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Humanities is an academic discipline which deals with the study of the Human Condition, utilizing
methodologies that are usually analytical, critical or speculative. The wide range of subjects that come under the
umbrella term of Humanities range from history, languages, literature, law, philosophy, religion, performing arts,
anthropology, communication, sociology, psychology and many more. Humanities study brings us in contact with
the best life has to offer - History, music, art, philosophy, and literature. It is the study and contact with these
topics that enrich our existence. Whether politically conservative, liberal, or independent the study humanities
leads you through the development of thought and catapults ones understanding of why things are the way they
are. While the humanities may not seem as salient as engineering, chemistry, or any of the other hard sciences, it
plays an indispensable role in the world. Humanities study strengthens ability to communicate and work with
others. Gain knowledge of foreign languages and foreign cultures. Humanities study helps understand the impact
that science, technology, and medicine has had on society and understand the future scientific needs of society.
Prehistoric Art and Architecture The earliest people made art before they built houses. They painted the walls of
their caves, carved figurines, decorated their tools and everyday implements with fine designs, and even made
musical instruments. As primitive peoples advanced and learned to make more sophisticated objects for their daily
Use, they nearly always decorated them with artwork. The Cro-Magnon humans suddenly developed a sense of
themselves as being human, of being unique in the order of universe different from animals or trees. Whenever
they did not have caves, rocky shelters, then they built simple huts. And this is the Beginning of architecture. The
study of prehistoric art "comprises many millions of images from hundreds of thousands of sites" and spans some
40,000 years. As such, prehistoric art and architecture encompasses many different types of art. It can be an
arrangement of stones weighing many tons, like Stonehenge. Cave walls and rock art can be painted or etched.
The Stone Age is broken down into three main eras-The Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone
Age), and Neolithic (New Stone Age). The Paleolithic is known for small, portable art sculptures and paintings,
incised designs or reliefs on cave walls. Cave paintings and portable art dominated the Mesolithic period as well.
The Neolithic era gave rise to decorated pottery and megalithic monuments, such as Avebury in England and
atalhyk in Turkey. Art was mainly geometric and nonrepresentational and spirals were a favorite motif, as seen
by the decorated rock at new grange
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, One of the most famous sites in
the world, Stonehenge is composed of a circular setting of large stones set within earthworks. It is at the centre of
the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial
Iconic stone monument was constructed anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC, as described in the chronology
below. The first stones were erected in 24002200 BC, whilst another theory suggests that bluestones may have
been erected at the site as early as 3000 BC
The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been
dated to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in
1986 in a co-listing with Avebury Henge monument. It is a national legally protected Scheduled Ancient
Monument. Archaeological evidence found by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2008 indicates that Stonehenge
could possibly have served as a burial ground from its earliest beginnings The dating of cremated remains found
on the site indicate that deposits contain human bone material from as early as 3000 BC, when the initial ditch and
bank were first dug. Such deposits continued at Stonehenge for at least another 500 years.
pit house is an ancient type of dwelling that was excavated partly into the earth, from a few inches to more than
three feet. A superstructure was then added to the excavation, such as a roof built of poles chinked with mud and
covered with an earthen mound. The roof was generally flat, and entry to the house was gained via a ladder
through a hole in the roof. A central hearth would have provided light and warmth; in some pit houses, a ground
surface air hole would have brought in ventilation. Pit houses were warm in winter and cool in summer However,
they are only good for a few seasonsafter at most ten years, a pithouse would have to be abandoned. Many
different prehistoric groups used pit houses. Although generally associated with the American southwest cultures,
such as Fremont, Hohokam, and Mogollon, pit houses were used by a wide variety of people in a wide variety of
places over the past 12,000 years.

The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile" was centered largely on agriculture. The
majority of the people were involved in farming, and the growing season lasted eight-nine months. Wheat, fruits
and vegetables were the principal crops, although there was some pastoral farming of cattle, sheep, or goats.
Farmers in ancient Egypt worked to reach a level of subsistence so that they could feed themselves and pay their
taxes. During the annual flooding of the Nile, which typically lasted from July through November, farming was
impossible. But when the waters receded, a thick layer of fertile silt over the farmlands remained to insure rich soil
for their crops and thick grasses for their grazing animals. The country of Egypt consisted of two narrow strips of
arable land lining either bank of the river Nile, from Aswan to the northern Delta. Just beyond the farmlands lay
enormous deserts. The Nile was the lifeblood of Egypt. Its cycle of flooding -- growth, death, and rebirth to new
growth -- became the cycle of everyday life, and also of Egyptian religion and understanding of an afterlife. The
people of Egypt were dependent on the river for more than their food. It insured a line of communication and
transportation among the provinces of the kingdom. The pharaohs took advantage of the Nile as a means to
transport their armies, thus maintaining a strong, unified nation.
