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The term terrace garden can refer to two different types of gardens. In one sense, a terrace garden is a
garden which is established on a terrace, roof, or patio, usually in a house where there is limited gardening
space. These types of terrace gardens are especially popular in urban areas, and they are sometimes
used in restaurants and other establishments as well. A terrace garden can also be a garden which is built
in a series of raised or terraced beds against a hillside. Terrace agriculture is often the only way to utilize
steep land, and some very ancient examples of terrace gardens can be found in South America and Asia.
Terrace gardens in the sense of patio or rooftop gardens can be ornamental or functional, and they are
usually designed with container plants to make the terrace easier to manage. Gardeners can also build
raised beds on their terraces for gardening. Sun exposure and access to water are two important things to
consider when establishing a terrace garden, as is the goal of the garden.
Some people like to grow fresh herbs and vegetables on their terraces, while others want to create a green
retreat. Occasionally, gardeners create a mixture of the two. Plants can be trellised around a terrace for
privacy or shade, or used to create a pleasant recreation area for residents and guests of the home. It
pays to plan ahead when developing this type of terrace garden, because of space considerations.
In the other sense, a terrace garden can be used as an ornamental landscaping feature, a way to make a
landscape functional for gardening, or a source of crops. Terrace gardens are constructed by leveling
areas of a hillside and building retaining walls to prevent erosion. Gardeners can also backfill an area
bounded by a retaining wall to create a raised terrace. Drainage is critical with this type of terrace garden.
In areas where hills are not a part of the landscape, it is still possible to build a terrace garden. Some
people like terrace garden landscaping because it makes the landscape more dynamic and interesting. In
order to create terraces, gravel for drainage and soil for growing will need to be trucked in and built into a
series of terraces which are retained with wood, brick, or concrete walls. Once established, a terrace
garden can be developed in a variety of ways, and it often attracts a great deal of attention from guests.
In this day and age it is essentially common knowledge that trees provide a number of benefits to cities
and towns by adding beauty, contributing to cleaner air and raising property values, but how is this so?
Some estimates put urban tree cover at 30%, significantly higher than the average tree cover of a
respective community in the countryside. These urban groves provide a myriad of benefits to the city
Benefits of urban tree coverage are both private and public. The private benefits of trees in an urban
center include higher real estate values, climate modification (assistance in heating and cooling of
dwellings), and wood value. The benefits to the public can include noise reduction, aesthetic value,
increased or enhanced biodiversity, and a reduction in air pollution. In a nutshell, trees in an urban setting
improve the overall quality of life for its inhabitants, human or otherwise.
An urban forest can affect both the ambient and surface temperature through various means, specifically
evapotranspiration, shading, and wind reduction. In the summer season trees help us by providing shade
from the direct sun. The process of evapotranspiration (the sum of evaporation andplanttranspiration from
the earth's land surface to atmosphere ) further aids in the cooling of our urban environments. Conversely,
in the winter season trees slow down the cooling process by reducing wind speeds. By modifying outdoor
temperatures with trees we are better able to reduce the energy required to heat or cool our urban
Prior to the Industrial Revolution very small amounts of gasses were released into the atmosphere by
human beings, now however, because of fossil fuel consumption, population density,
anddeforestation human beings are producing and releasing more gasses into the atmosphere.
Certain gasses such as methane, ozone, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are naturally
produced and released.
A number of human activities can and do add to these naturally occurring levels.
An area of much concern is the increased levels of carbon dioxide (C02) in our atmosphere and its
resulting "greenhouse" effects. Thankfully, via the photosynthesis process, urban forests can take millions
of tonnes of C02 out of the air and transform it into carbon. This process helps to reduce the total amounts
of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere that are believed to be the cause of global warming. Global
warming is expected to impact the planet in many ways including raising sea levels, changing precipitation
patterns, altering eco- systems, and affecting animal populations.
In recent years air quality has become a much more discussed topic. The human health effects of these
pollutants have become a catalyst for increased research. It seems every day we hear about a new study

linking higher pollutant counts in our air with negative human health impacts. In more immediately recent
years there has been a focus on the ultra- fine particles in these pollutants because of the concern that
they may be inhaled deeper into the lungs. In the urban setting the sources of these particles is a long and
varied list, consisting of both naturally occurring and man made contributors. Not surprisingly, the most
significant source of urban particulate matter in the air is vehicle exhaust.
Trees are of great value as they are capable of capturing pollutants and in so doing, reduce the total
concentrations in the air.
City forests can serve as a pollutant filter by trapping such substances as sulfates of nitrogen, and sulfur.
In the case of airborne particulate matter, the tree in the urban forest can, on its leaves collect unwanted
particulates which later get washed off by precipitation and deposit on the soil underneath.
Different tree varieties clean particulate matter from the air at different rates depending on the species and
its specific characteristics. Trees that are more aerodynamically shaped, and have a rough surface tend to
perform better as air cleaners. The age of a tree also determines the rate of purification, with younger
specimens cleaning better than older ones due to the increased density of foliage.
In regard to enhancing the real estate values of an area, urban trees certainly achieve this. Some
estimates indicate that urban trees and planted vegetation in the United States adds $1.5 Billion annually
to property values.
The vast benefits that trees provide for us are so numerous that they are difficult to quantify. Many benefits
are plain and simple while others are more intricate, scientific, and less obvious. Either way that one looks
at it though, the increasing urban population and its associated air pollution is going to force cities to have
a serious look at the role trees play as pollution filters.
Through the process of site inventory and analysis, you can determine elements and conditions that will
impact the ultimate use and design of your landscape. Design, when based on thoughtful inventory and
analysis, can improve the environment, by creating new features based on the users' needs and keeping
those features which are deemed useful and desirable.
Where Do We Begin?
Identify and locate all site elements on your property by size,
material, and condition. Find out the history of the site, how it once
was used, and if such use is still relevant today. Who will use the area
and what aesthetics and activities are to be incorporated into the
ultimate landscape design?
Locate Important Elements
Walk your land with a scale-drawn property survey and roughly locate
important built elements such as walks, driveways, utilities, and
fences, as well as natural features like existing trees and shrubs, rock
outcroppings, and on and off-site views.
Understand Ecological Systems
As it is best to treat natural systems with regard, discern how natural
areas can be maintained and where they are most vulnerable.
Inventory Factors that Affect Climate
It is essential to inventory the prevailing wind directions, patterns of
sun and shade, existing topography, andsoil type on a site in order to
identify the different "microclimates" that exist.
Follow the Sun's Path
One of the best ways to improve certain site conditions is to
understand the sun's path across the entire area. For example, a house with southern exposure will benefit
from the strategic placement of deciduous shadetrees along the southwest corner; to lower the amount of
heat and glare received on summer afternoons.
In southeastern New York and the surrounding area, weather systems most often approach from the west.
In summer, prevailing southwestern winds bring cool breezes, often moderating afternoon temperatures.
The severe northwestern winds in winter make the areas that face north and northwest very cold. For
many years, precipitation had been moderately distributed more or less evenly throughout the year with

