be written that
dQ = du + p d v
But, for adiabatic process, dQ 0 and du  kvdT
Putting, p =
RT
RT
pv
R dv
= 0
Kv
ft _ kp kv
 = y1
Again putting T =
7*
0 = kvdT + pdv
R
loge T =  (log v) = a constant
Integrating, we have,
But,
dT
kv dT + dv = 0
v
The curve corresponding to this eqn. (2.14) is represented in fig. 25 on p  plane.
(a) Work done : Let p i and vi refer to the initial condition and p2 and V2 to the
final condition of the gas. Consider any point on the curve 12 and let the pressure and
the volume at this point be p and v respectively.
Let thr volume increase by dv, at a pressure p.
Small amount of work done during this small
change in volume * p dv.
W = shaded area under the curve 12
V2
= \ p d v
_ a constant,
But, since pvy = pi viy7 =
P  Pi
01 ''jontropic procor
V\
\Y
(expansion).
V2
Vz
Hence, W = J
v\ V
vY
dv = pi viY J V*1dv
/
v\
p^v^y ^
Integrating, W = y _ y l v*
But, p iv iY= p 2K2Y
y~ ^
YJ
p iv iY(v2)1~Y
r
} _ y
P
r1
, .V,1Y (Vi) 1  Y
y_ y
_
...
piviY(K2)
men, w
n r T
'
r r T
 pin
r  T
pin  P2V2
ri
 (
mRT^  mRTz
mR
Y1
Y1
(Ti  TZ)
2 16)
.. ( .
36
(b) Change of internal energy is equal to work done, since no heat is entering or
leaving the gas during the adiabatic process, the work is done at the expense of internal
energy,
i.e. Au = 
P I V\  P2V2
(Y1)
mR _ _
(7t T z ) =  mkv ( Ti  r 2) = mkv(T z  Ti)
.. (2.17)
(c) Transferred heat during the process, Q = zero, since no heat is enterting or
leaving the gas.
(d) Relation between p, v and T : (For adiabatic compression)
Tz
h
y 1
nY 1
V1
P2
*Z
P1
and
P2
' 9 *
Pi
Vz
(2.18)
l i
1
Initial volume y
Final volume
Final pressure
initial pressure
Final pressure
Initial pressure
{nitial volume
Final volume
Problem10 : 045 kilogram of gas occupies 035 m at 15 'C and 110 kPa. After
adiabatic compression to 013 n r, the pressure is 440 kPa. Find, (a) the constant for
this gas, (b) the molecular weight of this gas, (c) the ratio of the specific heats, (d) the
specific heat at constant pressure, and (e) the specific heat at constant volume.
(a) As p iv i = mRTi, R =
p iv i
m7i
110x035
= 0 297 kJ/kg K
0 45 x 288
0297
(c) Referring to fig.26, for adiabatic compression 12,
p iv iY = p2V2Y or
P2
P1
log
Y=
(d) y =
P2
P\
vi
log
vz
log
log
vi \Y
vz
440
110
035
013
06021
= 14
04298
K = kP
n
But, R kp ky kp ^ kp 11
0 297 = Ap(1  1 / 1 4 ) = 02857kp
37
GAS PROCESSES
0297
Specific heat at constant pressure, kp = q ;>857 = 1 03955 kJ/k9 K(e) y =
kp
:.k v = kp = 1
y
14
= 07425 kJ/kg K.
Problem11 : One kilogram of gas expands adiabatically and its temperature is observed
to fall from 240 C to 115 C to while the volume is doubled. The gas produces 89 kJ of
work in the process. Determine the specific heats of the gas at constant pressure and
at constant volume.
