AHa.ll.

eMHK

s. B. A C A <D h E B .

(HZOPb F.ltefioB)

MY31 [JlllJI1HAH TorMA MIl fir 0 II E CC

Knazt: nepean a emopan

rOCYlLAPCTBEHHOE MY3bIKAJIbHOE· I13lLATE.l1bCTBO

. JIeHHHrpaJ\

1963

HCCAEl{OBAHHE ACAU>bEBA «MY3bIKAAbHAH U>OPMA KAK TIPOYECC"

4Be ny6AHKyeMbie KHHrH E. B. Acaqise aa 0 MY3blKaAbHOH <jJopMe C03AaHbi B paaxaxaere nepaoaer ero HaY'IHOH AeHTeAbHOCTH.

ITepBaB narracana a OCHQaHOM a rexeuae 1925 ro.aa, OKOH'IaT,eAbHO nOArOTOBAeHa K nexar a B 1929 Ii 1i3AaHa a 1930 rOAY. Bropax - B nepaon i\.eHHHrpaAcKoH 6AOKaAbi (iJ,aTa OKOH'JaHHH PYKonHCH - 24 BHBapH 1942 r.) H onydxaxoaana nnepaue B 1947 ro ay, T. e. aa ABa ro aa P;O cMepnl ee as ropa.

3aMbllllAHAaCb rpere s KHHra, KOTopaH p;OAlIiHa 6blAa, no CAOHaM Acaqisena, ocaerure «sonpocsr <jJOpMbl H CTHAH KaK HBAeHHH HHToHagHH».* «CTHAb H <jJopMa a HX B3aHMop;eHCTBHH... COCTaaBT Tpel'blO KHHry HCCAep;OBaHHJl ,,<:PopMa KaK npogecc"»,- noxcaae r OH a p;pyroM MeCT,e.**

ITepBaH xxara HBHAaCb 'HTorOM MHorOAeTHeii paoorer Acatpseaa Hap; BOnpocasm HHTOHa!!UOHHOH cnegH<jJHKH MY3blKaAbHoro HCKYCCTBa, cpe aa KOTOpsrx OAHO H3 r-xaaaerx MeCT 3aHHMaA sonpoc 06 oc06eHHocTHX mrroaagaoaaoro CTaHOBAeHHH MY3blKaAbHoH <jJ0PMbl.

ITo YTBeplKp;eHHlO casroro Acarpeeaa, nepasre MblCAH 0 MY3blKaAbHbiX qiopsrax «He KaK apXHTeKTOHH'IeCKHX «6e33BY'IHbIX» cxexrax, a KaK 3aKOHOMep-

HOM npogecce opr aaaaagna sayaatgei-o MaTepllaAa II ero KpllcTaAAH3agIlH» (28) -B03HHKAH Y Hero eige B '1916-1917 roaax. MOlKHO yraepasaa-re, ) '11'0 aa npOTHlKeHHIl acex nOCA,eP;YIOIMHX aa 3THM ACT nO'ITH KalKp;aB H3 ero pa60T B TOH HAH HHOH CTeneHH xacaxacs sroro norrpoca H TeM caMblM rrpoKAaAblBaAa nYTb K OCHOBHblM ero HCCAep;OBaHHHM 0 MY3blKaAbHoH <jJopMe KaK IIBAeHHH, nOCTHraeMOM '<B paaaepreraanan CMbICAa; T. e. B npogecce» (227).

113 casrsrx paHHHX pa60T. HaH60Aee acrrocpencraeuno C aroii np06AeMoH cs aaaaer ero CTaTbH «ITYTH B 6YP;YIMee» (,1918)*** H «B nYTH (113 !!HKAa

* Cl\f. CTp. 365 HaCTORIMero H3p;aHHR. B p;aAbHeHllIeM CCblAKH aa crpaHH!!bl aroii KHH'I'H 6YP;YT yxaaeraareca B TeKCTe B ICKo6Kax.

** CTPOKH, He aoureamae B OKOH'IaTeAbHbIH TeKCT KHHrH «I1HToHaguJI». *** C6. «MeAoc», KH. 2. CI16, 1918.

1*

3

crareii 0 MY3blKaAbHOH 1jJ0pMe) », BTOpali CTaTbH aanncaaa B 1922 rony H H3- ztaaa B HOBOH pC.lI,aKl!HH rrozt Ha3BaHHeM «TIpo!!ecc OljJopMACHHlI 3BY4alQ,cro HCIQ,CCTBa» B 1923.* Borrpocsr MY3blKaAbHoH 1jJ0 pM bl HaIllA'H caoe OTpalKCHHe H B TaKHX paoorax Acaqiscaa 20-x rO.1\OB, KaK «CHMIjJOHH4eCKHC aTIQ.lIbI» (1922), crare a «TcopHli MY3blKaAbHO-HCTOPH4CCKoro npogecca KaK OCHOBa MY3blKaAbHO-IICTopH<leCKoro 3HaHHlI» (1924),** .lIOKi\a.ll «0 COBPCMCHHOM PYCCKOM MY3blK03HaHlIH Ii ero HCTopH4eCKHX sana-rex» (1925)*** H B C03AaaaBIIICHCli napaxxex sao C HCCAeAOBaHHeM 0 1jJ0pMe «KHHre 0 CTpaBHHcKoM».

C, dHOBACHHe Y4CHlUI .A.caljJbcHa 0 IjJQPMC ocotieuao lIpKO npoaaaxocs

1 s I1BYX ero cr a-n.ax, nanacannsrx, nO-BHAHMOMY, B naxaxe 1925 ro aa H cnet !!HaAbHO nOCBHlQ,eHHblX paCKpblTHIQ oCHoBonOAaraIQIQ,HX AAH Acarpeeaa no-

I HJlTHH - H H T 0 Hal! H JI H H H T 0 H H P 0 BaH H e (HMeHHO B aTOM acrrexre-eMY3blKaAbHaJi 1jJ0pMa KaJ( npogecc HHTOHHpOBaHHH - IIIAa MHorOACTHJlH paapa60TKa acero ero yqeHH!! 0 IjJOPMC ****).

Ooe CTaTbH 1925 ro.aa aanpaaxensr na BblJlCHeHHC H OOOCHOBaHHC cYIQ,HOCTH canoro nOHJlTHJI «HHToHagHJI». TIcpBaJi H3 HHX, nepaoaasaxsao Ha3BaHaas - «OOOCHOBaHlle PYCCKOH MY3bmaAbUOH ,rHTOllaQHH», npn H3AaHHH KIIHrll «Myaerxaxeaaa 1jJ0pMa KaK rrpogecc» BOIIIAa B Hee B KaqeCTBC «,llooaBAec HIIJI 2» no.a Ha3BaHHeM, «OCHOBbl MY3blKaAbHoll HHTOHal.l,HII». BTOpa!! CTaTb!! - <,Pc4eBaH HHTOHa!.lHJI» (3a.1\YMaHHaJi KaK OAHH H3 paaaexoa 'oolQ,cro HCCAeAOBaHHJI 00 '060CHOBaH'IIH PYCCKOH MY3blKaAbHoM HHToHagIlH) - OCTaAaCb He1l3- .lIaHHoH. Ee HanpaBAeHHOCTII B 3Ha411TCAbHOH Mepc npncyig Y'lC6HO-MCTOP;H4CCKIIH xapaxrep. !JcHTpaAbHbiM BOnpOC0'M C'OACp?KaHHJI HBAHCTCJI nonpoc 0 MCTOAlIKC sccnar aaaa cxyxa Y 06yqaIQIQ,HXCH MY3I:l1Ka,'bHOMY HCKYCCTBY, ocnos'HOH lKe TcopeTH4ccKIIH TC3nc crarna, xapaxrepnsui II AAJI acex nOCACAYlOlQ,HX patior AcaljJbcBa,- 0 6 IQ, HOC T b HCTOKOB pC4eBOH H MY3blKaAbHOH llHTOHaJ.llH1. "PCqCBaH II 'lliCTO MY3bIKaAbHaJi HHTOHa!.lHH - BeTBH oaaoro 3BYKOBoro noTOKa» ,- YTBe plKAacl' aBTO p. ****:~

B rOAbl, KOr.1\a Acaqisea ocooeaao HHTeHCHBHO pafior ae-r Ra.1\ npOOAeMOH MY3blKaAbHOH 1jJ0PMbl, «AHHaM'II'lCCKHH» no nxo a K ee paCCMOl'pClIlI1Q llMeeT MeCTO II B 3apy6elKHoM MY3blK03HaHUH, ocotienao B rpyaax 8pHC'Ta KypTa. TIepBble pafio-r er aroro Y4CHoro nOHBIIAHCb cl!!e B aasaxe ncpaorn ACClITHA,eTHJI XX aexa, B 1917 rOAY na IIcMe!.lKOM H3blKe OblAO H3AaHo ero BblAalOllle" CCS! HCCAe.1\OBaHliC «OCHOBbl AHHeaplIoro KOHTpanYHKTa», a B 1923 - «POM~H-

* B nepaoxr aapaaare cnyfixaxoaana B lKypHaAe «CooAa3Hbl H npeOAOAeHfIH», Bb!nY'CKaBllleMcH na npaaax PYK'onnCII POCC'llHCKHM HHCTHTYTOM MCTOPH!I HCKYCCTB; BO BTOPOM - BOIIIAa B co. «Dc musica». Toe. tPHAapMO-, HHJI, TIr., 1923.

** C6. «3aAaqfI H MCTOAbl 113Y4eHHJI HCKYCCTB». «Academia», TI6.,

1924.

*** «De musica». BpeMeHH!lK Pa3pHAa HCTOPliH H reopan MY3blKH foc. HrH'-Ta UCTOPH'll aCKYCCTB, Sbin'. 1. A., 1925.

**** Xaparcrcpao B aTOM OTHOllleHl1H OAHO nonyr aoe 3aMe4aHHe AcaqrsCBa B ero uMO'HorpaljJHH 40-x rOAOB «f AHHKa», xor Aa, ,paOOKa3l>IBaJi 0 caocii MHorOAeTHeH pafio-re «HaA nonpocann Ii OOOCHOBa'llllCM MY3bIKaAb'llOH 'HHT0'HagliH» H rOBO'J?H 0 ,c03p;aHHH KIIHrH «MY3bIKaAbHali 1jJ0pMa KaK rrpogecc», OH 1\00aBAJleT: «J1HToflupOBaHUH, KaK r errepe H pacuunpponax ObI! ».- yh6paHllble 'l'pY.1\bI, T. 1. 113-'\. AH CCCP, M~, 1952, CTp. 147.

***** !JHT. no MalllHHonnCHOH xormn CTaTbH.

I

""TH4eCKali rapMOHIIJI II e,e KpH3HC B «T pHCTaHe» Barnepa». ACToM 1924 rona .Acaqisee, YlIIe 'HHTeOCHBHo paOOTaBIIIHfl B TO BpeMH RaA CBoeH TcoplleH My- 3!JIKaAbHOH ljJ'OPMbl, n03HaKOMHA'Cli C aTHMH TpYAaMH,

Pai6o'Tbl KYflTa Bbf3cBaAH orpOMHbIH III1Tepcc Acaqiseaa, H nepaa a H3 'HHX ~blAa H3AaHa na PYCCKOM H3blKe n'OA ero PCAaK!.llleH H C ero ,BcTynHTeAbHOll 'CTaTbcH. * O!!CHHB MHoroe B aTOH paecre Ky pra '04eHb nOAOlKlITeAbHO, a nopOll H BOCT'OplIIeHHO, Acarpsea B TO lIIC BPCMS! BblCKa3blBaeT Ii PS!A KpllTH- 4eCKliX 3aMCQaHIIH, OCHOB'HaH CYTb ~OTOPblX CBO,ll;HTCH K nONOlKeHHW, 'fTO KYPT .ae nOHHMaeT «UHToHayuu KaK Ka4eCTBa MY3bIKH». «Ero «CAIIHCTBa», - mnner Acaqisea, -'BHC llHT'OHa!.lH'II CTaHOBJlTCJI AeHCTBHTeAb'110 To'maMH TOHOB, H OR p;orOBapHBaeTCJI AO KaKliX-TO ne.aoc'rynnsrx CAYXY "BHAOB SHeprHH"».** YlKe B aTO BpeMH Acarpeea, nO-BHAllMOMY, nORHA Ii npHcYlQ,llH 'B3rAJI.I\aM KYPTa -orpera MY3blKaAbHoro HCKyeCT'Ba OT HBACHHH OOlQ,eCTBeHHoH lKH3HH, 'llHMCHHO JI3-3a ero HenOHHMaRHH IIHToRagllollHoH CYIQ,HOCTH MY3bIKH. CaM lKe .Acaqiees B npeaacxoaan 3aMe4aCT: «l1'IITOHa!.lIlOH'HaH CIICTeMa craHOBHTCH OAHOH H3 IjJYHK!.lIlM 061J!eCTBeHlloro e03HaHHH».***

C oOAec paasepayroii KpHTHKon KYPTa Acaqrsea BbIcTynHA B KOHl.l,C 20-x rOA0'B B H3,'J,aJDHOH aa YKpaHHcKoM H3blKC cra-n-e «KPll3I1C 6y;plKya3Horo MY3blKo3HaHIIJI», II KOTOPOH KYP'TY nOCBJllQ,eH gCAblH PJl.l\ 'cTpaHH!.l, CYMMII.pyeMblx CACtlYWlJ!lIM - BbIBOP;OM:

«Msrcx» ero (KYPTa.- Pen.), B03HHKlllaJi B npogecce HccAeAOBaHHJI AHBaMllKH fiaxoacxoii My3bIKH II B'CKPbITlIlI rxytioxoro pasxana MelK.I\Y !.leHHbIMll :nPHOOPCTCHllJlMII p'oMaHTH4ccKOH rapMoHHH II KP1l311COM, POAHBlIIlIMClI B HeM ,K,e casroii, MblCAb, KOTOpaJl, B 'CYIQ,HOCTH, AOIIIAa AO nepnoocnonsr AliaAcKTHKH ;B IIC'l'OPll'lI pa3BIITHH My3blKH, - B KOH!.le KOHgOB BbIH'BIIAa HeB03MOlKHOCTb oOooclHoBaTb 08'0'11 A'OBOAbI H 'I1YTacTcH - AIIOO B a6cTpaKTH9M ljJopMaAII3Me, ,\HOO B TeMHOM xecy HAeaAHCTH'leCKOll, ofipaano xpacnaoii, a HHorp;a A~lKe yfie..Il.HTeAbHoH pll'TOPHKU».****

B HallleM 'TCOpeTH'leCKOM MY3blK03HaHHH mrronauaonaaa TeOpH'H Acaqie-esa 11, B 'laCT'Ho,cTH, 'BO'npoc 0 COOTHOIIICHIIH TCOPHH KYPTa H AcaljJb.eBa B no.HHMaHIIH npogeccos ljJopMooopa30BaHHH CIJ!C He naurxa OCBelQ,eHHJI B cnegnaAbHblX HVCAeA'OB8HHHX. !JeHHbIM Ha4HHaHHCM B aTOM HanpaBAeHHII HBAHeTCJI .AHlllb CTaTbH J\. A. Ma3cAH «0 MY3bIKaAbHO-TCOpeTHQeCKOH KOH!.l,engHH Acaqnseaa», onyoxmcoaanaas B lKypHaAe «CoBeTCKaH MY3bIKa» (1957, NQ 3). B HeM y6cAHTeAhHo npoTHBonocTaBAHIOTcH MaTcpHaAllcTII4ecKHe TCHp;eH!!HII AC<1ljJbCBa B peurenan aroii np06A,eMbl 'II r.vytioxo HAcaAHcTH4ecKaH B caoeii -ocnoae ROHgen!.lHH KYPTa, nopoasaeunas BO MHorOM TeMH TC'lCHHJlMII B 1jJ1I_ ..;\OCOIjJHH, KOTOPblC uamxn CBOIQ acuepnuruarorgyro KPHTHKY B patio-re ACHIIHa «MaTcpHaAII3M H 9MnHp'HoKpHTH!.lH3M». 11 rxyrioxo npas aBTOp C'TaTbH, OTMe-

* 8. K YP T.

IIOAH!jlOHHH 13axa. Flep. M3,'\aT, M., 1931.

** TaM lKe, crp, 27.

*** TaM lKe, CTp. 28.

**** «MY3H4Ho-HaYKoBi 3aIlnCKH», KH. I. BceYKpaiHcbKe ronanac-ruo pe:Bo.\IQ!!iHHbIX MY3HK (BYTOPM), Xapxia. 4,0c.AiA4a ceKgill «Pyx», 1931, -cr p. 95 (nep, c YKp. C. M. BHAbCKCp).

OCHOBbi AHHeapHoro KOHTpanYHKTa. MeAOAll'leOKaH C HeM. 3. 8BaAbA no.a pe,a. 13. B.' Aca;:pbcBa. Foe-

1}

'Iall, 'ITO B YTBeplK,1IeHHH ACacpbeBblM HHTOHaj!HOHHOH npapoasr My.3bIKH CO,1IeplKHTClI «H O,1lHa H.3 UCTOpWW-MaTepHaJ\HCTH'IeCKHX npel\rrOCblJ\OK Y'IeHHIl o MY3bIKaJ\bHOH Bblpa3HTeJ\bHOCTH».;:

HeCOMHeHHO, H,1IeaJ\HCTH'IeCKaJl CPHJ\OCOCPHli B Te'IeHHe MHorHX J\eT oxaaeisaxa U3Be'CTHoe BO.3AeHCTB'He H aa Y'IeHHe Acarpeeaa 0 cpopMe. OIlHaKO aTO B03I1eHCTBH,e CKasaJ\OCb 13 nCHOBHOM He aa CYIMeCTBe !!eH'TpaJ\bHbIX ycrpesrxeHHK Acaqiseaa, a na BHeWH.eH H lIalKe 'IHCTO cppa3eOJ\orH'IeCKOH CTopOHe ce BOllJ\OIMeHHlI. TaJ{.plllI onpenexenaii B paoorax Acarpseaa 20-x rOIlOB aaaesa II HeKOTopblMH nOAOlKeHHlIMH Y'I,eHHlI KaHTHaHj!a KaCCHpepa, H peaKj!HOHHOH reopaefi aaeprernaaa Ocraaxs aa C ee a6CTpaKTHblM rrO'HlIT'HeM «aaepr-aa». 60- xee rJ\y6nKHM 6bl.'l.O B0311eHcTBHe I'erexa H, 13 'IaCTHOCTH, ero «AeK!!HH no 3CT,eTHKe», 13 KOTOPbIX, KaK H3BeCTHO, cnegaaxnno paCCMaTpHBaeTCH H MY3blxaxsuoe HCKYCCTBO. B TO ace BpeMli 'MbICJ\b 06 HHTOHa!!HOHHOH npapo ae MY:;bIKH 1l00C'TOHHHO coaeiic-raoaaxa pa.3B'H'THIO HMeHHO MaTepHaJ\HCTH'IeCKHX OCHoa TCOpeTH'IeCKOH KOHj!eIIj!HH Acarpseaa, 'ITO HaIUAO OTpalKeHHeB 3Ha'iUTeAbHOH 9BOJ\IO!!UH caMUX onpeacxcanii AcacpbeilblM TepMHHa "uHTOHaj!HlI», MHorOBapHaHTHO H 13 pa3J\U'IHb1X paxypcax ocaergaejroro 13 ero patio-rax.