about three inches of rain falling each month. During the hot summer months, when the evapotranspiration
rate is higher than the amount of rainfall received, near drought conditions often occur.
The aberrant weather of the last decade however, has skewed the ''norms,'' with severe storms and winds,
higher rainfall, and lengthy droughts. These extreme weather patterns continue to seriously threaten
landscape plantings, agriculture, and the environment.
Soil Composition and Classification
Soil is the result of decomposition of parent rock material. Soils are classified by physical and chemical
properties, which include grain size and distribution as well as organic content. Soils are also categorized
by their ability to support construction. Solid rock and boulders are the most suitable base for construction,
with fine sand, silt, clay, and peat being the least suitable.
For most horticultural purposes, we try to achieve a good balance of particles so that water will enter the
soil and be held until the particles release it to the plant roots. Generally, coarse, sandy soils are more
permeable than fine-grained clay soils, but tend to lose water and nutrients too rapidly for plant roots to
take up. Organic matter in soil improves nutrient content and prevents leaching, even after heavy rains.
Soil pH
In addition to available moisture and adequate drainage, the most important property of a soil for
horticultural applications is its pH level or soil reaction. The range of a soil's acidity or alkalinity is
expressed in pH values. A reading of 7 is considered neutral. Since all plants have specific tolerances for
pH, a soil test is advisable to indicate the pH level. With this knowledge you can determine if a soil must be
modified in order to grow desired species. Please note that most important nutrients become available for
plant growth in a slightly acid soil with a pH of about 6.5. If a soil is quite acidic (below 5.5) then nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium become virtually unavailable to plant roots while other nutrients such as iron,
manganese, and boron become readily available. Only acid-loving plants such as Rhododendron and
Azalea can tolerate and thrive in this type of soil. Many plants are also intolerant of alkaline soils and this
can be more of limiting factor to growth than soil acidity.
Trees and shrubs in the landscape are classified as coniferous, deciduous, and broadleaf evergreen.
Conifers include needle leaf evergreens like spruce, fir, and pines along with ancient species like ginkgo
and cycads. Deciduous trees like oak, maple, and beech compose much of our northeastern forests.
Rhododendron and holly are examples of broadleaf evergreens.
For inventory purposes, it is important to note all trees over 4" DBH (diameter at breast height) and
observe the size of their branching canopy.
Next, locate all shrubs and inventory visual characteristics such as form, branching habit, twig character,
bark coloration, foliage shape, texture, and color, flower color and fragrance, fruit, and distinguishing uses
such as wildlife and human value. Lastly, identify plants in the understory layer including herbaceous
perennials, biennials, and annuals, ferns, fern allies, vines, and/or seedlings of trees and shrubs. Noting
the overall condition of the vegetation along with a thorough inventory will help you to decide what you
want to keep and what needs to be weeded out.
Analyze the Data
After you have carefully inventoried the natural and built features, you can begin to analyze what you wish
to keep, what you will remove, what needs to be modified, and what will be added.
Interpret a Site's Limitations/Potentials
Further emphasizing a beautiful, existing view is a great way to begin interpreting a site's design potential.
Similarly, noting an area that holds rainwater would limit its potential for development, unless you want to
plant a wetland garden.
Blueprint for Success
The process of site inventory and analysis identifies and evaluates existing site conditions to determine
what can be worked with and what must be overcome in order to accomplish the design proposal. The key
is careful review of existing space and material so that a beautiful, functional, and manageable landscape
can evolve.

3) National parks
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or
developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own
national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a
symbol of national pride.[1] Furthermore, an international organization, the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National
Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been
suggested previously, the United States established the first such one, Yellowstone National Park, in 1872.
The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National
Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in
2006 that meet its criteria. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. [2]
National parks are almost always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and
camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of
conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969 the IUCN declared a national park to be a relatively large area with the following defining

One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where
plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educational,
and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty;
Highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate exploitation or
occupation as soon as possible in the whole area and to effectively enforce the respect of ecological,
geomorphological, or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and
Visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative, cultural, and
recreative purposes.

In 1971 these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to
evaluate a national park. These include:

Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence
Statutory legal protection

Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection

Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams) qualified by

such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc.

While national parks are generally understood to be administered by national governments (hence the
name), in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia;
similarly, national parks in the Netherlands are administered by the provinces.[5] In many countries,
including Indonesia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN
definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. [5]
Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada
In 1835, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a[6]
sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a
heart to enjoy.
The painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that
the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved[7]
(by some great protecting policy of government) a magnificent park ...A nation's Park, containing man
and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty!

The first effort by any government[citation needed] to set aside such protected lands was in the United States, on
April 20, 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States
Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to
protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the future disposal of the
U.S. government.[original research?][8][not in citation given][9][not in citation given] It was known as Hot Springs Reservation.
However no legal authority was established and federal control of the area was not clearly established until
The next effort by any government[citation needed] to set aside such protected lands was, again, in the United
States, when President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on June 30, 1864, ceding
the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove ofGiant Sequoias (later becoming Yosemite National Park) to
the state of California:[original research?][10][not in citation given]
.... the said State shall accept this grant upon the express conditions that the premises shall be held for
public use, resort, and recreation; shall be inalienable for all time; .... 38th United States Congress,
Session 1, 1864
In 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States' first national park., [11] being also
the world's first national park. In some European countries, however, national protection and nature
reserves already existed at that time, such asDrachenfels (Germany, 1822) and a part of Forest of
Fontainebleau (France, 1861).[12]
When news of the natural wonders of the Yellowstone were first promulgated, the land was part of
a federally governed territory. Unlike Yosemite, there was no state government that could assume
stewardship of the land, so the federal government took on direct responsibility for the park, the official first
national park of the United States. It took the combined effort and interest of conservationists, politicians
and especially businessesnamely, the Northern Pacific Railroad, whose route through Montana would
greatly benefit by the creation of this new tourist attractionto ensure the passage of that landmark
enabling legislation by the United States Congress to create Yellowstone National Park. Theodore
Roosevelt, already an active campaigner and so influential as good stump speakers were highly necessary
in the pre-telecommunications era, was highly influential in convincing fellow Republicans and big
business to back the bill.
The United States in 1872. When Yellowstone was established, Wyoming, Montana and Idaho were
territories, not states. For this reason, the federal government had to assume responsibility for the land,
hence the creation of the national park.
American Pulitzer Prize-winning author Wallace Stegner wrote:[13]
National parks are the best idea we ever had. Absolutely American, absolutely democratic, they reflect us
at our best rather than our worst.
In his book Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks, Mark
David Spence made the point that in order to create these uninhabited spaces, the United States first had
to disposess the Indians who were living in them.[14]
Even with the creation of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 other national parks and monuments,
another 44 years passed before an agency was created in the United States to administer these units in a
comprehensive way the U.S.National Park Service (NPS). Businessman Stephen Mather and his
journalist partner Robert Sterling Yard pushed hardest for the creation of the NPS, writing then-Secretary
of the Interior Franklin Knight Lane about such a need and spearheading a large publicity campaign for
their movement. Lane invited Mather to come to Washington, DC to work with him to draft and see
passage of the National Park Service Organic Act, which the 64th United States Congress enacted and
whichPresident Woodrow Wilson signed into law on August 25, 1916. Of the 401 sites managed by the
National Park Service of the United States, only 59 carry the designation of National Park.
Following the idea established in Yellowstone there soon followed parks in other nations. In Australia,
the Royal National Park was established just south of Sydney in 1879, becoming the world's second
official national park. Rocky Mountain National Parkbecame Canada's first national park in 1885. New
Zealand established Tongariro National Park in 1887. In Europe the first national parks were a set of nine
parks in Sweden in 1909; Europe has some 359 national parks as of 2010. [citation needed] Africa's first national
park was established in 1925 when Albert I of Belgium designated an area of what is now Democratic