Given : Ti = 513 K, T2 = 388 K,
V2
= 2, and W = 89 kJ.
v\
Using eqn. (2.16), work done per kg during adiabatic expansion 12,
W= H
/
( T \ T 2)
. A
r , r 2 )
(kp kv)
k p / kv 1
^ '
R = kp  kv and y = J0
= kv{Ty 72)
kv = 0 712 kJ/kg K
Ti
T2
V2
/. y = 14
= 1 407
V'l
^1
P2
Pi
065
065
A, 3
6512 " 01 m
o
ojT
1 407
fP2 y
100
(P lj
Now, gas expands isothermally (at constant temperature) from an initial pressure (p2)
of 1,400 kPa and volume 01 m3, to a final presure (p^) and volume 0 65 m3
38
2 1 5
= 262 kJ
0 407
1 1 Ann \ i1407
407
U
o
o
y 1
'pz) r
i
5.
ti
100
= 2 147
p^v^
RT\
100 x 0 65
= 0 0538 kg.
4 124 x 293
Problem13 : One kg of air at an initial condition of 350 kPa and 450 K expands
adiabatically and without friction to a final condition of 130 kPa. Calculate the amount of
external work done and the change in internal energy of the gas during the expansion.
Take y = 14 and R = 0287 kJ/kg K for air.
Given : p i = 350 kPa, Ti = 450 K, p2 = 130 kPa, y = 14, R = 0 287 kJ/kg K.
RTi
o 287 x 450 = a369 m3
350
P1
Considering adiabatic expansion 12, p iv iy = p2V2r
1
i
'350' \i4
= 0369 x 2 208 = 0 748 mw
.*. Final volume, V2 = vi x 'P i' Y= 0 369 x
As p iv i * RTi,
o
CO
I P2J
Using eqn. (2.15),
Work done, W =
Pi vy  pzv2
y 1
GAS PROCESSES
39
Pi V1 P2V2
y 1
= 7 9 7
Problem14 : 025 m3 of gas at 288 K and 100 kPa (01 MPa) is compressed adiabatically
to 700 kPa (0 7 MPa). Calculate : (i) the final temperature of the gas, and (ii) the work
done on the gas. Take kp = 1.001 kJ/kg K and kv = 0715 kJ/kg K for the gas.
(i) Now. r _= kP
ky _ 1001
0 715 =
From eqn. (2.18),
7 1
IrJL
P2
T2 = Ti x
P2
7i '
14
700
= 288 x
14
100
P1
Pi
1
= 502 5 K or tz = 229 5C
= mRTi, m =
Using equation
w
(2.15),
Pi
RT\
work done,
 P2V2 _
y 1
100 x 0 25
= 0 3035 kg
0 2 8 6 x 288
p w
mR (l   T2)_
0 3035
y 1
0286 (2 8 8  5 0 2 5)
14 1
=  46 55 kJ
: p/
(a) R = kp  kv =
Now, p iv i * mRTi
Now,
p iv i
i.e. T2 =
p2 v2
Tz
VZ
vi
1 008
072
pm
A 7l = mR
and pi = P2
v2
v i = 0 1 m3,
0 2 88
0 1
1 008
072
= 14
kJ/kg K
1,400 x 01
= 486 K
1 x 0 288
vi
Ti
vz
Tz
02
x Ti = 7 x 486  972 K or tz  699 C
(b) y =; kP
;p =
kv
kPa,
= p2 = 1,400
0 2 m3,
andV3 =
0 6 m3.
40
V3
V2
\ y
/
\ Y 
141
fO61
02
Tz
3=
P 2 VZ1 = P3V3y
Also
'V3
VZ
Fig. 2 8.
1 0 0 8 x (9 7 2 
1 ,4 0 0 (02
490
kJ.
0.
12,
= 140 kJ.
300 x 0 6 _
25Q RJ
1 4 1
23,
Pz^z  P3^3 = 1 ,4 0 0 x 0 2 y  1
0 1)
486)
3, Q
w =
1,400
= 300 kPa.
4655
1,400
(3)14
P2
P3 =
W = P, (v2 v,) =
04
792
= 626 K or t3 = 353 C
1 522
v04
(3)
Volume *
= (3)
140
250
390
kJ.
Polytropic Process
The polytropic process is a name usually applied to any process that can be described
by the general equation p v n= constant, where n is a constant having any value between
zero and infinity. Many actual processes have expansion and compression curves defined
by the relation p v n= constant.
