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REQUIREMENTS OF POWER

SYSTEM
It must supply energy practically everywhere the customer demands.
The load demands vary with time. The system must able to supply this
ever changing demand.
The delivered energy must meet certain minimum requirements in
regard to quality. The following factors determine the quality:
a) The system frequency must be kept around 50Hz with
a variation of +0.05Hz to -0.05Hz.
b) The magnitude of the bus voltages are maintained within
prescribed limit around the normal value. Generally the
voltage variation should be limited to +5 to -5%.
The energy must be available with high reliability.
The energy must be delivered without overloading any element in the
power system.
The energy must be delivered at minimum cost.

REAL POWER (P): The real power, P is


defined as the average value of P and
therefore, physically, means the useful
power being transmitted. Its magnitude
depends very strongly on the power
factor cos.
REACTIVE POWER (Q):The reactive
power, Q is by definition equal to the
peak value of that power component
that travels back & forth on the line,
resulting in zero average, and therefore
capable of no useful work.
2

TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD

PHASOR

PHASE
ANGLE

POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD


P
Q

I
V

R
I

= 0

P>0

Q=0

= +90

P=0

Q>0

= - 90

P=0

Q<0

0<<+90

P>0

Q>0

V
L

L
3

TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD

PHASOR

PHASE
ANGLE

POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD


P
Q

I
R
C

-90<<0

P>0

Q<0

P=0

Q=0

Tuned to
Resonance
IL = Ic

I
V

C
Ic

IL

PL = Pc
Energy travels

-90<=<=+90

Back & forth


Between C&L
4

TYPE OF LOADS

Inductive load absorbs positive Q. i.e., an


inductor consumes
reactive power.

Capacitive load absorbs negative Q. i.e., a


capacitor generates reactive power.

Sign change in Q simply means a 180 phase shift.

Resistive load consumes real power.

Inductive load consumes positive reactive power

Capacitive load consumes negative reactive power.

Combination of R & L load consumes real &


positive reactive power.

Combination of R & C load consumes real &


negative reactive power.

Reactive power is bi-directional power. It travels from


source to load as well as load to source.
5

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

I) COLLECT THE INFORMATIONS FROM T.G. NAME PLATE / MANUAL:


1. Terminal Voltage
:
11,000 V
2. Rated MVA
:
137.5
3. Rated p.f. (cos )
:
0.8 Lagging
4. Rated Armature Current :
7220 A
5. Rated Field Current
:
1500 A
6. Short Circuit Ratio
:
0.5
II) CALCULATED VALUES:
1. MW = MVA X p.f. = 137.5 X 0.8 = 110 MW
2. MVAR = MVA X SCR = 137.5 X 0.5 = 68.75 MVAR (Max. permissible zero
p.f. leading MVAR)
3. = cos-1(0.8) = 36.87
4. To ensure operational safety, there should be a margin of at least 12.5 %
(given by the manufacturer) of the power rating of the generator
between
the working point & the theoretical stability (load angle ) limit line. The
operational limit of a generator rated at 0.8 p.f. lagging can be tabulated
below:
p.u. MW
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
p.u. MW + Margin

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0
6

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR


REAL POWER
p.u. MW
Unity p.f.
Leading p.f.

VAR IMPORT

Lagging p.f.

VAR EXPORT

OE : No-load Field Current


OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction
FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

=90
1.0

P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

0.9

1.0

REACTIVE POWER
p.u. MVAR (leading)

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
SCR

0.5

NT
CU
RR
E

(O
R)
TO
TA
L

=36
.87

AL
STA

BIL

0.2

PR A
CT IC

0.1

FIE

0.1

0.4

IT
LIM

0.2

L
TA 0.3
TO

R)

EN
RR
CU

IT
T LIM
REN

0.3

0.4 R (O
TO
RO

LD

NT
RE

0.4

0.5

UR
R C
ROTO

0.5

0.6

R
CU

ITY
LIM
IT W
ITH
12.5
%

0.6

0.7

AR
MA
TU
RE

MAR
GIN
(=6
3 )

0.7

TURBINE LIMIT LINE


0.8

OR
AT
ST

THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.8

ST
AT
OR

0.9

H
0.3

0.2

0.1

MVA X SCR
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

C
1.0

REACTIVE POWER
p.u. MVAR (lagging)

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR


REAL POWER
p.u. MW
Unity p.f.
Leading p.f.

VAR IMPORT

Lagging p.f.

VAR EXPORT

OE : No-load Field Current


OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction
FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

=90
1.0

P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

0.9

0.9

0.1

(=6
3)

MVA X SCR
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

AR
MA
TU
RE

(O
R)
ST
AT
OR

CU
RR
E

NT

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

1.0

0.2

0.9

0.3

0.8

0.4

0.7

SCR

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.1

T
EN
RR
CU

0.5

0.7

0.2

0.4

0.8

L
TA 0.3
TO

0.3

0.9

0.2

1.0

REACTIVE POWER
p.u. MVAR (leading)

0.1

FI

R)
0.4 R (O
O
T
RO

D
EL

TO
TA
L

0.2

0.5

= 36
.8

0.3

0.6

IT
L IM
T
EN
LIMIT
RR
CU
RENT
CUR
OR
ROT

0.4

PRA
CTIC
AL
STA
BIL IT
Y L
IMIT
WIT
H 1
2.5 %

0.6
0.5

0.7

MA
R GIN

0.7

TURBINE LIMIT LINE


0.8

OR
AT
ST

THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.8

0.8

H
0.9

C
1.0

REACTIVE POWER
p.u. MVAR (lagging)

III) COMPARISON

Actual MW=50 (i.e. 50/137.5=0.364p.u.)

Actual MVAR=6 (i.e. 6/137.5=0.044p.u.)

Arm. Current = 0.36p.u. X 7220A=2599A

Field Current=0.475p.u. X 1500A=712.5A

p.f.=cos(6.5)=0.994 lag

Load Angle =33.4

V=(MVA X 106)/(3 X

Iarm.)
Iarm.)

=((MW +MVAR ) X 10 )/(3 X

=((50 +6 ) X 10 )/(3 X 2599) = 11.12KV

E.T.P.S. *** UNIT-5


DATE:
TIME:

09.08.2004
11:00 Hrs.

MW = 50

MVAR = 6

Armature Current = 2600A

Field Current = 710A

p.f.= 0.98 lag

= -- (No measurement)

V = 11.2 KV

K.

CAPABILITY CURVE

Rotor current limit


Class of insulation (to take care of rotor insulation)
Stator current limit
Class of insulation for stator.
MW load limit
Turbine limit (steam power generation capability)
Turbine is designed for MW load only .
Minimum load angle limit
Leading p.f. operation
Stability limit of generation
Stator end heating limit
Stressing stator winding & heating of stator
10 to 20 MVAR (leading p.f.) is safe
Rotor is relieved from stress
Stator end winding heated due to capacitive effect
Remove capacitor banks in load centres
In NCTPS 210 MW unit, running the generator at -64 MVAR
load for an hour. Not able to reduce the load.

10

USEFULNESS OF CAPABILITY DIAGRAM FOR


EXCITATION CONTROL
The information given by the capability diagram
regarding full load rotor current (excitation),
maximum rotor angle during steady state leading
p.f. zone operation (<75) etc., are essential for
proper setting of the various limiters in the
excitation control system.
Capability diagram give the basic information
regarding the limiting zones of the operation so
that limiters can be set / commissioned suitably
for safe operation of the units.
11

FREQUENCY IS RELATED TO REAL POWER ( P f )


SMALL DROP IN SYSTEM LOAD.
VALVE SETTINGS ARE IGNORANT OF THE LOAD CHANGE.
INPUT TORQUE TO EACH MACHINE REMAINS UNALTERED.
DECREASE IN CURRENT SUPPLIED BY EACH ALTERNATOR.
DECREASE IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TORQUE BY EACH ALTERNATOR.
EACH ALTERNATOR EXPERIENCES SURPLES ACCELERATING TORQUE.
SLIGHT INCREASE IN SPEED AND FREQUENCY.

12

EFFECT ON OTHER LOADS:


AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, THE REMAINING LOAD ROTATES AT
HIGHER SPEED AND TAKES MORE CURRENT.
HENCE THE LOAD DEMAND INCREASES.
POWER GENERATION AT HIGHER FREQUENCY EQUALS THE LOAD
DEMAND POWER.
TO DECREASE THE FREQUENCY, THE VALVE MUST BE CLOSED
SLIGHTLY.
EXAMPLE:
PUMP SET (INDUCTION MOTOR)
At high frequency, the speed of IM increases.
Ns = 120f / P
Nr = Ns ( 1 - s )
The current taken by the IM will be more. Hence the demand on the system
increases.
ADJUSTING
INPUT VALVES

CONTROLS
FREQUENCY

CONTROLS
REAL POWER

13

VOLTAGE IS RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER ( Q V )


G1

V1

V2
jX

P jQ

1.
2.
3.

Bus Voltage V1 is kept at constant magnitude.


Transmission line has reactance only i.e. jX.
Power flow is P Q.

Take V1 as reference.
V2=V1-jXI -----------------------------------(1)
V1 * I = P jQ
I = (P-jQ) / V1 ------------------------------(2)
Substitute (2) in (1)
V2 = V1 jX [(P/V1) j(Q/V1)]
V2 = [V1 (X/V1)Q] j(X/V1)P]

14

VECTOR DIAGRAMS:
V2 = V1- X Q - j X P
V1
V1
BOTH DROPS EQUAL

DOUBLE P

V1

V1

X Q
V1

V2

DOUBLE Q

X
V1

X P
V1

V1
Q

V2
V2

XP
V1

2X Q
V1

2X P
V1

DOUBLE P : VOLTAGE ANGLE WILL CHANGE. NO CHANGE IN MAGNITUDE.