Republic of Congo centred around theVirunga Mountains as the Albert National Park (since
renamed Virunga National Park). In 1973, Mount Kilimanjaro was classified as a National Park and was
opened to public access in 1977.[15] In 1926, the government of South Africa designated Kruger National
Park as the nation's first national park, although it was an expansion of the earlier Sabie Game Reserve
established in 1898 by President Paul Kruger of the old South African Republic, after whom the park was
named. After World War II, national parks were founded all over the world. The Vanoise National Park in
the Alps was the first French national park, created in 1963 after public mobilization against a touristic
The world's first national park service was established May 19, 1911, in Canada. [16] The Dominion Forest
Reserves and Parks Act placed the dominion parks under the administration of Dominion Park Branch
(now Parks Canada). The branch was established to "protect sites of natural wonder" to provide a
recreational experience, centred around the idea of the natural world providing rest and spiritual renewal
from the urban setting.[17] Canada now has the most protected area in the world with 377,000 km^2 of
national park space.[18] In 1989, the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve (QNNP) was created to protect
3.381 million hectares on the north slope of Mount Everest in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. This
national park is the first major global park to have no separate warden and protection staffall of its
management being done through existing local authorities, allowing a lower cost basis and a larger
geographical coverage (in 1989 when created, it was the largest protected area in Asia). It includes four of
the six highest mountains Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu. The QNNP is contiguous to four Nepali
national parks, creating a transborder conservation area equal in size to Switzerland
4) Principles of Japanese garden
Design Principles in Japanese Gardening
Harmony with Nature
Central to the design of Japanese gardens is appreciation and respect for nature. Therefore, all that is
done in the Japanese garden is to be in harmony with its natural surroundings. Within the garden itself,
much effort is given to bringing all the opposing elements of the garden together into an artistic unity: dark
and light; space and form; smooth and fine; hidden and obvious. The other underlying principle, already
discussed, is the theme of natural scenery whether it is a minimized version of nature, a copy of a
particular natural scene, or a representative scene using symbolic materials.
Asymetry and Odd Numbers
You will find the Japanese garden reflects a preference for asymetry and odd
numbered components, usually threes and fives, with a dominant element and two
subordinate ones. This comes from Taoist and Zen influences on Eastern thinking.
There is an appreciation for the process of attaining perfection rather than on the
state of perfection itself which symmetry more accurately reflects. To the eastern
mind, there is beauty in what is absent as well as in what is present. Also, odd
numbered components better represent the randomness found in nature.
Triangles Create a Sense of Balance
The elements of the garden and the plantings follow the lines of a scalene triangle
in their relationship to one another. This is more satisfying to the Japanese
gardener than a symetrical balance. There may be single objects at the apex or
odd groupings or even at time empty space. This pattern is repeated throughout the
garden -- a series of interlocking scalene triangles. The designer tries to portray this
balance from the various viewing points in the garden.
Using Perspective to Alter Depth, Distance, and Size
The Japanese are masters at altering the sense of depth, distance and size of the garden from the viewers
perspective. The various elements of the garden can be manipulated to bring about the desired
perspective and sense: placing larger trees, shrubs or objects in the foreground, smaller objects in the
background; more commanding textures and colors in the foreground, more subtle textures and colors in
the background; narrowing a path as it recedes in the yard. In your small gardening space, these
principles can be applied to accomplish a greater sense of size.

Pruning and Shaping

Severe and calculated pruning, manipulating and contorting trees and shrubs help
to bring about that prized sense of age in the Japanese garden. Pruning is
discussed in more depth on the Pruning and Shapingpage of this site.

5) Japanese landscape
Japanese gardens ( nihon teien?) are traditional gardens that create miniature idealized
landscapes, often in a highly abstract and stylized way.[1] The gardens of the Emperors and nobles were
designed for recreation and aesthetic pleasure, while the gardens of Buddhist temples were designed for
contemplation and meditation.
Japanese garden styles include karesansui, Japanese rock gardens or zen gardens, which are meditation
gardens where white sand replaces water; roji, simple, rustic gardens with teahouses where the Japanese
tea ceremony is conducted; kaiy-shiki-teien, promenade or stroll gardens, where the visitor follows a path
around the garden to see carefully composed landscapes; and tsubo-niwa, small courtyard gardens.
Japanese gardens were developed under the influences of the Chinese gardens,[2] but gradually
Japanese garden designers began to develop their own aesthetics, based on Japanese materials and
Japanese culture. By the Edo period, the Japanese garden had its own distinct appearance.[3] Since the
end of the 19th century, Japanese gardens have also been adapted to Western settings.
2 Garden elements
2.1 Water
2.2 Rocks and sand
2.3 Garden architecture
2.4 Garden bridges
2.5 Stone lanterns and water basins
2.6 Garden fences, gates, and devices
2.7 Trees and flowers
2.8 Fish
6) French renaissance garden and influence of andre le norte on its development
The Gardens of the French Renaissance is a garden style, initially inspired by the Italian Renaissance
garden, which evolved later into the grander and more formal Garden la franaise during the reign
of Louis XIV, by the middle of the 17th century.
In 1495, King Charles VIII and his nobles brought the Renaissance style back to France after their war
campaign in Italy.[1] They reached their peak in the gardens of the royal Chteau de Fontainebleau,
the Chteau de Blois, the Chteau d'Amboise, and theChteau de Chenonceau.
French Renaissance gardens were characterized by symmetrical and geometric planting beds
or parterres; plants in pots; paths of gravel and sand; terraces; stairways and ramps; moving water in the
form of canals, cascades and monumental fountains, and extensive use of artificial grottoes, labyrinths and
statues of mythological figures. They became an extension of the chateaux that they surrounded, and were
designed to illustrate the Renaissance ideals of measure and proportion, and to remind viewers of the
virtues of Ancient Rome.[2]
7) Mughal garden
Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Persian style of architecture. This
style was heavily influenced by thePersian gardens particularly the Charbagh structure.[1] Significant use of
rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Some of the typical features
include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens.
Mughal gardens design derives primarily from the medieval Islamic garden, although there are nomadic
influences that come from the Mughals Turkish-Mongolian ancestry. Julie Scott Meisami describes the
medieval Islamic garden as a hortus conclusus, walled off and protected from the outside world; within, its