The afterlife played an important role in Ancient Egyptian religion, and its belief system is one of the earliest
known. When the body died, parts of its soul known as ka (body double) and the ba (personality) would go to the
Kingdom of the Dead. Ancient Egyptian civilization was based on religion; their belief in the rebirth after death
became their driving force behind their funeral practices. Death was simply a temporary interruption, rather than
complete cessation, of life, and that eternal life could be ensured by means like piety to the gods, preservation of
the physical form through Mummification, and the provision of statuary and other funerary equipment. Each
human consisted of the physical body, the 'ka', the 'ba', and the 'akh'. The Name and Shadow were also living
entities. To enjoy the afterlife, all these elements had to be sustained and protected from harm.
Egyptians believed that each person had a physical body and a ka a life force that continued after their death.
Their ka would need the same sustenance as a living person, along with entertainment and the tools of their trade.
All these items were placed in their tomb. The ka would need re-uniting with a physical body, which is why
corpses were mummified. The deceased needed to rejoin its ka to achieve life after death but, since the physical
body couldnt journey from the tomb to the underworld, the persons ba, or personality, did it instead. Once the
ba and ka were united, they made a final journey to the sky, sunlight and star where the deceased was resurrected
as an akh (or spirit) and lived forever.
The Pyramids
One of the most notable and lasting achievements of the Ancient Egyptians are their pyramids. The size, design,
and structure of the pyramids reveal the skill of these ancient builders. The pyramids were great monuments and
tombs for the kings. The Egyptians believed that a king's soul continued to guide affairs of the kingdom even after
his death. To ensure that they would continue to enjoy the blessings of the gods, they preserved the pharaoh's body
through the mummification process. They built the pyramids to protect the pharaoh's body; the pyramid was a
symbol of hope, because it would ensure the pharaoh's union with the gods.
The largest pyramid in existence is the Great Pyramid built by King Cheops (Khufu) at Giza. The Great Pyramid
measures 481 feet high, by 775 feet long at each of its four bases. Other notable pyramids include the Step
Pyramid built for King Zoser, and the pyramid built for King Huni, that was a transition between the step pyramid
and the smooth sided pyramid we know today.
Much Egyptian art was for the dead, who were buried with all the things which they would need in the after life.
The early pharaohs built great stone tombs, the pyramids
1) Pyramid of Giza
2) Sphinx
The Great Pyramid of Giza (called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of
the three pyramids, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain
largely intact. It is believed that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu over
an approximately 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 meters (480.6 ft), the Great

Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was
covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure.
Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been
varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted
construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging
and lifting them into place.
There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which
the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called [1] Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up
within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both
ascending and descending passages in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three
smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two
temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.
The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years; the accuracy of the
pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 58 millimeters in
length. The base is horizontal and flat to within 15 mm. The sides of the square base are closely aligned to the
four cardinal compass points (within 4 minutes of arc) based on true north, not magnetic north, and the finished
base was squared to a mean corner error of only 12 seconds of arc. The completed design dimensions, as
suggested by Petrie's survey and subsequent studies, are estimated to have originally been 280 cubits high by
440 cubits long at each of the four sides of its base. The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 cubits equates
to 2 to an accuracy of better than 0.05% (corresponding to the well-known approximation of as 22/7). Some
The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million limestone blocks with most believed to have been
transported from nearby quarries. The Tura limestone used for the casing was quarried across the river. The largest
granite stones in the pyramid, found in the "King's" chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tones and were transported from
Aswan, more than 500 miles away.
In Egyptian mythology the Sphinx was an image of the sun god, though it may have been no more than the
peculiar shape of a limestone hillock on the Giza plateau that suggested the original notion of a lion with a human
head wearing the headdress of the pharaohs. It was in the third millennium BC that Chephren had craftsmen shape
the Great Sphinx at Giza. It is 240 feet long and faces the rising sun. Protector of the pyramids and scourge of the
enemies of Re, the Sphinx was a popular motif in Egyptian art and architecture. According to legend, Tuthmosis
IV (14251412 BC) was promised as a prince by the Sphinx that he would ascend the throne if he cleared away
the sand which was submerging the paws of the Great Sphinx.
It is shown wearing the royal head cloth.
The sphinx is associated with both pharaoh and the sun-god, Ra. And is considered to be the; Guardian of
the Necropolis of Giza.
It measures 73m long and has a maximum height of 20m.
It was carved from a single knoll of stone, probably what was left behind after quarrying.
Much reconstruction work has been carried out on the sphinx in the form of limestone cladding.