Polytropic processes in general cover all the equations for the change of state of
the substance for all the processes considered before. A particular process can be defined
from the general law p v n= C, by choosing proper value of n as follows :
Process
Value of index n
Equation
Constant volume
n = oc
pv" = C or v = C
Constant pressure
pv = C or p = C
Isothermal or hyperbolic
n=0
n= 1
pv = C
n =,Y
pv< = C
41
GAS PROCESSES
.. (2.20)
Fig. 2 9.
i.e. Q W + Au
.. (i)
(T2  T)
Pi V1_ P2^
(yi)
Abo, IV  & * ! = *
Substituting values from eqns. (ii) and
Q =
Pi v\ ~ P2V2 _ Pi v\ ~ P2V2
( n 1 )
(y T )
r i
= P/v,  p2v2
_ _j_
n 1
y 1
'
Pv\ z_P2v_2 y  n
y1
(n i)
m f?(Ti72)
^
w
ry  n '
x
= Work done x
ry  n>
.. ( 2 . 2 1 )
This equation gives the amount of heat which passes into the gas, through the
cylinder walls, as the gas expands, This is true when n is less than y and more than
1. If however, n > y heat is rejected by the gas or gas is losing heat during expansion.
In case of the compression, heat equivalent of work done will be negative, i.e. work
will be done on the gas. Hence, C? becomes ve or negative heat is received, i.e. heat
is rejected by the gas during compression. This is true only when y > n and n > 1. If,
however, n is greater than y, gas will be receiving heat during compression.
(b)
Relationship between p, v and T : The relationship between p, v and T for
polytropic process may be expressed by changing the index n for y in therelationship
between p, v and T for the adiabatic compression (as given in eqn. 2.18),
42
7
7i
V
n 1
v 1
V I/
&
V2
P1
Pi
VI
y)
(2. 22)
V2
where p /t v* T1 refer to initial state and p ^ v2, 7* refer to the final state for polytropic
expansion or compression.
Determination of the value of n
If the initial and final volumes and pressures are known for an expansion of the
form P V n = C, the value of n can be obtained from the logarithms of these values.
Now, p iv in = p2V2n
Taking logs of both sides of this equation,
log p i + n log vj = p2 + n log v2
n log V2  n log vi = log p i  log p2
.. n (log V2  log vi) log p i  log p2
log pi  log p2
log V2  log vt
log
P2
log
(2.23)
V2
v\
For an adiabatic expansion, the value of y may be obtained from equation (2.23) by
substituting y for n.
Problem16 : 03 m3
of air of mass 1 kg at an initial pressure of 5 5 bar
expandsto
a final volume of 05
m 3. If the expansoin is according to the law pv * C, findthe
work done, the change in internal energy and heat received or rejected during the process.
Assume kv = 0708 kJ/kg K and R = 0287 kJ/kg K for air.
Given : p 1 = 55 bar = 550 kPa, V\ = 03 m3, v2 = 05 m3, n = 13,
R = 0287 kJ/kg K, and kv = 0708 kJ/kg K.
Referring to fig. 210, and considering polytropic expansion 12,
\n
P2 = Pi
= 550
^03^3
283 kPa.
05
p^v^ pzvz
n 1
550 x 03  283 x 05
= 78 3 kJ
13 1
Ti = ^
= f 50
= 574 9 K
mR
1 x 0287
Fig. 210.
P2V 2
283 x 0 5
= mR ~ 1 X 0 287 =493
Change in internalenergy, U2
ui
GAS PROCESSES
43
The negative sign indicates that the internal energy has decreased as a result of
external work done by the air during the expansion.
Heat transferred,
kJ.
1 x 028 x 290
ncA. _ 3
= = 0541 m
150
Pi
13 1
= 290
T2 = ^
13
'7 5 0 ^
150
P\Vy  P 2V2
n 1
= 1 x 028
x
I
mR(T\  T2)
n 1
(2^04205) _ _ 121.83 kJ (work is done on the gas)
1
= 1 x
(4205
(U2
290)
9409 kJ.
ui) + W  9409 +
\n
11
^2
log (75)
log (5)
750
i.e.