DOUBLE Q : VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IS VERY MUCH RELATED TO REACTIVE
POWER.
MORE Q FLOW WILL AFFECT THE VOLTAGE
EXCITATION MORE

LAGGING MVAR

GEN. VOLTAGE

EXCITATION LESS

LAGGING MVAR

GEN. VOLTAGE15

REACTIVE POWER INJECTION AT LOAD SIDE BY USING SHUNT


CAPACITORS, IMPROVES THE VOLTAGE.
UNDER LIGHT LOAD CONDITIONS, RECEIVING END VOLTAGE >
SENDING END VOLTAGE (FERRANTI EFFECT) DUE TO CAPACITIVE
LOAD. CONNECT SHUNT REACTORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE.
PEAK LOAD
CONDITION

CONNECT
CAPACITORS

LIGHT LOAD
CONDITION

CONNECT
REACTORS

TO CONTROL
VOLTAGE

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER IS USED TO ABSORB or TO DELIVER


THE REACTIVE POWER.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR UNDER NO-LOAD CONDITION IS
SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER.
16

POWER DIAGRAM (CAPABILITY DIAGRAM):

ASSUMPTION: I.R. drop is negligible.

In ABC, BC=E

Sin

IX

Cos
A

CASE-I:

MW

In BCD, BC=IXd

E Sin = IXd Cos


I
MVAR
Multiply both sides by V
Xd
EV Sin = VI Cos = REAL
Xd
POWER
At =90, We get the maximum power i.e. the theoritical stability line.

CASE-I I:

In ABC, CD=AC AD;


In BCD, CD=IXd Sin
In ABC, AC=E Cos & AD = V
IXd Sin = E Cos - V ; Multiply both sides by V , We get
Xd
EV Cos V2 = VI Sin = REACTIVE POWER
Xd
Xd

17

SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ( SCR ):


SCR =

FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE RATED VOLTAGE ON O.C.


FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO CIRCULATE RATED CURRENT ON S.C.

S.C.C.

PER UNIT VOLTAGE

PER UNIT CURRENT

O.C.C.
a

1.0

C
E
c

o
SCR = o Fo
1
o Fs
Xd

Fo

c Fo

c Fo

b Fs

a Fo

Fc

AE

DE

AB

AC

BC

FIELD CURRENT

1
a Fo / c Fo

AD

1
Per unit voltage on open circuit
Corresponding per unit current on short circuit
18

= RECIPROCAL OF SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE

TYPICAL S.C.R. VALUES:


For 500 MW T.G., SCR= 0.48
For 210 MW T.G., SCR= 0.49
For 110 MW T.G., SCR= 0.50
For 60 MW T.G., SCR= 0.59
The SCR value may have to be raised to 1.0 to 1.5, if the loading is likely to be
capacitive i.e. leading MVAR supply.
For modern Turbo-alternator, the SCR is normally between 0.48 to 0.7

EFFECT OF S.C.R. ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE:


Higher value of SCR has higher stability limit.
Better voltage regulation for high SCR.
High value of SCR has a long air gap which means that the mmf required by
field is large. Hence machine with higher SCR is costlier to build.

SCR

AIR GAP

WEIGHT

SIZE

TRANSPORTATION
PROBLEM

Present trend is to build low value of SCR since fast acting excitation
system available.
19

GENERATOR IMPORTANT TIPS

T.G. CAPACITY IN M.W.:


50
60
62.5
100
110
120
200
210 Weight: 250 tonnes
235
250
500
800 future
1000 future

20

GENERATOR IMPORTANT TIPS


T.G. TERMINAL VOLTAGE IN KV :
10.5
11 ETPS 60 MW, 110 MW
13.8
15 Neyveli-Stage I
15.75 BHEL 210 MW
16 Nuclear 235 MW
18.4 NTPC 210 MW
21 500 MW
22 - 500 MW
33 (or) 34 Future (800 MW/1000 MW)
requires 800 KV line (year 2010)
21

GENERATOR IMPORTANT TIPS

Higher capacity Hydro machine in India : 250 MW, KOINA (Maharastra),


Air cooled.

Higher capacity T.G. in India

Higher capacity T.G.

Higher capacity G.T. in India

Maximum voltage

: 400 KV AC.

National Grid

: 800 or 765 KV line year 2010.

Regional Grid

: 400 KV line.

World highest

: 500 MW.

:
Advantage : Reduction of cost of Generation.
Limitations : (i) Transportation problem
(bigger size)
(ii) Do not have adequate
transmission lines.
: 315 MVA, 3 phase, single unit,
400 KV.

: FRANCE, 1500 MW T.G., Nuclear ,


1600 MVA, 1200 KV.
22

GENERATOR IMPORTANT TIPS


SPECIFICATION FOR ROTATING MACHINES:
IEC 34 Part I, II, III (International Electro-Technical
commission)
IS 5422
2*105 hours guaranteed operating time (23 years)
8760 hrs/year.
104 start/stop times.
Total life time
: 25 years.
Capital O/H
: Once in 4 to 5 years (25 days).
Annual O/H
: < 10 days.
23

VOLTAGE VERSUS VAR/POWER FACTOR REGULATION ON


SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS
Thomas W. Eberly

Richard C. Schaefer

Member, IEEE
Southern California Edison Co.

Senior Member, IEEE


Basler Electric Company

Abstract - When paralleled to the utility bus,


synchronous generators can be controlled using either
terminal voltage or var/power factor control. Selection
is dependent upon the size of the generator and the
stiffness of the connecting utility bus.
For large generators where the kVA is significant,
these machines are usually terminal voltage regulated
and dictate the systems bus voltage.
When smaller terminal voltage regulated generators
are synchronized to a stiff utility bus, the system
voltage will not change as the smaller generator shares
reactive loading. However, if the system voltage
changes significantly, the smaller generator, with its
continuous acting terminal voltage regulator, will
attempt to maintain the voltage set point. As the
voltage regulator follows its characteristic curve, it
may cause either over or under excitation of the
smaller generator.
Excessive system voltage may cause a small generator
to lose synchronizing torque, while low system voltage
may cause excessive heating on the generator or
excessive overcurrent operation of the excitation
system.
Maintaining a constant reactive load on the smaller
generating unit can reduce the generator field current
variations and, thus, reduce the maintenance of the
collector rings and brushes.
This paper illustrates the effect of changing system
bus voltage on small generators utilizing voltage
versus VAr/power factor regulation.
INDEX TERMS: Synchronous generator, excitation
systems, voltage regulators, var/power factor controllers

I. INTRODUCTION
When synchronous generators are tied to a utility bus,
conditions may exist in which it is not desirable for a
generator to use a terminal voltage regulator with reactive
droop compensation. These conditions occur where the
transmission or distribution voltage may be sensitive to
local load fluctuations. The bus voltage may be normal in

the early morning, but drops progressively through the day


as system loading increases. In other cases, high
reactances in the transmission and distribution line can
cause undesirable voltage drops with increased system
loading. This reduces the available voltage at the load,
forcing local area generators to supply more VArs into the
utility bus to meet the demands of the system.
Depending upon the impedance of the transmission or
distribution line at the area of the local generating station,
and the voltage regulation of the system bus, a smaller
generator tied into the utility bus can become either
severely overloaded or underexcited. The severity depends
upon the magnitude and direction of the system voltage
change.

II. TYPES OF EXCITATION SYSTEM REGULATION


Voltage variations are not uncommon in the utility system.
When they are minor, the reactive droop compensation
within the voltage regulator will assure reactive load
sharing between the generator and the interconnected bus.
This prevents large changes in reactive current for any one
generator. Excessive reactive current can result in either
overload or loss of generator synchronism. Reactive droop
compensation is accomplished by the addition of a current
transformer in one of the generator output leads. With the
proper orientation of this signal into the voltage regulator
sensing circuit, the control system becomes sensitive to
reactive current flow. The compensation circuit has the
same effect as adding approximately 10% impedance in
series with the generator whose automatic voltage
regulator provides 1/2% voltage regulation.
In Fig. 1, a generator is equipped with a solid state voltage
regulator having reactive voltage droop compensation. The
graph illustrates the effect of bus voltage changes on the
reactive/ampere load on the generator. If the bus voltage
drops by 6%, the reactive/ampere generator load will
change from zero to 70%. A further decrease to 10% could
exceed the kVA rating of the generator, causing excessive
heating in the field winding and the power semiconductors
of the excitation system. The increase in field heating is
proportional to the increase of lagging reactive/ampere
load.

Fig. 1. Voltage Regulator Droop Versus Var/PF Control Regulation

Fig. 1 also illustrates a condition where the bus voltage


may increase, causing a leading power factor condition on
the generator. Here, insufficient reactive droop
compensation may cause the generator to become
underexcited, and the voltage regulator circuit can cause
potential loss of machine synchronism. To avoid these
possible scenarios, a maximum excitation limiter is used to
prevent excessive rotor heating when the bus voltage
drops very low, while a minimum excitation limiter is utilized
to prevent generator potential loss of synchronism when
the system bus voltage rises excessively.
For these conditions that can dramatically affect small
machine performance, a more favorable method of control
is the use of a VAr or power factor control. There are
several schemes used today from a continuous analogtype, a SCADA or meter relay output contacts scheme (a
non-continuous acting method) to digital regulators. Any of
these methods will cause the generator to be regulated at a
programmed quantity of VArs or power factor. The major
difference between the schemes is the response time of
the controller to modify the voltage set point. In Fig. 1, the
var controller is used in lieu of the terminal voltage
regulator with reactive droop compensation. Notice the
effect of bus voltage changes on system vars in voltage
regulation mode, while the var controller can be set to
regulate the generator at a programmed level of 70% vars
and maintain it, regardless of bus voltage changes that
may occur. The controller provides essentially infinite
droop.