In ancient times the Sphinx would have been brightly colored. Remains of which can be seen on the side of
its face.
The Sphinx faces east.
Three tunnels have been discovered in the Sphinx. Behind the head, in its tail and in its north side. None
led anywhere.
The ziggurat was built by King Ur-Nammu who dedicated the great ziggurat of Ur The massive step
pyramid measured 210 feet (64m) in length, 150 feet (46m) in width and over 100 feet (30m) in height. The height
is speculative, as only the foundations of the Sumerian ziggurat have survived. The ziggurat was a piece in a
temple complex that served as an administrative center for the city, and which was a shrine of the moon god
Nanna, the patron deity of Ur.The construction of the ziggurat was finished in the 21st century BC by King Shulgi,
who, in order to win the allegiance of cities, proclaimed himself a god. During his 48-year reign, the city of Ur
grew to be the capital of a state controlling much of Mesopotamia.

The Ziggurat
The term ziggurat (to build a raised area), which pretty much describes the process involved. From a very
early stage in their civilization, the Sumerians had taken to placing their important temples on platforms or, in the
case of ziggurats, on a stepped series of platforms.32 ziggurats in Mesopotamia and western Iran and typically
they are built out of a core of mud-brick with an outer skin of fired bricks, set in bitumen mortar, to protect it
against flood damage. In later times, according to Herodotus, the outer skin was glazed and the various tiers were
painted with different colors. Herodotus also tells us that there was a temple at the top of the ziggurat at Babylon,
but no trace of any such building has not been found at Babylon nor anywhere else .However, only the lowest one
is reasonably well preserved. It measures about 64 x 46 meters at the base and was about 15 meters high. Of the
other two, we have only the outline of the base of the second stage and the eroded core of the third.
The summit was reached via three staircases of 100 stepsone perpendicular to, and the other two leaning
against, the side of the lowest stage. These have been restored somewhat and refaced with new brickwork. The
stairs intersected at a gatehouse located between the first and second stagesonly the foundations survive. From
it, the central staircase continues straight up to the second stage and then on to the temple at the top of the third.
Access to the top of the first stage was via a pair of lateral stairways leading down from the gatehouse. These
staircases would carried religious processions to the summit of the structure, believed that these were designed to
drain water from the interior and suggested that trees and gardens were planted along the top. At each end of the
ziggurat, deep channels were cut into one of the buttresses, apparently to drain excess water.
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (33001300 BCE; mature period 26001900 BCE)
that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, flourishing around the Indus River basin,
the civilization primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ganges-Yamuna
Doab. Geographically, the civilization was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km, making it the largest
ancient civilization in the world.
The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed
was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time Excavation of Harappan sites have been
ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. To date, over 1,052 cities and
settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among
the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site),
Dholavira, Kalibanga, and Rakhigarhi.
India's Cultural history dates back to about 3200 BC to the times of the lndus Valley Civilization or what is also
called the Harappan Culture. It flourished for about a thousand years. This civilization came to light in 1922 while
archaeologists were carrying on excavations at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, now in Pakistan. Since then, many
other Harappan sites and artifacts such as seals, toys, weapons, sculptures and jewellery have been discovered
along the river Indus up to the river Ganges in the East.
Town Planning
The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning on the lines of the grid system that is
streets and lanes cutting across one another almost at right angles thus dividing the city into several rectangular
Blocks. Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kalibangan each had its own citadel built on a high podium of mud brick.
Below the citadel in each city layer a lower town containing brick houses, which were inhabited by the common
people. The large-scale use of burnt bricks in almost all kinds of constructions and the absence of stone buildings
are the important characteristics of the Harappan culture. Another remarkable feature was the underground
drainage system connecting all houses to the street drains which were covered by stone slabs or bricks. The most
important public place of Mohenjodaro is the Great Bath measuring 39 feet length, 23 feet breadth and 8 feet
depth. Flights of steps at either end lead to the surface. There are side rooms for changing clothes. The floor of the
Bath was made of burnt bricks. Water was drawn from a large well in an adjacent room, and an outlet from one
corner of the Bath led to a drain. It must have served as a ritual bathing site. The largest building in Mohenjodaro
is a granary measuring 150 feet length and 50 feet breadth. But in the citadel of Harappa we find as many as six

The most interesting urban feature of Harappan civilization is its town-planning. It is marked by considerable
uniformity, though one can notice some regional variations as well. The uniformity is noticed in the lay-out of the
towns, streets, structures, brick size, drains etc. Almost all the major sites (Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan and
others), are divided into two partsa citadel on higher mound on the western side and a lower town on the eastern
side of the settlement. The citadels contain large structures which might have functioned as ritual centers. The
residential buildings are built in the lower town. The streets intersect each other at right angles in a criss-cross
pattern. It divides the city in several residential blocks. The main street is connected by narrow lanes. The doors of
the houses opened in these lanes and not the main streets. The houses of common people, however, differed in size
from a single-room house in Harappa to bigger structures. The houses were largely built of burnt bricks. The
bigger houses had many rooms surrounding a square courtyard. These houses were provided with private wells,
kitchens and bathing platforms. The difference in the size of the houses suggests that the rich lived in the larger
houses whereas the one-room buildings or barracks might have been intended for the poorer section of the society.