100
^025
005,
v
J
08751 = 1252
0699
or
in i
44
1
\
Tz = 7*1
vz
 373
\n~ 1
'ws'1462' 1 =
005
As p iv i m mRTi,
vz
p \v\
RT\
100 x 025
0298 x 373
R
y 1
ftOOC .
9
kv, we obtain,
0298
= 0745 kJ/kg K
04
P i^i  P 2V2
n 1
125
0252
Problem19 : Two kilograms of air at a presure of 875 kPa occupy a volume of 035 n r.
This air is then expanded to a volume of 2 m3. Find the final temperature, the work
done, and the heat received or rejected by this air for each o f the following methods of
expansion : (a) at constant pressure, (b) isothermally, (c) adiabatically, and (d) according
to the law P V 25= constant. Assume R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, ky= 0718 kJ/kg K and y  14
for air.
(a) At constant pressure : p i = p2 = 875 kPa
As p iv 1 = mRT1t
Tf =
As P2V2  mRT2, T2 =
Work done, W =Pi{v2
Change ininternal energy,
P1V1
mR
875 x 035
= 533 5 K
2 x 0287
P 2 V2
mR 2 x
875 x 2
= 3,048 6 K or t2 = 2,775 6 * C
0287
 v 1) = 875 (2 0.35)
U2 
=1,44375 kJ.
loge
 u i = 0.
/ 2
035
GAS PROCESSES
45
Pi
P2 
i
As p iv iY = pzvz1
875
 = 762 kPa
1148
v14
035
K
Now, P2V2 = mRT2
.. 72 = ^
Work done, W = ^
y 1
= 2655 K or tz = 7 5 * C
= (g7 5) 0^35(762) 2 = ^
141
0 RJ
Pi
875
875
= 99 kPa
8835
r 2 0 *
035
T2 =
n 1
P2K2
mf?
or
X2 = 72C.
875 x 0 35  99 x 2
= 433 kJ.
1 25  1
99 x 2
= 345 K
2 x 0287
n y
P lv1 ~P2V2
+ mkv(Tz~ Ti)
( n  1)
mR(T)  T2)
R
(Tz~ Tj)
+ mkv(T2  T) = m \k v ( n  1)
( n  1)
But, R = kv (y  1)
.% Q = m \k v
M Y  D ] (T2  ^ ) = mkv 1
n1 I
V 0 ( Tz  T))
n 1
= mkv j z ] ( T2  T\)
Putting, kv
n 1
46
Problem21 : A certain quantity of air in a closed vessel of fixed volume of 014 m3,
exerts a pressure of 10 bar at 250'C. If the vessel is cooled so that the pressure falls
to 36 bar, determine : (a) the final temperature of air, (b) the change in internal energy,
and (c) the heat transferred. Take kv = 0712 kJ/kg K and R * 0287 kJ/kg K for air.
(a) Applying the state equation, p iv i = mRTi.
m =
PjVj _
1,000 x 014
 0 933 kg.
RT
0287 x (250 + 273)
Pressure
47
GAS PROCESSES
Problem  2 2 : A vessel of volume 0 28 m3 initially contains air at 105 bar and 5'C.
A valve is opened to admit air from a line in which the pressure and temperature are
respectively 35 bar and 60'C and is closed when the vessel pressure has risen to 28
bar.
Assumingtheprocess
to be adiabatic and the air to be a perfect gas with y = 14
and R =0287 kJ/kg K,find : (i) the initial mass of air in the vessel, (ii) the mass of
air admitted, and (iii) the final temperature in the vessel.
/v .
, . _
p iv i
105 x 028
(') to'631 mass erf a.r, m, =
= 0.287 x (273 + 5) = 0 3685 kg.
(ii) kv = 7 ^7 7 = 7,.287,, = 07175 and kp = yk = 14 x 07175 = 10045 kJ/kgK.
(Y 1 )
(1 4 1 )
The process of charging the vessel is a combination of nonflow and flow processes.