design was rigidly formal, and its inner space was filled with those elements that man finds most pleasing
in nature. Its essential features included running water (perhaps the most important element) and a pool to
reflect the beauties of sky and garden; trees of various sorts, some to provide shade merely, and others to
produce fruits; flowers, colorful and sweet-smelling; grass, usually growing wild under the trees; birds to fill
the garden with song; the whole cooled by a pleasant breeze. The garden might include a raised hillock at
the center, reminiscent of the mountain at the center of the universe in cosmological descriptions, and
often surmounted by a pavilion or palace. [12] The Turkish-Mongolian elements of the Mughal garden are
primarily related to the inclusion of tents, carpets and canopies reflecting nomadic roots. Tents indicated
status in these societies, so wealth and power were displayed through the richness of the fabrics as well
as by size and number.[13]
The Mughals were obsessed with symbol and incorporated it into their gardens in many ways. The
standard Quranic references to paradise were in the architecture, layout, and in the choice of plant life; but
more secular references, including numerological and zodiacal significances connected to family history or
other cultural significance, were often juxtaposed. The numbers eight and nine were considered auspicious
by the Mughals and can be found in the number of terraces or in garden architecture such as octagonal
8) Taj mahal garden

complex is set around a large 300-metre (980 ft) square charbagh or Mughal garden. The garden uses
raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds.
A raised marble water tank at the center of the garden, halfway between the tomb and gateway with
a reflecting pool on a north-south axis, reflects the image of the mausoleum. The raised marble water tank
is called al Hawd al-Kawthar, in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad.[25]
Elsewhere, the garden is laid out with avenues of trees and fountains.[26] The charbagh garden, a design
inspired by Persian gardens, was introduced to India by the first Mughal emperor, Babur. It symbolises the
four flowing rivers of Jannah (Paradise) and reflects theParadise garden derived from the
Persian paridaeza, meaning 'walled garden'. In mystic Islamic texts of Mughal period, Paradise is
described as an ideal garden of abundance with four rivers flowing from a central spring or mountain,
separating the garden into north, west, south and east.
Most Mughal charbaghs are rectangular with a tomb or pavilion in the center. The Taj Mahal garden is
unusual in that the main element, the tomb, is located at the end of the garden. With the discovery
of Mahtab Bagh or "Moonlight Garden" on the other side of the Yamuna, the interpretation of
the Archaeological Survey of India is that the Yamuna river itself was incorporated into the garden's design
and was meant to be seen as one of the rivers of Paradise. [27] The similarity in layout of the garden and its
architectural features with the Shalimar Gardens suggest that they may have been designed by the same
architect, Ali Mardan.[28] Early accounts of the garden describe its profusion of vegetation, including
abundant roses, daffodils, and fruit trees.[29] As the Mughal Empire declined, the tending of the garden also
declined, and when the British took over the management of Taj Mahal during the time of the British
Empire, they changed the landscaping to resemble that of lawns of London.[30

The garden that starts from the end of the main gateway and ends near the squared base of the
mausoleum is an integral part of the Taj Mahal structure and is, undeniably, one of the major highlights of
the visit for many. The garden that beautifies Taj comes from the Persian Timurid style of gardens, and is
based on the concept of paradise garden' and was brought in by Babur. This garden, filled with flowers,
fruits, birds, leaves, symmetry, and delicacy, served many functions along with portraying strong symbolic
or abstract meanings about paradise. A paradise which, according to Islamic beliefs, consists of four rivers:
one of water, one of milk, one of honey, and one of wine. And it is from this concept that Char Bagh of Taj
Mahal originated. Also, the symbolism of the garden and its division are noted in the Islamic texts that
describe paradise as a garden filled with abundant trees, flowers, and plants.
Out of the total area of 580 meter by 300 meter of the Taj complex, these gardens alone cover an area of
300 meter by 300 meter distance and are based on geometric arrangements of nature. No attempt was
made to give them a "natural" look. Another architectural attribute that has been followed in the case of the
entire monument, especially the gardens of the Taj Mahal of Agra, is the usage of number four and its
multiples. Since four is considered the holiest number in Islam, all the arrangements of Charbagh Garden
of Taj Mahal are based on four or its multiples. The entire garden is divided into four parts, with two marble
canals studded with fountains crossing in the center. In each quarter portion, there are 16 flowerbeds that
have been divided by stone-paved raised pathways. It is said that even each of the flowerbed was planted
with 400 plants.
The trees of the Taj garden are either that of Cyprus (signifying death) or of the fruit bearing type
(signifying life) and even they are arranged in a symmetrical pattern. Taj Mahal occupies the north-end
corner of the garden, instead of being in the center. In fact, at the center of the garden, between the Taj
and its gateway, is a raised marble lotus-tank with a cusped border, which reflects the Taj in its waters. The
four walkways that are although identical are differentiated through their context. In fact, the symmetry with
which the whole garden has been organized and laid out, can be clearly observed and experienced as one
can get an unhindered view of the mausoleum from any spot. These aesthetically maintained gardens not
only bring a natural sense to the proceedings, but also make for some great snap taking spots.
Mughal garden design derives primarily from the medieval Islamic Garden, although there are nomadic
influences that come from the Mughals Turkish-Mongolian ancestry. Its essential features included running
water (perhaps the most important element) and a pool to reflect the beauties of sky and garden; trees of
various sorts, some to provide shade merely, and others to produce fruits; flowers, colorful and sweetsmelling; grass, usually growing wild under the trees; birds to fill the garden with song; the whole cooled by
a pleasant breeze. The garden might include a raised hillock at the center, reminiscent of the mountain at
the center of the universe in cosmological descriptions, and often surmounted by a pavilion or palace. The
Turkish-Mongolian elements of the Mughal garden are primarily related to the inclusion of tents, carpets
and canopies reflecting nomadic roots. Tents indicated status in these societies, so wealth and power were
displayed through the richness of the fabrics as well as by size and number.
Mughal gardens and their architecture possess a splendid and fragrant proud history. Indeed, some the
gardenia instances of the Mughals inKashmir or Delhi, do possess much popularity and respect owing to
their stretch of being virtually unlimited in the length and breadth of flora and fauna. Gardens in Mughal
architecture redefine the advent of overspreading gardens, slender streams flowing by all through the
middle of the garden, the rare arrival of flora from the Persian landscape, the rainbow-tinted flowering of
exceptional flowers dispersing their scent and fragrance in the nearby lands, the pastures of exotic-ness,
the conception of being amidst Eden suddenly upon earth, or the umpteen other unique aspects that one
can imagine. Mughal gardens and its architecture deserves thundering applaud from every quarter of the
universe, with the emperors practically thinking in heavenly proportions to make out-of-this-world
constituents a reality to human beings inIndia.