The drainage system of the Harappans was elaborate and well laidout. Every house had drains, which opened into
the street drains. These drains were covered with manholes bricks or stone slabs (which could be removed for
cleaning) were constructed at regular intervals by the side of the streets for cleaning. This shows that the people
were well acquainted with the science of sanitation.
Town Planning of Harappa Civilization
The twin cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were center of all activities. Both cities were a mile square, with
defensive outer walls. Cities were divided into lower dwellings the size of bricks remained the same everywhere.
The ratio of brick size was 1:2:4. The main streets of the cities at both Harappa and Moenjodaro were generally
oriented from north to south, with connecting streets running east to west, The streets of major cities such as
Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were also laid out in a perfect grid pattern, The street layout showed an understanding
of the basic principles of traffic, with rounded corners to allow the turning of carts easily. These streets divided the
city into 12 blocks. The average house in these ancient cities appeared to have stood at least two storeys high as
suggested by the thickness of the enclosing wall and by remnants of wide staircases where the steps and risers still
survive to considerable height from the occupation level on the ground floor. The houses were built on plinths
rising above the street level with flights of steps recessed in the wall at the front door. The doors of the houses
usually opened on to the side lanes rather than on to the main streets At Mohenjo-daro, one of the most intriguing
structure is the presence of a remarkable complex of buildings centering on a great bath, "built of very fine
brickwork," It consists of a large rectangular pool two meters deep with steps leading into it from the narrower
ends. At the foot of the stairs is a small ledge with a brick edging that extends the entire width of the pool, such
that people coming down the stairs could move along this ledge without actually stepping into the pool itself. The
elaborately decorated bath at Mahenjo-daro was surrounded by a cloister, which opened onto many small rooms
that may have housed priests of the citys cults.
Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and
mortared brick; some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city,
and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. At its peak of
development, Mohenjo-daro could have housed around 35,000 residents. The city is divided into two parts, the socalled Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered] but the Citadel is known to have
public baths, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.
city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained
their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some
houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing,
and one building had an underground furnace possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with
doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories.
The Great Bath.
From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining
of bitumen. The pool measures 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious
purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind, and the
so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms, thought to have been a priestly residence.
Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, it is postulated
that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same
architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the
identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the
extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built
directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.

A series of migrations by Indo-European-speaking semi nomads took place during the second millennium B.C.
Known as Aryans, these preliterate pastoralists spoke an early form of Sanskrit, which has close philological The
term Aryan meant pure and implied the invaders' conscious attempts at retaining their tribal identity and roots
while maintaining a social distance from earlier inhabitants.
The evolution and spread of their culture across the Indo-Gangetic Plain is generally undisputed 2). Modern
knowledge of the early stages of this process rests on a body of sacred texts: the four Vedas (collections of hymns,
prayers, and liturgy), the Brahmans and the Upanishads (commentaries on Vedic rituals and philosophical
treatises), and the Puranas (traditional mythic-historical works). The sanctity accorded to these texts and the
manner of their preservation over several millennia--by an unbroken oral tradition--make them part of the living
Hindu tradition
The Aryans were a pantheistic people, following their tribal chieftain or raja, engaging in wars with each other or
with other alien ethnic groups, and slowly becoming settled agriculturalists with consolidated territories and
differentiated occupations. Their skills in using horse-drawn chariots and their knowledge of astronomy and
mathematics gave them a military and technological advantage that led others to accept their social customs and
religious beliefs by around 1,000 B.C.
The Aryans brought with them a new language, a new pantheon of anthropomorphic gods, a patrilineal and
patriarchal family system, and a new social order, built on the religious and philosophical rationales The original
three-tiered society--Brahman (priest;), Kshatriya (warrior), and Vaishya (commoner)--eventually expanded into
four in order to absorb the subjugated people--Shudra (servant)--or even five, when the outcaste peoples are
The basic unit of Aryan society was the extended and patriarchal family. A cluster of related families constituted a
village, while several villages formed a tribal unit. Child marriage, as practiced in later eras, was uncommon, but
the parents' involvement in the selection of a mate and dowry and bride-price were customary. The birth of a son
was welcome because he could later tend the herds, bring honor in battle, offer sacrifices to the gods, and inherit
property and pass on the family name. Monogamy was widely accepted although polygamy was not unknown, and
even polyandry is mentioned in later writings. Ritual suicide of widows was expected at a husband's death, and
this might have been the beginning of the practice known as sati in later centuries, when the widow actually burnt
herself on her husband's funeral pyre.