B Ka'IeCTBe npmrepa MOlK'HO npHBeCTH XO'TH 6bl IIBa onpenexeaax UHTOHagUH, OTpalKalOIMHX 9BOJ\IOj!'H1O MbICJ\H Acaqiseaa acero J\HWb B npeaexax 20-x 1'011013. B pafio re «060CHOBaHHe PYCCKOH MY3bIKaJ\bHOH HHTOHaj!HH» 'IUTaeM: «yhaK, HHToHagHli - npostenenue 3ByttUHUJI. 6e.3 UHTOHHpOBaHHlI H BHe UHTOHHpOBaHHlI- MY3blKU HeT».** B C0311aHHOM xepea: 'IeTblpe rozra HOBOM nap aarrre patiorer - "OCHOBbl MY3bIKaJ\bHOH HHTOHa!!HH» Acaqisea TOT lKe a63a!! AaeT 13 'CJ\eIlYIOI£eH pellaK!!HH: «l1TaK, HHTOHa!!lIl1- rrepaocrerreneoii aazsHOCTH <paKTop: OCMblCAeHue 3ByttUHUJI, a He npocroe KOHCTaTHpOBaHHe OTKJ\OHC-. HHH 01' HOPMbl ('IHCTali HJ\H He'IHCTali no.aaxa 3aYKa). 6e3 HHTOHHpOBaHHH H BHe HHTOHHpOBaHHII- MY3blKH HeT» (198).

B lIaJ\bHeHweM MblCJ\b 06 HHTOHa!!HH H HHToHHpoBaHHH' KaK npoaaxeuaa MbleJ\H, 'IYBCTB 'IeJ\OBeKa, KaK orpaasenaa 'IeJ\OBe'IeCKOrO C03HaHHlI ace apesra pasnasaerca, HaHlIlI B 40-e roasr caoe aonxoigeaac 13 CJ\eIlYlOlMeM resace: « .•• MbICJ\b, 'IT06bl CTaTb 3BYKOBO asrpaaseunoii, CTaHOBIITCli HHToHaj!HeH» (211); II,\H lKe: « ••• UHTOHaj!HlI rrpelKlle acer-o - Ka'IeCTBO OCMblCJ\eHHoro rrpOH3HO-

~eHHlI» (259).

. C.'I.,ellyeT 3aMeTHTb npa STOM, 'ITO KOpHH r axoro onpeaexenas BOCXOlIllT" (:IMe K nepaoii KHHre 0 <pOpMe, rile Mbl yase BCTpe'iaeMCH C YTBeplKlleHHeM,. 'ITO «He OpraHH.30BaHHali 'IeJ\OBe'IeCKHM C03HaHHeM aKYCTH'IeCKali cpezta etge He COCTaBJ\lIeT MY3bIKH» (23).

BcrroMHHali B '1941-1942 roaax CBOH nepasre nO'IlbITKH nOHlITb crreqn<PHKY MY3bIKaJ\bHOH <pOPMQI, Aca<pbeB namer: «1\1He XOTeJ\OCb CAblWUTb <P0PMbl. fia6J\lOlIaTb, KaK OHH 06pa3YIOTClI B C03HaHHH KOMrr03HTopOB H KaK BOCC03- "MOTCIi B aocrrpaar aa qYTKHX cxyurarexeii, R 'IY'BCTBOBaJ\, 'ITO MY3blKaJ\bHoe coaepasanae ecr s TO, 'ITO CJ\bIWHTCH H 'ITO cxynraerca, - Y 0IlHIIX C rrpeofiAallaHHeM 'IYBCTB{'HHoro r onyca, Y IIPyrIlx - HHTeJ\J\eKTa •.• R Ha'IaJ\ ynopuo. HCKaTb, KaK' COIICplKaH'He C03HaHHH KOMn03HTopa H KalKlIoro XYIIOlKHHKa CTa-

* "COBp.TCRali MY3bIKa», 1957, NQ 3, CTp. 76. ** L1HT. no MaWHHorrHCHOH sorma,

6

nOSHTClI XYIIOlKeCTBeR-HbIM TSOp'leCTBOM, 1I y6ep,HJ\ClI, 'ITO aa HHTeJ\J\eKTOM aceraa coxpauaerca rxaaaoe .3Ha'IeHHe '8 STOH MeTaMop<P'03e: AeiicTBHTeJ\bnocrs - ee oT·pameHHe 'B C03HaHHH - xy lIomeeTBeR-HblM 06pa3. DPH 3TOM CO~HaHHe RaK 6bl «CHHMaeT» lIeHcTBHTeJ\bHocTb, lIeAali ee - HAJ\1030pHO - He 'TOJ\bKO CBOHM COll"eplKaHReM, HO H CBOHM C03I1aHHeM, a xY,1J;OlKeCTUeHHbIH 06- fa3 «CH'HMaeT)} 'Bhl3BaBwee ero K 6blTHIO B o6IMeCTBe CQ3HaHHe ••• )}

.llaJ\ee Acaqn.es paccxaasrsaer 0 CSOHX nOHCKax TaKoro MeTOlla aHaJ\H3a MY3bIKH, KOTOPblH IIBHJ\ClI 6bl oTpalKeHHeM TBOp'IeCKOrO rtpogecca KOMrr03H-ropa, 'Ilo1l06HO TOMY, KaK C03HaHHe nocxe.aaero 6blAO orpazseaaex lIeHcTBH·leJ\bHOCTH. «Ho, yasr, - 1I06aB.'I.lIeT OH, - 1I He axaaex roraa MeTOIIOM: II He .OC03HaBaJ\, 'ITO TaKoe HHTOHaj!HH».*

Bee 60.'l.bllIee H 60J\bWee oaxaaenne TaKHM MeTOIIOM H pacxpsraae'rca npa "ITeHHH IIBYX ny6.'1.HKyeMblx KHHI' 0 cpopMe KaK npogecce, paBHO KaK H pxaa ApyrHx, oxpyasarorgax 3TH HCC.'I.eIlOBaHH'H pa60T, oc06eHHO 40-x rOIlOB.

DpHXOIIHTCIi I' J\y60KO COlKaJ\eTb 0 TOM, 'ITO Acaqrsea He ycnex 3aKOH'IHTb

n.oH TPYII nOA'HOCTblO H .J,OAlKHa .6blJ\a aaaepnnrr»

C0311aTb TpeTblO KHHry, KOTopaH, nO-BHIIHMOMY, pa3BHTHe era TeOpeTH'IeCKOH KOHj!e'Ilj!HH H lIaTb

eige 60J\,ee MHorOCTopoHHee 060CHO'saHHe HH'TOHagHoHHoH npaponsr MY3bIKaJ\baoro HCKYCCTBa Hero Bblpa3HTeJ\bHblX B03MOlK'HOCTeH.

*

*

*

DOIiBAeHHe B 1930 roay KHHrH Acaqiseaa "MY3bIKaJ\bHali <popMa KaK 11 pogeccs IIBHJ\OCb C06blTHeM OrpOMH'OrO 3Ha'IeHHlI B pa3BH'!'HH KaK COBeTCKoro MY3bIK03HaH'HlI, TaK H COBeTCK'OM MY3bIKaJ\bHoM neaaroraxa, OHO noxoasaxo Ha'IaJ\O nOCJ\eAOBaTeJ\bHOH 60Pb6e C lIorMaTH3MoM 'H cxoxacruxoii B 06J\acTH aHaJ\H3a My3bIKH, C r-ocnoacraoaasumw MeTa(llH3H'IeCKH-OnHCaTe.'l.bHbIM MeTolloM, C KaHoHH3ag'Heii 'rex ~IOPM <popMo06pa.30BaHHlI, xo-ropsre YTBepIIHJ\Hcb npeacae :scero B T'BOp'IeCT'Be BeHCRHX K.'I.aCC'HKOB.

OCHoBHali j!e.'l.b nccxeaoaanaa 0 <popMe Cl!~aTO C<P0PMYJ\Hpo,saHa aeroposs ·8 3aKJ\lOqHTeJ\bHOM a63aj!e Oc.HOBHoro TeKCTa KHHrH:

«DOBTOPIIIO, rAaBHblM CTpeMJ\,eHHeM MOHM 6blJ\0 C<P0PMYJ\HpOBaTb B ca_) MbIX 06IMHX xep'rax npeanocerxxn IIHaJ\eKTHKH MY3blKaJ\bHoro CTaHOBJ\eHHlI, xaK 'OHlI asrrexator H3 IIHHaMHQeCKOrO Y'IeHHII 0 MY3bIKa.'l.l>HOii <popMe,- yxeHHlI, OTpHj!alOlMero caMOIIOBJ\elOi!!YIO 3BOJ\IO!!HIO «HeMbIX» cpOpM-cxeM' H pacCMaTpHBalOlMero <P0PMY .KaK HHl'OHaj!HOHHbIM npogecc o<popMAeHHJI, a .3Ha'IHT:IIaK CpellCTBO n BHII C0l!HaJ\bHoro 06HapYlKeHHlI MY3bIKH» ( 179). Baacao 1IJ\1I TIOHHMaHfllI ·K'HHri1 ,H C!l.ellYlOlMee 3aMe'IaHHe aaropa: «B STOH pafiore cBoeif

H XO'IY Bee lKe npeasae acero BblllCHHTb caMblH npcgecc MY3blKaJ\bHoro CTaHOBJ\eHHII,' H3J\OlKHTb He pesy JlbTaTbl B 3aBepweHHOM BHlle, a' XOII Ha6AIOlleHHH Hall EHM» (97).

OIlHaKo, craua TaK Borrpoc H aK!!eHTHPYH B rtepayro OQepellb BpeMeHHI)H xapaxrep MY3bIK3J\bHOH <pOPMbl - ee npogeccyaxnayro CTOPOHY, Acaqises He CHHMaeT H rrOHHMaHHH MY3bIKaJ\bHOH <POPMbl KaK m-ora, KaK CJ\eIlCTBHII npo\ieeca. TaK pozsnaerca ero j!eHTpa.'l.bHblH Te3HC: «cPopMa KaK npogecc H <popMa

*. «0 ce6e». UHT. no MaIUHHorrHCHOH KonHH.

/

7

)

KaK DKp!lCTaAAH3DBaBliialiOI cxexia (nepaee: KDHCTPYK!!!lll) - ABe CTDPDHbi b,'l;HDrD H TDrD lKe lIBAeHHlI ••. » (23)·- Te3HC, J\elKaIgHH B HaCTDlIIgee BpeMli R DCHDBe BCCH ::DBeTCKDH MY3blKaAbHDH HaYKH H npHMeHlIeMblH B npax r axe MY3blKaAbHDrD aHaAH3a.

OCHoBonDAaralOIgHM ,'l;AlI TeDpHH Acaqrse aa aaxaerca H noxoaserrae, ,'ITO «MepOH BeIgeH B MY3bIKe» aaxaer ca CAYX. BH,e CAYXDBDrD socnpaaraa He MDlKeT 6blTb HHKilKDrD aHaAH3a MY3blKaAbHbiX lIllAe'HHH. «B MY3bIKe HH'IerO He CYIgeCTByeT BHC CAYXDBDrD onsrra, - nHlIIeT Acarpuea. - nD<lT'DMY HH DAHO onpenexeane H;e MDlKeT BD3HHKaTb H3 «HeMbIX», H3 a6CTpaKTHbIX, Bne MaTepHaxa MY3bIKH AelKaIgHx rrpeAnDCbIADK, a TDAbKD H3 KDHKpeTHDrD aocnpaarna roro, 'lTD 3BY'IHT» (198). npH aTDM KaK aezryrgee B CTaHDBAeHHH H BDCnpHlITHH MY3bIKH xapaxrepasyercs aaxaxo MeADAH'IeCKDe: «B MeAO,'l;H'ICCKDii TKaHH,- YTBeplKAaeT Aca<pbeB,- HCTDK ncex DCTaAbHblX BHADB <PDpMDBilHHlI» (W).

ITepBali KHun '0 C!lDPMf, CODTBe'TCTBeHHD D6IgHM TeDpC'TH'IeCKlIM nDCbIAKaM, pa3AeACHa Aca<pbcBblM aa TpH D'TAeAa. OHH o6paMAeHbi «BBeAeHHeM», 3HaKaMlIIgIlM '1'llTa'TeAli C DCHOBHOH np06AeMa'THKDH xaara, H ABYMJI «.llD6aBAeHHJlMH». n,epBoe H3 HHX nD'ITH Te3HCHO rrOABOAIlT HTorH HCCAeAOBaHHJI. BTOpoe aaxserca, no CYTH, «KAIO'IDiI1» ,'l;AJI npO'lTeHHJI BceH KHHrll, TaK KaK CYMMHpyeT B ce6e rAaBHDe - rrDHHMaHHe AcaqJbeBblM B KDn!!e 20-x rDADB caMDH rrpofixesrer MY3bIKaAbHDH HHTDHa!!H'H - npD6AeMbi HHTO'Ha!!HDHHDH cne!!'ll<pHKH MY3blKaAbHoro HCEYCCTBa.

OCD6eHHOCTbIQ KHHrH JlBAJleTCJI KAaCCH<pHKa!!HlI B HeH MY3blKaAbHbiX <PDPM no rrpnH!!Hny HX pa3BHTHJI, a He rro HTorDBblM KOHCTPYK!!HJlM. CHCTeMaTH3a!!HIO qJDpM 'TDAbKD «B '1HCTD KDHCTpYKTHBHOM oTHDlIIeHHH», 6;e3 yxe'ra npogecca HX HHTDHa!!HDHHOrD CTaHDBAeHHJI, Acaqisen C'IHTaeT MeToAOM, He .'\aIOIgHM BD3MOlKH'OCTH paCKpbITb ocnoauere 3aK'OHOMepH'OCTH MY3blKaAbH'Oro HCKYCCTBa H BeAYIgH¥ K qJDpMaAH3MY. OTPblB <POPMbl OT H'HTOHa!!H'll, no era. CAOBaM,IlDBDAHT «/1.0 a6cYP/1.a AyaAH3M IjJDPMbl H CDAeplKaHHJI» (60).

npOTHBDrrDCTallAJIJI CBDe Y'IeHHe '0 <pDpMe-npO!!ecce CADlKHBUleHClI npaxTHKe BHaAH3a xarus <P0PMbl-Cx,eMbl B ee CTaTHKe, Acaqn.ca, eCTeCTBe'HHD, Y/1.eAJleT cneg aaxenoe BHHMaHHe BDnpDCY '0 CHAax, D6YCADBAHBalOIgHX H opraaa- 3YIOIgHX MY3blKaAbHDe pa3BHTHe, H «H3Y'IeHHIO HX /1.eHCTBHJI» (52). npH aroxr DH Cne!!HaAbHD nonsepxaaaer , 'lTD <lTO - AeHCTBYIOlj!He CH.'bl, «BD3HHKaIOIllHe B caMDM npojjecce HHTDHHpOBaHHJI, a He MHqJl1'1ecKHe nepaonpauaaer» (52).

B <lTOM lKe acnexre, T. e. B nepaapemaoji CBJl3H C caMHM 3BYKDBbiM MaTepHaAOM MY3blKH (<<3BY'laIgHM BeIgeCTBDM», no TepMHHDADrHH Acaqisena r-ex AeT), Acaqn-eu rrDHHMa,eT H '1aCTQ ynDTpe6AJlCT TepMHH «aaepr-na», BKAa/1.blBaJi B <lTD nDHJlTHe cDBDKynHDcTb rex BHYTpeHHHX CTHMYADB, npH'IHH, KDTDpblC 06YCADBAHBalOT HHTDHagHDHHDe pa3BHTHe MY3blKaAbHorD npDH3BeAeHHJI. *

l1CXD/1.JI H3 R36paHHDrD HM npuagana KAaCCHC!lHKa]!HH MY3blKaAbHblX qIOPM, Acaqiees n pezsne acero n'O/1.pa3/1.eAJleT HX aa /1.Be 6DAbIlIII.e r pyrmsr:

1. ct>DPMbl, 6a3HPYIOI!!HeCJI na npHH!!Hne TDlK/1.eCTBa.

2. ct>OPMbl, 6a3HPYIOIgHecJI na npanunne KDHTpaCTa.

* KHor /1. a DH

(55 ).

S

TepMHHDM

«UHTDHa!!HDHHaJi

1

j,

i

)

TDlKAeCTBD H KDHTpaCT (B pa3AH'IHbIX HX pa3HDBH/1.HOCTSIX) Acaqisea paCCMaTpHBaeT KaK /1.Ba DCHDBHblX MY3bIKaAbHblX qiaxropa, B CBDeH cDBDKynHDCTH H B3aHM'DCBJl3aHHDCTH HBAHIOIgHXCH DCHDBHblMH <lAeIMeHTaMlf My3blKaAbaoro pa3BHTHH. «KDHTpacTHa.cTb DIgYIgaeTCH AIlUlb npn HaAH'lHH <lAeMeHTDB 'l'OlK/1.eCTBCHHbIX»,- YTBcplKAaeT Acaqieea (127), a aecs npogecc <PDPMDD6pa3DB<l!HHJI B !!eADM - lITD, no. er o MHeHHlO, AHaAeKTH'ICCKHH npogecc «c noCTDJlHHblM cOCYIgeCTBOBaHHeM 'rrpDTHBDrrDADlKHDcTeH» (57).

B npeaexax nepaoii KHurH 0 MY3blKaAbHDH 1jJ0pMe CKAaAbIBaIOTCJI H BeAYIgHe npeAnOCbIAKH /1.AJI CD!!HaAbHD-HCTDpH'IeCKDrO D60CHDBaHHH HHTOHa!!HOHHDH TeDpHH pa3BHTHJI MY3blKaAbHoro HCKYCCTBa, B 'laCTHDCTH AAH nOH,,MaHHH TaKHX JlBAeHHH, KaK «HHTDHa!!HOHHbIH CAOBapb» H «HHTDHagHoHHoe 06HOBA!)HHe» (BAH, KaK Ha3bIBaeT B DT/1.eAbHbIX CAY'IaHX Acarpsea, «HIiTOHa!!Ho.HHbIH KPH3HC» ),-rrpe/1.nOCbIAKH, xoropere HaXO/1.HT inapoxoe DCBeIgeHHe BD BTOPDH KHHre.

3/1.eCb lK~ HCHD HaMC'IaeTCH

nYTb H K paccvorpeamo MY3blKH He TDAbKD KaK npouecca TBDp'leJC''I'Ba, HD H KaK npcgecca BOClIpHHTHH. l1MeHHD B CBH3a CD BTOPblM acnexrou Acatpses D6bl'lHD HblTaeTCH /1.aTb II CO!!HaAbHDe D6DCHOBaHHe POAH HCKyccTBa. TaKHM 06pa3DM, 'Ha /1.aHHDM ar ane ero HaY'IHDH ,lieHTeAbHDCTH npooxesra «cO!!rraAbHOro 06HapYlKeHHJI» MY3blKH npeaaxapyer B ero patio tax Ha'A npo6AeMDH «cO!!HaAbHOrD ,cDAeplKaHHJI» MY3blKaAbHDrD HCKyeCTBa. STDT nonpoc BceCTDpoHHe H 3Ha'lH'TeAbHO rAy6lKe DCBeIQaeTCJI Aca<PbeBblM B 40-e rDAbl.