9) Role of children play area in cities

arents attach importance to their childrens access to natural environments and outdoor play
opportunities. However, urban areas have become increasingly unwelcoming to children.
Design Criteria

Author Identified:

Design outdoor spaces for children in cities that contain areas for play, have little traffic and natural
elements such as trees and other greenery.
Consider designing roofs, terraces, and gardens for children to play so that their parents can goabout daily tasks while children play outdoors.
Be aware that street-level planning (as opposed to larger-scale planning) may be used to better
support childrens play needs.

Key Concepts

Parents in the Netherlands viewed outdoor play as an integral part of the health and development of
their children (SCP, 2005). However, recent trends have diminished childrens outdoor play
opportunities. These trends included childrens play spaces moving from outdoors to indoors, less
autonomy for children outdoors, and children being taken by car across longer distances to reach
isolated play spaces rather than walking a smaller network of linked play spaces.
Outdoor play areas are important for children because they provide a place to meet and interact
with their peers. Outdoor play can lead to a network of social and emotional support for parents,
because as children get to know one another, so do their parents. Immigrant parents saw outdoor
play as an opportunity for their children to acculturate.
Urban communities created play spaces at the street level in a variety of ways (e.g. converted a
street to a large grassy strip, created pathways within gardens that allowed children to safely move
from one garden to another, blocked off streets from car traffic).

Effects on child development[edit]
Professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground often become lifelong
skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood. Independent research concludes that playgrounds
are among the most important environments for children outside the home. Most forms of play are
essential for healthy development, but free, spontaneous playthe kind that occurs on playgroundsis
the most beneficial type of play.
Exciting, engaging and challenging playground equipment is important to keep children happy while still
developing their learning abilities. These should be developed in order to suit different groups of children
for different stages of learning, such as specialist playground equipment for nursery & pre-school children
teaching them basic numeracy & vocabulary, to building a child's creativity and imagination with role play
panels or puzzles.
There is a general consensus that physical activity reduces the risk of psychological problems in children
and fosters their self-esteem.[citation needed] The American Chief Medical Officers report (Department of Health,
2004), stated that a review of available research suggests that the health benefits of physical activity in
children are predominantly seen in the amelioration of risk factors for disease, avoidance of weight gain,
achieving a peak bone mass and mental well-being.
Evidence suggests that children who participate in physical activity improve their self-esteem. [citation
Ekeland, Heian and Hagan (2005) and Gruber [8] found that exercise programmes had a significant
positive effect on children's self-esteem.
Commentators argue that the quality of a childs exercise experience can affect their self-esteem. Ajzen
TPB (1991) promotes the notion that childrens self-esteem is enhanced through the encouragement of
physical mastery and self-development. It can be seen that playgrounds provide an ideal opportunity for
children to master physical skills, such as learning to swing, balance and climb. Personal development
may be gained through the enhancement of skills, such as playing, communicating and cooperating with
other children and adults in the playground.

It can also be seen that public and private playgrounds act as a preventative health measure amongst
young people because they promote physical activity at a stage in childrens lives when they are active
and not yet at risk from opting out of physical activity.[citation needed]

Seesaw with a crowd of children playing

Rope bridge for improving balance

Children have devised many playground games and pastimes. But because playgrounds are usually
subject to adult supervision and oversight, young children's street culture often struggles to fully thrive
there. Research by Robin Moore[9] concluded shown that playgrounds need to be balanced with marginal
areas that (to adults) appear to be derelict or wasteground but to children they are area's that they can
claim for themselves, ideally a wooded area or field.
For many children, it is their favorite time of day when they get to be on the playground for free time or
recess. It acts as a release for them from the pressures of learning during the day. They know that time on
the playground is their own time.[citation needed]
A type of playground called a playscape can provide children with the necessary feeling of ownership that
Moore describes above. Playscapes can also provide parents with the assurance of their child's safety and
wellbeing, which may not be prevalent in an open field or wooded area.
Playgrounds can be

Built by collaborative support of corporate and community resources to achieve an immediate and
visible "win" for their neighborhood.
Public, free of charge, like at most rural elementary schools

Connected to a business, for customers only, e.g., at McDonald's, IKEA, and Chuck E. Cheese's.

For-Profit business with an entrance fee, like those at the (now defunct) Discovery Zone, Zoom
Zoom's Indoor Playground in Ancaster, Ontario, Jungle Jam Indoor Playground, and Kidtastic Indoor

Non-Profit organizations for edutainment as Children's Museums and Science Centers, some
charge admission, some are free.

Inclusive playgrounds[edit]
Universally designed playgrounds are created to be accessible to all children. There are three primary
components to a higher level of inclusive play:

physical accessibility;
age and developmental appropriateness; and

sensory-stimulating activity.

Some children with disabilities or developmental differences do not interact with playgrounds in the same
way as typical children. A playground designed without considering these children's needs may not be
accessible or interesting to them.

Most efforts at inclusive playgrounds have been aimed at accommodating wheelchair users. For example,
rubber paths and ramps replace sand pits and steps, and some features are placed at ground level. Efforts
to accommodate children on the autism spectrum, who may find playgrounds overstimulating or who may
have difficulty interacting with other children, have been less common. [26]
Natural playgrounds[edit]
Main article: Playscape
"Natural playgrounds" are play environments that blend natural materials, features, and indigenous
vegetation with creative landforms to create purposely complex interplays of natural, environmental objects
in ways that challenge and fascinate children and teach them about the wonders and intricacies of the
natural world while they play within it.
Play components may include earth shapes (sculptures), environmental art, indigenous vegetation (trees,
shrubs, grasses, flowers, lichens, mosses), boulders or other rock structures, dirt and sand, natural fences
(stone, willow, wooden), textured pathways, and natural water features.
Playgrounds for adults[edit]
Further information: Outdoor gym and Fitness trail
China and some countries in Europe have playgrounds designed for adults. [27] These are outdoor spaces
that feature fitness equipment designed for use primarily by adults, such as chin-up bars.
Metaphorical uses[edit]
Playground is also be used as a metaphor to describe a place for some types of play. For example, a
laboratory may also be referred to as playground for a scientist.
10) lawn
A lawn is an area of land planted with grasses or (rarely) other durable plants, which are maintained at a
short height and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it
is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at
maintaining its green color, and it is regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length, [1]although these
characteristics are not binding as a definition. In recreational contexts, the specialised
names turf, pitch, field or greenmay be used, depending on the sport and the continent.
The term lawn, referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century. Tied to
suburban expansion and the creation of the household aesthetic, the lawn is an important aspect of the
interaction between the natural environment and the constructed urban and suburban space. [2]
Lawns are a common feature of private gardens, public landscapes and parks in many parts of the world.
They are created for aesthetic pleasure, as well as for sports or other outdoor recreational use. Lawns are
useful as a playing surface both because they mitigate erosion and dust generated by intensive foot traffic
and because they provide a cushion for players in sports such
as rugby, football, soccer,cricket, baseball, golf, tennis, hockey and lawn bocce.
Lawn care and maintenance[edit]
Seasonal lawn establishment and care varies depending on the climate zone and type of lawn
Environmental concerns[edit]
Greater amounts of chemical fertilizer and pesticides are used per acre of lawn than on an
equivalent acre of cultivated farmland,[38] and the continued use of these products has been
associated with environmental pollution, disturbance in the lawn ecosystem, and increased
health risks to the local human population. [39]
Other concerns, criticisms, and ordinances regarding lawns come from the environmental consequences:

Some lawns are composed of a monoculture (single species) of plants, which reduces biodiversity,
especially when the lawn covers a large area. They usually are composed ofintroduced species not
native to the area, which can further decrease a locale's biodiversity and vital habitats supporting
an ecosystem.
Lawn maintenance may use inorganic fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides,
which can harm the environment. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has
estimated[when?] nearly 70,000,000 pounds (32,000,000 kg) of active pesticide ingredients are used on
suburban lawns each year in the United States. [40] It has also been estimated that more herbicides are
applied per acre of lawn than are used by most farmers to grow crops. [20]

For example, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Kuwait, and Belize have placed restrictions on the
use of the herbicide 2,4-D.

However, lawns with high maintenance (mowing, irrigation, and leaf blowing) and high fertilization rates
have a net emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide that have large global warming potential. [41]
With the use of ecological techniques including organic lawn management, the impact of lawns can be
reduced. Such methods include the use of native grasses, sedges, and low herbs; higher mowing
techniques; low volume irrigation, 'grasscycling' grass clippings in place; an integrated pest
management program; exclusive organic fertilizer and compost use; and including a variety of
trees, shrubs, perennials, and other plants surrounding the lawn. A positive benefit of a healthy lawn is it
filters contaminants and prevents runoff and erosion of bare soil.
In addition to the environmental criticisms, some gardeners question the aesthetic value of lawns,
especially in climates and cultures different from the lawn's homeland in England.
6 Types of lawn plants

6.1 Grasses
6.1.1 History of the grasses used in lawns

6.1.2 Cool season grasses

6.1.3 Warm season grasses

11) Medival gardnening

Medieval gardening, or gardening during the medieval period, was the chief method of providing food for
households, but also encompassed orchards, cemeteries and pleasure gardens. For the purposes of this
article, the European medieval era will be considered to span from 400 to 1400 CE, though appropriate
references may be made to earlier and later times. Gardening is the deliberate cultivation of
plants herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables. The gardening article discusses the differences and similarities
between gardens and farms in greater detail.
Types of Garden[edit]

Hortus conclusus-Enclosed garden

Vegetable or cottage -primarily for food production

herber -primarily for herbs, culinary medicinal and craft

pleasure -nobleman's garden

orchard -fruit trees

nuthey -an orchard of nut trees

Garden Features[edit]







12) Moorish garden
The nature of the Moorish garden - is the simplicity of planning and the uniqueness of the solution. Water
is the primary motif of the garden. In the regular planning style a courtyard - patio is always present.
Specific points are arranged and arcades take shape. The plants are exotic and correspond to the climatic
conditions: mandarins, cypresses, oranges and oleanders. They are planted freely and trimming, for the
most part, did not adapt. Lawns were not used because of the hot climate and the territory took shape
through decorative paving - this is one of the key elements of Moorish garden. Cultural bloom at this
time was observed, many cities from India to Spain were proud of their gardens. In order to give the
gardens a certain charm irrigation systems built by Romans were used. But, in spite of all of the aqueous
splendour vertical fountains were nevertheless built in the style of delicate modesty, as in the court
ofchannels in the mixed gardens of Granada, for example.
It is not so complicated to understand why the nomads valued water so highly. This cultural basis brings
together the creations of the Arab masters of landscape with the Chinese and Japanese, where the
garden was created as place for the meditation and "personal luxury", but not as public property, which
was characteristic of the Greeks and Romans.
In the Moorish gardens and fountains it is possible to isolate two main features. First of all
the fountainsnever contained the imprint of the human essence, the artists ideas were never combined
with man or his humanly form since the Koran forbids the depiction of the exposed body. Furthermore,
designers were more restrained in the estimation of a quantity of utilized water (if we do not consider some
Turkish gardens), although this restraint was always found in balance with a feeling of aesthetical
"completeness", self-sufficiency of a garden.
They connected channels (originally used for irrigation), pools and fountains which created freshness
mixed with the finest aromas. The small drinking fountains, where the water jet hardly rises above the
surface, represents the best example of this fantastic use of subtlety. The pools of fountains were
designed to always be full to the brim with water. This allowed them to develop a complex system of
channels for the water to flow into. Ponds were usually decorated with patterns in the form of a lotus,
which visually enlarged their volume. Fountains in the Islamic gardens were almost always located low
on the ground, sometimes even hardly rising above the level of the surrounding view. They had to cool
the atmosphere around themselves with the aid of the evaporated moisture, and this sufficiently ordinary
feature combined wonderfully with its religious purpose.
The adepts of Moorish style also actively used water in other elements of the garden, for example,
accurately directing invigorating moisture along the channels purely for irrigating purposes, when its
decoration potential was exhausted. This characteristic and stylistic feature was unfortunately absent
inItaly's epoch of Revival and somewhat later, where the water which flows to the feet of hills was used
the 5 elements of Landscape Design include:
Color It is important to use a complementing color scheme
throughout the yard. Sometimes Contrast can create some interest and excitement.
Direction or Line Linear patterns are used to direct physical movement and to draw attention to areas in
your garden.
Form Form can be expressed through built objects or trees and shrubs of various shapes and sizes
which create natural patterns.

Texture Paving and building materials along with plants with varying textures can add to the
atmosphere of your outdoor area.
Scale Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings or established plants it surrounds,
while maintaining a comfortable human environment for the individuals who will use the area.
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:
1. living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly known to as gardening, the art and
craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.
2. natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water;
3. human elements such as structures, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or
installed by humans; and
4. abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions.
Landscaping is both science and art, and requires good observation and design skills. A good landscaper
understands the elements of nature and construction and blends them accordingly.
A "hedge" is a wall composed of plants. Some are purely decorative, while others serve primarily a
practical function. Hedge plants used decoratively are often trimmed to precise sizes and shapes and
include evergreen and deciduous shrubs. Such shrubs may also serve the practical function of affording a
property some security. Here are some resources to get you started if you are interested in creating a
"living wall":
Almost any row of densely growing hedge plants will enhance security to some degree. If you need a
higher level of security, but still wish to stick to hedge plants rather than fences, select shrubs or small
trees that have thorns (e.g., hawthorns), or at least prickly leaves (e.g., holly; see below).
But security is not the only practical function that hedges can serve. Hedges may also be used to
create privacy screens or windbreaks, in which cases small trees are often employed (either exclusively or
mixed with shrubs). The plants in such privacy screens or windbreaks are commonly allowed to grow
naturally, rather than trimmed to a particular size and shape, unless the grower wishes to combine
decorative and practical functions.
Below I discuss examples of hedge plants, with links to more detailed information about each. I'll begin
with hedge shrubs. Note that not all hedge shrubs should be meticulously trimmed so as to form sculpted,
even surfaces with straight lines. Only three of the shrubs discussed below are typically trimmed in this
fashion (forming the "classic" hedge, if you will):