The Aryan civilization was largely scattered in villages. House and arable lands were owned by individuals while
the grass lands were probably held by the village as a whole. Land and cattle were important commodities of
value. Agriculture was the chief occupation of the people. The use of manure was known and so was irrigation.
The main crops were rice and barley. Equally important as agriculture was cattle rearing and the raising of
domesticated animals. Cows were considered very important, as their products formed an important part of the
diet of the Vedic people. Other important animals were the draught-ox, the horse, the dog, the goat and the sheep.
Despite being largely engaged in agriculture and animal rearing, they were also into trade and industry. The main
index of value was the cow, but gold also served as a means of exchange. The main industrial activity of the period
was the metal, leather, weaving and the wood work industries. Carpenters were in great demand at that period for
they made the chariots, wagons, houses and boats as well as artistic pieces. The metal workers made weapons,
tools, implements and ornaments. Leather workers made water casks, bow strings, slings and hand guards (for the
archers). Pottery was also an important occupation of that time. The main means of transport of the period was the
horse drawn chariots and the ox drawn wagons. The Vedas talk about parts of the forests being burnt to make paths
for vehicles to pass. There is however some controversy on the existence of marine transport. One view believes
that such travel was limited to crossing small streams and rivers, while on the other hand there are references to
ships with a hundred oars that made great journeys
These beautiful and well-preserved stupas depict the various stages of development of Buddhist art and
architecture over a period of thirteen hundred years from the third century B.C. to the twelfth century A.D.
Inscriptions show that these monuments were maintained by the rich merchants of that region.
The stupa built by Ashoka was damaged during the break-up of the Maurya Empire. In the 2nd century B.C.,
during the. Rule of the Sungas it was completely reconstructed. Religious activity led to the improvement and
enlargement of the stupa and a stone railing was built around it. It was also embellished with the construction of
heavily carved gateways.
The Great stupa has a large hemispherical dome which is flat at the top, and crowned by a triple umbrella or
Chattra on a pedestal surrounded by a square railing or Karmika. Buddha's relics were placed in a casket chamber

in the centre of the Dome. At the base of the dome is a high circular terrace probably meant for parikrama or
circumambulation and an encircling balustrade at the ground level is a stone-paved procession path and another
stone Balustrade and two flights of steps leading to the circular terrace. Access to it is through four exquisitely
carved gateways or Toranas in the North, South, East and West. The diameter of the stupa is 36.60 meters and its
height is 16.46 meters. It is built of large burnt bricks and mud mortar. It is presumed that the elaborately carved
Toranas were built by ivory or metal workers in the 1st. Century BC during the reign of King Satakarni of the
Satavahana Dynasty. The last addition to the stupa was made during the early 4th Century AD in the Gupta period
when four images of Buddha sitting in the dhyana mudra or meditation were installed at the four entrances.
The first Torana gateway to be built is the one at the principal entrance on the South. Each gateway has two square
pillars. Crowning each pillar on. All four sides are four elephants, four lions and four dwarfs. The four dwarfs
support a superstructure of three architraves or carved panels one above the other. Between these are intricately
carved elephants and riders on horseback. The lowest architrave is supported on exquisitely carved bracket figures.
The panels are decorated with finely carved figures of men, women, yakshas, lions and elephants. The entire panel
of the gateways is covered with sculptured scenes from the life of Buddha, the Jataka Tales, events of the Buddhist
times and rows of floral or lotus motifs. The scenes from Buddha's life show Buddha represented by symbols - the
lotus, wheel a riderless caparisoned horse, an umbrella held above a throne, foot prints and the triratnas which are
symbolic of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. The top panel has a Dharma chakra with two Yakshas on either side
holding chamaras. South of the Scenes depicted from Buddha's life are the Enlightenment of Buddha (a throne
beneath a peepul tree); the First Sermon (a Dharma chakra placed on a throne); The Great Departure ( a riderless
horse and an empty chariot with an umbrella above ); Sujata's offering and the temptation and assault by Mara.
Q.2) Chaitya Hall, Karli
Chaitya Hall was built between 50 and 70 AD in India. Unlike many other buildings that were built atop of or at
least out of stone and earth, Chaitya Hall was built into a hill, carved and sculpted out of the rock itself and
enhanced wooden timbers that so that the hall is modeled after earlier temples made from wood and bamboo.