Tlepaaa KHHra Acaqrseaa «MY3b1KaAbHall qJopMa

KaK npogecc» aauxace He TDJ\bKD TeDpeTH'leCKIIM D606IQeHHeM HaY'IHDH pa60TbI aaropa HaA AaHHDH rrpD6AeMOH, HD H HcnDcpeACTBeHHD CBH3aHa C DIIblTDM ero npaxrnxeCKOli rre/1.arOrH'IeCKDH pafio ret B }\eHHHI'paACKDH KOHcepBaTDpHH, Ha'laTDH HM B 1925 rDAY. Pa3AH'lHble HCTDpH'IeCKHe H 'TeDpeTH'leCKUe xypcer, xo-ropere 'On 3AeCb BeA, HBHAHCb BD MHDrOM TBDp'leCKOH Aa60paTDpHeH AAJI rrpoaepxn TeDpeTH'ICCKIIX rrDADlKeHHH. 11 He CAY'l,aHHOCaM Acaqisea B DAHDM H3 nacesr 1( H. fl. l\1J1CKOBCKDMY xapaxrepasoaax CSDIO pa60TY '0 qJopMe KaK He'lTO cpeanee MelK/1.Y C'rre!!HaAI>HbIM nCCAeAOBaHHeM H Y'lC6HHKDM. HeCDMneHHD cerrpaxa CBDIO poxs H pa3BHBaBUlaJlCJI BaTH roasr B }\eHH'Hrpa/1.CKOH KDH.cepaaropua HDBaH npa'KTHKa rrpenozaaaaaa KDMrr03HQ,HH, HPK~ npeacraaJ\eHHaH UlKOADH B. B. U!ep6a'leBa, KDTopaH TaKlKe BblABHraAa na rrepBblH IIAaH lKHBDe, ,CAYXO'Boe BDClIpHHTHe' MY3blKH, npIIH!!Hnbl MeADAH'IeCKOrO CTaHDB,AeHHH MY3bIKaAbHOH 1lDPMbI B' ee pa3BHTHH II PC3KD BbI!CTynaAa npDTHB 3alWCTeBeAbIX /1.DrM H KaHDHDB B HCKYCCTBe.

HDBaTDpCKaJl no 'CBDeMY CO/1.eplKaHBIO H DpraHII'IHD CD'leTaIOIgaH reope'TH'IeCKUH acnexr HCCAe/1.DBaHHH C rAy6DKltM UCTOP"3MOM, 'KHHra '0 <pDpMe onn.paeTCH na IllUPOKHH xpyr pa6DT B D6Aa,CTH MY3blKD3HaHHJI, a B DT/1.CAbHbIX <:AyqaJlX H Jl3bIKD3HaHHH. 06IlIupHa H npaexexaewas aBTDpOM MY3bIKaAbHali ,J\I1TepaTypa, 06HHMalOIgaJl BCBDeH cDBDKynHDcTH MY3bIKaAb.HDe HCKYCCTgO '01' snoxn panaero cpeaneaexoae a /1.'0 uaxaxa XX CTDAeTHH. OCD6eHHD 60AbIlIoe MeCTO B K'HHre YAeAJleTCH aHaAH3Y TBOp'leCTBa Eaxa H Ee'TXDBeHa.

no nepBOHa'laAbHOMY 3aMblCAY nepnas xaara '0 C!lDpMe ADAlKHa 6bIAa BKAIO'IHTb B ce6H <l!HaAH3 KaK HHcTPYMeHTaAbHDH MY3bIKII, TaK H BOKaAbHblX '(JKaHpOB. B coxpaansurewc a nxane-xoncnexre ecru, aanpuaep, clIeglIaAbHble

paaaexer, rrocamgeaaeie PQAH CAQBa H nOilTHqeCKQH MeTpHKH KaK MY3blKaAbasrx ipaKT,OPQB, XapaKTepHCTHKe MY3blKaAbHO-nO:lTHqecKHx MaAblX ip0PM, BQnpocax CBH3H MY3blKH H rearpa H 3BQAIOl!HH oneper.

B AaAbHeHlIIeM AcaipbeB OTKa3aACH QT 3TOrQ aaxepeaaa rro npHqHHaM. o 'KOTOPblX OH nHlIIeT caM B KQ.Hl!e QCHOBHQrQ pasaexa KHHrH (178).

*

*

*

ECAH B nepaoii KHHre 0' ipQPMe cauo Q60CHOBaHife nOHHTHH «HHTQHal!HIl» p;aHO AcaipbeBblM 'KaK O)l,HQ H3 AQ6aBAeHHH K TeKCTY ItC-CAeAQBaHHH, TO' BTQpaa KHHra BCH l!eAHKOM HMeeT 3arQAQBQK - «l1HTQHal!HlI». l1MeHHQ B 3TOR 'JaCTH HHTOHal!HQHHaH TeQpHH Acaqisesa pacxpemae-rca HaH6O'Aee nO'AHO J[ MHOrQrpaHHO'; H BblHCHeHHe «CYIg'HQCTH MY3blKaAbHblx HBAeHHH, onpeAeAHeMbl'l( nQHHTHeM UHTQHaYUJl» (214), BblABHraeTClI caMHM aBTQPOM KaK rAaBHaH aaaaxa aceii patiorer,

KHHra «l1HTQHal!HlI» r Ay6O'KQCBJl3aHa co MHorHMH ApyrHMH pa6QTaMH Acaqieeaa, KaK npeAlIIeCTBYIOIgHMH eH, TaK H CO'3AaBaBlIIHMHCJl napaxxexsao. 113 nOCAeAHHX oc06eHHO cxeayer BblAeAHTb ABa ero HCCAeAQBaHHH aaxaxa 40.x rOAOB - 'HHTQHal!IfOHHbIH aHaAH3 oneper l.JaHKOBCKQrQ «EBreHHH OHerHH» «<"EBreHHH OHerHH" - AHpH'IeOKHe Cl!eHbl TI. 11. l.JaHKOBCKQrQ») H MQHQrpa'ipHIO «rAHHKa». MelKAY 3·TH'MH ABYMH pa6QTaMH H 6blAa sarmcaaa KHHra «l1HTOHal!HH». KpOMe Toro,np06AeMa HHTOHallHH HaXQtlHT HHTepeCHQe OCBeigenae 'BO MHQrHX apyrax Tpytll!.X 3THX AeT: B HCCAeAOBaHHHX 0' MYCQprCKOM Ii PHMCKOM.KQpcaKQBe, B MO'HOrpaipHJlX «l.JapOtleHKa», «Tpar», B CTaTbHX 0' CQBeTCKHX KQMnQ3HTOpax HCQBeTCKOH MY3blKaAbHOH 'KYAbType. OrpQMHOe snaseaae AAH pa3BHTHH HHTOHal!HOHHOH TeO'pHH AcaipbeBa 'B 40-e rOAbl HMeA Hero KOMn03HTopCKHH ornar npeaurecraysoigero AOCJlTHAeTHH, ocooeaso ero pacora HaA 6aAe'TaMH «TIAaMH Flapaaea» (1932) H «DaxqHcapaHcKHH ipQHTaH,>

(1934 ).

Ho eCTeCTBeHHO, 'ITO' HaH60Aee 'npO'JHbI CBH3H HCCAeAQBaHHH «MY3bIKaAbHaH 'ipopMa KaK npol!ecc. KHHra s ropaa. l1HTOHal!HH» C nepaoii KHHrOH o 'MY3bIKaAbHQH ipopMe, aa 'ITO YKa3bIBaeT H cax aBTOp. OAHaKQ, xapaxrePH3YlI CBOIO HQBYIO pa60TY KaK AaAbHeHlIIee pa3BHTHe nepaoir KHHrH 0' ipQPMe. Acaqrsea C.pa3Y lKe nQA'IepKHBaeT paaxaxae MelKAY mmH. ECAH B accxeaoBaHHH KOHl!a 20·x rOAOB B l!eHTpe CTOliA AAli 'Her.o BQnpOC - «I(UK .I!/lUTCIl MY3bIKa, KaK QHa, B03HHKHYB, npoao.osaercs H KaK QCTaHaBAHBaeTCli ee tlBHmeHHe», TO' B 40·e roasr ero BHHMaHHe cocpenoroxeao aa sonpoce, «nOqCMY OCYlgeCTBAJleTCli ipopMa MY3blKH TaK; a He HHaqe» (211). 3Aecb MblCAb, KaK l!HlIIeT cast aBTOp, HanpaBAeHa aa TO, qT06bl «CBH3aTb pa3BHTHe cpeACTB Bbl· palKeHHH iMy3blKH C '3a'KQHOMepHOCTlIMH qeAOBeqeCKOrQ HHTOHHpOBaHHlI KaK -npOllBJleHUJl MbICAH,C MY3bIKaAbHbIMH TOHaMH B HX MHoro06pa3HOM corrpxaeeHHH HC CAOBeCHOH pe'JblO» (211).

l1,H T 0 H H P 0 BaH H e K a K n I' 0' 1I B A e H HeM bl C A H. chQ nOAO-

meHHe H onpenexae r CYIgHOCTb H 3CTeTHqeCKYIO HanpaBAeHHOCTb aceii HHTQHal!HOHHQH reopua Acarpseaa. Y'IeHHe Acaqreeaa B TOM BH,lIe, KaK OHO CAQlKHl\OCb K 'Ha'JaAY 40·x rQI\QB, KpaTKQ MQlKHQ oxapaxvepnaoae-re CAel\YlOlgHM 0'6- pa30M:

10

I I

I •

BHe npogecca HHTOHHpoB.aHHlI KaK aayxootipaaaoro BbIHBAeHHH CMbiCAa HeT MY3blKaAbHQrQ lICKYCCTBa. l1HTQHal!HlI - «PQAHHK MY3bIKH», ee cyignocr», MblCAb 'JeAOBeKa, «qT06bI 'CTaTb 3BYKOSQ'BbipalKeHHQH, CTaHOBHTOI nHTOHa· gHeH, H,HTOHHpyel"CH» (211 ).CAetlOBaTeAbHo, rrpogecc IfHTOHHpOBaHHH - 3TO npogecc BbIlI'BAeHHlI xexoaevecxoro 'C03HaHHlI B cnel!uqJU'IeCKUX ip0pMax MY3bI· xaxsaoro UCKYCCTsa. 11HToHupoBaHHe - AeHTeAbHOCTb xexonesecxoro HHTe,\, ,heKTa, ocodas «o6pa3HO'HHTOHal!'HOHHaH» ipopMa ero MblUlAeHHII (336). l1HToIIHpyeT TQAbKO 'IeAOBt'!K. (3BY'IaHHII B npapone, KaK 6bI OHH HH npH6AH' JKaAHCb K MY,3bIKaAbHbIM3BY'Ja>HHIIM, elge He ec re HHToHagHH B acaqrseacxosr nOHHMaHIfH aroro TepMHHaJ Ha rrpormseaaa H3AQlKeHHlI CBQeH KHHrH «l1H' TO'HagHJI» Acaqisea 'HeOtlHOKpaTHO H HaCTQH'IHBo. B03BpalgaeT<:1I K YTBeplKAe· lIHIO OOHOBHoro AAJI nero reaaca, 'ITO' MY3bIKa KaK oaaa H3 ip0PM «06pa3HO' no.3HaBaTeJ\bHOH ACliTeAbHQCTU CQ3HaHHII» ecru «0' 6 p a 3 H 0' - 3 B Y K 0' B 0' e o T 0 6 p a lK e H H e A e H C T B H TeA b HOC T H» (344. Paapxaxa MOII.- PeA.).

KaK H B nepsoii KHHre, Acaqieea paccxarpanaer MY3blKaAbHoe HCKYCCTBo.

, .

J(aK OAHHH'3 BHAoB «BpeMeHHbIx» HCKYCCTB, pacxpsraaiotgax caoe COAeplKaHH~ «BO BpeMeHH», T. e. B nOCTeneHHQM cTaHOBAeHHH H pa3BepTbIBaHHH xYAOlKe<:TBeHHO'rO otipaaa - B npogecce HHToHupOBa'HHlI. B reseane 3TOrQ npogecca H pacxpsraaerca «3BYKQo6pa3HbIH CMbICA» MY3blKaAbHoro CO'lHHeHHH.

I1HTOHilJl!HII, no Acaqn.eay, CB1I3bIBaeT ace npoacxoaaigee B MY3bIKe: TBO'p· 'JeCTBO, aonoxneaae, cxynranae. OHa lKe CoBII3blBaeT MY3bIKy H co. CAQBeCHOn pe'JblO 'JeAOBeKa, H CO' CAOBeCHblMH HCKYCCTBaMH (n033HeH, AHTepaTypOH, rearPQM), 'laCTQ YTO'lHllll, I<OMMeHTHpYlI, pacxpsraaa nOAAIiHHbIH CMbICA, 3aAQ' meHHblHB CAOBax.

MY3bIKaAbHoe H-HTOHHpOBa'HHe - 3TO 06pa3HO'MY3bIKaAbHaH pex», B npoyecce !WTOPOH TaK me, KaJ( H B npogecce pe'JH CAQBecHQH, C03AaeTCH ICOH' TaKT MelK,lIY KOMnQ3HTOpOM - H<:nO.IIJHHTeAe-M -CAYUlaTeAeM, yc,TaHaBAHBaeTCJl AYXo.BHOe 06IgeHHe, npHTOM 3Ta pe'lb Heo6blqaHHQ 60raTa nc CBo.eMY coaepasaHHIO, no CBOHM BbIpa3HTeAbHbiM BO'3MOlKHOCTIIM, «CO','I;eplKaHHe,- no CAO'BaM AcaqJbeBa,- C A H T 0 C H H T 0' Hag H e ii , K a K 3 B Y K 0 6 6 I' a 3 H bi H C M bl C A» (275. Paspaaxa MOll.- PC.I!.).* 11 3TQnQAOlKeHHe TaKlKe CJ\eAyeT C'JHTaTb O)l,HHM H3 «KAIO'IeBblX» B nOHHMaHHH A<:aqJbeBblM HHTQHagHoHHoH npapoasr MY3bIKH.

Ha npo.TlIlKeHUH BceH KHHru «l1HTO'HagHII» 60AbIDoe BHHMaHHe yaexaerc a xax o.61gHM MOMeHTaM B pe'leBOM (cxoaecaoa) H MY3bIKaAbHQM HHTOHHpOBaHHH, TaK oc06eHHO OTAH'IHIIM 3T)1X ·ABYX THnOB HHTOHHpO'BaHHII. I1MeHHo B CB1I3N C nOCAe,llHHM U Q60CHOBblBalOTCli cneWHipH'IOCKHe '3aKOHOMepHOCTH MY3b1KH xax HCKYCCTBa: 3aKQHOMepHOCTH caworo MY3bIKaAbHOrQ MbiUlAeHHlI, MY3bIKaAbHoro ipopMQ06pa30BaHHII, MY3blKaAbHOH pe-ra, MeTO,'l;OB CTa'HOBAeHHH 11 pa'3BHTHli MY3bII(aAbHOro oopasa, OtlHQH H3 OCHQBHbiX nOCblAOK K YCTMIOBAeHHIO

* B pa3BepHYTOM SH,lIe 3Ta MblCAb H3AOlKeHa AcaqJbeBbiM CAeAYlOlgHM 06pa30M: « .•• QHa (MY3bIKa.- Pe.l!.) npelK,'I;e BCerQ ucreyccTBo uHToHayuu, a SHe HHToHagHu - TOAbKO KOM6H'Hal!1I1i 3ByKQB, aa qeM, B CYIg'HOCTH, H «HrpaIOT B arpy <:Ao.S» raHCAHKuaHgbI; •.. coaepasaaae He BAHBaeTCli il MY3bIKY, KaK BHHo. B 60KaAbl 'pa'3AHqHbIX ipOPM, a CAHTO 'C H'HTOHal!HeH reaK 3BYKoo6pa3'HblH CMblCA, H60 CMbl'CA 6e3 Bblpa~eHHlI ·B ABHlKeHHH, BbICKa3bIBaHHH, necxe, arpe

aa H'lICTpYMeHTe - TOlKe ncero AHUlb a6CTpaKl!HlI» (275),

H

pa3AH'IHH CADBeCHDrD U MY3blKaAbHDrD UHTDHlfpDBaHHH HBAHeTCH Te3UC: «CADBd:

MDlKHD roaopur», He UH'TDHHPYH UX Ka'teCTBa, UX UCTHiHHDrD CMbICAa; MY3bIK<li lKe sceraa UHTDHa!,!IfDHHa H naase .. He CAblwuMa"" (225).

OCTaHaBAuBaHcb na aHaAH3e npojjecca vcaaoro xy JlDlKeCTBeHHDrD MbIWAeHUH KOMUD3lfTDpa, Acaqisen nDJI'IepKUBaeT «MeADJlHHHYIO», «MeADcHYIO» cyu.J-HDCTb 3To.rD MblWAeHuH, xapaxrepaayx er-o KaK «JleHTeAbHDcTb IIHTeAAeKTa»; KDTDpaH A'II~b «'1aCTII'IlIo. nsrpaasaercn 'B MeAbKalOIMeH BCD3HaHUH .. npepsmuCTDCTU CADB », «B cyigecrse cBDeM,- nnure r AcaljJbeB,-- DHD . «MeADCHD» «Me-ADJlHHHD», TeKY'Ie U D6YCAOBAeHD CBDerD poaa «YMCTBeHHbIM JlbIXaHU:M» Ii: pllTMDM, HBAHHCb .. MbICAHMbIM IIHTDHupDBaHHeM"» (355).

«MY3bIKa,- nanrer JlaAee AcaljJbeB,- ·CTaHDBHTCH e,'lUHCTBDIM CDJleplKaHHH$DPMbl B C'D3flaHIlU 'KOMnD3UTDpa, anepe a, JlD cxyura-rexa, coaepurasoigesc nyre KaK aonxotgenae IIHTDHuPyeMDH UM MbICAII-UJlell, '1eM II CTaHDBHTCH er-o npoaaaeaeune. (332). Pa3BIIBall 8TY MblCAb ylKe 'B oraomeaaa BOC-nPUHTHilCD3J1aHHDH KDMnD3HTDpDM MY3blKli cxyurarexeu, Acaqises nDJI'Ie1pKHBaeT, '1Te> IIDcAeJlHUH, no. CyTH, «npDXDJlHT nyr», npDHJleHHblH KDMnD3H'TDPOM», npUBHDCjf B Hero. «CBDH HJleu, B3rAH,!lbl, BKYCbl, npUBbl'lKH U JlalKe npocro ayureerryro pacnDADlKeHHDCTb». flpH'IeM BalKHD, '1TD6bl DH ycxsnuax CD3J1aHHDe KOMnD3UTDpDM B eJlUHCTBe,ljJDpMY B !,!eAOM, aaaxe BD3MDlKHD 6Y,'leT «CXBaTUTb»-«TDAbKD $parMeHTbl CDJlepmaHUH» (333).

Flpaaaa, nsrrance paoapsrre U D6DCaDBa'Tb caM npogecc MY3bIKaAbHD-' XYJlDlKeCTBeHHDrD MblwAeaUH, Acaqisea eige He MDlKeT BnDAHe DpraHU'IHD II BceCTDpDHHe npUMeHlfTb AeHUHCKYIO reopmo DTpalKeHIfH K cne!,!UljJlfKe MY-' 3blKaAbHorD TBDp'leCTBa H BDcnpUHTIfH MY3bIKU. HD 31'0. U nDHHTHD, eCAU yuecre CDCTDHHue pa3pa6D'TKU D6IMUX ,apD6AeM 3CTeTlfKU B 're roaer. CaMa lKe Han p a B A e H H 0. C T b UCCAeJlDBaTeAbCKIfX YCTpeMAeHUH Acaqiseaa HBHD rAY~ 6DKD nporpeccnaaa, If B 3TDM6DAbWaJl aKTyaAbHDcTb H !,!eHHDCTb CD3J1aHHbIX_ 11M pa6DT, o.CBeIMalOIMIIX npD6AeMY MY31>IKaAI>HDH HHTDHa!,!H'If.