Fig. 2. Generator Capability Curve

Fig. 2 is used for explanation in describing the controllers


operation. A vector 0-D is used to represent full 0.8 power
factor output of a generator. With var control, if kilowatts
are decreased progressively, the vector O-D will move in a
horizontal manner to 0-C, 0-B and finally 0-A, regulating
the var quantity regardless of kW changes. Changing the
controller to regulate Power Factor causes the cos to
be regulated. As kW decreases, the operating point will
move proportionally from D to D and finally to D,
decreasing the var component, but maintaining a constant
angle .
III. SYSTEM TESTING AT THE PORTAL
POWERHOUSE
To illustrate the system performance variation between
voltage regulation with the voltage set point reactive droop
compensation versus var/power factor control, tests were
conducted on a 10.4 MW hydro-turbine generator. The
generator utilizes a 100 kW static exciter regulator
equipped with an automatic voltage regulator and reactive
droop compensation working directly into the main field.
Also included is a minimum/maximum excitation limiter and
a var/power factor controller.
The machine is located at the Portal Powerhouse in Central
California on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
Mountains. It derives power from the upper San Joaquin
River basin drainage area. The generator is a lone,
unattended machine, connected at the end of a radial line.
Portal PowerHouse generates at 4,800 Vac then is stepped
up to 34.4 kV into a medium voltage distribution line. The
area distribution voltage is dependent upon the utility bus

voltage. The change in the bus voltage can cause


significant reactive current to flow between the Portal
generator and the interconnected bus. Based upon these
conditions, the excitation system was equipped with
var/power factor control. See Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Portal PowerHouse (One Line)

Three tests were performed on the generator to illustrate


the system performance between voltage, var and power
factor control. During the test, transformer taps at the 34.4
kV distribution level, approximately 20 miles from the Portal
Powerhouse, were raised and lowered to adjust the system
voltage. The data collected illustrates the effect of the
system voltage change on the 10.4 MW generator.
Performance data included generator terminal voltage and
line current, generator Mvar and MW, phase angle between
the generator line to line voltage and line current, system
voltage measured at the transformer tap changer, and
generator field voltage and field current.

Fig. 4. Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage

A. Terminal Voltage Regulator


For the test, transformer taps were moved to eight different
settings, four lower, a neutral and three raise. Each
representing a 2 1/2% voltage step change. After the data
was recorded, all generator quantities- were normalized to
reflect 100% MW, zero Mvars - 100% MVA, at rated field
current and voltage, rated generator terminal voltage and
normal system line voltage.
Fig. 4 shows the per unit change in generator voltage
measured at the terminals of the machine versus field
voltage and field current.

Fig. 5. MW Component

The generator output voltage changed 2.0% while field


excitation changed approximately 25% over the same
range. As the transformer taps were progressively reduced,
the automatic voltage regulator sensed the lowering system
voltage and reacted by pushing more dc power into the
field. When the transformer tap changed to its highest
position, system voltage measured at the tap changing
transformer likewise raised. Here the automatic voltage
regulator reduced the field excitation into the rotor to
reduce the generator voltage. As the automatic voltage
regulator attempted to keep the generator voltage constant,
the generator reactive current flowed into the generator
(VArs buck) thus causing the phase angle between the
generator voltage and current to increase.
Fig. 5 shows that the component of the MW remained
essentially constant as the governor regulated the power
from the turbine. MVA, however, changed approximately
3% as the voltage regulator varied its output response to
maintain generator terminal voltage.
Generator line current exhibited the familiar generator V
curve characteristic as field excitation is varied by the
command of the automatic voltage regulator. The reactive
current magnitude of the generator output is extremely high
at the minimum transformer tap (vars boost) due to the
large voltage difference between the generator and bus
voltage. As the transformer tap is moved to the maximum
position, raising the bus voltage, the action of the automatic
voltage regulator reduces the field excitation. This action
again creates a voltage difference between the generator
and bus voltage, causing the reactive current magnitude to
be high but in the opposite polarity. Here, the vars are
being absorbed into the generator (vars buck).
The difference in generator voltage and system bus voltage
is noted in Fig. 5. While the voltage regulation of the
generator is 2.0%, the regulation of the system bus voltage
varied 6%. The difference in regulation, is due to the
voltage drop caused by the reactances in the distribution
line between the generator and the changing transformer
tap, and the impedance of the generator step up
transformer. Table 1 illustrates the percent change of the
various quantities as the transformer tap range is moved
through eight different positions.

B.

Var Control

Upon completion of the first test, the operation of the static


excitation system was switched from voltage regulation to
var control. In the VAr mode, the excitation system was
regulated to keep the reactive current constant. New
performance data was generated using the same
transformer tap range. Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate the effect of
VAr control on the generator while Table 2 tabulates the
data and shows the percentage change in the measured
quantities.

Fig. 6. Var Control Test Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage

Phase
Angle
Change

Generator
Voltage

20

2.0%

Field
System Generator
Current
Current
Bus
Voltage
6.4%

5.4%

25.3%

WATTS

MVA

0.53%

2.7%

Table 1. Change for Generator Quantities in Voltage Regulation


Mode

Phase
Angle
Change

Generator
Voltage

0.15

8.6%

System Generator
Field
Current
Current
Bus
Voltage
9.02%

8%

11.7%

WATTS

MVA

Table 2: Change for Generator Quantities in Var Regulation Mode

C. Power Factor Control


The last performance test involved placing the excitation
system into power factor control. Here, the power angle is
regulated by comparing the real power (watts) and the
reactive power (vars). Final tests were limited to four
transformer taps due to problems with the tap changer
system. For clarity, the data in Table 3 compares the same
tap settings using voltage, var, and power factor regulation.
Figs. 8 and 9 graphically illustrate the data taken during the
test.
The data in Table 3 illustrates that noted performance
differences are again predominant between voltage
regulation and power factor control.

Fig 7. Var Control Test Machine Phase Angle, Minimum Change

In VAr mode, tests were conducted in an identical manner


to the voltage regulator mode. Fig. 6 shows a substantial
difference in the reaction of the generator terminal voltage
to the change in system voltage, as compared with Fig. 5.
Since the generator voltage was no longer the sensed
parameter of the excitation system, the generator terminal
voltage rose and fell in near unison with the system bus
voltage. A greater change of approximately 8% in
generator terminal voltage is noted because it depicts the
action of the var controller regulating reactive current in lieu
of generator voltage.
Unlike the earlier test where the phase angle changed
drastically with terminal voltage regulation, Fig. 7 illustrates
the phase angle held essentially constant due to the
regulated var and the regulated watt components. When
the generator terminal voltage increased or decreased, the
generator current decreased and increased respectively
due to the turbine governor holding a constant load (MW)
or torque and the var controller holding the reactive power
at zero.
Fig. 7 shows the field characteristics relating to the var
control mode. A close examination of these trends as
compared to the field characteristics in Fig. 4 reveals an
inverse relationship of field power between the two modes
of regulation. This inverse characteristic exhibited in the var
mode demonstrates the var controllers ability to decrease
rotor heating when the system voltage is low, and pole slip
when the system voltage is high.

Fig. 8. Power Factor Control Minimum Phase Angle, Minimum


Change

Fig. 9. Power Factor Control, Per Unit Change in Generator


Voltage
Control Mode

Phase Angle
Change

Generator
Voltage

System Bus
Voltage

Generator
Current

Field Current

WATTS

MVA

VOLTAGE

7.9

0.89%

2.5%

1.08%

10.6%

0.32%

VARS

0.1

3.6%

3.73%

3.63%

4.67%

POWER
FACTOR

3.3%

3.7%

3.3%

4.6%

Table 3. Voltage, Var Performance Comparison to Power Factor Regulation

In comparing power factor to var control, the data indicates


nearly identical performance.
IV. OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING MACHINE
PERFORMANCE

A.

Brush Life for Synchronous Generators

For both old and new generators, where brushes are


utilized, it is important that a machines performance be
optimized to insure long life at minimum maintenance The
manner in which a generator is operated can influence the
brush life and hence the related maintenance. Brushes are
used to transfer the dc field current and voltage from either
a rotating exciter or static exciter system to the rotors
collector rings. Brush selection is based upon a certain
current density range where it can establish and maintain a
satisfactory film important for lubrication. The lubrication
helps ensure a good sliding surface between the brushes

and the collector rings. If the current load is excessive, too


much film may form, causing excessive brush decay and
particle decomposition. This results in arcing, uneven heat
distribution on the brush, and brush bounce. However, if
the current density is too low, too little film will form,
creating excessive friction over the collector ring. This
again results in excessive brush wear, brush chatter, and
actual brush breakage.
For those generators where voltage regulation control is
utilized, it is not uncommon to see generator field excitation
change extensively under extreme operating conditions.
Data in Fig. 4 illustrate this phenomenon. For these
systems under those conditions, brush life is expected to
be shorter. Here a smaller machine would enjoy a
maintenance advantage if equipped with a var or power
factor controller.

B.