The process is adiabatic. Hence, there is no heat transfer across the boundaries of the
system. As volume is constant, no external work is done.
During the process 13, mass of air is added to the system. Hence, initial mass (at
point 1) and the final mass (at point 3) are different, as indicated at points 1 and 3 in
fig. 213.
p
Let 1  represents initial condition,
2 28
  3
(m>m2)
3
tft
W
Cl
105
*1
1 (m,)
____ L_
0">8
V ume
Fig. 213.
m w i + m2h2  rri3U3
Taking absolute zero as datum for internal energy,
m ^ T f + m2kpT2 = (m1 + m2)kvT3
i.e. 03685 x 07175 x 278 + m2 x 10045 x 333
= (mi + m2) x 07175 x T3
48
1959  735
3345
273
x 07175 x 73 = 1959
T3
m
0366 kg.
and T3 =
070
Problem23 : Atmospheric air at 102 kPa and 27'C is compressed to a pressure of 300
kPa, the law of compression being pv* = constant, and stored in a vessel of volume
p
0 6 m3. Now a valve on a line, connecting source
of air at 500 kPa and 100'C and the vessel, is
opened and 0 6 kg of air is allowed to flow into
the vessel. Determine : (a) the temperature at the
end of polytropic compression, (b) the initial mass
and volume of air, (c) the change in internal energy
during compression, and (d) thefinal temperature
and pressure of air at the end of air flow into the
vessel, assuming air flow operation to be adiabatic.
Assume air to be a perfect gas for which y = 14
and R = 0287 kJ/kg K.
The polytropic compression and air flow operation are shown by 12 and 24 processes repsectively
in fig. 214.
Fig. 2 14
Tz
Ti
n 1
n
1 3 1
13
f 300^
102
^
/
T2 = (27 + 273) x 12825 = 300 x 12825 = 385 K or t2  112'C
(b)
Mass of air compressed and stored m i = m2 kg or initial mass of air can be
obtained from
P2V2 = m^RT2
300 x 06
1 629 kg.
i.e. m2 =
0 287 x 385
Initial volume (vi) may be obtained from p iv i = miRTi
1629 x 0 287 x 300
, , , Cm3
i.e. Vf = = 1375 m
102
(c) kv =
kp
R
y 1
0287
= 07175 kJ/kg K and
141
GAS PROCESSES
49
(d) During the operation of air admission 24, work and heat transfer are absent.
For a combination of nonflow and flow process,
Internal energy at 2 + Enthalpy of admitted air = Internal energy at 4
Thus, m2U2 + msh3 = rri4U4
where 2 and 4 represent initial and final conditions of operations, and 3 represents
condition of air flowing.
Taking absolute zero as datum for internal energy,
ni2kvT2 + mgkpTg =
i.e.
(m2 + rn^kyT^,
n 
 422 K or *  149'C
at point4,
06
450 kPa
Gas constant, R = kp  kv
eqn (223)l
Expressions for different items for various thermodynamic processes are given in the
following table 2 1.
Table 21 Formulae (or Perfect Gas Processes
Type of process
Constant
volume
V m C
Constant
Pressure
p = C
Isothermal
T =
Isentropic dr
Frictionless Adiabatic
Poly tropic
d v" = C
_
n
p i Vi" = P 2 V2
r
V 1
Ti
Tz
Vl 1
V n1
Ti
fp A n
t2" P I
DV>
p y v < y = p >vzy
Work done,
kJ/kg
Ti ~ vi
Transferred
Heat, O kJ/kg
Change in
Enthalpy (total
heat). kJ/ka
pf, Vf
HE I  4
pi
Ti
Change in
Internal Energy,
up  ui kJ/kg
Note :
T z '_ v z
P (vfe  V)
kv(T z 
Ti)
k v (T z 
T {)
k v (T z 
Ti)
k p (T z 
Ti)
kP ( T z 
Ti)
k p (T 2 
Ti)
T2
1 11
1
(Y1)
(n1)
kp ( T z 
arK*
T2
v /
p y V y p z V z
Ti)
k v ( T z  T i)
11
p \V ,p z V 2
kv (T z 
p iv lo g ,
p2, t>2
Ms]
P V log9
r1
7j _ V
relations
Tz _ pz
1 1
v and T
p,
P V p z v z
(n1)
Ti)
k p (T 2 
Y n
y1
Ti)
50
1. (a) What is a gas process ? Classify and explain basic gas processes. How are they shown graphically on a p v
plane ?
