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Lecture 2

# Lecture 1: Basic of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is concerned with the mathematical modelling of the real world. In order

that the mathematical deductions are consistent, we need some precise definitions of the basic concepts.

## The Continuum Model

Matter may be described at a molecular (or microscopic) level using the techniques of statistical mechanics and kinetic theory. For engineering purposes, however, we want “averaged” information, i.e., a macroscopic, not a microscopic, description.

Microscopic description of an engineering device may produce too much information to manage. For example, 1 mm 3 of air at standard temperature and pressure contains 10 16 molecules, each of which has a position and a velocity. Typical engineering applications involve more than 10 20 molecules.

Second, and more importantly, microscopic positions and velocities are generally not useful for determining how macroscopic systems will act or react unless, for instance, their total effect is integrated.

model matter from the start as a smoothed-out continuum. Classical thermodynamics is concerned only with continua.

## The Concept of a “System”

Open systems (control volume) can exchange both matter and energy with the environment.

Closed systems (control mass) exchange energy but not matter with the environment.

Isolated systems can exchange neither energy nor matter with the environment.

Piston (boundary) and gas (system)

Boundary around x motor (system)

Sample control volume

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Lecture 2

## The Concept of a “State”

Defined by specifying values of a set of measurable properties sufficient to determine all other properties.

For fluid systems, typical properties are pressure, volume and temperature. More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual properties. As an example, the state of an electric battery requires the specification of the amount of electric charge it contains.

Properties may be extensive or intensive.

  Extensive properties are additive. Thus, if the system is divided into a number of sub-  systems, the value of the property for the whole system is equal to the sum of the values for the parts. Volume is an extensive property. Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter present. Temperature and pressure are intensive properties.

Specific properties are extensive properties per unit mass and are denoted by lower case

letters. For example:

specific volume= V

m

=v

Specific properties are intensive because they do not depend on the mass of the system.

The properties of a simple system are uniform throughout. In general, however, the properties of a system can vary from point to point. We can usually analyze a general system by sub- dividing it (either conceptually or in practice) into a number of simple systems in each of which the properties are assumed to be uniform.

It is important to note that properties describe states only when the system is in equilibrium.

## The Concept of “Equilibrium”

The state of a system in which properties have definite, unchanged values as long as external conditions are unchanged is called an equilibrium state.

Lecture 2

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Mechanical Equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

Figure: Equilibrium

A system in thermodynamic equilibrium satisfies:

  Mechanical equilibrium (no unbalanced forces)  Thermal equilibrium (no temperature differences)  Chemical equilibrium.

## The Concept of a “Process”

  If the state of a system changes, then it is undergoing a process.  The succession of states through which the system passes defines the path of the process.  If, at the end of the process, the properties have returned to their original values, the system has undergone a cyclic process or a cycle.

Note that even if a system has returned to its original state and completed a cycle, the state of the surroundings may have changed.

## Quasi-Equilibrium Processes

We are often interested in charting thermodynamic processes between states on thermodynamic coordinates.

Quasi-static (quasi-equilibrium) processes – sufficiently slow processes, any intermediate state can be considered as an equilibrium state (the macro parameters are well-defined for all intermediate states).

Advantage: the state of a system that participates in a quasi-equilibrium process can be described with the same (small) number of macro parameters as for a system in equilibrium (e.g., for an ideal gas in quasi-equilibrium processes, this could be T and P). By contrast, for non-equilibrium processes (e.g. turbulent flow of gas), we need a huge number of macro parameters

For quasi-equilibrium processes, P, V, T are well- defined – the “path”

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Lecture 2

Examples of quasi-equilibrium processes:

o
isochoric:
o
isobaric:
o
isothermal:
V = const
P = const
T = const
o
Q = 0
p−v
p−T
T−v
(a)
diagram
(b)
diagram
(c)
diagram

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Lecture 2

## Equations of state of Ideal Gases

Two properties are needed to define the state of any pure substance in equilibrium or undergoing a steady or quasi-steady process

Thus for a simple compressible gas like air,

P=P(v ,T),v=v (P,T ),T=T(P, v )

If we know

v

and

T

we know

P

, etc.

Any of these is equivalent to an equation

f (P, v ,T )=0

, which is known as an equation of

state. The equation of state for an ideal gas, which is a very good approximation to real gases at conditions that are typically of interest for aerospace application, is

o

Pv=R T

where

v

 o is the volume per mol of gas and R is the “Universal Gas Constant,”

KJ

• 8.31 Kmol K

.

A form of this equation which is more useful in fluid flow problems is obtained if we divide by the molecular weight, M:

Pv=RT ,P=ρRT

where R is

o

R

• M , which has a different value for different gases due to the different

molecular weights.

 P – pressure [Newtons/m 2 ] V – volume [m 3 ] n – number of moles of gas [mol] T – the temperature in Kelvins [K] o R – a universal constant