Other Voltage Control Equipment

In large generator systems, voltage regulating units are


desirable because they stabilize the systems terminal
voltage. Smaller generators have little impact on changing
the bus voltage, and in fact can lead to system coordination
problems. These problems occur typically where capacitor
and transformer banks are simultaneously used for voltage
control.
In these systems where a small voltage regulated
generator is utilized, nuisance switching may result
between the voltage correcting equipment and the
interconnected smaller generator that uses a terminal
voltage regulator. These system disturbances are caused
by excessive voltage correction from capacitor and/or
transformer banks trying to compensate for the smaller
generators limited capacity to help keep system bus
voltage constant. Secondly, it may cause unacceptable
reactive current exchanges between the smaller generator
and the utility bus depending upon the magnitude and
direction of the voltage change.
For these systems, a compromise may be needed between
both the voltage regulator and the Var/PF controller
operation. During a system disturbance, the voltage
regulator may need to provide voltage bus support and,
after the event, return back to the Var/PF control set point.
Today, with digital control, compromises can be resolved
easily by adjusting gains within the excitation system to
provide optimum control for either application. A high gain
voltage regulator will provide fast transient response to
improve the system voltage transient stability and help
improve relay tripping coordination during a fault. After the
system stabilizes, the Var/PF controller can maintain the
Var or power factor set point without operator intervention.

V. CONCLUSION

become overloaded or possibly lose synchronizing torque


unless limiters are utilized when the bus voltage changes
from one extreme to another.
Data presented in this paper did not show the generator
actually overloaded or extremely underexcited because of
the controlled testing at the site. It did, however, show the
tendency for a machine that is terminal voltage regulated to
see larger field current swings when degradation of the bus
voltage does occur.

VI. REFERENCES
1. National Trademark Brush Digest, Union Carbide
Corporation, Carbon Products Division
2. Eberly, T.W., Schaefer, R.C., Minimum/Maximum
Excitation Limiter Performance Goals for Small
Generation, presented at IEEE Power Engineering Society
95.
3. Jackson, J.Y. Interpretation and Use of Generator
Reactive Capability Diagrams, IEEE Transaction On
Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-7, No. 6,
Nov./Dec. 1971.
4. Godhwani, A., Kim, K., Basler, M.J., Design, Test and
Simulation Results of a VAr/Power Factor Controller
Implemented in a Modern Digital Excitation System,
presented at 1998 IEEE Summer Meeting Panel Session.
5. M. J. Basler, R.C. Schaefer, K. Kim, and R. Glenn,
"Voltage Regulator with Dual PID Controllers Enhances
Power System Stability," presented at Hydrovision, 2002.
6. A. Godhwani, M.J. Basler, and T.W. Eberly,
"Commissioning and Operational Experience with a
Modern Digital Excitation System," in IEEE Transactions on
Energy Conversion, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1998.

The use of var/power factor controllers on generating units


connected to the transmission system is not always
desirable unless other considerations are made. In the
case of a large system disturbance, the var/power factor
controllers will degrade the systems ability to recover from
low voltage conditions.

7. IEEE Std 421.2-1990, IEEE Guide for Identification,


Testing, and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of
Excitation Control Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.

For large machine applications where constant vars are


desired, but the advantages provided by a terminal voltage
regulator are needed to provide voltage stability, additional
provisions will be required for the var controller. For these
applications, the var/power factor controller must be
equipped with a slow integrated var function. In this case,
the advantages of both a terminal voltage regulator and
var/power factor operation can be achieved. During the
initial disturbance, the voltage regulator will contribute to
the voltage stability of the system, then after some time
delay, the var control assumes command.

9. R.C. Schaefer, "Voltage Regulator Influence on


Generator Stability", Presented at Waterpower Conference,
1991.

There are many factors affecting generator behavior when


it is tied to a utility bus. System bus voltage fluctuation and
area load distribution can cause small generators to

8. IEEE Std 421.4 1990, IEEE Guide for Specification for


Excitation Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.

10. R.C. Schaefer and K. Kim, "Digital Excitation System


Provides Enhanced Tuning Over Analog Systems,"
presented at IEEE/IAS Pulp and Paper Conference, 2000.
11. F.P. de Mello, C. Concordia, "Concept of Synchronous
Machine Stability as Affected by Excitation Control", IEEE
Transactions On PAS, Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, April, 1969, pp.
316-329.

If you have any questions or need


additional information, please contact
Basler Electric Company.
Our web site is located at:
http://www.basler.com
e-mail: info@basler.com

Route 143, Box 269, Highland, Illinois U.S.A. 62249


Tel +1 618.654.2341 Fax +1 618.654.2351

e-mail: info@basler.com
P.A.E. Les Pins, 67319 Wasselonne Cedex FRANCE
Tel +33 3.88.87.1010 Fax +33 3.88.87.0808

e-mail: beifrance@basler.com

No. 1300 North Zhongshan Road


Wujiang Economic Development Zone
Suzhou, Jiangsu Province - P.R. China 215200
Tel +86(0)512 6346 1730 Fax +86(0)512 6346 1760
e-mail: beichina@basler.com

Synchronous Generator
Capability Curve
Sudarsanan.S
Graduate Engg. Trainee
Kalki communications Technologies

Introduction
Synchronous Machines

Generator Capability

Capability Curve

Importance

Synchronous Machines

Constant speed.

Operating Modes

Excitation

Synchronous Machines
Non-salient pole generator
High speed (2 - 4 poles)
Large power (100 - 400 MVA)
Application

Synchronous Machines
Salient pole generator
Small and mid-size power ( 0 - 100MVA)
Mid size generators for emergency power
supply
Large size generators in hydro-electric power
plants

Capability Curve
Plot of Complex Power
Stator And Rotor Heat Limit
External Limits

Capability Curve - Importance

Ensure Protection
Construction

of Generator
Nature of Excitation Circuit
System Condition
Influence of Voltage and Power Regulation
Rotor Acceleration
Rotor and Stator Overheating
Over voltage on Rotor

Synchronous Generator Capability Curve


Volts
A

jX S

V
A

V =Rated Phase Voltage

B
AB
volts

E =Generated Emf
Ia =Armature Current

A
OA

Ra =Armature Resistance
Xs =Sync.Reactance
=Load Angle

The generator phasor diagram

E=Vt+IaRa+IajXs =E
Ra<<0
E=Vt+IajXs =E|_

Xs =Xa+Xl
Xa =Armature Reactance
Xl =Leakage Reactance

AB
cos =
XsIA
AB = X s I A cos
OA
sin =
or OA = X s I A sin
XSIA
Real Power
R eactive Po wer
P3 = 3V I A cos
Q 3 = 3V I A sin
Apparent Power

S 32 = P32 +Q 23
S 3 = 3V I A

Capability Curve-Construction
Phasor Diagram to Power Diagram

Volts
A

jX S

B
AB
volts

A
OA

The generator phasor diagram


3E AV
Xs

S=

3V

DE =

P = 3V I A cos

3V 2

Q = 3V I A sin

synchronous generator capability curve :


corresponding power units

Volt to Volt amp = 3Vo/Xs


Phasor Orgin = -Vo
Power dia Orgin = -Vo*(3Vo/Xs)

The origin of the phasor diagram is at V on the


horizontal axis, so the origin on the power diagram is at

3V
V2
Q3 =
( V) = 3
Xs
XS
The field current is proportional to the machines flux, and
flux is proportional to Generated Emf E

3E AV
DE =
Xs
The armature current Ia is proportional to XsIa ,and the
length corresponding to XsIa on the power diagram is

S = 3V I A

Capability Curve-Non Salient Pole Generator

capability diagram of the turbo generator with xd = xq


Xd=Direct axis synchronous reactance,XsSino
Xq=Quadrature axis synchronous reactance,XsCoso

Capability Curve-Salient Pole Generator

Capability diagram of the Salient pole generator with xd = xq

Conclusion
Capability Curve

Thanks

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
CAPABILITY

SIPAT SAMPLE SYSTEM: p.u. on Gen Base

Seoni
Z=0.055

Z1bu=0.0111
Z1=Z2=0.098, Z0=0.36

GEN: X"d=0.17,
Xd=2.1, X2=0.21

GT:21/765KV
Z=0.147

Z1=Z2=0.19, Z0=0.608
ICT: Z=0.082

UT: 21/11KV

Raipur
Z1bu=0.0212

Z=1.503
Z1=Z2=0.082, Z0=0.26
Korba
IBT
ST
132 / 400 KV
11 / 132 KV

Z1bu=0.0212
Z1=Z2=0.505, Z0=1.893
Ranchi, Z1bu=0.0212

System Impedance at gen terminal= GSU+Grid {Seoni lines [ ICTs+400 kV lines]}


Zsys (normal)= 0.182
Zsys (Both Seoni line out)= 0.231

THE SAMPLE SYSTEM

Tutorial Objectives:
Develop understanding of the parameters that define normal operation of the
generator
Analyze the various malfunctions that can befall a generator
Operation Scenario:
The variation in system configuration and voltage have a significant effect on
the operation of the generator and associated auxiliary equipment
Variation in system configuration:
Impact of change in system configuration is shown in sample system diagram
Variation in system voltage:
Impact of change in system voltage is discussed in next slide

THE SAMPLE SYSTEM


Variation in system voltage:
Light Load Periods:
Voltage drop through system components such as lines and transformers is
minimal
Generators may be required to operate with reduced field current,
consuming excess Vars from the system
High load Periods:
The increased voltage drop caused by flow of Watts and Vars through
highly inductive components, causes system voltage to fall
The voltage drop caused by an amp of reactive current is greater than that
caused by an amp of real current
The system voltage regulation is amplified by the reactive characteristic of
the long high voltage (HV) transmission lines
At peak system load, generators operate near full field current, supplying
Vars to support system voltage
When the system is in normal configuration, a portion of the generators
reactive capability should be held in reserve to boost voltage in the event
of a forced outage of a major tie line or generator

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Nameplate rating of sample generator:


500 MW at 0.85 power factor, 21 kV

Generator capability curve:


Nameplate rating defines only one limiting point of operation for the
machine
A reduction in MVAR output would allow some increase in MW output
and a reduction in MW would allow higher MVAR output
These allowable variations are defined by the generator capability curve
which defines the Watt/Var (P/Q) operating limit as a function of
coolant pressure. The actual coolant pressure for an operating unit is
often less than the design maximum pressure
Capability curve is normally plotted at the rated terminal voltage for the
generator
Capability curve is a composite of three distinct limits as shown in the
next slide

Leading(Underexcited) MVAR(PU) Lagging(Overexcited)

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Sample Generator Capability Curve


0.8
A

0.6

0.85PF

0.4
B

0.2
0
-0.2

-0.4

0.9PF

-0.6 D
Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU

-0.8
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
MW (PU)

0.8

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Three distinct sections of the capability curve:


Right hand section (B-C):
It represents the limit imposed by the ampere rating of the stator winding

Top section (A-B):


The ampere rating of the field winding limits the output of Vars into the
power system termed as lagging Vars

Bottom section (C-D):


It defines the maximum Vars the generator can consume from the power
system termed as leading Vars.
This limit is the result of heating in the end laminations of the stator core
which is caused by the flux that flares from the end of the stator when the
generator is operating at low field current

Capability curve for a hydro unit:


Hydro units are of salient pole construction and do not have end core
regions
The leading Var limit is determined by the current rating of the stator
winding

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Overexcited

Generator Capability Curve: Steam, Gas and Hydro Units


0.8

A
0.6

0.85PF

0.4

Underexcited

MVAR(PU)

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4

Steam

Gas
Turbine

-0.6

0.9PF
Hydro

-0.8 D

Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU


-1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

MW (PU)

0.8

VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS

GSU limits:
No load requirement:
Voltage limit at no load= 110% rated voltage for any tap position
Rated load requirement:
GSU is operating on 784.125 kV tap with impedance of 14.7%
I= kVA/Esec= 1.0/1.05= 0.952 -36.90= 0.76-j0.57
Ep=1.05+j0.147(0.76-j0.57)= 1.13 + j 0.11 = 1.135 <5.1
Therefore max allowable continuous voltage on GSU primary (LV)
winding is 13.5% as defined by requirement of 0.8 pf, rated load with
105% rated voltage at secondary terminals
Generator limit:
ANSI/ IEEE C50.12 and C50.13 define permissible operating range of
cylindrical rotor or salient pole machines to be 5% rated voltage

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
The MW output of generator is limited by driving torque available from turbine.
The Var output is function of Et, Esys and Zsys. It is common to encounter voltage
limitation before generator Var limit is reached.
The relationship between P and Q, Esys and Zsys is often represented by power circle
diagram

Power circle diagram


Centre= Et2/Zsys
Radius= Et*Esys/Zsys
If resistance is neglected, the center is
located on Var out axis as shown in
figure

Zsys

+Q

Center = Et2/Zs
Radius=Et*Esys/Zsys

Esys
(P,Q)

Et

P
-Q

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

O/E

1
0.8

Field Limit

Turbine Limit

U/E

Reactive (pu)

0.6
0.4

Centre=
Radius= t*Esys/Zsys

0.2

Et= 1.05

0.85

Et2/Zsys

Stator Limit

0
-0.2

Et= 0.95

-0.4

End core Limit

0.9

-0.6
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

The MW output
of generator is
limited by driving
torque available
from turbine.

The Var output is


function of Et,
Esys and Zsys. It
is common to
encounter voltage
limitation before
generator Var
limit is reached.
The relationship
between P and Q,
Esys and Zsys is
often represented
by power circle
diagram

1.0

Power (pu)
Practical operating limits: System normal

Esys= 1.0
Zsys= 18.2% (Gen Base)

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: Seoni Bus outaged

O/E

1
0.8

U/E

Reactive (pu)

0.6

0.85

0.4

Normal System

0.2

Seoni Lines Out

0
-0.2
-0.4

0.9

-0.6
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Power (pu)

1.0

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: All lines in, vary grid voltage

O/E

1
0.8
Esys = 0.96

U/E

Reactive (pu)

0.6

0.85

0.4

Esys = 1.0

0.2

Esys = 1.055
Esys = 0.96

Esys = 1.0

-0.2

Esys = 1.055

-0.4

0.9

-0.6
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Power (pu)

1.0

GENERATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

Generator Terminal voltage is provided operating range of


95-105 % but capability curves are only available for rated
voltage (100%).
It is possible to estimate portions of the capability curve for
voltages other than rated voltage.

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

Lag(O/E)

STATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

1
0.8

The Length of Ra in MVA =


Rated KA x Rated KV x 3

0.6

0.85 PF

- Et = 0.95

0.4
0.95 Ra
Ra

0.2
0

- Et = 1.0
- Et = 1.05

1.05 Ra

-0.2
-0.4
0.9 PF

-0.6
-0.8
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

MW (pu)

0.8

1.0

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

Lag(O/E)

FIELD LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

1.05 Rf
1.052 C
1.0 Rf
0.95 Rf C
0.952 C

0.85 PF

R = Et x EI / Xd

0
-0.2
-0.4
0.9 PF

-0.6
-0.8
0.0

0.2

0.4

C = -Et2 / Xd

0.6

MW (pu)

0.8

1.0

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

Lag(O/E)

LEADING VAR LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

1
0.8

Centre (P,Q) =

0.6

0.85 PF

(0 , K1 x Et2 / Xd)

0.4

Radius =

0.2

K2 x Et / Xd

0
-0.2

K1 and K2 are
derived from
published curves.

Et= 1.05

-0.4

Et= 1.0
0.9 PF

-0.6

Et= 0.95

-0.8
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

MW (pu)

0.8

1.0

Leading Var
capability is
markedly reduced
as Et increases.

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
STABILITY LIMITS

CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY


Classical View:

EI * Es
ES2 ( Xd Xq )
PE
Sin
sin 2
Xd Xs
2( Xd Xs )( Xq Xs )
For Xd Xq
EI
EI * Es
I(Xd+Xs)
PE
Sin
Xd Xs

Es

Generator is operating at fixed excitation on manual regulator


Stability limit is found by changing system parameters very slowly to eliminate
oscillatory parameters and need for damping.
Stability limit occurs when =90 for salient machines and <90 for non-salient
machines.

Power (PU)

CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

E=100%
Pe=Electrical Power
Reduced E
Pm=Mechanical Power
Operating point

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180


Degrees

Power Angle Curve

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS


Eq

Ir * Xq

Ir

Ix
I

Et

Ix * Xq

Ir * Xs
Es
Ix * Xs

Generator current Voltage Vector Diagram defines Es and Eq in terms of Et, Ir and Ix.

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS


P
Q
Ir
,
Ix
Et
Et
With Xd Xq , the Stability Limit occurs when 900
tan tan
tan( )
,
1 tan tan 0
1 tan tan
IrXq
IrXs
tan

,
tan

Et IxXq
Et IxXs
IrXs
IrXq
0
1
Et IxXs Et IxXq
2
E2
(

Xd

Xs
)
QE
t
t P2
E 2 Q2
XdXs t
XdXs
2
2
E2

E2

1
1
1
1
2
t
t

Q P
2 Xd
2 Xs

Xs
Xd

2
E2 1
E
1
1
1
t
C
0,

R
t

2 Xs
Xd
2 Xd
Xs

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS


Circle Diagram of Manual Regulator Steady State Limit

Et 2 1
1
C j

2 Xe Xd
Et 2 1
1
R

2 Xe Xd

Weak System
Strong System

Above circle defines stability criterion against which MEL limit is usually evaluated

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


AVR rapidly varies field voltage in response to system
condition.
The change in field voltage for a given change in terminal
voltage defines the gain of regulator (ke)
The regulator time constant (Te) and generator field time
constant defined the speed of field current response which
ultimately determines the response at generator output
terminal.
AVR sharply increases synchronizing power.
But, the gain and speed of AVR reduce system damping
torque.
In the absence of adequate damping torque, minor system
oscillations may grow in magnitude until connected
generators and tie lines trip.

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


(Simplified Block diagram)

Ts K1 ( s )
Tsyn is in

phase with
Tm

Td ( s ) D * ( s )

leads
Td

by 90

is in quadrature

with

Ta ( s ) Tm ( s ) Ts ( s ) Td ( s )

( s ) Ta ( s ) *

1
Ms

( s ) 314 ( s )
s
Ta Tm K1 D *

The Synchronizing and damping


torque produced as a result of the
interaction of the generator and
system determine the stability of the
power system.
The boundary of steady state stability
occurs when Tsync=0
The boundary of dynamic stability
occurs when Td=0

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

Ta Tm K1 D *
Substituting Ta ( s ) sM ( s )
And
And

( s ) s ( s ) / 314
solving for ( s )

Tm ( s )
( s )
M 2

D
k1
s
s 1
314 k1
314 k1

1
L 1
n e nt sin n 1 2t
2
s 2 2

1
2 n
n

314 k1
Natural Frequency , n
M
Dn
Damping Factor ,
628k1

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR
STABILITY LIMITS
The Rotor Angle varies as an exponentially
decreasing sinusoidal function.
Damping factor, , controls rate of decay and
frequency of oscillation.
If = 0, oscillation is sustained at a fixed
magnitude at natural frequency.
If = -ve, oscillation grows without bound and
instability occurs

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


(Including generator flux linkages but no AVR)

Ta( s ) k1 ( s )
k3

Tm
Tb( s ) k 2
Ee( s )
1 sk 3T ' do

Ee( s ) Efd( S ) k 4 ( s )
Tc( s ) Tm( s ) Ta( s ) Tb( s )
314
( s )
Tc( s )
2
Ms
Electrical Torque Te( s ) Ta( s ) Tb( s )