15) Shrubbery
Shrubbery is a major landscaping element in most yards. My information in the articles below will help you
in plant selection and maintenance. This information on shrubbery and other topics was published in
September-November, 2007. Among the plants covered are false cypress and euonymus. Consult my
index of landscaping articles to ascertain what other topics I've written about that may interest you.
A shrubbery is a wide border to a garden where shrubs are thickly planted, or a similar larger area with a
path winding through it. A singular shrub is also known as a bush. [1]
A shrubbery was a feature of 19th-century gardens in the English manner, with its origins in the
gardenesque style[2] of the early part of the century. A shrubbery[3] was a collection of hardy shrubs, quite
distinct from a flower garden, which was a cutting garden to supply flowers in the house. The shrubbery
was arranged as a walk, ideally a winding one, that made a circuit that brought the walker back to the

terrace of the house. Its paths were gravel, so that they dried quickly after a rain. A walk in the shrubbery
offered a chance for a private conversation, and a winding walk among shrubs surrounding even quite a
small lawn was a feature of the garden behind a well-furnishedRegency suburban villa.
16) Role of trees in landscape
Functional Uses of Plants in the Landscape
Considering the functional use of plants is a new approach to solving landscape problems. Traditionally,
plants have been used for beautification due to their aesthetic qualities. The expression "functional use of
plants" helps to explain that plants can perform other functions in the landscape and still beautify.
Plants have horticultural characteristics such as height and spread, branching habit, flowers, fruit, and
foliage; they have design qualities such as form, color, texture, and mass; and they have cultural
requirements for growth in the landscape. More recently, the functional characteristics of plants have been

Figure 1. Groups of plants may be used architecturally to form walls, canopies or floors.
Plants can be used functionally to solve some of the environmental problems the homeowner may have on
the property. This may include the need for privacy, protection from glare or direct sunlight into windows, or
shade on a patio. A thick row of high shrubs bordering a road can reduce noise and prevent litter from
entering a yard, or perhaps screen an unpleasant view such as a shopping center or row of buildings.
The contemporary approach to planning a residential landscape incorporates a design process. In the
process, the needs and goals of the owner and conditions of the building site are identified. An analysis of
these goals and conditions reveals needs and suggests a program for enhancement of the landscape. It
must be realized that not all landscape problems can be solved with plant materials alone; pavements and
structures are equally important. Fences and walls are as functional and provide as much privacy as
woody plants--and they may require less maintenance.

Figure 2. Plants can be used to screen the hot summer sun while allowing sunlight through bare branches
in winter for a type of climate control.
Architectural Uses of Plants
Plants can be used to form walls, canopies, or floors by taking advantage of their different growth habits
and foliage characteristics. A stand of trees or shrubs can create walls to filter or block views, or a canopy
of tree branches can provide a sense of shelter. Ground cover planting with uniform foliage and textural
characteristics can present the feeling of an architectural floor. Plants can also define a boundary (Fig. 1).

Engineering Uses of Plants

Trees can stop or diffuse light before it reaches the ground. Engineering functions of plants include using
them to screen or soften the sun's glare on the water or smooth shiny surfaces (Fig. 2), or to block car
lights or street lights (Fig. 3).
An edging of ground cover plants along an entranceway or at corners of a walk helps direct attention and
movement of people. Traffic movement along walks and drives can be controlled with shrubs or trees (Fig.

Figure 3. This engineering with plant design reduces light glare.

Plants can add, absorb and deflect sound by the presence and movement of their foliage and branches.
Plants are particularly useful in noise control when joined with landforms. Plants can remove and trap
pollutants from the air as well as introduce fragrance or odors from flowers or foliage, such as the spicy
scented leaves of the bayberry.

Figure. 4. This design, employing plants and pavements, emphasizes a functional and important entry
approach by directing traffic to the main entry.
Climate Control Uses of Plants
For climate control, deciduous shade trees might be used to screen the hot summer sun or in winter permit
the solar radiation to penetrate to the ground, or to the walls and windows of a building. Large shrubs can
serve as windbreaks to reduce wind velocities. Changes in solar radiation or light levels are also possible
with shading.
Aesthetic Uses of Plants
The aesthetic functions of plants are the easiest to understand. Plants traditionally have been used for
beautification; unfortunately, most people think this is the only reason to landscape with plants.
Aesthetically, plants can become a piece of living sculpture. When placed against a plain wall or fence,
they create an interesting shadow pattern of branches and leaves. Plants can be used as background for
other plantings, or arranged to provide visual coherence to unrelated objects or structures. They provide
suitable environments for birds and other wildlife, too (Fig. 5).
Plants may be used for diverse purposes in the modern landscape. Rarely should plants be simply
ornamental; rather, they should serve multiple roles, making the modern landscape both attractive and