CBDeH nDCTaHDBKDH npD6Ae-Mbl Acaqises HeCDMHeHHD nDJlBDJlHT K pacCMDTpeHll10 npogecca XYJlDmeCTBeHHo.TD (MY3bIKaAbHo.ro.) Ml>lWAelHIIJI or aa'1aAI>HblX ero $DPM JlD H-TDra - ·CD3J1aHIIJI MY3bIKaAI>HDrD otipaaa KaK Bblcweu ljJDpMbl XYJlOlKeCTBeHHDrD D6D6IMeHHH. 11, no.-BUJlHMDMY, UMeHHD aonpocsr, CBH- 3aHHblec aHaAU3DM 3TDrD npogecca, 'If nDJlAelKaAH B nepayro oxepeas ,!laAbHeHweH pa3pa6DTKeB 3aJlYMaHHDH AcaljJbeBblM TpeTbeii KHHre 0. CTHAe KaK HHToHaguH, npeanocerxxa JlAH KDTDPDH IMDlKHD HaiiTH yzse H B pane npIlMe-'1aHHH K JlaHHDMY HCCAeJlDBaHIlIO.*

BCH paoor a Acaqn.eaa npOHU3aHa rAy6DKHM HCTDpU3MOM. 11 B 8TDM ee DrpDMHaH CUAa. Ha6AIOJlaH pa3BH'T'He My3blKaAbHDrD HCKYC'CTBa, DH aaer !,!e,\bIH pJlJl H'CTDpU'IeCKHX o.6D6IMeHHH, a na HX DCHDBe H D6D6IMeHHH TeDpeTII'Ie-CKHX H 3C'TeTII'IeCKUl" ,M'HDrHe H3 HHX nD-Ho.BDMY CTaBHT npD6AeMbl MY3bIKaAb· I;IDro. Jl3blKa, 3aKDHDB ero pa3BlITHJI U serpaaarexeuerx BD3MD'lKUDCTeH, D6yc-ADBAeHHOCTH 3BDAIO!,!HH My3blKaAbHDrD MblWAeHHJI 3aKo.HDMepaDCTHMIf D61MeCTBeHHDH lKH3HH.

* CM., aanpaxep, CTp. 219 - 0. CTHAe H CTHAeBDM DT6Dpe H HHTDHagHDHHD-peaAUCTH'IeCKDM nOHHMaHIf'll ljJDPMbl KaK npogecca H KaK CTaHDBAeHHJt MbICAH-IJiJleH.

12

---------------------------=~~--~~~~~~~,

Ha aTDM nYTH pOlK/I,alOTCH H /l,Ba DCHDBHblX pasypca npU-MeHeHUH AcaqieeBblM casroro TepMHHa «UHTDHa!,!IfH», xoropsre YCADBHD MDlKHD D6D3Ha'lHTb KaK w U p 0. K 0. e, AelKalMee B cqiepe D6IMe8CTeTU'IeCKUX KaTerDpUH, H 6DAee y 3 K 0. e, npD¢eCCIIDHaAbHDe, BbipaCTalOl!!ee HOI Tpa/l,UY;UH «R3bIKOBDrD" paCCMOTpeHIHI HBAeHHH MY31>IKaAI>HDl'D U-CK)"CCTBa, H3 Tpa/l,H!,!UH aKYCTH'IeCKDrD H CUHTaKCH'1eCKDrD BDcnpHH'~UH MY3blKuaADHDH pexa. Flepaoe, no. CYTU, DnpeJleAHeTCHj KpaTKDH HCXD/I,HDU '!fJOPMYADH: MY 3 bl K a - H H 'r 0. Hag H H, T. e. BHe HHTDHa!,!UH aer MY3bIKaAbHDr-D HCKYCCTBa, nee HBAeHUH MY3blKH - UHTDHa!,!UDHllbl

H UiHa'le He CYlMeCTBYlOT. BTDpDe HcnDAb3DBaHue TepMUHa «HHTDHaj!UH» CAYlKUT /I,"R D6D3Ha'leHHH OTAel\bl;lblX D6pa3HD-CMbICl\DBI>IX HBAellHH MY31>IKal\I>HDrO HeKY'CCTBa KaK 'MY31>IKaAbHDH peua, npeUIMYlMeC'TBeHHD HBAe·HHH 'MeADJlHHHDrD xapaxrepa, U6D MeAD/I,UH, MeAD/I,H'IeCKDe - r AaBHblH HDCHTeAI> CO/l,eplKaHUH MY- 3bIKH. Op;HaKD /l,AH Acaqrsena U ace apyrue BI>Ipa3HTeAI>Hble cpeacraa MYSblKU - rapMDHHH, TeM6p, PUTM - H H T 0. H a !,! H 0. H II bl H BHe HHTDHHp,oaai:lHJI lleMbICAHMbl.

Ha DCHDBe IlDHUMaHHJI IIHTDHaY;UII KaK CBDeo.6pa3HDrD «MY31>IKaAbHDro.

CADBa», KaK 8MD!,!uoHaAbHD-06pa3HDrD '8AeMeHTa MY'3bIKaAbHDH pesu nsrpacrasor p;Be TeCHD 'CBH3aHHble JlPyr C JlPyroM rnnoreasr Acaqiseaa: 0.6 «HHTDHa!,!HDHHDM CADBape» U «HHTDHagHDHHbIX xpaancax> (TD'IUee - «'HHToHa!,!HDHHbIX D6HDBAeHHHx» MY3blKaAbHDH pexa). B DOHDBe TDrD U apyroro IlDHHTHH AelKaT HCTDpH'IeCKOe paccxorpeaae 8BDAIOj!HU MY3blKaAbHDrD UCKYCCTBa H rAy6DKD peaAHCTU'IeCKDe nDHUMaHHe npD6AeMbl TpaJlu!,!'uH U .HOBaTDpCTBa. f1paBJla, 8TH -AB<I DnpeJleAeHUJI - «UHTDHagHDHHbIH CADBapb» U «HHTDHaj!HOHHI>IHKPU3HC»HCIIDAb3YIOT,CH A'ca:tjJbeBbIM aa npDTHlKeHHH pafio'rsr (rovaee, pa6DT, 1160. 3J1eCb cxeztyer nOMHUTbH pa3BHTHe U D60cHDaaHHe 8THX ase HBl\e,HHH B apyrax HC.CAe,'lDBa:HHJIX 40-x rDJlDB) o-rens napnarrrao, see BpeMH DIMYlMaeTcH crpexxeaae anropa HaHTu HaH6DAee TD'IHbIH, Hau6DAee nDAHD DTpalKalOlMHH cYIMHOCTb 8THX lIBAeHHH, TepMUIH. OCHDBHblMH H3 HUX HBAHlOTCH: «uHToHa!,!HDHHblH cxoaaps», «CYMMa IMY3bIKU», npD'IHD ocesuraa B D6IMecTBeHHo.M CD3HaH1IU 11 <lMD!,!UHX CDBpeMeHHHKDB, «6bITYlOIMHH aanac uHTDHaguH»; «YCT.HbIH CADBapb HHToHa!,!HH»; «uHTDHa!!HOHHble DTADlKeHUH»; «3BYKDCMbICADBble HaKDnAeHUH»; «uHToHa!,!uDH'HbIH KanUTaA ~nDXH»; «3BYKOCADBapl»>; «IHHTollagHDHHbIH CTPDK CBDerD BpeMeHH»; «uHTDHa!,!uDHHbIH ljJOHJI» (357,281,296,267 U P;p.*). HaH6D," xee ,cD6paHHD H ClKaTD Acaqisea I'DBDpHT 0. csoex 'UDHHMaHHH «UHTDHa!,!HDHHDro CADBapH» B nYUKTe 8CBDerD «flDCAeCADBHH» K xanre «i1,H'TOHa!,!UH» U B npaMe'laHHU K HeMY. 3/1,eCb UM YTBeplKJlalOTCJI CAe/l,YlOlMue TpH DCHDBHblX nDADlKeHUH:

1. «B C03HaHIIll cxyurarexefi, T. e. B MaCCDBDM D6IMecTBeHHDM co.3l1aHH'H, He pil3MeIMeHbl !!eAliKDM MY3blKaAbHI>Ie npDU3BeJleHUJI ••• a DTA·araeTCH CADlKHbIH. D'IeHb U3MeU'IUBI>IH K 0. M n A e K C M Y 3 bl K a A b H bl X n p e JI C l' a B A e H H ii, B KDTDPblH BXo.JlHT H paaaooopaaaere «ljJparMeHTbl» MY3blKH, HD KDTOPI>IH, 11 CYIMHDCTU, CDCTaBAHeT «YCTHbIH MY3bIKaAI>HD-uHTDHagHDHllbIH CADBapl»>«aanacx Bblpa3UTeAI>HblX, scerna «aa CAYXY AelKaIMHX», 3BYKDD6pa3DBdHuH. BIIADTI? /1,0. xapaxrepnsrx UHTepBaADB» (357. Pa3pH/I,Ka MDH.- PC/l,.).

*CM. raxase ¥CCAe/l,DBaHue «CAYX r A'HHKU».- H36paHHbie CTp. 317.

T.

I,

TPYJlbl,

13

2. «B aTOM CAOBape, ecTeCTBeHHO, npeooxaaaior «MeAOJ\HHHble 06pa30BaHHH», noneBKH, KaK HaH60Aee OpraHH'leCKOe - B MY'3b1Ke - otinapyasenne HHTOHa!!HOHHOCTH «<TOHYC pexn»), CBOHCTBeHHOH Ka2KJ\OMY 'leAOBe'leCKOMY «npOH3HeCeHH'IO» 3BYKa (B TOHe HAH cxoae )» (357).

3. « ••• B KPH3IlCHO-HHTOHa!!HOHHble anoxn ..• no AIlHIlIl MeAOJ\H'leC,KHX no. Bo06pa30BaHHH 06!>I'lHO H npoM-CXOJ\IlT 0 6 HOB A e H Il e M Y 3 bl K a A b H 0 - H 'H T 0 a a l! H o H H or 0 C A 0 'B a p a», a BMeCTe c aTHM «H 60Aee rAy60KIle nepecrpoiixa 3BYKOMbIIUAeHIHH» (357, 358. Pa3pHJ\Ka MOH.- PC/f..).

B 3THX -rpex Te3Hcax HpKO nsrpaaseua CYI!!HOCTb nOCTlI:HOBKH AcatfJbeBblM aonpoca 06 HHTOHa!!HOHHOM CAOBape Hero H3MeHeHHHX, Bbl3BaHHblX H3MeaeHHHMH 061!!eCTBeHHoro IC03HaHHH anOXH. Onapaacs aa HIlX, OH paCCMaTpHBaeT H cup06AeMY 2K!Il3HeCnoc06HOCTH MY3blKaAbHbiX CO'lHHeHHH, CTaHOBAeHHe H ycTOH'lUBOCTb HCTOpH'IeCK'HX C'THAeH H 2KaHpOB, np06AeMbl HapO,!lHOCTIl, Ha!!HOHaAbHOCTIl My3bIKH, «06I!!HTeAbHOCTH» MY3blKaAbHoro H3b1Ka. Oc060 CAeJ\yeT B CBl!3H C TaKOH nOCTaHOBKOHBonpoca 06paTIlTb BHHMaHHe ua CAeJ\YIOI!!HH xapaxrepasrii tfJparMeHT:

« •• ,I1HToHal!HOHHo-peaAHCTH'leOKoe nOHHMaHHe tfJOpMbl KaK npogecca H KaJ( CTaHOBMlHHH MbICAH-HJ\ell aaXOJ\HTCH B TeCHOMconpHKOCHOBeHIlH co BceMH CTHAeBblMH HBAeHHHMU 'KaK Henocp,eJ\CTBeHHbIMH Bblpa3HTeAHMH HHTOHal!HOHHblX «6YPb H HaTHCKOB» - 6apOMeTpaMIl 061!!eCTBeHHoro C03Ha'HHH. 3Ha'lIlT, tfJopMa KaK ,CTaIHOBAeHlle, KaK npogecc 'BcerJ\a paaaep-reraaer H OTpa2K,aeT nepez aocnpaHHMa'lOI!!"M C03HalHHeMcaMble peaxsaere, casrere mH'Bble J\eHCTBYIOI!!He CHAbl MY3bIKU: HHTOHa!!HOHHO cOJ\ep2KaHHe OTAaraeTCH nepsee H aenocpezc'raenaee scero B CTHAeBblX KOMnAeKcax, H3 KOTOPblX J\aAeKO He ace H J\a2Ke O'leHb HeMHorHe 'KpIlCTaAAH3YIO'TCH B YCTOH'lIl'Bble, tfJOPMbl, OCTaBaHCb nepeuenntasu:

Ku'teCTBaMU MY3blKaAbHorOCTaHOBAeHHl! IKaK 06pallH01"0 MbIUlAeHHH» (219).

IToJ\ aTHM yrAoM 3peHHII Acaqisen J\eAaeT MHOrO'lnCAeHHble Ha6AIOJ\eHHli lHaJ\ HCTOpH'IeCKHM pa3BHTHeM eaponeiicxoil MY3bIKH, ocotieaao HaJ\ anoxava 60AbWHX CJ\BHrOB B My3b~K,aAbHO-HHTOH·a!!HOHHOMCAYXOBOM onsrre. ITpll'leM OR 'HaC'TOH'IHBO 06pal!!aeT BHllMaHlle aa TO, «'ITO HBAeHHII, HHTOHa!!HOHHO-opraHH'1eCKH nOJ\rOTOBAeHHble npenurecrayrorgeii KPH3llCY anOXOH H CBH3aHHble C nepeJ\OBbIMH HJ\eJrMH 'B pOC'Te 061!!eCTBeHHoro C03HaHHII, KPH3HCOM HHTOHa!!HH He OTMeTaIOTCII, HO OCMbICAII'IOTCII, BKopeHlllO'TCII H nepeXOJ\HT B 'BblCWee xY,l102Kecrseaaoe Ka'leCTBO» (359). OJ\nH H3 npaaepca - aHaAH3 CBHlIH 6eTXOBeHCKoro lIHTOHa!!HOHHOro MblWAeHHII 'C MY3blKOH anOXH tfJpaIH!!Y3cKOH peROAIO!!IIU H aapOJ\IIBWeHCII erge J\O HeecoaaTHOCTH, B HOBOMCBoeM xaxecrae paC!!BeTWeH B 6eTXOBeHCKOM CHM$OHlIlIMe. CTpaHH,!!bl 0 DeTXOBeHe - OAHII H3 caxetx l!£lKHX B WllllTe - HaH60Aee KOHKpeTllO pacspsraasor HHTOHa!!HOHllOe yseane Acaqiseaa.

B CBoeH nOCTdllOBKe Bonpoca 06 HllToHal!HoHHoM CAOBape Hero 06110BAellUH Acaqieea BBOJ\HT KplITepUH «o6I!!eCTBellHoro yxa» (355) KaK KPHTePIIH peaAIICTII'IllOCTII, ltaPOJ\HOCTH U J\ocTynHocTH MY3blKaAbllbIX CO'lll'llellllH CAyXY II1HPOKIIX naponasrx Ma~c. «Kor J\a KOMn03.H'TOP onapaerca aa IIIlTOlla!!IlOllllbla «*anIITaA» anOXH, na «CYMMy MyllbIKII», npo-mo oceauryro B 061!!ecTBeHHoM c0311allHII, B MblCAIIX H aMogHllx ICOBpeMelllllIKOB [cxeaoaaxo 6bl J\o6aBHTbCOBpeMeHHHKOB nporpeccnansrx, nepeJ\OBblX.- Pe/f..), Oil 06Ha,pY2KllBaeT peax aCTII'lIlOCTb caoero MeTOJ\a» (281). 11 «'1eM CIIAbHee OI!!Yl!!aeTCl! -

14

nYCTb B CA02KlleHIIIIIX Il11TeAAeKTyaAbHO-MYllbIKaAbllbIX npOII3BeJ\eHIIHX -'- 0606- l!!eHllblH J\a,HHoH anoxoii xpyr asrpaaarexsasix MYllblKaAbllblx HHTOlla!!IIH, TeM 6e3ycAoBllee 2KH311eCnoc06HoC'Tb aTOH MY3bIKII»,- YTB,ep2KAaeT Acarpeen. 11 lla060pOT: «'1eM cy6beKTIIBHee B 'UllTOHa!!HOllHOM O"[1HOWeHHII «H3bIK» KOMn03IITOpa, TeM TpYJ\Hee H xopoxe 2KUlIllb ero .MyllbIKII» (358).

OJ\HaKo, CTaBJI TaK sonpoc, Acaqisea ormoae He yrrpoigaer J\allHble JIBAelllIlI,He paCCMaTpHBaeT npogecc ortiopa sax npogecc naCCIIBllbIH, a, HanpOTHB, see BpeMH iC'Tpe'MIITcH noaxepxayr» ero aKTIIBHOCTb, 06pal!!aH BHIIMaHlIe aa xapaxrep II xaxecrao caMoK aanpaaxeaaocra aaroaagnonaoro oroopa. B aTOM OTHOwelllIlI, aanpaxep, IIHTepeCHa ero xapaarepacmaa r aH)l;Ha KaK aaropa xy AbTOBbIX CO'llIHeHIIH H KaK aaropa npOII3BeJ\ellHH, ocaoaaaasrx aa ctpepe «,,06I!!HTeAbllbIX" H-llTOlla!!HH xpecr ssnr, peMeCAeHHHKOB, nOJ\MaCTepbeB, 06HTaTeAeH aepeaeae If npeJ\MeCTIIH Beaer HAH ee CAaBHblX rrparoponoa» (281).

Ha6AIOJ\aeMbIH B MY3blKe npogecc 06110BAeHIIH MY3bIKaAbllOH: pexn, naaeoxee IIHTeIlCII&IlO npOTeKa'lOI!!HK B nepaoasr lI11a'lHTeAbHblX 061!!ecTBeHllblx llllMeaeaaii, xapaxrepaayerca AcatfJbeBblM Ra.K «60Pb6a aa 'IlOBbIH CMblCA MYllbIKIf, a 311a'lHT, H J\ORa,3aTeAbCTBO upH311aHHII aa MY3blKOH ee lIJ\eHlloro anaxeaax» (305). ITonoMY unrpoxoe npaxeaeaae B ero patio rax, B tlaCTHOCTH II B .lIaHllOH xxare, llaXOJ\IIT repsraa «nepemrrouapoaaaae». CYTb :;11"01'0 HBAeHIIII, no Acaqiseay, ae B MeXallH'IeCKOM nepeueceaaa rex HAH MHblX nonenox, MeAOJ\H'IeCKIIX 060POTOB 1t3, anoxa B anoxy, a HMellHO 'B CIIHTelleCTapblX H 1l0BblX HllToHal!HH, B IlOBOM CMblCAOBOM KOHTeKCTe, p02KJ\eHHOM II3MeHMBWHMCII CTpoeM 06I!!eCTBeH.1I0K 2KHlIlllI, 'T. e. B «nepeOCMblCAeHHU aarresoa», B «rrepeaoae IIX B HOBblH aMOl!MOHaAbHblR C'TPOR» (305 ).*

BBeJ\eHHble AcatfJbeBblM noanrna «HllTOHa!!IIOHHbIH CAOBapb», «naroaa!!IIOIlHble KPH3HCbI», «nepeanronnpoaauae» eIge ae ogenensr, He 'paCCMOTpeHbl crregaaxsno II 'BceCTopOHHe B paoorax COBeTCKHX MY3bIKOBeJ\OB. B rOJ\bl pegIWH KPll'THKU Y'leHIIII Mappa 0 113blKe B OTAeAbllblX Bb1CKa3b1B,all1I1IX K aTHM nOHIITIIJIM npO.llBAHAOCb IIBIlO orpngarexsnoe ornomeaae. OJ\llaKO B npaxruay MY3bIK0311aHHII, -ro-raee B npaKTIIKY aHaAH3a MYllblKaAbHo'ro TBOp'leCTBa, OIlH BOUIAIi Y2Ke J\OCTaTO'lIlO Wn-POKO II acer.aa cnoc06CTBYlOT KOllKpeTHocTH H HCTOpH'IeCKOK 060CllORaHHOCTII MY3blKaAbHoro anaxuaa.