(b) What is the significance of the area under a process line on p  v plane ?
2. Justify the following statements :
(i) Isothermal process of an ideal gas is also the hyperbolic process .
(ii) T h e processes  isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and isentropic are particular cases of the polytropic process .
3. Find the values of kp and y for a gas whose gas constant is 0324 kJ/kg K and Kv = 0 84 kJ/kg K. If 225 kg of this gas
with an initial volume of 1 15 m undergoes a process during which its pressure remains constant at 7 bar and its
temperature becomes 280C at the end of the process, calculate : (a) the change in internal energy, (b) the change
in enthalpy, (c) the transferred heat, and (d) the work done.
[1 164 kJ/kg K; 1 3857; (a)  1041 86 kJ; (b)  144372 kJ; (c)  144372 kJ; (d)  40186 kJJ
4. Four kg of gas occupying 0 5 m3 is heated from 60 * to 115 'C at constant pressure of 774 kPa. Find the gas constant
and final volume after heating. If the initial temperature remains unchanged and the volume increases four times its
initial volume, what will be the final pressure of the gas ?
[029 kJ/kg K, 0583 m3; 193 5 kPa]
5. Two kg of gas at 50 *C is heated at constant volume until the pressure is doubled. Determine: (a) the final temperature,
(b) the change in internal energy, and (c) the change in enthalpy. Take kp = 10^5 kJ/kg K and y= 1 69 for the gas.
[(a) 373'C; (b) 38437 kJ; (c) 64923 kJ]
6 . A certain quantity of air in a closed vessel of fixed volume of 015 m exerts a pressure of 1 MPa at 500 *K. If the vessel
is cooled so that the pressure falls to 350 kPa, determine : (a) the final temperature of air, (b) the change in internal
energy, and (c) the heat transferred. Take kv = 07165 kJ/kg K and f t =0287 kJ/kg K for air.
((a)  98C; (b)  24333 kJ (decrease); (c) 24333 kJ (rejected)]
7. (a) Explain the statement during constant pressure process, heat added is distributed to change in internal energy
and work done*.
(b) One kg of air at 150 kPa and 30 *C undergoes a constant pressure process until the volume is trippled. Determine
: (i) the change in internal energy, and (ii) the change in enthalpy. Take kp= 10035 kJ/kg K and kv = 07165 kJ/kg K
for air.
[(i) 434 2 kJ; (ii) 60812 KJ]
8 . "Isothermal process of a perfect gas is also a hyperbolic process. Justify the statement.
The pressure of 015 m3 of air increases from 500 kPa to 15 MPa while undergoing isothermal compression. Determine
the value of transferred heat.
824 kJ (rejected)]
9. A quantity of gas is expanded isothermally from initial condition of 01 m3 and 735 kPa, to a final pressure of 118 kPa.
Find : (a) the final volume, (b) the work done, and (c) the heat supplied during the expansion process.
[(a) 0623 m3; (b) 13455 kJ; (c) 13455 kJ]
10. When 225 kg of a perfect gas at an initial temperature of 400 *C is heated at constant pressure, 523 k j are added
to it. If the gas has a value of ft = 2 079 kJ/kg K and y = 166, calculate: (a) the final temperature, (b) the change in
enthalpy, (c) the change in internal energy, and (d) the work done.
[(a) 844'C; (b) 523 kJ; (c) 315 kJ; (d) 208 kJf
11. State the difference between an adiabatic process and an isothermal process.
A perfect gas is compressed adiabatically from a state of 193 MPa, volume 01 m and temperature 4"C, to a pressure
c* 5.84 MPa. Find : (a) temperature and volume at the end of compression, and (b) the change in enthalpy. Take for
gas y= 14, kp = 1005 kJ/kg K and kv = 0718 kJ/kg K.