It is the pinnacle of temple building in this style and is still a well preserved cave temple today, making a popular
tourist site. Chaitya Hall was built to worship Buddha, as is evidenced by the beautiful columns inside that are
covered in carvings of Buddhas life and work. However, it is unknown who designed Chaitya Hall or the
elaborate carvings inside.
Chaityas were perfected in the Shunga dynasty after the fall of the Mauryan Emperor. These temples carved into
stone hills and were usually beneath small stupas. The dwelling place of the monks was carved into the chaitya,
made out of the stone of the mound.
Chaitya Hall at Karli is the largest of all of the chaityas built over this time period and is one of the most famous.
However, it is still unknown who began the building of these Chaityas, other than they were built by and for
The finest example, undoubtedly, is the hall at Karli, which is at once the largest, the best preserved, and most
perfect of its type. It measures 124 feet 3 inches long by 45 feet 6 inches wide and is of the same apsidal plan as
the contemporary structural chaityas referred to above.
Between the nave and the aisles is a single row of thirty-seven columns, of which those round the apse are of plain
octagonal form, while the remainder, to the number of fifteen on either side of the nave, are provided with heavy
bases and capitals of the bell-shape type surmounted by kneeling elephants, horses, and tigers, with riders or
attendants standing between. Above these figures and rising to a height of 45 feet at its apex, springs the vaulted
roof, beneath the soffit of which is a series of projecting ribs, not carved out of the stone itself, but constructed of
wood and attached to the roof. At the apsidal end of the hall the vault terminates in a semi-dome, At the entrance
to the hall is a screen pierced by three doorways, one leading to the nave, the others to the side aisles; this screen
rose no higher than the tops of the pillars within the hall, and the whole of the open space above it was occupied
by a great horse-shoe window, within which there still remains part of its original wooden centering. It was
through this window that all light was admitted into the hall, the nave and the stupa being thus effectively
illuminated, but the side aisles left in comparative darkness. In front of the entrance to the hall was a porch 15 feet
deep by about 58 feet high, and as wide as it was high, closed in turn by a second screen consisting of two tiers of
octagonal columns, with a solid mass of rock between, once apparently decorated with wooden carvings attached
to its facade. Though similar in general disposition to the one at Karli, the chaitya halls at the other places
mentioned above vary considerably in their dimensions and details.
Vihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a Buddhist monastery. It originally meant "a secluded place in which to
walk", and referred to "dwellings" or "refuges" used by wandering monks during the rainy season. The
northern Indian state of Bihar derives its name from the word "vihara", probably due to the abundance of Buddhist

monasteries in that area. Viharas constructed with brick or excavated from rocks are found in different parts of
India. Usually built to a set plan, they have a hall meant for congregational prayer with a running verandah on
three sides or an open courtyard surrounded by a row of cells and a pillared verandah in front. These cells served
as dwelling places for the monks. These monastic buildings built of bricks were self-contained units and had a
Chaitya hall or Chaitya mandir attached to a stupa - the chief object of worship.
Some of the important Buddhist viharas are those at Ajanta, Ellora. Nasik, Karle, Kanheri, Bagh and Badami. The
Hinayana viharas found in these places have many interesting features which differentiate them from the
Mahayana type in the same regions. Though plain from the point of view of architecture, they are large ha1ls with
cells excavated in the walls on three sides. The hall has one or more entrances. The small cells, each with a door
have one or two stone platforms to serve as beds.
Twenty-five of the rock-cut caves of Ajanta are viharas and are the finest of monasteries. Four of the viharas
belong to the 2nd century BC. Later, other caves were excavated during the reign of the Vakataka rulers who were
the contemporaries of the Gupta Rulers. Some of the most beautiful viharas belong to this period. The finest of
them. Cave 1, of the Mahayana type consists of a verandah, a hall, groups of cells and a sanctuary. It has a
decorated facade. The portico is supported by exquisitely carved pillars. The columns have a square base with
figures of dwarfs and elaborately carved brackets and capitals. Below the capital is a square abacus with finely
carved makara motifs. The walls and the ceilings of the cave contain the most exquisite paintings. The viharas of
Ellora dated 400 AD to 7th century AD are of one, two, and three storeys and are the largest of the type. They
contain sculptured figures and belong to both Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism.
Sthambas or Pillars with religious emblems were put up by pious Buddhists in honor of Buddha or other great
Buddhists. Fragments of sthambas belonging to Mauryan times and later were found at Sanchi, Sarnath, Amaravati
and Nagarjunkonda.