Y.TBep2KJ\all, 'ITO MY3bIKaAbHa.ll 'UHTOHa!!IIH «HHKorJ\a He TepJIeT CBII3H HII CO CAOBOM, HII C Talll!eM, Hll C MIIMIIKOH (naHTOMHMOH) rexa '1eAOBe'leCKOrO, ·HO «nepeocasrcxuaaerx 3aKOllOMepHocTH IIX tfJOpM H cocTaBAllIOI!!HX tfJOPMY aAeMeHTOB B CBOII MY3bIKaAbHbie cpencr aa Bblpa2KellIIH» (212), Acaqiees B KoHlIre «I1HToaal!HH» CTpeMIITCH pacxpsrre CYI!!HOCTb aTHX rrepeocxsrcxenafi, a BMeCTe C aTHM yeTaHoBIlTb PIIA cnel!Iftpll'leCKIIX J\AJI MY3blKaAbHoro JI3b1Ka, a CAeJ\OBaTeAbHO, II .ltAH MY3blKaAbHoro HHTOHll'pOBalllIlI- aaxoaouepaocreii. OCHOBHblMII IIlI HIIX IIBAfllOTCII nOA02KellHII 0 TOHe HAH «TOHllOCTII» II 06 IIIlTep-

* 0 rrpogecce nepenaroaaposaaaa KaK 0 3aKOHOMepllO)\l, nOCTOHllHO npoIICXOJ\flIgeM HBAeHHII Acaqises rrmne-r B c'rar se «KoMn03HTop - HMII eMY HapoJ\».-1136paHHble TPYJ\bl, T. IV, M., 1955, CTP. 20. HanO)\lHIIM TaK2Ke, tlTO eige B ere-rue «4aHKoBcKHH» (1940) Acarpsea nncax: «4eM peBOAIO!!HORHee paaanaaercs 061!!ecTBeHHoe coaaanae, TeM peunrrexuaee CTallOBHTCH IlHTOHal!IIOHHO-l!lIbIKOBOe 06HOBAeHue» «<CoBeTcKaH My3bIKa», ,1940, Nq 5, CTp. 5).

15

BaAHKe - HBAeHHHX, rrpHcYIgHX H pexa CAOBeCHOH •. H MY.3bIKe, HO B YCAOBHRX rrOCAe~HeH HMelOrgHx CBOH OC06eHHOCTH.

IToHHTHe «TOHHOCTb» paCKpbIBaeTCH Aca!fJbeBbIM KaK eCTeC'rBeHHOe BbIHRAeHHe «'leAOBe'leCKO~ pexa 'lYBCTB» (355), acer aa CBH3aHHOH C 'leAOBe'leCKHM rOAOCOM, C ~bIxaHHeM. B npogecce «TOHHOCTH», «TOHOBoro» rOAOCOBoro HarreBaHHH H paCKpbIBaeTCH, rro Acaqiseay, CMbICA MY3bIKH KaK HCKY'CCTBa o6rgeHHH.* A OTCIO~a pOlK~aeTCH H O~HH H3 OCHOBHbIX BapHaHTOB orrpeaexeaas caMoro rrOHHTHH HHTOHa!,!HH: «COCTOHHHe TOHOBoro aanpmsenaa», 06YCAoBAHBalOrgero H pe'lb CJ\OBeCHYIO, H pexe MY3bIKaAbHYIO. Ho «TOH», «TOHHOCTb» B MY- 3bIKe 'CBH3ana C Ka'leCTBOM HHTepBaAHKH KaK COOTHOllIeHHH MelK~Y pa3AH'lHbIMH BbICOTHbIMH TO'lKaIMH rrpoH3HoCHMOH pexa. ECAH B CAOBeCHOH pexa HHTCpBal\ B BbICOTHOM ero xasecrae ~o H3BeCTHOH crenean OTHOCHTeAeH U naer B03MOlKHOCTb AHWb rrpH6AH3HTeAbHO YCTaHOBHTb BbICOTHbIe rpaHH!,!bI ~BYX COIIpHlKeHHbIX TO'leK, TO B MY3bIKe HMeHHO HHTepBaA H HBAHeTCH «TO'lHbIM onpe,4e.1UTeJIeM 9MO!,!HOHaAbHO CMbICAOllOro xaxecrna UHTOHUYUU» (355) If rpaxryerrx Aca!fJbeBbIM KaK BbIpa3HTeAbHbIH 9AeMeHT, KaK «O~Ha H3 rrepaaaasrx !pOpM MY3bIKH» (218), B «lfHTOHa!,!HOHHOM o rfiope: HHTepBaAOB OH BH~UT 06HapylKeHHe CTHAHB MY3bIKe.

K aonpocaa 0 «TOHe», «TOHHOCTH», «HHTepBaAHKe» Acarpaea na npor alKeHUH cnoero HCCAe~OBaHUH aoaapaigaerca nOCTOHHHO, BBO~H O~HOBpeMeHHO erge O~HO pacxpsraaiotgee 9TH HBAeHHH nOHHTHe - «BOKaAbBeCOMOCTb», BbIpOCwee H3 yTBeplK~eHHH (BCi\e~ aa CepOBbIM) BOKaAbHOH rrpaponsr caxoro MY- 3bIKaAbHoro IfCKYCCTBa. O,!J;HHM H3 IHaH60Aee HpKO xapaKTepH3YIOrgHX rrOHHTHC «BOKaAbBeCOMOCTb» HBAHeTCH cxeayrotgee BbICKa3bIBaliHe Acarpseaa:

«ECAH He aocrnrrare Bce6e ,!J;O coaepurencraa «aoxaxenoro», T. e. «necoMoro», orgyrge'HHH HarrpHlKeHHOCTH HHTepBaAOB H HX B3aHMOCBH3H, UX ynpyrOCTH, HX corrpOTHBAeHHH, HeAb3H HOHHTb, «'lTO raxoe HHTOHa!,!HH B MY3bIKe». HeAb3H rrOHHTb npogeccos HCTOpH'leCKOH 9BOAIO!,!HH MY3bIKH... li rrpHH!,!HoIIOB pa3BHTliH (a He «pa3pa60TKH») H !fJOPMbI, rrOCTHraeMOH B pa3BepTbIBaHH!I CMbICAa, T. e. B npogecce. EOAbwe 'ror o : HeAb3H aocnarare B ce6e KOMrr03Hropcxoro BHYTpeHHero cxyxa, Bce BeAHKHe neB!,!bI OIgYIgaAH B 'CBoeM roxoce KalK~bIH TOH Hero OTHOllIeHHe K ~pyrH!M TOHUM HX rOAOCOBoro ~BHlKeHlfH>'

(226-227).

BOKaAbHoH «HanpHlKeHHOCTH HHTepBaAOB», «BOKaAbBeCOMOCTlI» Acaqises npaaaer orposoroe 3Ha'leHHe H noa 9THM yrAoM 3peHHH BbI~BHraeT C nepnerx lKe CTpaHH!,! KHHrH H pH~ 'laCTHbIX, HO KpaHHe cyigecrnerraerx 3aKoHoMepHoC1'eH, Ha6AIO~aeMbIX B pa3BHTUH MY3bIKaAbHoro RCKYCCTBa. KaK UHweT OH caw, aTO ~eA,aeTCH ~All Toro, 'lTo6bI «cBo6o~HO pa36HpaTbCH B p,aHHOM HCCAep,OBaHHH- 060CHOBaHHH MY3bIKaAbHOH HHTOHa!,!HH» (222).

Pe'lb H~eT 0 sersrpex 3aKOHOMepHOCTHX B MY3bIKaAbHOM HHTOHHpOBaHHlI, CBH3aHHbIX C MeAo~HlleoKoH H rapMoHHllecKoH BbIpa3HTeAbHOCTblO MY3bIKH:

1) Heo6xoiJ,HMOCTb 06paTHoro p,BHlKeHHlI npn HHTOHHpOBaHHH «no cxan-

KaM»;

* «B MY3bIKe 6"ITb 8 TOHe, T. e. BepHO HHTOHHpOBaTb,-3aKOH HHTOHa!,!HH KaK BbICKa3bIBaHHH MbICAH H llYBCTBa B pexa CAOBCCHOH HAH MY3bIKaAbHOH. 3HallHT, 9TO KalleCTBOMY3bIKH He CAYllaHHO, a ,!J;eAaeT ee HCKYCCTBi)&( AIO/lCKOrO 06IgeHHlI .•• »,- rmure r Aca!fJbeB (217).

,

!

" ,

2) rrOCTOllHHO Ha6AIO~aeMoe nepe aeigenne H 3aMCHa OIlOPHbIX TOHOB HAIl «TOlleK» Aap,a If H3MeHeHHe aarrpaaxeaaii OT TOHHKH K TOHHKe;

3) HHTOHa[!HOHHOe paC!!BellHBaHHe CAYXOM KaK «npHCTaBKU» KaKorO-AH60 TOHa HAH nOAYTOHa «<a6eppa!!HlI cxyxa»}:

4) paaxasnaa POAb TOHaAbHOCTH: KaK TeM6poBoro npoaaxenas xaaa U KaK «HBAeHHH HHTOHa!,!HOHHO-MeAop,HlleCKoro. xor aa YCAolKHeHHbIH Aa~ MOlKeT BMeIBaTb B ce6e HeCKOAbKO TOHaAbHbIX KOMrrAeKCOB» (223).

Pa3BHBali B ~aAbHeHilleM H3AOlKeHHH KHHrH CBOIO MbICAb 06 aTHX lleTbIpex .aaxoaosrepaoc rax, Acaqisea BbIp,BHraCT H pll~ HOBbIX aarepecasrx nOAolKeHHH, HanpaBAeHHbIX Ha BbIliBAeHHe pa3AHllHbIX ocotieaaocreii MY3bIKaAbHoH pexa. T a«, nanpaxep, npn 60Aee no~p06HOM ocaergeuaa aonpoca 0 3anOAHeHHH HHTepBaAbaer-o cxasxa OH YCTaHaBAHBaeT pa3AlillHbIe T H n bI raxoro 3arrOAHeHHlI B MY3bIKe m~HTaTOHH'leCKOH H B MY3bIKe, oCHoBaHHoH aa MalKopHo-MHHOPHOU CHCTeMe xaaoaoro MbIIlIAeHHH. EOAbllIOH anr epec npeJ(CTaBAliIOT onpenexenas Aca!fJbeBbIM B HCCAep,OBaHHH «l1HTOHa!!HH» C n03li!!HH ero HHToHa!,!HoHHoH reopna TaKHX :rrOHHTHH KaK Aap" rapMOHHH, pHTM, TeM6p. Oc06eHHo cxeayer BbI~eAHTb ero nAO~OTBopHoe nOA02KeHHe 0 ~ByX CTHAHCTHlleCKHX TCHJ(eH!,!HlIx B pa3BHTHH esporreHcKoH rapMOHHH: 0 r apwoaaa reaepax-fiaca (r-apvonaa «06epToHHoH», rapMOHHH KaK «csoeoepaanok CHCTeMbI pe3o~aTopoB TOHOB xaaa») (349) H rapxoHHH HHTOHa!!HOHHO-MeAo~HllecKoH «<OT MeAoca», OT ~bIxaHHlI).

B KHHre MHoro HHTepeCHbIX MbIcAeH, xacaroiguxca aHaAH3a MY3bIKaAblioro "TCMaTH3Ma H npHH!!HnOB ero pa3BHTHli.

Paccxorpeane 9TOH np06AeMbI He BbIp,eAeHO B caMOCTOliTeAbHbIH paaae.v,

, - '- ....

HO no CyTH npHCYTCTByeT aa npOTlilKeHHH scero H3AOlKeHHlI KHHrH H aanpasxeao

.aa YTBep2K,!J;eHHe oztaoro H3 Be~yrgHx rrOAOlKeHHH Acaqiseaa 0 XY~OlKeCTBeHHoii 13bIpa3HTeAbHOCTH MY3bIKaAbHoro HCKYCCTBa, a HMeHHO aa YTBep2Kp,eHHe, llTO «CyrgHOCTb xyp,02KeCTBeHHOH y~allH-B KOH!!eHTpa!,!HH HHToHlipyeMoH MbICAH» (337). Acarpsea ,!J;aeT H xapaKTepHCTHKY «2KaHpOBbIX» oc06eHHOCTeH MY3bIKaAb.nor-o TeMaTH3Ma, a TaK2Ke ero CB1I3H C pa3AH'lHbIMH ljlopMo06pa3YlOrgHMH npnn!!HrraMH. Cne!!HaAbHbIe a63a!,!bI nocaargeuer, aanpasrep, pacnpeaexemno MY3bIJ{aAbHO-TeMaTHlleCKoro MaTepHaAa B !fJopMax <!>yrli H COHaTbI. l1HTepccHbIe Ha6AIOp,eHHlI coaepzsarca B KHI1Te HaA paaxaxaoro THna KaJ(aHcaMH H HX POAblO B pHTMe II ~HHaMHKe MY3bIKaAbHO-TeMaTHlleCKoro pasaarns.

l1MeHHo B aToH KHHre, B cosoxynaocra scero B HeH H3AOlKeHHoro, pacxpsrBaeTCli HaH60Aee OTlleTAHBO H yxeaae 0 MY3bIKaAbHoH !fJopMe KaK npogecce HHTOHHpOBaHHlI. He MaAO CTpaHH!! cne!,!HaAbHO nOCBlIIgCHO BOIIpocaM HcnOAHeHHH H CAYllIaHHH MY3bIKH.

Xapawrepaoii 'tepToH HCCAe~OBaHHlI «l1HTOHa!!HH» lIBAlleTCli H3AH'IHe B Hell 3HallHTeAbHoro KOAH'leCTBa nOAOlKeHHH, H3A02KeHHbIX B !fJopMe rHIIOTe3. Maoroe KaK 6bI orpaacaer caM npogecc CTaHOBAeHHlI, O!fJopMAeHHlI MbICAH. Ha xapaxrepe H3A02KeHHlI BceH aTOH pa60TbI, HeCOMHeHHO, CKa3aAHCb re YCAOBHH, B KOTOPbIX OHa C03~aBaAaCb (J(HH ACHHHrpaiJ,CKOH 6AOKa~bI), xoraa OCHOBHblM lKeAaHHeM aaropa 6bL\0-y C n e r b CKa3aTb, XOTH 6b! !fJparMeHTapHO, aCKH3HO, ace r-xaaaoe H3 nepenynaaaoro, BOAHYIOIgero MbICAb. 11 He CAY'IaHHO CAOBa Acarpeena B rrepaouavax suosr sapaaure «ITocAecAOBHlI»: «)1 nHIlIY csoe HCCAe/lOBaHHe KaK rHnOTe3Y. MOlKeT 6blTb, ar a rHIlOTC3a, rrpO'IHO 060CHOBaHHali B MoeM C03HamIH H BbIHomeHHali BeeM MOHM CTaHOBAeHueM MY3bIKaHTa,- 3aCTaBHT rrpH3a~YMaTbCIi

xorO-HH6Y,lI,b Ha,ll, TeM. 'ITO Ii MeHJI 3aCTaSAJIAO ynopno npH3a,ll,YMaTbCJI. Ii roraa 6Y,ll,eT HaitlleH KAID'I It }I,eHCTBHTeAbHO KOHKpeTHblM 060CHOSaHHIIM MY3blKaAbHOro. HCKYCCTSa KaK peaxsnejiurero o roopaaseaaa ,lI,eHCTSHTeAbHOCTH».

BCeCTOpOHHee KpHTH'IeCKOe H3Y'leHHe HHTOHa!!HOHHOii TeOpHH Acarpse aa, ee reaesuca H CSII3eH C pa3AH'IHbIMII 06AaCTJlMH HayKH H IICKYCCTSa 11 ,lI,aAbHeiiwee aoaaropcxoe HCCAe,ll,OSaHHe npo6AeMbi IIHTOHa!!HOHHOii Cne!!HljJHKH MY3bIKHHeCOMHeHHO, IISAHeTCH OAHOH H3 HaCYI!!.HblX aaaax MY3bIK03HaHHII.

M Y 3bl K A JI b H A Sf (J) 0 P M A

KAK "POIlECC

Knuea nepeae

'j

BBEJlEHI1E

MY3blKaAbHMI qJOpMa KaK HBAeHHe cogaaxuao nerepxaaapoBaHHOe * npezcae BCerO n03HaeTCR KaK qJOpMa (BH,II;, crtocofi M Cpe,ll;CTBO) cogaaxenoro ofinapy 2KeHHR My3bIKH B npogecce HH~ TOHHpOBaHHH: 6Y,ll;eT AH TO OKpHCTaAAH30BaBlIIaRCR CXeMa COHaT~ aoro axxerpo, HAM CHCTeMa Ka,ll;aHCOB, HAH 1fI0PMYAbi Aa,ll;OB H 3By~ KOPR,II;OB - aa scesr aTHM KpoeTCR ,ll;AHTeAbHblM: npogecc HaIgynbl~ BaHHR, HCKaHHM: H npHcnoc06AeHHM: HaHAy~lIIHX cpeACTB ,ll;AH HaH60Aee «,II;OXO,ll;~MBoro» Bblpa2KeHHR, T. e. TaKoro poaa HHTOHa~ gHM:, xo ropere YCBaHBaAHCb 6bl OKpY2KalOIgeM: cpeaoii xepea qJOpMbL MY3HgHpoBaHHR B03M02KHO npO,ll;YKTHBHee. B CYIgHOCTH, rrpa He~· npHHTHH TOM: HAH H1-lOM: cpeaoii KaKOM:-AH60 HOBOM: ,ll;AR nee MY3bIKH, XOTR aTa, MY3bIKa, KaK 06bl~HO OKa3blBaeTCH BnOCAe,ll;CTBHH, 6blAa BnOAHe COBpeMeHHOM: ,ll;AR anOXH, OTHOCHBlIIeM:CR K HeM: C nenoaepHeM, - 60AbllIYlO POAb arpato'r nenpaaerxasre qJOpMbl Bblpa2KeHHH aroii MY3bIKH. A 10,11; H , npexpacao OC03HaBlIIHe CBOlO anoxy BO MHOrHX 06AaCTRX ee npORBAeHHR. MorYT He OIgYTHTb aToM: anOXH B COBpeMeHHOM: eM: MY3bIKe, KaK H MY3blKaHTbl, C03,11;alOIgHe C03By~HbIe HX BpeMeHH npOH3BeAeHHR, MorYT He ogeHHTb Ba2KHeM:U1HX HM COBpeMeHHblX C06bITHM: (OH3e He B COCTORHHH 6bIA nOCTHrHYTb 3Ha~eHHe napH2KCKOM: KOMMYHbl, a Me2K,II;y TeM ero «Kapaen» 6bIAa OTpa2KeHHbIM npOTeCTOM (npOTHB] Toro 2Ke CTPOH, npOTHB KOTO~' poro asrcrynaxa KOMMYHa, - npOTeCTOM B CMblCAe pesxoro «rrepeKAlO~eHHR» npaaerxex napH2KCKOrO Onepnoro TeaTpa na HOBblM: 2KH3HeHHbIM: nyre, npOTeCTOM - nYCTb cAa6bIM B cpaBHeHHH C noJ\HTH~eCKHM BblcTynAeHHeM KOMMYHapOB, - HO RpKHM B CBOeM: 06- .~aCTH H e_o~,II;eHHbIM B arxroctpepe, B KOTOPOM: ponaxacn H KOMMYRa). Kor,ll;a 51 3AeCb rOBOplO 0 He06bl~HbIX rpopuax BbIpa2KeHHH •. 51 He paaysreso MaHepbl BonAOIgeHHH MY3bIKH, T. e. 2KaHp H xapax-

* eM BTOpYIOCHOCKY na CTp. 94.