[(a) 96*C, 00454 m3; (b) 25124 kJ]
12. Prove that the index y in p v r = constant for adiabatic expansion of a gas, is the ratio of the specific heat at constant
pressure to the specific heat at constant volume.
0 1 2 m3 of air at 15 MPa and 1,500C expands adiabatically to pressure of 175 kPa. Find: (a) the final temperature,
and (b) the work done. Take kp = 10035 kJ/kg K and kv = 07165 kJ/kg K for air.
[(a) 6864C; (b) 206 75 kJ]
13. In the characteristic equation pv= RT for unit mass of a gas, prove that, ft is the difference between the specific
heats at constant pressure and at constant volume.
,
.
05 kg of air at 179 C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and in the process falls in temperature
from 179 C to 18 'C . The work done during expansion is 57 kJ. Determine the specific heats of air at constant pressure
and at constant volume.
[kp = 09917 kJ/kg K, k = 07081 kJ/kg K]
GAS PROCESSES
51
.
n 1
1 5 kilograms of a gas at 932 kPa and 30'C are compressed according to the law pv1'32= C. If the transferred heat
is  75 kJ, find : (a) the final temperature and pressure, (b) the change in internal energy and enthalpy, and (c) the
work done.
Takey= 14 and to = 0712 kJ/kg K for the gas.
[(a) 31 VC , 13952 kPa; (b) 30011 kJ, 42015 kJ; (c) 37514 kJ]
6. What is the significance of the area under a process line of perfect gas on p  v diagram ?
7. Show that if a quantity of gas expands according to the law pv'1= C, then the heat supplied during expansion is given
by Q =
Y1
kJ
1,530rC, 828 kJ, 2,8951 kJ received; (b) 876C, 33315 kJ, 333 15 kJ received;
(c)  117C, 285 kJ, 1427 kJ received.]
22.1 kg of gas initially at 1,195 kPa and 320*C expands adiabatically until its pressure is 102 kPa. The gas is then heated
at constant volume until its temperature becomes 320 "C and its pressure is found to 207 kPa. Finally, the gas is
compressed isothermally to the original pressure of 1,195 kPa. Determine : (a) the ratio of specific heats, (b) the
temperature of the gas at the end of adiabatic expansion, and (c) the change in internal energy of the gas during
adiabatic expansion. Take kp for gas = 1005 kJ/kg K.
[(a) 14037; (b) 192 *C; (c) 21534 kJ (loss of internal energy)]
23.
(a) Prove that specific heat for polytropic process kn can be expressed as
n 1
where to is specific heat at constant volume, n is polytropic index, and y is adiabatic index.
52
(b) A certain gas, having a volume of 0 075 m3 at 16 *C and 690 kPa, expands to 035 m3 according to the law pv1'2
= C. Determine: (a) the final temperature, (b) the wort* done, and (c) the heat received or rejected during the process.
Take 7 = 14 and R = 0286 kJ/kg K for the gas.
[(a)  6 0 7 C; (b) 6865 kJ; (c) 3433 kJ (received)]
24. What is an isentropic process ?
One kg of gas occupying 015 m3 at a pressure of 15 MPa is expanded at constant pressure to 025 m3. The gas is
then expanded adiabatically to 09 m3. Calculate :
(a) the temperature at the end of constant pressure expansion,
(b) the temperature and pressure at the end of adiabatic expansion,
(c) the heat supplied during each portion of the process, and
(d) the total work done during the whole process.
Take kp = 1013 kJ/kg K and kv = 0 72 kJ/kg K for gas.
[(a) 1,007'C; (b) 487*C, 2474 kPa; (c) 51866 kJ, No heat is supplied during adiabatic expansion;
(d) 150 + 374 3 = 524 3 k jj
25. One kilogram of air initially at 108 kPa and 20*C is compressed through a volume of 6 to 1, to a final pressure of
1,475 kPa. Heat is then added at constant volume to the temperature of 605*C. Determine: (a) the change in internal
energy during the compression process, and (b) the amount of heat added at constant volume.