Efd
* =
den(s)=1 +sK3Tdo

k1 ( s )(1 sk 3T ' do) k 2k 3[Efd( S ) k 4 ( s )]


Te
1 sk 3T ' do
(1 sk 3T ' do)[k1 ( s )(1 sk 3T ' do) k 2k 3(Efd( S ) k 4 ( s ))]
Te
(1 s 2 k32T '2do )

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


With Manual regulator, Efd 0 and substituting s j
j (T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s ) (k1 k 2k 3k 4 T '2do 2 k32 k1) ( s)
Te( s )
T '2do 2 k32 1
(k1 k 2k 3k 4 T '2do 2 k32 k1) ( s )
T ( s ) sync
,
2
2 2
T 'do k3 1

(T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s)


T ( s )damp j
T '2do 2 k32 1

For steady state 0


Te( s ) sync (k1 k 2k 3k 4) ( s )
For the Limit of static stability,
2

Et2 1

1 Et2 1
1
2
Te( s ) sync 0,

2 Xd Xs 2 Xs Xd

For the Limit of dynamic stability,

T ( s )damp 0

314k1

M
314T ' dok1k32 M

jMT ' dok2 k32 k 4

314k1
M

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


The torque equations for the system under AVR control are derived from the expanded
Block Diagram

For steady state 0

and T ( s) sync 0
T ( s) sync
{k 4 ke[k 5 (k 4 k 5ke)k 6k 3]}k 3k 2
(k 3k 6ke 1) 2
For the Limit of dynamic stability,

n
T ( s)damp 0
T ( s)damp 0

Tm

Efd

Eq

Ee

et

et ref

jk 3k 2{Te[k 4k 3TeT ' do 2 (k 5 k 6k 4k 3)ke]


(k 4 k 5ke)k 3T ' d 0}
[k 3(TeT ' do 2 k 6ke) 1]2 (Te k 3T ' do) 2 2

* =

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


EqoEo
[ re sin o ( Xe X ' d ) cos o ]
A
iqoEo

A [( Xq X ' d )( Xe Xq ) sin o re ( Xq X ' d ) cos o]


( Xq X ' d )( Xe Xq )
r Eo
k 2 eA 1

( Xd X ' d )( Xe Xq ) 1

k 3 1

Eo ( Xd X ' d )
k4
[( Xe Xq ) sin o re cos o]
A
re Eo sin o ( Xe X ' d ) Eo cos o
edo
k5
Xq

eto
A

re Eo cos o ( Xe Xq ) Eo sin o
eqo

X 'd

eto
A

re
eqo
X ' d ( Xe Xq ) edo
k6
1

Xq

All k factors except


eto
A
eto
A

k3 vary with load


2
A re ( Xe X ' d )( Xq Xe )
k1

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

Besides specialized computer based study programs,


electronic spread sheets and iterative solvers can be used to
determine stability limits.
One such spreadsheet downloaded from CRC Publishers is
provided in the program content.
The parameters including system voltage Eo, generator
terminal voltage Eto and real and reactive current
components are used to calculate K factors. These
parameters are calculated from standard generator vector
diagram and applicable equations are given in next slide
Steady state and dynamic stability limits are found using
Excels Goal Seek tool to find the value of Q&P
necessary to produce Zero Tsync or Tdamp.

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS


Ipo

p
,
eto

Eqo
Eo

Igo

Q
eto

(eto IqoXq ) 2 ( IpoXq ) 2


(eto Ipo re

IqoXe ) 2 ( IpoXe Iqo re ) 2

etoIpo( Xq Xe ) re Xq I 2po
sin o
EqoEo

2
I qo

etoIqore

[eto Iqo( Xq Xe ) Ipore ] XeXq I 2po


cos o eto
EqoEo
[ Ipo(eto IqoXq ) IqoIpoXq ]
iqo
Eqo
ido

[ I 2po Xq Iqo(eto IqoXq )]

Eqo
eqo eto [(eto IqoXq ) / Eqo ]
edo iqoXq

2
I qo

STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR Gain Ke = 10
AVR-Dyn
AVR-SS

STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR-Dyn Ke =30

AVR-SS
Ke = 10 or 30

AVR-Dyn Ke = 10

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Ability of system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a
fault or switch of a key line
Power Angle Equation:

Pe

Eg * Es
Sin
ZT

ZT X ' d X TR Zs

Slip (S, %)

Generator Impedance (Xg)

Xd

0.33

2Xd

50

Xd

100

Xd

Remark
Range of slip for a typical
event of loss of synchronism

Xd value is typically used in power angle equation to construct swing loci


because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter

TRANSIENT STABILITY

2.5
Pe Both Lines In

Power (PU)

2
1.5

Pe One Line Out

Pm

0.5
1

0
0

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180


Degrees

Power Angle Plot

TRANSIENT STABILITY

Pe Both Lines In

Pe One Line Out


C

A1
B

Power Angle with line switching

A2

Pm

TRANSIENT STABILITY: Power Angle Plot for Fault Condition

Initial Operating point

Both Lines In

Open CB1

Open CB2

E
Pm

J
A2

A1

Line B Out

A3

Bkr 1 tripped
D

C
A

Fault Both Lines In

Line A

E
g

Es

Line B

Stability exists when


A3 > (A1+A2)

Pm

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic:
Graphical representation for the system impedance trajectory as seen at
generator terminal

Eg Es
I
Xg X TR Zs
VR Eg IXg
Eg Es
VR Eg
Xg
Xg X TR Zs
Letting n Eg / Es and 1 cos j Sin
V
( n cos ) j Sin
Z R R ( Xg X TR Zs) n
Xg
2
2
I
( n cos ) Sin
For Eg Es ( n 1)
ZR

Xg X TR Zs

j
Cot

Xg
2
2

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Xd

Eg

Xsys

Xtr

Es

X
B Es

Zsys

Xtr
-R
Xd

=60
=120

=90

R
P

Swing Impedance Path


A

Eg

TRANSIENT STABILITY
At =180, pole slip occurs. There exists a critical swing
angle for any system from which the system cannot
recover. As a thumb rule, critical swing angle c is
considered to be 120.
The plots consider variation of but, all other system
parameters are held constant.
In reality, swing locus shows the effect of rotor oscillation
and changes in Eg.
Eg is controlled by generator constants and type of
excitation (manual or automatic), governor action,
mechanical damping of nearby units, shunt loads, shunt
capacitance effect and generator saliency.
Computer simulations are required to obtain accurate
impedance (swing) plots.
If a system has one or two generators isolated from other
machines, impedance plot can be derived using Excel
Workbook provided in the program.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Manual Regulator)
0.5
"-0"

0.99

1.09 1.39

0.39

0.89
0.49

0.29

-0.5

0.59

0.69
1.29

-1

1.19

0.79

-1.5

-2
-1

-0.5

0.5

1
R

1.5

2.5

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Auto Regulator)

1.5
1
0.5
0

0.99
1.09
0.89
1.19
0.69
0.59
0.29

-0.5

"-0"

-1
-1.5
0.39

-2
-2.5
-3

0.49

-3.5
-0.5

0.5

1.5
R

2.5

3.5

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Manual Regulator)
0.2

0.49

0.39
1.19

1.09
0.99

0.29 0.89
0.79

1.29

-0.2

-0.4
0.69

-0.6

-0.8

1.39
0.59

-1

-1.2
-0.7

-0.5

-0.3

-0.1

0.1
R

0.3

0.5

0.7

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Auto Regulator)

0.2
0.89

1.09

0.79 1.39

0.29

0.39

0.69

-0.2
1.19

-0.4

0.59

1.29

-0.6
"-0"

-0.8
0.49

-1
-1

-0.5

0
R

0.5

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Event:
Normally, all generators within an interconnected power system operate at like
frequency with their magnetic poles coupled through interaction with the
network
Interconnecting force is elastic allowing some angular play between generators
in response to system disturbances
A loss of synchronism occurs when the bonding force is insufficient to hold a
generator or group of generators in step with rest of the power system
Causes:
Loss of synchronism can occur when
Equipment outages or low voltage weaken the system or
The force is inadequate to restrain extreme rotor excursions following a system
fault or switching

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Mechanism:
A loss of synchronism results from some form of system instability
When the manual regulator is in service, the systems can be vulnerable to the
loss of steady state or dynamic stability. When AVR is in service, minimum
excitation limiter (MEL) is provided to prevent these types of instability
However, a generator is most likely to loose transient stability. This is the ability
of the system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a fault
or switch of a key line
Out of step generator or generators operate at slightly different frequencies. A
generator that pulls out of step ahead of the system with a slip frequency of 4
Hz, will be operating at a speed of 1+slip/50= 1.08 pu or 8% over speed.
The system and generator voltage vectors sweep past one another at slip
frequency, producing a pulsating current with peak magnitude potentially
greater than a 3 phase fault at the generator terminal
I= (Eg Es)/ (Xg+Xtr+Zs)
If Eg=Es, no current will flow when =0. System will appear as an open circuit
with infinite impedance. As increases, so will the current untill the system
reaches a separation of 1800. At this point, the driving voltage will be twice
normal, the sum of Eg and Es, and the current will be at a maximum.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Electrically, this condition is identical to that produced by a 3 phase fault located
one half the electrical distance to the remote terminal or at Z= 0.5(Xg+Xtr+Zs).
This imaginary fault location is called the electrical center of the system
The location of electrical center denotes the severity of the event with respect to
the generator. When it is located in the GSU transformer or generator itself, it
represents an event equivalent to a GSU fault or generator fault with severe
stress to local equipment
The location of the system electrical center is not fixed. The center will move
away from the generator as the system impedance increases due to equipment
outages.
The center is also slip dependent because Xg varies slip frequency.
Electrical center also varies with system and generator voltages.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Turbine Generator Damage:
As the electrical center moves from the system into generator, the current
magnitude increases and with it thermal and mechanical stress on the generator
and GSU transformer.
On a strong system, Xtr+Xs can be less than Xg: the electrical centre will lie
within generator and current at 1800 exceeds that of a 3 phase fault at the
generator terminals.
During out of step event, Xg=Xd but with low Xtr and Xs, the out of step
current can exceed the designed machine withstand limit (sub transient fault
current at the generator terminal). The absence of DC offset current does lessen
the stress from that of the fault case
The point is that as the location of electrical center moves towards the neutral
end of generator, current induced thermal and mechanical stress can approach
design limit. The generator is exposed to these conditions each slip cycle. After
a severe event, restacking of the stator core may be required. Local hot spots
may also damage stator windings