2t

'rep HcnOAHHTeAbCTBa, a HMeIO B BH,lJ;Y npeacae acero !pOpMbI HH'rOHHpOBaHHJI, B KaKHX u06HapymHBaeT Ce6J1MY3bIKa, H npeacae ncero CHCTeMY HHToHagHH, npacytgax TOM HAH HHOM AaHHoM snoxe (OT raMM AO rapMOHH'IeCKHX !PYHKgHH, OT npHMHTHBHOM pextrra:gHH AO cAomHoM nOAH!poHHH, OT npocTeHiliero HHcTpYMeHTaAbHoro HaHnpbIIIIa ,lJ;o CHM!poHH'IeCKHX BapHagHH). *

<1JopMa - He TOAbKO KOHCTpYKTHBHaJl cxexa. <1JopMa, nposepJleMaJl aa CAYX, HHOI1,lJ;a HeCKOAbKHMH nOKOAeHHHMH, T. e. aenpeMeHHO cogHaAbHo otiaapyaseanaa (HHa'le - KaK H rae OHa MorAa 6bI 'OKpHCTaAAH30BaTbCJI), - opraHH3agHH (3aKOHOMepHoe pacrrpezteAeHHe BO BpeMeHH) MY3bIKaAbHoro MaTepHaAa, naane rOBOpJl, opraHH3agHJI MY3bIKaAbHoro ,lJ;BHmeHHH, H60 HenO,lJ;BHmHoro MY3bIKaA~Horo MaTepHaAa aoodrge HeT. ECTeCTBeHHO, 'ITO rrpHHgHnbI aTOH opraaaaagan - npHHgHnbI He IfHAHBHAyaAbHoro C03HaHHJI, a npHHgHnbI cogHaAbHbIe. OHH BbIpaCTaIOT H3 npaKTH'IeCKHX noTpe6HOCTeH:, cpeaa HX YCBaHBaeT, orfitrpaer HaH60Aee He06xo.a;HMble. IlpaKTH'IeCKHe nOTpe6HOCTH pa3.a;BHraIOT CBOH paMKH no Mepe pa3- BHTHH KYAbTypbI: OT HHToHagHH:, 3aKpenHBIIIHXCH B TOM HAH HHOH: cpeae B CHAY nerrocpeac'raenno YTHAHTapHbIX geAeH: (CHrHaAH3agHJI, nepB06bITHaJl MarHJI H Me.llHgHHa H T • .a;.), MY3bIKaBocxo.a;HT ./1,0 CAO~HbIX 3BYKOCO'leTaHHM co CTporHM pa3rpaHIII'IeHHeM HX ¢YHKgHH - H CTaHOBHTCH 06beKTOM aCTeTH'IeCKOriO HaCAam.a;eHHJI, HO H aa aTOM irYTH HH O.a;HH BHP; MY3bIKH He BblmHBaeT eCAH OH He YCBoeH cogaaxsao, eCAH cpeacraa BbIpameHHJI, nplfCY~He aaaHOMY BH.a;y, He npe.llCTaBAJlIOT C060H: pe3YAbTaTOB cogaaxsaoro OT- 60pa H .a;aAbHeH:IIIHX BapHaHTOB 3TH X .llaHHbIX. Y.eM- HBAJlIOTCR B MY3bIKe TaK HC13bIBaeMble KAaCCH'IeCKHe npOH3Be.a;eHHJI H geAbIe 3nOXH KAaccHgH3Ma, KaK He rrepaoaasra TBOp'leCTBa, xoraa opraHH3agHH MaTepHaAa /1,OCTHraeT TaKOH CTeneHH rrOHJlTHOCTH H 06J1- 3aTeAbHOCTH .llAJI BocnpHHHMaIOl!!eM cpezter, 'ITO rrpHHgHnbI 3TOM opraaaaagna H ¢OpMbI ee CTaHOBHTCH ztaxexo anepea, .a;AJI HeCKOAbKHX nOKOAeHHH, HopMaTHBHbIMH, a TBOpHMaJl na aTOH: 6a3e MY3bIKa C'IHTaeTCJI 06pa3goBoM.

KAaCCH'IeCKHe ¢OpMbI - HTe>r .a;AHTeAbHoro cogaaxsnoro OT·60pa HaH60Aee YCTOM'IHBbIX H nOAe3HbIX HHToHagHH. Ho H HX, KOHe'lHO, HeAb3J1 MbICAHTb OKaMeHeAbIMH H 3aCTbIAbIMH, nOTOMY 'ITO, npogecc ¢opMOaaHHJI MY3bIKH uaxoraa He OCTaHaBAHBaeTCH, JlBAJlJlCb npogeccosr /1,HaAeKTH'IeCKHM, H MY3bIKH, a6COAIOTHO COOTBeT'CTBYIOl!!eH: HeKijHM H.a;eaAbHbIM a6CTpaKTHbIM cxeMaM, He 6bIBaeT. KOMn03HTopbI, KOTOPbIX pagHoHaAbHaJl 3CTeTHKa C'IHTaeT C03,lJ;aTeJ\HMH H CTporHMH 6.1\IOCTHTeAHMH 06pa3goBbIX !popM-cxeM, 06bI'IHO ·6blBaIOT H pa3pYIIIHTe.l\HMH 3THX cxesr.

.H TOAbKO 'ITO csasax, 'ITO npogecc MY3bIKa.l\bHOrO !popMOBa-

* Ho OHCTeMY 'IiHTOHaQIiH He B CTaTIiKe, a B HenpeCTaoillHOH 9BOAIOQliH U MYTa,QHlIX, B lKHBOH npaKTliKe, B IiCTOpH'IeCKIi ,lIaHHbIX <P 0 P M a x M Y 3 Ii - \l Ii P 0 'B a H Ii s.

22

'j

I

HHH - npogecc I1.H,a.l\eKTU'IeCKHH. OH He MomeT 6bITb HHbIM. <1JopMa - He a6cTpaKgHH. COBceM He napaaoxcaxeasnr 6bI.I\O 6bI yraepzsaexae, 'ITO !popMa - rasoe me cpe,lJ;CTBO 06HapymeHHH HAH. BbIHBAeHHH cogaaxsaoro 6blTHH MY3bIKH, KaK HHCTpYMeHT (aenaPOM me B 06pa30BaHHH ¢OpM npOCAemHBaeTCJI BAHHHHe HHCTPYMCHTapHH 3nOXH HX B03HHKHOBeHHH). nOBTOpHIO: B OTHOIlIeHHH My3bIKH - 3TO He napanoac. To, 'ITO HHCTpYMeHT OCH3aeM. a ¢opMbl - He'OCH3aeMbI, Ae.l\a He MeHHeT. He opraHH30BaHHaJl 'Ie.l\OBe'leCKHM C03HaHHeM aKYCTH'IeCKaH cpeaa etge He COCTaB.I\HeT MY3bIKH. Cauere npHMHTHBHbIe CTa,lJ;HH oroopa cpena aKycTH'IeCKHX:

HB.I\eHHH cpencra MY3bIKa.l\bHOrO BbIpameHHH YKa3bIBaIOT na .a;.I\HTeAbHbIM npogecc o¢opMAeHHH H KpHCTa.l\AH3agHH o¢opMJ\eHHoro. 113BecTHo, 'ITO 3BYKOpH.a;bI, npezsne 'IeM nOHBHTbCH B patiorax TeopeTHKoB B BH.a;e OTBAe'leHHbIX OT mlfBoH MY3bIKH PH.a;OB (Bo.CXO.a;H-· l!!He HAH HHCXo.llHl!!,He ¢OPMY.I\bI cooTHOmeHHH: OT .a;e.l\bHbIX TOHOB) ~ YC!3aHBaIOTcH naMHTbIO npaJ(TH'IeCKH H 6bITYIOT B aazte xapaxrepHblX /1,.I\H Kam.a;oro xaaa MeAo.a;H'IeCKHX ¢OPMY A-HaneBOB HAll. noneBOK.

<1JopMa KaJ( npogecc H ¢opMa KaJ( OKpHCTaAAH30BaBIIIaHCK cxexa (BepHee: KOHCTPYKgHR) - ABe CTOPOHbI onnoro H Tono me HBAeHHH: opranaaagna .a;BHmeHHH cogHaAbHo nOAe3HbIX (Bblpa3HTeAbHbIX) 3BYKOCO'leTaHHM . .H CeM'IaC He rOBOpIO 0 CTHMY.I\aX 3TOK opraaaaagna H CTHMYAax mrroaagaoaaoro orfiopa, T. e. 0 .cozepmaHHH, 06YCAOBAHBaIOl!!eM MY3blKY KaK, O.a;HH H3 BH.a;OB H.lleOAorHH. H He c06HpaIOCb3.a;eCb acxperaare nOHJlTHe coaepasaaaa, 'ITO H .a;e.l\aIO B .a;pyroM MeCTe.! Ho 3TO BOBce He 3Ha'lHT, 'ITO !popMaKaKoe-TO MeTa!pH3H'IeCKOe, caxro ce6e aoaxeroigee aaxaxo, ll.l\JI 6HOxora HCHO, 'ITO !popMa KAeTKH OrpaHH'IeHHa, T. e. OHa TaKOBa, KaKOM OHa .a;O.l\mHa 6blTh B CHAY n'aoro KO.l\H'IeCTBa onpeztexarorgax ee !paKTopOB, H 'ITO BHe 3TOM !pOpMbl Mbl KAeTKY He Ha6AIO.a;aeM H He n03HaeM. Ho 3TO He 3Ha'lHT, 'ITO rpopua CYl!!eCTBeHHee KAeTKH. To me H B OTHOIIleHHH MY3bIKH: !popMa MY3bIKaAbHoro npOH3Be/1,eHHH B ge.l\oM H !pOpMbI COCTaB'/\JlIOl!!HX ero 3.1\eMeHTOB - 3TO HHCTpYMeHTbI (Opy.a;HJI) '1eAOBe'leCKOrO KOAAeKTHBHoro C03HaHHS, 06- HapymHBaIOl!!He My3bIKY.RaK opraHH30BaHHYIO cpeay.

Kam.a;oe MY3bIKaAbHoe npoaaseaeaae noaTOMY n03HaeTCJI BO B3aHMo.a;eMcTBHll npaaganoa orpopraxenaa. 8TH rrpHHgHnbl asrpa- 6aTblBaIOTcs nYTeM .ll.l\HTe./\bHoro oroopa. Ho KaKHe npH3HaKH xapaKTepH3YIOT MY3bIKaAhHbIH: (HHToHagHoHHbIM) OT60p Ii noxeay O.a;HH HHToHagHlimHBYT .a;O.l\bIIIe /1,PyrHx? OOCKO./\bKY MY3blKa no- 3HaeTCH CAYXOM, nocxoxsxy npogecc ee socnpaarna zrpedyer YCBoeHHJI .a;BHmYIgenocs MaTepHa.l\a, nocroxsxy npogecc orfiopa JlB.l\HeTCS npezsae acero npogeccoxr 3 a nOM H H a H H S, T. e. cocpe- 40TotIHBaHHeM BHHMaHHJI na no.a;06HhIX, cxoasnx H.I\H BO BceM Apyr .a;pyry paBHbIX 3BY'IaHHJlX (Y3HaBaHHe CXO~CTBa) H aa BbI.a;e,\eHHH necxoasax, HepaBHbIX, OT AIftIHbIX. I1Ha'le rOBOp»:, B O]l,HOM nanpaaxenaa cxyx KpHCTa./\.I\H3yeT B C03HaHHH (HAH: noaropmse

:24

gHH H 9HeprHH «BCAYIIlHBaHHH» nepexo.aar B CTa,ll;HIO «nacxaacneHH.H» MY3bIKOH.

00 Mepe YCBOeHHH TOH HAH HHOH 3BYKOCHCTeMbI aexo-ropsie 3BYKOCO'leTaHHH CTaHOBHTCH HaCTOAbKO rrpHBbI'IHbIMH, 'ITO BOCrrpHHHMalOTCH KaK He'lTO CaMO c06010 pasysaerorgeeca, aceraa cytgecrBOBaBIIIee - BOCrrpHHHMalOTCH AH60 KaK «aerrocpeacraenaoe coztepmaHHe», .IIH60 - eC.IIH pe'lb H,lI;eT 0 noxrn rrOTepHBIIIHX nerpasurexeHOCTb H CTaBIIIHX KaK 6bI 3BYKOrpOpMYAaMH HHToHagHHx, nanpauep raMMbI, apneaacao, - KaK caoero poaa CTpOHTeAbHblH MaTepHa.ll, xax neiirpaxemae KOHCTpYKTHBHble 9.11eMeHTbI. KOA.I\eKTHBHoe co- 3HaHHe «3a6bIBaeT», 'ITO aTH 9.11eMeHTbi TOme' OKpHCTa.llAH30BbIBaAHCb O'leHb ,lI;OArO, 'ITO Ha,ll; llX OT60pOM II YCBoeHlleM TpYAH.IIllCb MHorHe rrOKO.lleHHH. T ax, nporpeCCHOHaAaM-MY3bIKaHTaM Terrepb xa:tKeTCH, 'ITO rrpHeMbl rtepexozta H~ O,ll;HOM: TOHa.llbHOH crpepbI B APY'" r-yro, COOTHOIIleHllH TOHHKH II ,lI;OMHHaHTbI, COe,ll;HHeHHe Tpe3BY'IHK II TOMY rrO,ll;06Hbie AerKO rro.llb3yeMbIe npnesaer scerna cyrgecrnoBa.llH, a He aerpaoareraaxace B Te'leHHe AOAroro apeuena B arore r pOMa,ll;HbIX YCH.IIHH H onerron (<<60pb6a llHToHagHH aa cyigec-raoBaHHe» ).

Ee3 «rHMHaCTllKH 3arrOMHHaHHH» HeT nporpecca BOCrrpH.HTHH MY3bIKH H HeT aBoAlOgHH MY3bIKaAbHOH KYAbTYPbI. A aanonaaaHHe HeMbICAHMO 6e3 ,lI;eHTe.llbHOCTH cpasaeuna, paaxaseaax H BbI,lI;eAeHHH 3BYKoCO'leTaHHH B npcgecce HX xepenoaaaaa. I1Ha'le I'OBOPH, socnpaa-rae BTOPH'IHO opraaaayer opraaaaoaaaaoe (KoMrr03HTopOM) ,lI;BllmeHHe. 9TO MomeT npoacxoanrr, TOAbKO B CHAY roro, 'ITOCaMOe CTpOllTeAbCTBO MY3bIKH, opraaaaagaa 3BYKO,ll;BHa{eHHH llAH - 'ITO TO me caxroe - 0 6 Hap Y m e H II e M Y 3 bI K H B 3 aK 0 HOM e p HOM C 0 rr p H m e H H H H ,H T 0 H H p y e M bI X 9 A eMe H T 0 B (MY3bIKaAbHaH rpopxra ) COB e p III a eTC H cor A a C H 0 Y C A 0 B H H M B 0 3 Mom HOC T e H B 0 C n p H H T H H no HaBbIKaM (OHH B pxae IIOBTopeHHH CTaHOBHTCH 06H3aTeAbHbIMH rpaKTopaMH YCBoeHHH), xoropsre Bblpa60TaAHCb B CHAY cogHaAbHoH neofixo,lI;HMOCTll. Bce 60Aee H 60Aee HHTeHCHBHaH aBoAlOgHH MY3bIKaAbHbIX rpOpM H HX YCAomHeHHe II yxpyrnrenae craxa B03MomHbIMH B EBporre TOAbKO Tor ,lI;a, xorna KO.llAeKTHBHoe C03HaHlle urar sa tnarora BbIKOBbIBa.110 H YCBaHBa.110 B HHToHagHoHHoM onsrre BeKOB pagaoHaAbHeHIIIee COOTHOIIleHHe 3BYKoaAeMeHTOB, H3 KOTOPbIX oxeae rrocrenenno asrpafioraxace nama COBpeMeHHaH revnepapcaaanaa CHCTeMa. ECAH 6bI npeanoxoacare, 'ITO npogecc npoacxoaax Ha060- pOT II 'ITO AHIIlb oc060 O,ll;apeHHbIe B MY3bIKe AIO,lI;H YCBOHAH 6bf COOTHOIIIeHllH 12 cesmc'rynenasrx raMM Ma:tKOpa, a OCTaAbHOH Macce TOHaAbHoe '1YBCTBO B 9TOM: CBoeH rpopxre OCTaAOCb 6bI '1ym,'l;bIM, - Hll MY3bIKa Eaxa, Hll EeTxoBeHa, HH xoro 6bI TO HH 6bIAO cogHaAbHo He cytgecrnoaaxa 6bI HAH 6bIAa 6bI He TOM:, KaKOH ee 3HaAO II 3HaeT '1eAOBe'leCTBO.

I1TaK, eCAH MY3bIKaAbHaH rpOpMa ec're npogecc o6HapymeHHH My3blKH B 3aKOHOMepHOM corrpaacenan HHToHHpyeMbIx 9AeMeHTOB,

pasapaaceaaa BbI3bIBalOT norrropnere peqixexcer ) THnO.llOrH'IeCKHe ,lI;AH ,lI;aHHOrO MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHH 3BYKOKOMrrAeKCbI H.IIll COnpaaseaaa 3BYKOB. OPH 9TOM, ecxa OT'IaCTH OHH yase panee 6bIAH YCBoeHbI, TO TeM caMbIM npogecc BocnpHHTHH H,lI;eT no AHHHH HaHMeHbIIlero conpOTHBAeHHH.* B ,lI;pyroM HanpaBAeHHH CAyX OTMe'IaeT HHToHagHH, KOHTpaCTHpYlOrgHe 9THM YCTOH'IHBbIM ,lI;aHHbIM, II no c'renean yaaxenas HX OT 3HaKOMbIX CO'leTaHHH orgyrgaeT p.BH:tKeHHe My3bIKH KaK ace 60Aee H 60Aee ocrpoe HepaBHOBeCHe H nporuaope"'IHe (KOHrpAHKTHOCTb) BO B3aHMOOTHOIIleHHH 3ByqargHx MOMeHTOB. BOT oana cropoua npogecca.