Figure 5. Plants can form a living sculpture on their own, or help soften surrounding architecture.
17) Atrium garden
Small home atriums often end up as eyesores: designing a small atrium garden for these homes can be
difficult. Problems with light and drainage seem simple compared to deciding what to do with the space.
The key to creating a pleasant atrium garden space is to keep in mind which rooms face the atrium and to
work with the home's architecture and the homeowner's decorating style.
Most homes with an atrium are of a modern style; however, Asian or classically styled homes can also
have atriums. Atriums in two-story homes are harder to design because less light penetrates into the
space. When designing the space, investigate the light and drainage conditions in the atrium. Drainage
problems in an atrium can adversely effect a home's foundation, so any problems must be fixed before any
designing or gardening begins.
Small atrium gardens can actually be designed with few or no plant materials. A gravel-filled space with
favorite sculptures and a small bench provides good drainage, an interesting view from the home's interior,
and a protected spot to sit on fair days. Atriums can be paved to create a courtyard, as long as drainage is
With a little light, plants can thrive in an atrium garden. Choosing shade-loving plants is required for an
atrium garden, but there is a huge variety to choose from. If you want greenery and sculptures, consider
installing topiary frames and training shade-loving vines over them. A single large "structural" shade plant
such as a small understory tree can provide four seasons of interest. Consider a deciduous tree holly
(Possumhaw) or a dogwood for an atrium garden. Interesting shade-loving shrubs such as Oakleaf
Hydrangea, American Beautyberry, or azaleas can be planted around a small bench. A single sculpture or
seating area in an atrium surrounded by a groundcover such as a shade-loving vine is simple an effective:
try a deciduous vine like Boston ivy or Virginia creeper. Mondo grass makes a nice groundcover for an
atrium garden, as do annuals such as coleus.
A small home atrium can be used for recreation. An atrium gardener can design a garden railroad that can
be viewed and run from inside the house. Hobbies such as Japanese bonsai can make great use of a
small home atrium's space. Any hobby that requires a little fresh air can be done in an atrium, and the
atrium can be designed to beautifully accommodate the activity.
Small atrium gardens can function as another room for the house. A gazebo dining area with vines can be
created and used by the homeowner on pleasant days for breakfast, lunch and dinner in the open air.
Atrium gardens can be used as hobby room, as suggested above, or as a sitting room. Providing an atrium
garden with a comfortable chase lounge and a small table creates a reading nook. A small shade or
umbrella provides shelter from a hot sun or light rain in an atrium, while a portable fan or space heater can
make the temperature in the atrium more comfortable.
Growing herbs and vegetables in an atrium garden requires careful plant selection. Most edibles require
full sun, but a kitchen garden can be designed for an atrium. Vegetables that will grow in part shade
include peppers, greens and spinach (in hot climates), and some root vegetables like beets, radishes, and
turnips. Any atrium garden can easily include a few containers of herbs such as basil, chives, oregano, and
parsley. Some fruit can be grown in an atrium garden also: alpine strawberries, pawpaw trees, and many
other types of lesser-known fruits would do well in an atrium garden.
The sound of moving water is a desirable addition to many homes. Water features can be included in a
small atrium garden, providing soothing sounds and views as long as drainage is carefully planned. A
burbling fountain or a small waterfall easily fit in the small space provided. Other garden atrium designs
might want to include a tiny koi pond. Add small bench for fish watching and the atrium is an inviting and
peaceful spot for the homeowner to enjoy.
An atrium garden can be designed with wildlife in mind. Beyond the koi pond, other wild visitors can be
enticed to visit an atrium garden. Bird watching is a popular pastime, and a bird visiting an atrium can be
viewed from all sides. Include bird feeders in the atrium garden, and the birds will soon find the atrium. If
you do not often go you're your atrium, try including a birdhouse. Undisturbed, birds may make their nest in
the atrium garden, and the homeowners will enjoy viewing the baby birds grow up in the middle of their

house. Certain flowers can attract hummingbirds and butterflies: resist the plants that need full shade and
search out ones that can tolerate shade. Cross vine, a relative of the red trumpet vine, would do well in an
atrium garden, and would be irresistible to hummingbirds. Lantana can be grown in the shade, and
butterflies love it. Night-blooming flowers will attract beautiful moths to the atrium garden at night.
If the homeowner is usually absent during the day, design an atrium garden that can be enjoyed at night.
Accent lights create beautiful nighttime views from the home's interior. Up-light a sculpture or small tree, or
use submersible lights in a water feature. Take care in ensuring that the lights are not too bright and that
they can be easily turned off from inside the home. Night-blooming plants and plants with white flowers
should be used in an atrium garden which will be viewed primarily at night.
Sometimes a homeowner will not wish to see through to the rooms on the other side of the atrium garden.
Rather than covering the view with drapery or blinds, screen the view with tall plants or use mirror film on
the windows. Mirror film will prevent visitors seeing through to more private areas of the house, and will
also prevent birds from seeing the people in the house when they visit the atrium garden. Tropical-looking
plants such as dwarf palmetto (sabal minor), pawpaw, and cannas will thrive in the atrium garden's partial
shade, and will effectively screen the view of the other rooms in the house.
Whatever is desired, remember that an atrium garden should be designed to be viewed from inside the
home. The style of the atrium garden should complement the interior of the rooms looking out into it.
Rather than being an eyesore, the atrium should function as a focal point for the home: providing pleasing
views and a sheltered outdoor space to be enjoyed.
18) Landscaping Ideas Around a Concrete Slab
Creating a container garden brings life to your concrete slab.
Concrete slabs can look cold and unnatural as part of your backyard oasis. You can change the look of the
slab using acid washing or etching techniques that make it look more like stone. In addition, you can
update the grounds and plantings around the slab to bring a living element and a cohesive look to your
patio area.
Edging and Islands
Surround your concrete slab with flower beds that follow the shape of the slab or extend as freeform
islands. Use evergreen bushes such as boxwood or azalea, and surround them with lower plants such as
decorative grasses or long-lasting annuals such as pansies. Narrow flower beds bring a touch of life
without requiring much labor, while the larger islands of plants create more of an oasis feel.
Water Feature
Adding a fountain or small koi pond beside your patio brings a peaceful and relaxing element to your
concrete slab. Even simple fountains, such as those made of stacked stone, help drown out noise from the
street or your neighbors while you sit outside. The pond provides an opportunity to plant water lilies and
tropical plants such as birds of paradise to give your patio an exotic ambience.
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To create privacy around your concrete slab, place tall fences, wood trellises or metal arbors along the
sides. Plant climbing vines such as clematis or grape vines to cover the structures and help hide your patio
from curious eyes. You can add shade as well as privacy by training vines up and over a wooden pergola
that covers your concrete slab area.
Placing plants in containers softens the transition from the harsh lines of your concrete slab to the plants in
the yard. Use groupings of large and small containers, placing the taller containers in the back with the
smaller ones closer to the yard, bringing your eye down toward the ground plants. Containers can often
hold several plants each, and some are large enough to hold dwarf trees for a dramatic look.
19) English garden
The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the English
garden (French: Jardin anglais,Italian: Giardino all'inglese, German: Englischer
Landschaftsgarten, Portuguese: Jardim ingls, Spanish: Jardn ingls), is a style of "landscape" garden
which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal,

symmetrical jardin la franaise of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. [1] The
English garden presented an idealized view of nature. It drew inspiration from paintings of landscapes
by Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin, and, in the Anglo-Chinese garden, from the classic Chinese
gardens of the East,[2] which had recently been described by European travellers. [2] The English garden
usually included a lake, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of
classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic
pastoral landscape. The work ofLancelot "Capability" Brown was particularly influential. By the end of the
18th century the English garden was being imitated by theFrench landscape garden, and as far away as
St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a major influence
on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.[3]
Capability Brown[edit]

Blenheim Palace Park, by Capability Brown

Garden of Chatsworth House, by Capability Brown

The most influential figure in the later development of the English landscape garden was Lancelot
"Capability" Brown (17161783) who began his career in 1740 as a gardener at Stowe under Charles
Bridgeman, then succeeded William Kent in 1748.
Brown's contribution was to simplify the garden by eliminating geometric structures, alleys, and parterres
near the house and replacing them with rolling lawns and extensive views out to isolated groups of trees,
making the landscape seem even larger. "He sought to create an ideal landscape out of the English
countryside."[11] He created artificial lakes and used dams and canals to transform streams or springs into
the illusion that a river flowed through the garden.
He compared his own role as a garden designer to that of a poet or composer. "Here I put a comma, there,
when it's necessary to cut the view, I put a parenthesis; there I end it with a period and start on another
Brown designed 170 gardens. The most important were:

Petworth (West Sussex) in 1752;

Chatsworth (Derbyshire) in 1761;

Bowood (Wiltshire) in 1763;

Blenheim Palace (Oxfordshire) in 1764.