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Generator rotor:
Slip frequency will induce currents in the rotor. Prolonged exposure to these
currents will cause thermal damage to damper windings, rotor teeth, wedges and
rotor body.
Torque pulsations:
The current pulsations associated with each slip cycle causes severe torque
transients in the turbine generator shaft. The stress is at a maximum during
initial period of each torque pulsation. This is the period when shaft damage
normally occurs.
The fatigue life of the shaft can be used up after a few pole slip events.
If slip cycle frequency coincides with a normal frequency of one of the shaft
sections, shaft failure can result

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Excitation System:
Prolonged asynchronous operation can also cause diode failures within the
excitation system. During each pole slip, these diodes will experience high
voltage as they block reversed rotor current. The over voltage stresses insulation
and can result in breakdown
Power System:
A loss of synchronism by one or more units will result in cyclic voltage
fluctuations as generators slip poles
These voltage dips can cause disruption to customers served from the grid.
Induction motors may stall and synchronous motors may loose synchronism.
Other processes would be disrupted when the voltage dips cause the motor
contactors to drop out

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF FIELD

LOSS OF FIELD
Event:
Excitation to the generator field winding fails

Causes:
Equipment failure, inadvertent opening of the field breaker, an open or short
circuit in the excitation system, or slip ring flashover
Mechanism:

If and Eg decay at a rate determined by the field circuit time constant


Var output decreases and becomes negative as generator draws increasing
reactive from power system to replace excitation formerly provided by the field
circuit. Var consumption can exceed the generator MVA rating
The reduction in Eg also weakens the magnetic coupling between rotor and
stator. At some point during the decay, the coupling will become too weak to
transmit prime mover output power to the electrical system i.e. loss of steady
state stability occurs

LOSS OF FIELD

2.5

Field Current = 100% FL

Power (PU)

2
1.5

80% FL
60% FL

Pm

0.5
at FL

40% FL

0
0

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180


Degrees

LOSS OF FIELD
EgEs
sin
XT
X T transfer impedance Xg Xtr Xsyst ,

Power Swing Equation : Pe

Xg effective generator reactance

The effect of decaying Eg is to reduce amplitude of power angle curve with time
The intersection of Pe and Pm define the operating angle () of the generator
rotor with respect to the system voltage
increases to maintain power equilibrium
When reaches 900 electrical, power output is at maximum. If decay beyond this
point renders the generator incapable of transmitting all the mechanical power to
the electrical system
The excess mechanical power is dissipated by acceleration of the generator rotor.
As speed increases beyond synchronous speed, synchronism is lost
As speed increases, turbine output decreases as dictated by droop setting of the
governor and electrical power increases as dictated by the slip torque
characteristic of the power system.
Eventually, Pm and Pe will reach a new equilibrium, with generator operating
above synchronous speed as an induction generator drawing excitation from the
power system in the form of Vars

LOSS OF FIELD
A loss of synchronism following a field failure is not a high speed phenomenon
Typically, it will take a fully loaded steam turbine generator several seconds to
loose synchronism
Final slip is affected by the droop setting of the governor, system impedance and
initial loading. For a machine initially operating at full load, final slip is
typically in the 2 to 5% range.
The power output of the induction generator is less than the pre failure power
output
Impact of LOF operation:
The final or steady state slip of the induction generator is important because it
determines Xg which in turn defines the impact of post LOF operation
A LOF event can be represented by XT, a series circuit including Xg, Xtr and
Xsyst. Xg decreases with increasing slip and slip increases with initial generator
load.
Thus, the higher the initial load, the greater the asynchronous current and more
severe the consequences to both the generator and the connected system

LOSS OF FIELD
Other factors affecting LOF severity:
The initial load is the major factor in determining the potential damage from a
LOF event.
At first glance, a strong power system would appear to offer high post fault
currents. This is not necessarily true. A reduction in Zs will reduce the final slip
frequency and increase the power output from the induction generator. Because
of lower final slip, Xg will increase thereby reducing the stator current. Thus, a
failure on a strong system may actually be less damaging than a failure on a
weak system
A LOF event is more likely to be initiated by a shorted field circuit than an open
field circuit. The former will produce higher stator current, larger reactive intake
and generally more severe consequences than would be experienced with an
open field circuit.

LOSS OF FIELD
When machines are connected directly to a common bus, the potential for
damage increases. As If decays on the unit with failed excitation, AVR on
healthy machines will initiate full field forcing to support the falling bus voltage.
This increases the Var supply to the faulted machine. The situation is aggravated
when the units are connected to a strong system. An IEEE study documents a
study of 2 generators connected to a common bus and a moderate strength power
system. The unit with failed excitation saw a peak MVA loading in excess of 2
pu and peak stator current in excess of 2.5 pu. The healthy unit was also severely
stressed with a peak MVA of 1.5 pu and peak current of 2 pu
A LOF on a hydro unit at light load may not result in a loss of synchronism
since salient pole machines can carry up to 25% rated load following a loss of
field without loss of synchronism. However, once a salient pole machine looses
synchronism, it accelerates rapidly to a high slip. The slower acting hydro
governor and the fact that a salient pole machine makes an inefficient induction
generator causes this response. If the hydro generators field is lost near full load,
the effects are the same as for steam turbine units.

LOSS OF FIELD
System Impact:
A generator operating asynchronously without excitation can consume Vars in
the range of 0.4 to 1.9 times the unit name plate rating as slip increases from
near zero to 4%
The impact of LOF on the system is determined by its ability to withstand not
only the loss of real and reactive output, but to supply the large Var demand
imposed by the faulted generator after LOF.
Inability of system to meet VAR demand of failed unit can result in a
widespread system outage
Initially, excitation on nearby generators will go to full boost to supply reactive
to the generator with failed excitation and support the grid voltage, The large
Var influx can overload and trip the area transmission lines.
If the failed generator is not disconnected, field current limiters on the adjacent
units will time out, initiating an immediate reduction in field current to
continuous rated value? The resulting reduction in area Var support is likely to
produce severe voltage degradation. System voltage collapse or multi machine
instability can result causing a regional system outage

LOSS OF FIELD
System Impact:
Dynamic studies similar to those used in transient stability analysis are required
to determine accurately system response to a LOF event. These studies are time
consuming and expansive.
A screening technique using a standard load flow can determine where full
dynamic studies are required.
At the generator of interest, a worst case LOF event is simulated in load flow by
setting the reactive flow into the machine at (-)1.5 times the name plate MW
rating.
If a Load flow solves with reasonable system voltages, the system is considered
capable of withstanding the LOF event
However, if the solution fails to converge or severely depressed voltage results,
the event must then be modeled dynamically to determine if the system can
survive the field failure.

LOSS OF FIELD
Generator damage:
The potential for generator damage following a LOF is dependent on generator
design and final slip during asynchronous operation.
Although the asynchronous capabilities are not addressed in the standards,
modern expectations, particularly for conductor cooled machines are much
lower, with damage in as little as 10 second for some instances.
The improved cooling techniques result in larger MVA ratings from a given
physical size. These machines have higher per unit impedance and lower inertia
than indirect cooled machines and therefore tend to operate at a higher slip. This
reduces Xg during asynchronous operation, increasing the stator and induced
rotor current
Conductor cooled machine will also have lower thermal time constants, hence
faster temperature rise for a given current than indirect cooled machines
Load before LOF

Final slip

Effect on generator

<=30% rated load

0.1-0.2%

Damage unlikely

100% rated load

2-5%

Exposed to damage

LOSS OF FIELD

Stator winding overload:


The large Q and depressed Et following a LOF load can
give rise to Is well above rated. Peak currents of 2.5 pu have
been reported
ANSI C50.12,13,14 defines a required short time O/L
capability for stator windings which is the limiting value to
prevent stator winding damages

LOSS OF FIELD
Rotor damage:
Can occur as a result of rapid heating caused by currents induced in
rotor
LOF by shorted field circuit: the induced current is divided between
rotor structure and the field winding. This reduces heating in rotor
structures
The induced field current is generally below rated in salient pole
machines and only slightly above rated in a few cases with cylindrical
rotor machines
LOF by open field circuit: maximum rotor heating occurs. Also,
damaging over voltage will be induced in the field circuit for all but very
low slip events.
In a cylindrical rotor machine, induced currents flow along the length of
rotor body, creating heat in teeth, slot wedges, and, if present, the
amortisseur winding. Thermal damage is most likely to occur near the
ends of the rotor where currents converge to enter the retaining rings
In a salient pole machine, induced currents are found in the amortisseur
bars located in each pole face

LOSS OF FIELD
Stator end core damage:
Thermal damage at the ends of the stator core of a cylindrical rotor machine
when operated at reduced field current.
This limitation forms the leading Var boundary of the generator capability curve
A LOF represents the extreme in field current reduction.
A LOF from full load can result in leading Var loading in excess of the
generators MVA rating. Typically, the generator manufacturers capability
curve limits leading Var intake to about 40 to 60% of the generator rating
The reduction in terminal voltage that accompanies a LOF markedly increases
the Var capability, but this increase is insufficient to accommodate a potential
2.0pu leading Var inflow.
The voltage dependent Var limitation is circular on the P-Q plane with the
following characteristics:
Centre (Q,P) = 0, K1*et2/Xd
Radius = K2*et/Xd
Excessive end core heating would result in bluing of metallic end core structure,
charring of stator winding insulation and failure of the insulation medium
between laminations.