A portion of
the Ashoka Pillar, 15.25 meters high, surmounted by the famous lion-capital and a dharma chakra above the heads
of the four lions stands embedded near the Dharmarajika stupa at Sarnath. The pillar bears the edict of Ashoka
warning the monks and nuns against creating a schism in the monastic order. The broken fragments of the Pillar
are now in the Museum at Sarnath. The lion-capital - the most magnificent piece of Mauryan sculpture is 2.31
meters high. It consists of four parts - (i) a bell-shaped vase covered with inverted lotus petals, (ii) a round abacus,
(iii) four seated lions and (iv) a crowning dharmachakra with thirty two spokes. The four lions are beautifully
sculptured. On the abacus are four running animals - an elephant, a bull, a horse and a. lion with a small dharma
chakra between them. The dharma chakra symbolises the dharma or law; the four lions facing the four directions
are the form of Buddha or Sakyasimha, the four galloping animals are the four quarters according to Buddhist
books and the four smaller dharma chakras stand for the intermediate regions and the lotus is the symbol of
creative activity. The surface of these pillars has a mirror like finish.
Ashoka Pillar Lion
Capital, Sarnath
Another Ashokan Pillar of
note is the one at Lauriya Nandangarh in Bihar. Erected in the 3rd century BC it is made of highly polished
Chunar sand-stone. Standing 9.8 meters high it rises from the ground and has no base structure. It is surmounted
by a bell-shaped inverted lotus. The abacus on it is decorated with flying geese and crowning it is a sitting lion.
The pillar is an example of the engineering skill of the craftsmen of Mauryan times.
Greek the Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own
distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in
mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design this
style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.
The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its
capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.
There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric, Ionic, and, later,
Corinthian. These three were adopted by the Romans, who modified their capitals. The Roman
adoption of the Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC. The three Ancient Greek orders

have since been consistently used in neo-classical European architecture.

Rather, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic in eastern Greece and
the Doric in the west and mainland.
Doric order
The Doric order originated on the mainland and western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders, characterized by
short, faceted, heavy columns with plain, round capitals (tops) and no base. With a height that is only four to eight
times its diameter, the columns are the most squat of all orders. The shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 20
flutes. The capital consists of a necking which is of a simple form. The echinus is convex and the abacus is square.
Above the capital is a square abacus connecting the capital to the entablature. The Entablature is divided into three
horizontal registers, the lower part of which is either smooth or divided by horizontal lines. The upper half is
distinctive for the Doric order. The Greek forms of the Doric order come without an individual base. They instead
are placed directly on the stylobate. Later forms, however, came with the conventional base consisting of a plinth
and a torus. The Roman versions of the Doric order have smaller proportions. As a result they appear lighter than
the Greek orders.
Ionic order
The Ionic order came from eastern Greece It is distinguished by slender, fluted pillars with a large base and two
opposed volutes in the echinus of the capital. The echinus itself is decorated with an egg-and-dart motif. The Ionic
shaft comes with four more flutes than the Doric counterpart The Ionic base has two convex moldings
called tori which are separated by a Scotia.
The Ionic order is also marked by an entasis, a curved tapering in the column shaft. A column of the Ionic order is
nine or lower diameters. The shaft itself is eight diameters high. The architrave of the entablature commonly
consists of three stepped bands (fasciae). The frieze sometimes comes with a continuous ornament such as carved
Corinthian order
The Corinthian order is the most ornate of the Greek orders, characterized by a slender fluted column having an
ornate capital decorated with two rows of acanthus leaves and four scrolls. It is commonly regarded as the most
elegant of the three orders. The shaft of the Corinthian order has 24 flutes. The column is commonly ten diameters
A Greek sculptor of the 5th century BCE. The oldest known building built according to this order is the Choragic
Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, constructed from 335 to 334 BCE. The Corinthian order was raised to rank by
the writings of Vitruvius in the 1st century BC.
History, Facts and Information about Roman Columns The content of this article provides interesting history, facts
and information about Roman Columns. The most imposing forms of Roman architecture may be traced to
knowledge of the properties of the arch, and as brick was more extensively used than any other material, the
Roman Columns were invaluable. The Romans took the best ideas and building concepts from conquered nations
such as the Greeks and these included the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns.
Purpose of Ancient Roman Columns
The purpose of Roman columns in structural engineering is to provide a vertical structural element that transmits,
through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. Roman columns were
therefore often used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of buildings, walls or ceilings rest.
Roman Columns enabled the ancient Romans to build vast edifices with the humblest materials, to build bridges,
aqueducts, sewers, amphitheatres, and triumphal arches, as well as temples and palaces. The applications of
Roman Columns extend to domes and cupolas, to floors and corridors and roofs, and to various other parts of
buildings where economy of material and labor was desired. It was applied extensively to doorways and windows
and is an ornament as well as a utility.