Ho eCTeCTBeHHO, qTO 3arrOMHHaHHe My3bIKH npa ee nocToHHHOH TeKyqeCTH H npa He06xo,ll;llMOCTH nOCTOHHHoro cpa B H II BaH II H T02K,lI;eCTBeHHbIX II HeTOm,ll;eCTBeHHbIX HHToHagHH npearroxar-aer aa.JI.H'IHe B C03HaHHH xexosexa ,lI;aHHOH anOXH, cpezna II ,lI;aHHOrO OTpesxa BpeMeHll HeKOTopOH CyMMbI ll3,l1;aBHa OKpHCTa.llAll30BaBIIIHXOI ,3BYKOCO'IeTaHHM: (<<HHToHagHoHHbIM: sanac»}. Y O,ll;HOrO xexoaexa ax 6oAbIIIe, Y zrpyr-or-o MeHbllIe, HO B geAoM Kam,ll;aH anoxa H xazs,lI;blH xxacc otixaaaer n' HbIM qHCAOM HHToHagHH, HaCTOAbKO YCTOHBIIlHXC>I B c03HaHHll, qTO cAYIIlaHHe npoaaaeaenaii, B KOTOPbIX

.J33aHMO,ll;eHCTBHenpHBblqHbIX CO'IeTaHHH ,lI;OMHHHpyeT aaa aerrpaBblqHblMH, ,lI;OCTaBAHeT Y,lI;OBOAbCTBlle 60.llbIIle, '1eM BOCrrpH.HTHe MY- 3bIKH, B KOTOPOH npeofixaaaro r HHToHagHH erge He YCBoeHHbIe H "lJ;AH ycnoenaa KOTOPOH HymHa xpaiine nOBbIIIleHHaH ,lI;eHTeAbllOCTb C03HallHH. ** npogecc cpaBHHBaHHH TOm,ll;eCTBeHHoro II HeTomAeCTaeaaorlo MaTepHaAa B TaKHX CAY'IaHX HeCOMHeHHO YCAomHHeTCH, H .npa nepnota CAYIIlaHHH BCHKaH nenpnaersaaa MY3bIKa npe.acrasAHeTCH C03HaHHIO yzse He TOAbKO KaK OCT po HeYCTOHqHBOe paBHO.secne 9AeMeHTOB, ee COCTaBAHIOIgHX, a KaK cnAOiIlHOH IIIYM HAH xaoc H 6ecrpopMeHHOCTb. OPll noaroparsx CAYIIlaHHHX BblHCHRIOTCH oxep'raaaa: nonaxranae MY3blKH Ha'lHHaeTCH C 3anOMHHaHHH COOTHOIIIeHHH, 60Aee 3HaKOMbIX C03HaHHIO, II HX cpaBHHBaHHR C MeHee 3HaKOMbIMH. OT60p npnaoaar K YCBoeHHIO rpOpMbI ('ITO BOBce He oanaxaer, qTO CAYIIIaTeAb ,lI;OAmeH 3HaTb Ha3BaHHH rpopM-cxeM H ax pa3.11.H'IaTb: ,lI;eAO B YCBoeHHH pacnopanxa, 3aKOHOMepHOCTH pacnpe..n;eAeHHH 3BYKOCO'leTaHllH, B OCHOBe xero, KaK 6blAO CKa3aHO, rrpe.arroxaraerca aanac B C03HaHHH yase YCTOHBIIIHXCR HHToHagHH; 6e3 HHX, T. e. HaXO,ll;HCb B qym,ll;OH ,lI;aHHOH cpeae HHToHagHoHHoH en>CTeMe, TpY,lI;HO «rrOHHMaTb» MY3bIKY, 'ITO H nponcxoanr, xor.aa lfH,lI;yC HAll KHTaeg CAYIIlaeT eBporreHCKYIO My3bIKy H, 06paTHO, eBponeeg - MY3bIKy qym,ll;blX eMY KYAbTYP). Koraa K MY3bIKe npaBbIKaIOT, TO socnpaarne 3BYKOCOqeTaHHH rrpOHCXO,ll;HT yase no naep-

* TIpeeMcTBeHHOCTb MY3blKll 'll COCTOllT B'TOM, 'ITO cxyx jscer aa llMeeT AeJl.O C He:ma'lHTeAhHhIM I1pO!!eHTOM a6COJI.IOTHO HOBhlX 3BYKOCO'leTaHHH H C 110- ,AaiBMIIOJ!!'HM qHCJl.OM KOMtJ.HHa!!HH I1PHBhlQHblX 06pa30BaH'HH. Ha 9TOM OCROBaH a «MY3bIKaJl.bHaJi ceMaHTHKa» (CM. j],06aBAeHHe 2, CTp. 208).2

** Caao C060H pa3YMeeTCJI, 'ITO HeAh3J1 MhlCAHTb 9TOT sanae naase, KaK '«pecpJl.eK'CONOrH'leCKOe HaKOI1AeHHe».

25

-ro MomHO CKa3aTb II 06paTHO, 'ITO otiaapyaceaae MY3blKll npoacXO,1l.lIT xepes npogecc oipopMAeHllll saysargero MaTepllaAa (MHe ,1I.YMaeTCH, 'ITO ,1I.OnYCTllMO II noaarne aayxatgero aeigecraa ). choT rrpogecc rrpencraaxae'r C060l0 TBOp'lecKYIO (T. e. HaAll'lHe MOMeHTa H306peTeHlIlI) opnanaaagaro aayxocoxeraanii aa OCHOBe cogaaxsao 'HcnblTaHHbiX npanganoa - rrpaagnnos, B CBOIO osepeas BblPOCWHX 1i3 cogaaxsnoro onsrra vycaoeaaa HAH H3 HaBblKOB BocnpHHTHlI I<IY3blKaAbHbiX HBAeHHR. 113 paaee cxasaaaoro 06 aTHX aaasncax tSblTeKaeT «,1I.BYAHKOCTb» npogecca q>opMo06pa30BaHHlI B MY3blKe HAH

jO,1l.HOBpeMeHHoe cocyrgecraonaaae B HeM ,1I.BYX TeH,1I.eHgllR: TeH,1I.eHr 1!llll K KpHCTaAAH3agHH (K oonapyaseaaro CXO,1l.HblX lIHToHagHR, CXOA~ liblX H napaxxexensrx KOHCTPYKTHBHblX BeX, narrpmrep Ka,1l.aHCOB)-

~_t_-_'H TeH,1I.eHgHH KO see 60Aee HHTeHCHBHOMY 0I!!Yl!!eHHIO COCTOllHHlI HeYCTOR'IlillOI'O paBHoBeCHH, T. e. K paspymeaaro TOm,1l.eCTBeHHblx H

noaropasrx MOMeHToBnYTeM BHe,1l.peHHH HenpHBbI'IHI;>IX, HeomH,1I.aH- ~

I' RbIX, npaxor'xnasrx lIHToHagHR H nYTeM pa36HBaHHlI HAH pa3,11.BH-

,~ 'meHllll KOHCTpYKTHBHbIX HOpM. B ,1I.aAbHeRwlIx CTa,1l.HHX <)TO nepeXO,1l.HT B 60Pb6y axryaxnaerx, CTHMYAHPYIOI!!HX ,1I.BHmeHHe q>a~TopoB

C Tpa,1l.HgHoHHblMH KOMn03llgHoHHbIMH cxexasra. AKTyaAbHbIHB03~ 6ym,1l.alOI!!HR H npO,1l.oAmalOl!!HR ,1I.BHmeHHe (a CAe,1l.0BaTeAbHO, Yk Jl.HHHIOI!!HR q>OPMY) q>aKTop - BeAH'IllHa OTHlO,1I.b He nOCTOHHHaH. B MY3blKe ace H3MepHeTCH COOTHOWeHHlIMH, scerna lI3MeH'IHBbIMH. O,1l.HH II TOT me q>aKTOp B O,1l.HY anoxy MomeT 6blTb peBoAlOgHOHHOHHToHagHoHHblM (<<Bblpa3llTeAb HOBblX 'IYBCTBOBaHlIR»), a B ,1I.PYrylO - MepTBbIM, 3a,1l.epmHBalOI!!HM pa3BHTHe My3bIKH, ~HweHHbIM :Bblpa3HTeAbHOCTH npHeMOM. Hanpasrep, _ COBepweHHblH Ka,1l.aHC 13 srroxy csoero q>0pMHpOBaHHH 6bl.I\ rpaxroposr nporpeccaaasra, a ,1I.AlI Baraepa B «T pHCTaHe», aaoeopor, npeozoxeaae Tpa,1l.H'1!HOHHO 3aMbIKaeMoro H OrpaHH'IHBaeMOro Ka,1l.aHCOM «KAaCCH'Iecxoro» nepaoaa HBAHAOCb ,1I.BHmYl!!eR CHAOR: HHaQe, KaK xepes aTO npcrnaopeaae, eMY HeB03MomHo 6bIAO 6bl Oq>OpMHTb TOT HHTeHCHBHO TeKY'IHR nOTOK 3BY'IaHHR C nOCTOHHHbIM nepeKAIO'IeHHeM 'npHBbl'lHbIX TOHaAbHbIX aKKop,1l.0BbIX q>YHKgHR B HenpHBbI'IHbleTY nerrpeperauyro HAH «6eCKOHe'lHYIO» MeAO,1l.HIO, KOTopaH cxyzorxa BblpameHHeM aK3aAhTHpOBaHHOR, YTOH'IeHHOR HH,1I.HQH,1I.yaAHCTH'Ie-'

CKOR apoTHKH TOR anOXH. -

3HaQHT, C O,1l.BOR CTOPOHbI, B npogecce, oq>opMAeHHlI BhICTY'" .naro'r aAeMeHTbI roacaecraeansre, COCTaBAHlOl!!He 6 a 3 Y HAH BeXH -:aanOMHHaHHH MY3hIKH, C ,1I.PyroR - aAeMeHTbI KOHTpaCTHpYIOI!!He.

\,cxeMa conpOTHBAHeTCH ,1I.BHmeHHIO. iJ,BHmeHHe me B MY3bIKe CO; 3.l1,aeTClI TOAbKO H3 npOTHBonOCTaBAeHHlI HHToHag~HM, BocnpHHHMae,:~MbIM KaK, on9PHbI~ HHToHagHR, HX CMel!!alO~H\. npH YKa3aHHOH ,1I.HaAeKTH'IHOCTH ~pogecca MY3bu{'aAbHoro otpopxxeaaa OH orgy-'IgaeTCH scer-aa KaK COCTOHHHe HeYCTOR'IHB0I10 paBHOBeCHlI: HH O,1l.HR

* T OJ\'WK - npo,ll,OJl.lKeHHe ,Il,SHlKeHHl! - (HHepl!1Il! 11 6oPb6a HOBblX CTHMY-

,)\-OS) - TopMOlKeHFle FI 3aMblKaHIle (xanaac ).

MOMeHT HHTOHHpOBaHHlI, B CYI!!HOCTH, He ogeHHBaeTCH KaK caxo,1I.OBAeIOIgHR, a aceraa KaK CTa,1l.HH nepexoaa B nOCAe,1l.YIOI!!HR. i{ame onopnsre nYHKTbI Tpe6YIOT aroro rrepexoaa, H, 'IT06bl C,1I.BHHYTb C MeCTa, CKameM, KaKOR-AH60 OTnpaBHOH YCTOH'IHBbIH 3BY'IaI!!HH «MOMeHT», Heo6xo,1l.HMO npOTHBonOCTaBHTb eMy ,1I.pyroR «MOMeHT» 3BY'laHHH.

113YQeHHe aBoAlOgHH MY3bIKaAbHbiX q>OpM otiaapyasasaer, 'ITO rtocreneaaoe «y,1l.AHHeHHe» MY3bIKaAbHoro tJ;BHmeHHlI (YBeAH'IeHHe npOtJ;OAmHTeAbHOCTH) _ IIIAO xpaiine MHoro06pa3HbIMH nyTlIMH H ,lI;0- CTaBaAOCb HeAerKO. ECAH OT,lI;eAbHble oc060 otJ;apeHHble AIO,lI;H onepemaAH csoe BpeMlI H q>HKCHpOBaAH q>OPMbI ana-rarexuno 66J\b1IlHX pasxepoa B cpaBHeHHH C npe,ll;IIIeCTBOBaBweH snoxoii, TO oxpyasarol!!aH HX cpeaa, xxacc, HX BocnHTaBIIIHH, ,1I.aAeKO He cpaay YCBaHBaAH ,1I.OCTHriIYToe. npHMepOB - CKOAbKO yrOtJ;HO. 113BecTHO, KaK rtopa3HAH Bo06pameHHe COBpeMeHHHKOB rHraHTCKHe pa3Mephl «3 p 0 H K H» Berxoaena H KaJ< «OTCTaAO» pear-aposax aa aTY CHMq>OHHIO tJ;pyroH otJ;apeHHeHIIIHll KOMn03llTOp TOll me anOXH - Be6ep. Haao CKa3aTb, 'ITO eCAH xxacc, Bbl3BaBwHH HOBbie 3aBoeBaHHH B MY3bIKe, ztoxro He B COCTOHHHH HX YCBOHTb B AHge CBOHX npeacraswrexeji, TO npyr ae KAaCCbI HAll cogaaxsnsre rpynnaponaa COBeeM npOXO,ll;HT MHMO sepmaa MY3bIKaAbHOll KY AbTYPbl nepaeacrayrorgero xxacca, H HX MY3blKaAbHoe C03HaHHe aBoAlOgHoHHpyeT CBOHM nyrev, pa3tJ;Bllr!aH xpyr YCBoeHHbIX H rrpHBbl'lHbIX HX cpe ae HHToHagHll.

I1TaK, aBoAlOgHH MY3blKaAbHbiX q>OpM B Enpone OT ,nepBblX onsrroa MHororOAOCHlI (IX-XIII BB.) tJ;0 KO.l\OCCaAbHblX paswePOB pOMaHTH'IeCKllX CHMq>OHllll (5pYKHep" Maxep) H onep (Bar .. nep ) ecre B HeKOTopOM OTHOlIleHHH npogecc P a 3 ,lI; B H m e H II H rpaHH\f, My3blKH H pac W H P e H H H rpaHHg ,1I.BHmeHHH - npogecc, TecHO CB1I3aHHbIll C npaKTHKOll YCBoeHHH H 06YCAOBAeHHbill aBOJ\lOgHeH: CAYXOBoro BOCnpHlITHlI, a 3Ha'lHT, 6a3HpYlOI!!HllCH na Henpexeansrx ero csoiicrnax (3arrOMHHaHHe nyrev cpaBHeHHH H pasAH'IeHHH TOm,1l.eCTBeHHbIX H KOHTpaCTHbIX aayxoconpaaceanii}.

B caMhlX 061!!HX sreprax CTa,ll;HH aror-o rrpogecca MoryT 6blTb' yase Ha6.1\IO,1I.aeMbi 6.1\aro,ll;apll ony6.1\HKoBaHHIO H CHAbHO nO,1l.BHHyBIIIeMYCH H3Y'leHHIO HCTOqHHKOB cpeaaeaexosoii My3bIKH, naMHTHHKOB My3blKH PeHeccaHca H 6apOKKO H npexpacnsnr H3,l1;aHHHM nOAnero c06paHHlI KAaCCHKOB. KpoMe Toro, noaaxeane paaa B,lI;yM'IHBblX aHaAHTllQeCKHX pa60T B 06AaCTH llCCAe,ll;OBaHHH npogecca MY3blKaAbHoro oq>opMAeHllH H KpHCTaAAH3agHH, KaK, nanpaxsep, KHHra A. Mac h abe y: «Histoire et evolution des Iorrnules

-rnusicales du l-er au XV-e siecle de l'ere chretiennes (Paris, 1928), r,ll;e urar aa IIIarOM rrpoc xeasaaaro-rca BblllBAeHHe HHToHagHOH:HblX YCToeB, opr)aHH3agllll TOHaAbHoro 'IyBcTBa, otipaaoaanae xa,1I.aHCOB etc. etc. [c onopoii] na H3Y'leHHe rraMHTHHKOB snox II npir nOCTOHHHOH «orAH,lI;Ke» Ha npaKTllKY MY3HgHpoBaHHlI, HAll CTaTblf Heinrich'a Besseler'a: «Studien zur Musik des Mittelalters»

27

\

(<<Archiv fur Musikwissenschafh aa HIOHb 1925 H ~!HBapb 1927 r.}, HAH CDJJ;epmaTeAbHajJ CTaTbR Vladimira Hellerta «Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sonatenlorm» (TaM me, anpexe 1925 r.) H JJ;p., - nDMorAH MHe JJ;DBepqHBee DTHeCTHCb K JJ;aBHD yace npDpa6aTbIBaeMbIM MHDIO npD6AeMaM MY3bIKaAbHDrD orpopsrAeHHR H nDqYBCTBDBaTb nDJJ; CD6DIO TBepJJ;YIO nDqBY. T DqHD TaK me etge paunure nDRBAeHHe pa6DT :3pHcTa KYPTa nDJJ;TBepJJ;HAD asrcxa- 3bIBaBilIHeCH MHDIO C 1916-1917 rDJJ;DB BD33peHlIR na CYIgHDCTl> MeADca H aaaxemre «rDpH3DHTaAH», aa KpH3HC rapMDHHH, na JJ;HHaMHKY rpyrH H aa HeD6xDJJ;HMDCTb HDBDrD nOHH~aHHH MY3bIKaAbHDM rpDpMbI He KaK apXHTeKTDHHqeCKHX «6e33ByqHbIX» cxexr, a KaK 3aKDHDMepHDrD npogecca DpraHH3agHH 3ByqaIgerD M~TepHaAa Hero. KpHCTaAAH3agHH. Yl3yqeHHe naMRTHHKDB H YCADBHH pacnpocrpaHeHHR H KYAbTHBHpDBaHHH 6bITDBDM (DCD6eHHD HHCTpYMeHTaAbHDH /l;DMalliHeM, HanpHMep, AIOTHeBDi1) MY3blKH H rpOPM ee BDnADIge~mn TDqHD TaK me paCIIIHpHAD H D6DraTHAD xpyr MDHX Ha6AIOJJ;eHHH.

KAK COBEPlllAETCn: MY.3bIKAAbHOE CTAHOBAEHI1E

T J\ a.a a I

£l>AKTbI H £l>AKTOPbI MY3bIKAAbHOrO ){BHlKEHHfl 11 (JlOPMOBAHl1fl

.lI,Ba DCHDBHbIX HBAeHHR nDMOraIOT nOCTHI'HYTb CBDMCTBa npo:gecca MY3bIKaAbHDrD rpDpMDBaHHR: 1) MY3bIKaAbHDe JJ;BHmeHHe (nDCAeJJ;DBaHHe 3BYKDB apyn aa JJ;PyrDM KaK B3aHMDDTHOIlIeHHe BbI~ <CDTHDCTeM), 2) YCADBHR 3anDMHHaHH'R MY3bIKH HAH cpeJJ;CTBa, rcaKHe Bblpa6DTaAD Hallie C03HaHHe JJ;AR YJJ;epmaHHH npDTeKaIOIgHX CO- 3BYQHH:. BpeMeHHilR npapo aa MY3bIKH, ee rexysecrn, H - C JJ;pyrDH ICTDpDHbd - BbI3BaHHbie aTHM DCD6Dro pDJJ;a cnDCD6bI 3anDMHHaHHR lIeH36emHD BAHHIOT na rpDpMbl, B KDTDPbIX, rpHKcHpyeTcR My3bI~ xaxerroe JJ;BHmeHHe. 3aKDHbi ero, D6YCADBAeHHble caMHM 3Byqi'lIgHM

MaTepHaADM, He nDJJ;JJ;aIOTCR noxa TDQHDMY DnpeJJ;eAeHHIO. HD, Ha6AIOJJ;aR 3a nDCTDRHHD H nDBClOJJ;Y BD BCRKDM MY3bIKe npDRBARIO:!gHMHCR CXDJJ;HbIMH RBAeHHHMH B D6pa3DBaHHH MY3bIKaAbHDH: TKalIH, MomHD YCTaHDBHTb HX 3aKOHOMepHOCTb Qepe3 HX me nOBTDpReMOCTb. Yl3YQeHHe rpYHKgHH: aTHX nDBTDpReMbIX RBAeHHM no,3BDAHeT npH6AH3HTbca K YCTaHOBKe nOAe3HbiX pa60QHX rHnOTe3 H C HX nDMOIgbIO CHCTeMaTH3HpDBaTb H npHBOJJ;HTb K eJJ;HHCTBY MHorOD6pa3HeMlliHe rpaKTbI MY3bIKaAbHDrD DrpDpMAeHHR.