Take fcvfor air<= 0712 kJ/kg K.
((a) 266 29 kJ; (b) 15023 kJ]
26. One kilogram of nitrogen gas occupying 01 m3 at a pressure of 1,375 kPa is expanded at constant pressure to 02
m . The gas is then expanded adiabatically to 06 m3. Calculate: (a) the temperature at the end of constant pressure
process, (b) the temperature and pressure at the end of adiabatic expansion, and (c) the total work done during the
whole process. Take kp = 1038 kJ/kg K and kv = 0741 kJ/kg K for nitrogen.
[(a) 653'C; (b) 32365C, 295 5 kPa; (c) 382 kJ]
27. Two kilograms of oxygen are compressed polytropically from a pressure of 148 kPa and 17C, to 740 kPa. If the
compression is according to the law pv13 = constant, find : (a) the intial volume, the final temperature and the final
volume of the gas, (b) the work done, (c) the change in internal energy, and (d) the transferred heat.
Take gas constant R = 026 kJ/kg K and kp = 0913 kJ/kg K for oxygen.
((a) 0 5095 m3/kg, 147.5C, 01477 m3/kg; (b) 226 2 kJ;
(c) 17043 kJ; (d) 5577 k jj
28. Five kilograms of sulphur dioxide expand from the initial state p i = 1,176 kPa and ti = 250 C, to the final pressure
pg = 196 kPa. Find the final parameters and the work done by the gas if the expansion is (a) isothermal, (b) polytropic
(n = 12), and (c) isentropic. Take R = 013 kJ/kg K and kp = 0645 kJ/kg K for sulphur dioxide.
Process
(a) Isothermal
(b) Polytropic
(c) Isentropic
250
115
92
Final volume,
k?
m /kg
Work done, k j
03469
02573
0 2418
60816
4389
40816
29. A cylinder fitted with a movable piston contains a quantity of a gas at a presure of 345 kPa and temperature of 90
C. The piston is allowed to move slowly outwards, no heat being lost or gained by the gas during this process, and
at the end of expansion the pressure is 687 kPa. The piston is then fixed and heat is added until the gas reaches a
state of 90 *C and 109 kPa. Determine the specific heats kp and kv of the gas.
[144 kJ/kg K, 103 kJ/kg K]
30. One kilogram of nitrogen is compressed from the initial state p i = 196 kPa and ti = 40C, to the final pressure pg =
1,176 kPa. Find the final parameters, the work done, the change in internal energy, and the heat transferred if the
expansion is isothermal, polytropic (n = 125), and isentropic. Take R = 0297 kJ/kg K and kp = 1038 kJ/kg K for
_________________________________________________ __________ _____ _
nitrogen.
I
Process
Final temp,
te, *C
Final volume,
V2 m3/kg
Work done,
kJ/kg
Isothermal
Polytropic
Isentropic
40
175
249
0079
01131
01318
 1668
 16016
 1551
10003
1551
3 1 .065 m3 of hydrogen at 1 bar and 20C is compressed isentropically to 14 bar and then expanded isothermally to the
original volume of 065 m3. Determine :
(a) the temperature of the gas at the end of isentropic compression.
GAS PROCESSES
/
53
kJ]
32. One m of air at 690 kPa pressure and 50 C temperature is expanded isothermally,polytropically (n =125) and
isentropically to 4 m . Calculate: the pressure and temperature of air at the end of expansion in each case, and the
work done in each case. Take y = 14 for air.
Process
Final temp., fc C
Work done, kJ
Isothermal
Polytropic
Isentropic
50
 44 56
 88
172 5
95655
808
7343
122
991
33. A certain gas is compressed isentropically until the pressure becomes five times its original value. During the process
the temperature increases from 27C to 2025C and 130 kJ of work is done on 1 kg of gas. Find the specific heats
kp and kv, the gas constant R, and the molecular weight of the gas.