LOSS OF FIELD
Torque pulsations:
Originate from the electrical and magnetic difference between the d- and q-axes.
More severe for shorted field circuit than an open circuit condition
The torque magnitude associated with a LOF is less severe than that
accompanying an out of step condition with full excitation, but mechanical
damage remains a significant concern following a LOF event
Asynchronous operation exposes the generator and the prime mover to two
stress cycles each slip cycle.
Fatigue is cumulative, and extended asynchronous operation can consume a
considerable portion of the fatigue life of the shaft and associated structures,
including the machine foundations
These pulsations are also potentially resonant with shafts, turbine blades and
other components.

Thank you

MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

1
0.8

0.85

0.6
0.4
Q

0.2
0

-0.2 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

-0.4
-0.6
-0.8

0.8

1.0
0.95

MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

1
0.8
0.85

0.6
0.4
Q

0.2
0

-0.2 0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.8

0.8

1.0
0.9

-0.4
-0.6

0.6

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Criterion for determination of non-recoverable Swings:
Improved cooling techniques have increased generator impedance whereas
system impedance declined due to reinforcement
Electrical Centers moved from transmission system into the GSU and the
generator itself
Following a system disturbance, generator rotors experience angular
perturbations as they attempt to adjust a new steady state operating condition
In a stable system rotor oscillations are damped ; initial angular displacement is
largest and proportional to the severity of disturbance
There exists a maximum swing angle known as critical swing angle (C) from
which the system can not recover
System modeling on a transient stability program is best way to determine C.
Tools and time to use them are generally not available to all and a less accurate
method is often adopted.
A general assumption is made that >1200 is not recoverable and thereafter
instability is imminent
The minimum system impedance and Xd values are typically used to construct
swing loci because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Swing Velocity:
A fault changes system impedance instantaneously while impedance change
during a system transient is constrained by inertia and generator time constants
GE publication GER-3179 (J Brady) lists the following average velocities for
the first half of the first slip cycle
Unit Type

s, deg/sec

s, slip cycles/sec

Steam units

1296-1728

3.6-4.8

Tandem units

250-400

0.694-1.11

Compound units

400-800

1.11-2.22

Maximum acceleration occurs after each pole slip at the midpoint of the slip
cycle
Plot indicates slip < 5Hz at the beginning of second slip cycle. This value is
good estimation of upper limit of slip being calculated for a light machine (H=3)

LOSS OF FIELD

The full load LOF event depicted in figure in earlier slide is typical
It produces cyclic Is with variation between 1.14 and 2.13pu each slip cycle
In theory, the stator heating is related to the RMS current over a slip cycle.
The incremental form for RMS current is
IRMS can be calculated from
1T 2
incremental currents and slip
I RMS
I t
cycle duration determine from
T0
the spreadsheet
In the case of the full load LOF event depicted in figure, the RMS current at final
slip was calculated as 1.74pu
ANSI standards require that this current is limited to 22 sec to prevent winding
damage
The stator waveform is not sinusoidal, because slip is not constant through the slip
cycle. Figure in next slide shows the stator current waveform for the same LOF
condition but with Xs reduced from 0.2 to 0.1.
The incrementally calculated RMS current for this condition is 1.34pu. The
corresponding stator overload limit for this current is 50 sec from ANSI standards.
This demonstrates that generator stress can increase with increased system
impedance

LOSS OF FIELD
NPS current induces rotor currents at 2fs whereas frequency of asynchronously
induced rotor current is equal to slip frequency and is usually less than 5 Hz
As frequency increases, skin effect increases the effective resistance of a
conductor . Thus, higher I2R and more heating per ampere are produced by NPS
operation than those by asynchronous operation
The 2fs current produced by NPS current does not have sufficient penetration
into the rotor lots to induce current into the field winding. Therefore, the NPS
limit is, is, in effect, based on an open field circuit
The NPS limits are based on the limiting temperature for pole face amortisseur
winding in salient pole machines and teeth or wedges in round rotor machine
with induced currents at 2fs. A realistic estimate of asynchronous limits requires
an adjustment of conductor resistance for lower frequency asynchronous case
An AIEEE paper gives expression Tmax = CI2t/d2
Where Tmax= the limiting temperature for a component, C= constant for a
particular machine, I= stator current, and d= depth of penetration
The physical differences between conducting structure in salient and round rotor
machines, result in different treatments for the resistance variation

LOSS OF FIELD
The NPS short time limit is defined in terms of K, a constant representing the
maximum (I2eq)2*t value the machine can withstand
The I2eq term refers to equivalent RMS pu NPS current in the event the current
is time variant
IEEE standard C37.102:
K= 40 for salient pole machine
K= 10 for large conductor cooled machine
For pole face amortisseurs on a salient pole machine and other small
conductors, d varies proportional to 1/f
Assume IRMS = 1.74pu at final slip under asynchronous operation

Tmax

CI 2t

d2

Thermal limit K I 2t

Tmax
Cf

Tmax
I 2tf
Kf I tf
NPS limit K I 2
C
100
If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by pole face amortisseur (K 40),
the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip
2

100 K I 2 100 * 40

264 sec
2
2
I f
1.74 * 5

LOSS OF FIELD
For a solid face cylindrical rotor having large diameter configuration, d varies
proportional to (I/f)

Cylindrical rotor thermal limit I 2t

Tmax I
Cf

Tmax
(Note resulting limitation is a function of It and not I 2t )
C
4 Itf Tmax
Practical upper limit for NPS current 4 pu K I 2

NPS limit
100
C
If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by tooth temperature (K 10),

and K It

the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip


100 * K I 2 100 *10
t

28.7 sec
4 * If
4 *1.74 * 5

GENERATOR
CAPABILITY CURVE
By
Prof. C. Radhakrishna

CONTENTS
GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Reactive Capability Curves
Armature current limit
Field current limit
End region heating limit
Generator Characteristics

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GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE


Reactive Capability Curves

Synchronous generators are rated in terms of the


maximum MVA output at a specified voltage and power
factor (usually 0.85 or 0.9 lagging) which they can carry
continuously without overheating.
The active power output is limited by the prime mover
capability to a value within the MVA rating.
The continuous reactive power output capability is limited
by three considerations: armature current limit, field
current limit, and end region heating limit.

Armature current limit

One of the limitations on generator rating is the maximum


current that can be carried by the armature without
exceeding the heating limitations.

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Armature current limit


The per unit complex output power is
~ ~
S P jQ E t I t *

E t I t (cos j sin )
where is the power factor angle.

Figure 1 Armature current heating limit

Therefore, in the P-Q plane the armature current limit, as shown in


Figure 1, appears as a circle with centre at the origin and radius
equal to the MVA rating.
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Field current limit


2
Because of the heat resulting from the R fd i fd power loss, the field
current imposes a second limit on the operation of the generator.

The constant field current locus may be developed by the steady-state


equivalent circuit developed earlier. With Xd=Xq=Xs , the equivalent
circuit of Steady-state model gives the relationship between Et, It and
Eq (equal to Xadifd). The corresponding phasor diagram, with Ra
neglected, is shown in Figure 2.

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Field current limit

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Field current limit


(1)

X ad
P E t I t cos
E t i fd sin i
Xs
2
t

Xad
E
Q EI
Eit fd cosi
t t sin
Xs
Xs
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Field current limit

The relationship between the active and reactive powers for a


given field current is a circle centred at (
) on the Q-axis
E t2 / X sthe effect of the
and with
as the radius. Therefore,
X ad / X
maximum( field
current
s ) E t i fd rating on the capability of the machine may
be illustrated on the P-Q plane as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Field
current heating limit
In any balanced design, the thermal limits for the field and armature
intersect at a point A, which represents the machine nameplate MVA and
power factor rating.
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End region heating limit

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End region heating limit


The localized heating in the end region of the armature imposes a third
limit on the operation of a synchronous machine.
This limit affects the capability of the machine in the under excited
condition.
This is illustrated in Figure 4, which also includes the limit imposed by
the armature current heating effects.
The field current and armature current heating limits when plotted on a
P-Q plane depend on the armature voltage.

Figure 4 End region heating limit


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10

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11

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12

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13

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14

The above limits on the operation of the generator are those


imposed by the capabilities of the machine itself and are determined
by the design of the machine. Additional limits may be imposed by
power system stability limits.

Generator Characteristics
During conditions of low-system voltages, the reactive power demand on
generators may exceed their field current and/or armature current limits.
When the reactive power output is limited, the terminal voltage is no
longer maintained constant.
On most generators, the armature current limit is realized manually by
operators responding to alarms.
The operator reduces reactive and/or active power output to bring the
armature current within safe limits.
On some generators, automatic armature current limiters with time delay
are used to limit reactive power output through the AVR.

REFERENCES :
[ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI
Power System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
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15

CONCLUSIONS

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16

THANK
YOU
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