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Jomel Maroma

Physics 102 A Homework


Canonical Transformations
Due: September 4, 2016 (12 AM)
Instructions: Show that the following represent canonical transformations.
1.

1
q
P= ( p2 +q 2 ) ; Q=tan 1
2
p
Preliminaries:
p p
p=
P+
Q
a.
P
Q
q q
q =
P+
Q
P
Q

()

b.

c.

H K
=
p P
H K
=
q P

P K
+
p Q
P K
+
q Q

= 1 ( 2 p p +2 q q )= p p +q q
P
2
1
q
1
q
p q p q

Q=
+
p= 2 2
2
2
2
p
q
q
p
p +q
1+
1+
p
p

( )

d.

Q
p
Q
q

()

()

( )

P 1
P 1
= ( 2 p )= p ;
= ( 2 q ) =q
p 2
q 2
Q
1
q
Q
1
=
=p;
=
2
2
p
q
q
p
q
1+
1+
p
p

()

( )

( )

( 1p )

Substituting the equations we derived in (d) into (b):


H K P K Q K
K q
=
+
=
( p) +
=q
e.
p P p Q p P
Q p2 +q 2
H K P K Q K
K
p
=
+
=
( q)+
=p
f.
2
q P q Q q P
Q p +q 2

(
(

Multiplying (e) by p and (f) by q, we get:


K 2 K pq
( p )+
= p q
g.
P
Q p2 +q2
K 2 K
pq
(q )+
=p q
h.
2
P
Q p + q2

(
(

)
)

)
)

And adding these two, we get:


K 2 2
( p + q ) =p q p q K = p q2 p2q =Q
i.
P
P
p +q
Similarly, multiplying (e) by q and (f) by p, we get:

j.

K
K q2
( pq )+
=q q
P
Q p 2+ q2

k.

K
K
p
( pq )+
= p q
2
P
Q p + q2

(
(

)
)

Subtracting these two, we get:


K q2 + p2
K
=q q + p q
=( q q + p q ) =P
l.
2
2
Q p +q
Q

Interpretation:
Due to the asymptotic nature of the position coordinate, it could be surmised that this
canonical transformation represents a damped oscillation, particularly an underdamped one
bcause of the eventual decrease that occurs as position progresses over momentum.

p
sin

2.

P=ln
Preliminaries:
p p
p=
P+
Q
a.
P
Q
q q
q =
P+
Q
P
Q
b.

c.

H K
=
p P
H K
=
q P

P K
+
p Q
P K
+
q Q

p
cos p= p cot p
= 1
P
sin p
p
2
sec
q tan p+ p q
Q=

Q
p
Q
q

d.

P cos p
P
=
=cot p ;
=0
p sin p
q
Q
Q
2
=q sec p ;
=tan p
p
q

Substituting the equations we derived in (d) into (b):


H K P K Q K
K
=
+
=
( cot p ) +
( q sec 2 p )=q
e.
p P p Q p P
Q
H K P K Q K
K
=
+
=
( 0 )+
( tan p )= p
f.
q P q Q q P
Q
Multiplying (e) by tan p and (f) by q sec2p, we get:
K K
+
( tan p q sec 2 p )= q tan p
g.
P Q
K
( tan p q sec 2 p )= p q sec 2 p
h.
Q
Subtracting these two, we get:
K
K
= q tan p+ p q sec 2 p
=Q
i.
P
P
K
from f:
Q
K p
K
K =P
=

=p cot p= P
Q tan p Q
Q

Similarly, solving for


j.

Interpretation: The sine and tangent indicate that this motion represents simple harmonic
motion.
Q
sin

3. q =
Q
cos
2 P/ km
For purposes of convenience, and since q, p, Q and P are just dummy indices anyway, I will
interchange their notation, that is,
q Q , p P , Q q , P p

Moreover, to simplify calculations, I will let A=(km)1/4.


a.

p=

p p
P+
Q
P
Q

q =

b.

c.

q q
P+
Q
P
Q

H K
=
p P
H K
=
q P
p=

P K
+
p Q
P K
+
q Q

A cos Q
P
1

Q
p
Q
q
1

A sin Q ( 2 P ) 2
Q

(2 P)2
1

q =

P sin Q
1
2

(2 P ) A
d.

cos Q
( 2 P )2 Q
+
A

p A cos Q
=
;
1
P
( 2 P )2
q
sin q
=
;
1
P
A ( 2 p) 2

p
= A ( 2 P )2 sin Q
Q
1

q ( 2 P )2 cos Q
=
Q
A

Substituting (d) into (b), and multiplying the first equation by 2P cos Q and the
second equation by P , we get:
e.

H K A cos Q K sin q
=
+
=q
1
1
p P
Q
(2 P)2
A ( 2 p) 2
1
2

H K sin q
K ( 2 P ) cos Q
=
+
= p
1
q P
Q
A
2
A ( 2 p)

From here, we get that

K 2 p q cos q+ p sin q
=
=Q
1
P
A ( 2 p) 2

Furthermore, substituting the second half of (d) into (b), and multiplying the first
equation by 2P cos Q and the second equation by P , we get:
a.

1
2
(1/ 2)
H K
K (sin Q) (2 P)
sin Q
=
A ( 2 P ) 2 cos Q sin Q+
=2 P Q
p P
Q
A
1
2

H K sin q
K ( 2 P ) cos Q
sin Q
=
+
=2 P Q
1
q P
Q
A
A (2 p)2

From here, we can see that Q = A

2 p q sin q p cos q

(2 p )

1
2

=P

Interpretation:
Interpretation: The sine and tangent indicate that this motion represents simple harmonic
motion.