Description of Roman Columns
Columns are vertical, upright pillars. Columns may provide support or simply be purely decorative. The lower
portion of a column is called the base or stylobate. The middle section is called the shaft. The upper portion of a
column is called the capital. The area which the column supports is called the entablature.

Types of Roman Columns - Doric Columns - Simplest Style of Columns

The Doric order or style of columns are the oldest and simplest of the classical styles. An example of the Doric
column can be shown in the image at the top of the page. The oldest and simplest of the three main orders of
classical Roman architecture are characterized by heavy fluted columns with plain, saucer-shaped capitals and
base. The capital of the Doric column consists of a cushion-like convex molding known as an "echinus" and a
square slab called an "abacus." The first levels of the arches at the Colosseum are framed by half columns of the
Doric order. The Doric style Roman Columns were considered to be able to hold more weight.
Types of Roman Columns - Ionic Style of Columns with Spiral Scrolls
The Ionic order, invented by the Asiatic Greeks is more graceful, though not so imposing as the Doric style. The
capital is more ornamented than the Doric. The shaft is fluted and more slender. The Ionic Roman columns are
characterized by the capital which is formed with two opposed volutes (spiral scrolls). The second levels of the
arches at the Colosseum are framed by half columns of the Ionic order.
Types of Roman Columns - Corinthian Columns - Most Decorated Style of Columns
The most ornate of the three main orders of classical Greek architecture. The Corinthian order exhibits a greater
refinement and elegance than the other two styles of columns. The Corinthian Roman columns are characterized
by slender fluted columns. The capital has an almost bell-shaped capital decorated with acanthus leaves.
Corinthian Roman columns were often surmounted by a more ornamented entablature. The third levels of the
arches at the Colosseum are framed by half columns of the Corinthian order or style.
Roman Columns in the Colosseum
The architecture of the Colosseum is dominated by its sheer size and the height of the different levels of the
Colosseum is created by the use of different columns on each of the three main levels. The arches of the
Colosseum are framed by half-columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. The first level is 34 ft high and
the Doric arches are 23 ft high and 14 ft wide. The second level, in the Ionic "order" or style, is 38 ft high and the
arches measure 21 ft high and 14 ft wide and the third level, in the Corinthian style, is 37 ft high with the arches
being 21 ft high and 14 ft wide. The fourth or top level of the Colosseum is 45 ft high and had no arches.
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to serve any large city in their empire, as well as many small towns
and industrial sites. The city of Rome had the largest concentration of aqueducts, with water being supplied by
eleven aqueducts constructed over a period of about 500 years. They served drinking water and supplied the
numerous baths and fountains in , as well as finally being emptied into the sewers, where the once-used water
performed its last function in removing waste matter.
The first Roman aqueduct was the Aqua Apia, built in 312 BC during the Roman Republic. The methods of
construction are described by Vitruvius in his work discovered a discrepancy between the intake and supply of
water caused by illegal pipes inserted into the channels to divert the water, and reported on his efforts to improve
and regulate the system to the emperor Trajan at the end of the 1st century AD. The report of his investigation is
known as De aqueduct. In addition to masonry aqueducts, the Romans built many more leats channels
excavated in the ground, usually with a clay lining. They could serve industrial sites such as gold
mines, lead and tin mines, forges, water-mills and baths orthermae. Leats were much cheaper than the masonry
design, but all aqueducts required good surveying to ensure a regular and smooth flow of water.
In contrast to the Ancient Agora, the Roman Agora developed less haphazardly. It was planned to cover a
rectangular area of only 367 x 315 feet and to include shops, offices, a fountain, and even a public toilet (its
remains, with about 70 seats, can be seen to the right of the east entrance). The construction of the new agora was
necessitated by the lack of available space in the Ancient Agora. The main attraction of the place is the famous
Tower of the Winds, not far from the east entrance. This relatively well preserved octagonal structure, 39 feet
high, was built in the 1st century B.C. by Andronicus of Kyrrhos, with a dual purpose -- to serve as a weather-vane
and a water clock. In the early years of Christianity, the building was converted to a church, and in the 18th
century it became a monastery of whirling dervishes.
THE Agora, the marketplace and civic center, was one of the most important parts of an ancient city of Athens. In
addition to being a place where people gathered to buy and sell all kinds of commodities, it was also a place where
people assembled to discuss all kinds of topics: business, politics, current events, or the nature of the universe and
the divine. The Agora of Athens, where ancient Greek democracy first came to life, provides a wonderful
opportunity to examine the commercial, political, religious, and cultural life of one of the great cities of the