3JJ;eCb Heo6xDJJ;HMD CJJ;eAaTb BamHYIO oroaopxy, QTD, rrpn pacCMOTpeHHH rpaKTDB H rpaKTDpOB MY3hlKaAbHDrD JJ;BHmeHHR H MY3hlKaAbHDrD rpDpMOBaHHH B JJ;aHHOM HCCAeJJ;DBaHHH, aHaAH3 BeJJ;eTCR na My 3 bI Ken H C b M e H H 0. M, T. e. 3arpHKCHpDflaHHDH: B HDTHbIX anaxax, KamJJ;aH CI1CTeMa 3anHCH B CBOIO DQepep,b OKpI1CTaAAH30BbIBaAaCb B peayxs rare JJ;AHTeAbHbIX OIIbITDB 11 npHcnDCD6AeHHM, npIPIeM- 3TanbI MY3bIKaAbHoro rpopMDBaHHR, KOHeQHO, OTpa311AHCb na crrocofiax nHCbMeHHDll rpHKcagHH MY3bIK!! H B rpDpMax aTOll rpHKcagHH • .BpImiI npnxrep: CODTHOIlIeHHe MemJJ;Y HeBMeHHbIM H MeH3ypaAbHbIM I1HCbMOM. nepBoe - HeCDMHeHHbIH: npDP,YKT MY3bIKH, TDAbKD-TOAbKD nepeXDJJ;HIgeM H3 anDXH YCTHOM TpaJJ;HgHH B anoxy «m1CbMeHHDH

29

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T OqHO TaK me npHxoAHTCH pazm 60.ll.bIllerO cocpeAOTOqeHHJI BHHMaHHJI Ha H3yqeHHH CBOllCTB H npHHgHnoB 1P0pMoBaHHH MY- 3bIKH, asrrexaiorgax H3 3aKOHOB ee p;BHmeHHK H cnocotioa ee 3anOMHHaHHK, OCTaBHTb 3,Z1;eCb B cropoae PJlA ,ZI;pyrrrx !PCl,KT()po~, !3AlUlIOIgHX aa xapaKTep ,ZI;BHmeHHK H lPopMoBaHHH, HO He 'MeHKl6: rgHX HX no cyrgecray. 3TH lPaKTopbI MOmHO 3Aecb TO.ll.bKO nepe-

, 'IHC.II.HTb. npemAe scero HaAO npHHHMaTb B coofipazsetnre POAb A bI x a H H H qe.ll.OBeKa (ero sanae, CHAY H HHTeHCHBHOCTb) II lflOp'MoBaHHlI MY3blKH He TOAbKO BOKa.ll.bHOH:, HO H IlHCTpYMeHTa.ll.bHOH, He TO.ll.bKO B MY3blKe YCTHOH Tpa,Zl;HgHH, HO H B nHCbMeHHoH. Koporxoe H.II.H A.II.HTe.ll.bHOe AbIxaHHe B.II.HKeT aa crpoenne H paC'I.II.eHeHHe Me.ll.O,Zl;HH, na HX coxpaigenae H pacraaseaae, Hap;.II.HHY nOA'beMOB H HHcnaAaHHH: Me.ll.O/~H'IeCKOH AyrH_'_ C.II.OBOM, aa ,ZI;UHaMHKY rvieAoca. B MYC3bIKe YCTHOH Tpa,Zl;HgHH HaO.ll.lOAaeTCH OOAbIllaK pa3-

, It'l1ga' Mem)l;y 66'beMOM aaneaa B geAoM Hero OTpe3KOB, CMOTPK no.

TOMY, CBH3aHa .ll.H neCHH co cnOKOHHblM noxoaseaaesr opr'amrasra H.II.H ero ,ZI;Bl1meHl1eM 11 C 1P0pMaMH 9'1.'01'0 ABHmeHHK. neCHH npoTHmHbie H nxncoaere, neCHH, CBH3aHHbIe C TeMH H.II.I1 HHblMH npoQ;eccaMH TpYAa, 1P0PMYlOTCK nnaxe, H Y HHX He TO.ll.bKO PHTMO-KOHCTpYKTHBHbIe pa3AHqHK, HO HHaK HHToHagHoHHaH rrpapoaa,

ECTeCTBeHHO rasase, 'ITO Ha6.11.lOAaeTCH pasnaga B cpopMOBaHI1H Me.ll.OCa CO.ll.bHbIX H XOPOBblX necea, MeAoca KY.II.bTOBOro H Y.II.Ilq- 1I0ro, caxonaoro H Ka6agKoro.* MeCTO II cpeAa, TeMn mH3HH H CO-

\

* Koe-'ITO B 9TOM ornonreaan JlaeT COo6IMCHHe M. CO p H P, A e H p, epa ~llEigenleben von Volksliedrnelodien» (<<Bericht fiber den Muslkwissenschaft-

llchen Kongress in Basel». Leipzig, 1925). '

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'gHa.ll.bHaK cpeaa B.II.IHIIOT aa MeAOC. 40 CHX nop OqeHb Ma.ll.O (,ZI;ame nO'ITH ,COBceM He) yqHTblBa.ll.OCb B03,Z1;eHCTBHe' HacpopMbl My3blKa.ll.bHOM pe'IH H aa KOHCTpYKgHIO MY3bIKa.ll.bHbIX npOH3BeAeHHH MeTOAOB, npHeMOB, HaBbIKOB H Boo6rge ,ZI;HHaMHKHH,J(.oH€TPYKgHH Q p a 'I.' 0 pC K 0 H: p e 'I H, a MemAY -reM paropaxa He MOn.ll.a He 6bITb qpe3BblqaHHO BAHKTeAbHbiM ~O OTHOIlleHHIO K MY3blKe KaK K asipa- 3HTe.ll.bHOMY K3bIKY rpaxropoa, B oco6eHHOC'CH eC.II.H npHHKTb erge .BO BHHMaHHe arHTagHoHHoe aaaxeaae MY3bIKH (XOTK 6bl KYAbTOBOH). H npOTeCTaHTCKHe H KaTO.ll.HqeCKHe KOMn03HTopbl, oc06eHHO XVII H XVIII BeKOB, ~o MHorHX OTHOIlleHHKX 6bI.II.H BblAalOrgHMHCH oparopasra, eC.II.H He sceraa pe.ll.HrH03HblMH npOnOBe,Zl;HHKaMH B 'CBoeM MY.3bIKe, H 9Ta YCTaHOBKa B.II.HK.II.a aa npogecc 1P0pMOBaHIUI. Pa3A11qHe MemAY KaMepHblMI1 H KOHgepTHO-CHMIPOHH'IeCKHMH <fJopMaMH MY3bIKH, MemAY MY.3bIKOH AHPHKo-c03epgaTe.ll.bHOH: (BbICKa3blBaHHH H npH.3HaHHK KaK 6bI A.II.H cetix - csoero pozia HHTpOcnexgna) H MY3blKOH AeMCTBeHHOH B CH.II.bHOH: CTeneHH nO~OHTCR" ~a, npHCYTCTBHH H.II.H OTCYTCTBH,H MDMeHTa PHTOpHqeCKOH nanpas<h!::HHOCTH H Ha.ll.H'IHHarHTagHo.HHOCTH (60AbIlloe paCCTOHHHe B 9TOM

OTHOIlleHHH MemAY KaKOM-.II.H60 Ca.ll.OHHOH «necnsro 6e3 C.II.OB» H MeccoH). Ho,c ,ZI;PyroM CTOPOHbI, KaKaK-AH60 .ll.aKOHH'IHaH Y.II.HqHaK neCHR MomeT 6blTb p;eH:CTBeHHee rpOMaAHOH: no MacIlITa6y HHTpOc.neKTHBHoM CHMIPOHHH. *

Erge qpe3BbI'IaH:HO BamHblH cpaKTOp, B.II.HRIOrgHH: aa npogecc MY.3bIKa.ll.bHoro 1P0pMOBaHHH H na pe3Y.II.bTaT rrpogecca - na npOH3- Be,Zl;eHHK,- 9'1.'0 MY3bIKaAbHbie HHCTpYMeHTbI, HX MaTepHa.ll., HX CTPOM, TeM6p, TeXHHKa arper aa HHX etc. KOHeqHO, AaHHbIH: lPaK~

- TOp nOHHMaeTcH KaK lPopMoo6pa3YIOrgHH: B TOM cxyuae, erAH OTKa- 3aTbCH· 0'1.' aticrpaxrnoro npeACTaBAeHHK 0 1P0pMe B MY3bIKe H OT qHCTO 3pHTe.ll.bHo-apXHTeKTOHHqeCKOrO nOHHMaHHH ee B BHAe KOAH,tJeCTBa TaKTOBbiX eAHHl1g. Me.ll.OAHI1 B 16 TaKTOB" AonYCTI1M, ,lJ,ame co CXO,Zl;HbIMH KaAaHcaMU H OAHHaKOBbIMH MOAY.II.KgHOHHbIMH 0'1.'KAOHeHHKMH, HO. COqHHeHHbIe OAHa, cxaasesr, P;AH CKpHnKH, C HCnO.ll.b30BaHHeMBcex B03MomHOCTeH:, xoropsre AalOT ee AHana30H 11 CMbIqKOBbIe IlITPHXH, ,ZI;PyraH me ,ZI;.II.K aar .ll.HHCKOro pomKa,- 6y 4YTP a 3 .II. H 'I a 'I.' !J C.II B. 0 ,T H 0 III e H If H 1P9 pM !JI, ~TO npOH30H:- 4eT Y HHX, HeCMOTpH Ha CXOACTBO MHorHX 9.11.eMeHTOB, H npOH30H:AeT yzse OTTOn<) TOAbKO, 'ITO OHH coqHHeHbl B..,..~,!p_a R rep e ,lJ,l:m-

. HbIX HHCTpYMeHTOB, H pa3.11.HqHe CKameTCR aenpeaenao B MeAO,Zl;H'IeCKOM pHCYHKe, B ero npOTH2KeHHOCTH, B pacxxeaenaa ero, B P;AHTe.ll.bHOCTH, B AHana30He, B ero, TaR CKa3aTb, MYCKY.II.aType M 4bIxaHHH. Ho BAHKHHe HHCTpYMeHTa.ll.H3Ma Bo06Ige KaK lPaKTopa 1P0PMbI na caMOM Ae.ll.e erge rOpa3,Z1;0 CHAbHee. 40CTaTOqHO YKa3aTb

*' H 3cJle::b TOAbKO HaMe'IalO BKpaTlle BAHHHHe oparopcxoii pe'IH HAH, aepaee, caMOH -ccpepbI «opa-ropcrna» aa My3bIKY. MblCAb ara BCIIAbIAa B MoeM - C03'Ha'HoHU IIO'ITH op,HoBpeMeHHo C coo6palKeHHHMH no 9TOMY noaoay y A. Wepaara H y 11. A. Epayao, ,KOTOPbIH H patioraer B HaCTo,"!!ee BpeMli Ha,lt lUIHHOH PP06AeMOH.·,,·,<--" ",

31

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32

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3 B. B. Acadn.en

33

6

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* MycoprCKlIH: B ]laH'HOM ornoureaaa asrcrynaer KaK xapaKTepHblH rnn "KOMlI0311T'Opa ,60AbmOH: CHAbl 1I306peTeHlIlI, ynopao crpexasurerocs oxpaaare ,ce611 OT BAlIlIHHlI 06IgellpllHlITbiX !jJOpM-cxeM, OT «HHep!,!lIH» B TBOp'leCTBe.

:34

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3*

35

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I CTOM nOBTopeHHH B036ymp;aID~JJX HAJJ ycnOKaJJBalO~JJX opraaaaa I 3.BYKOCO'leTaHHH: KaK «MOMeHTaAbHbIX» paanpaaorrexeii." 3p;ecb BbIpa6aTbIBaIDTcR npangarrer orpopsrxeaaa MaTepHaAa, xoropsre pa-

!!HOHaAbHo 0606~aIDT aecs npogecc q>opMoBaHHR (TOAbKO 'ITO yxa- 3aHHbIH:) H npaaoziar K pa3BHTHID npOTHmeHHbIX q>OpM co CAom~ HblMH COOTHorneHHHMH COCTaBAHID~HX HX 9AeMeHTOB H CBOH:CTBeH~ HblX HM q>YHKl!HH:. 3TH q>OpMbI, KOHe'lHO, pa3BHBalOTcR B recnoii CBR3H C POCTOM BCeH: KYAbTypbI 'IeAOBe'leCTBa B p;aHHblH: nepaoa apeMeHH H B p;aHHOH: crpane.

11 ~"vtJ-~ I" t~~L

* IT09TOMY aano octeperaTbcH npeyueAII'IHBaTb 61103MOj!IIOllaAblloe :3Haxeane Ii cexcyaxeaoe BO:3J1eHCT'Blle KalK IIl~o6bI eJl'HHCTBe'I!'HOe n p e .II H a :3 H a ~

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npl1HijHObI T01Kl\ECTBA BAH fnOBTOPHOCTR (<<Y3HABAHHE CXOl\CTBA»). BHl\bI nO~-E1:UIl'f. --HMHTAijHH, KAHOH H Cl>YfA. nOHHTHE TEMbI. MY3bIKAAbHAH l\H. HAMHKA H CTATHKA

nOBTOpRID~eeCH p;BHmeHHe HAH nposeaenae p;BamtI;bI HAH HeCKOAbKO pas oaaoro H roro me MY3blKaAbHoro MaTepHaAa RBAReTCR HaH60Aee npocr em H BMeCTe C TeM HaH60Aee p;ocTynHblM cpeaCTBOM npoaoxaorre op;Hamp;bl HaH:p;eHHOe HAH Bbl6paHHoe COOTHOmenae 3BY'IaHHH. 4AR YCBoeHHR me My3blKH naMHTbID 91'0 cpeztCTBO OKa3blBaeTCR Ha,1l;emHeHI1!HM. BH,1I;b1 nOBTOpeHHH: KpaMHe pasuooopaansr: 01' 6YKBaAbHoro H TO'lHOrO BocnpOH3Be,1l;eHHR naaaoro COOTHorneHHR ,11;0 KOHTpaCTHoro conOCTaBAeHHR P;ByX HAH HeckoAb~ KHX Mo.MeHToB My3bIKH, B KOTOPblX na OCHOBe oznoro H roro me MaTepHaAa Bblp'aCT.aIDT TPYP;HO pa3AH'IHMble B OTHorneHHH HX ne1>~ BOCXO,1l;CTBa 3BYKo06pa30BaHHR. T eM caMblM YHH'ITomaeTCR MOHO~ TOHHOCTb 6YKBaAbHoro nOBTopeHHR, a caMblM rrpnagan noaropeaas npeapaigaercx B C l' H M yAK pa3BHTHID My3blKH H3 O,1l;HOH rexaTH'IeCKOH: npeanocsrxxa. Bocnpusrrae ror'aa YCTaHaBAHBaeT He 6YKBaAbHYID 06~HOCTb, a CXOP;CTBO 0 l' ,11; e A b H bI X 9 A e M e H r 0 B, CBR3yID~HX 0 r ,11; e A b H bl e n p 0 R B A e H H R Tomp;eCTBeHHoro B CBOeH: nepBOOCHOBe MaTepHaAa. 31'0 MomHO Ha6AID,1I;aTb B nercmax q>opMax BapHal!HM, rzte MY3bIKa, nsrrexaa H3 O,1l;HOrO nepBOHCTOKa, B CBoeM pa3BHTHH nonaer PYKy MY3bIKe, q>opMoBaHHoH no npanl!Hny KOHTpaCTHOCTH (coaa'moe axxerpo ). TaKoBa, aanpaaep, noCAe,1l;HRR 'IaCTb r epOH'IeCKOH: CHMq>OHHH oeTxoBeHa, r,1l;e nyre aaPHal!HOHHoro H BapHaHTHoro pa3BHTHR MaTepHaAa He YCTynaeT no paaxaxy caoesiy H HanpHmeHHID KOHTpaCTHOH: TeMaTH'IeCKOH paspa60TKe I 'IaCTH.

Pa3Ho06pa3He BH,1I;OB nOBTopHID~erOCH ,itBHmeHHH roasaecraeaaoro MaTepHaAa He n03BOAHeT noxa KAaCCHq>Hl!HpOBaTb ace nO,1l;06- Horo pop;a q>0pMo06pa30BaHHH. OrpaHH'Iycb YKa3aHHeM TOAbKO Ha HaH60Aee «xonxae» BH,1I;b!. ABa eCTeCTBeHHblX nonpaazexeaan aercrynaror caMH C060ID. 81'0 - TO'lHOe H HeTO'lHOe nOBTopeHHI'~ MY~ 3bIKH B OTHorneHHH ee npO,1l;OAmHTeAbHOCTH, B OTHorneHHH npasaeceHHH opHaMeHTal!HH, a TaKme B OTHorneHHH nOBTopHOCTH ,1I;BHme~ HRR Tex me 9AeMeHTOB, HO B 06paTHoM nOpH,1I;Ke HAM B OTpameHHH, B 06pa~eHHH H T. ,11;. 4aHHbIe BH,1I;bl YCAomHHIDTCR B03MomHOCTbID O,1l;HOBpeMeHHoro npOBe,1l;eHHR HeKOTopbIX noaropnsrx ,1I;BHmeHHH:

B pa3HbIX roxocax. Hanpavep, B nOAHq>OHH'IeCKHX rpopaax - OP;HO~ .apexenaoe npoaenenae TeMbl B pacurapeuaa H B HopMaAbHOM ee 06AHKe HAH me B YMeHbllIeHHH H B nop;AHHHOM BH,1I;e, a TaKme B npRMOM H 06paTHOM ,1I;BHmeHHH paCXO,1l;R~1-IXCR 1-1 c6AHmalO1f!Hxc1i rOAOCOB. B «Junge Lieder» opaMca (op, 63), B nepaoa HB HHX (<<Meine Liebe ist grun»), nocxeanero rnna npHeM aapaaarnoro

3-1:

nOBTopeHIUI n03BOAHeT KOMn03HTOpy nOCTpOHTb «nAOTHO» 3aMblKaIOIgHH tJ;BHmeHHe BOKaAbHOrO rOAOCa HHCTpYMeHTaAbHblH orerrpsnn:

,I

B YBepTIOpe K «PYCAaHY», B KOtJ;e, r AHHKa YCHAHBaeT npHeMOM otipargenaoro nOBTOpemIH (B TO'lHOM 06paIgeHHH TeMbl H con poBomtJ;aIOJ,geH ee xpOMaTH'IeCKOH raMMbl) npH6AHmeHHe MOMeHTa «pa3BH3KfI» scero tJ;BflmeHflH ysep-noper. OH nOtJ;rOTOBAHeT nOtJ;06- HblM nepeMeIgal{)IgHMCH rrorrropenaea nerrocpeacraenno CAetJ;YIOIgee nOHBAeHHe geAoToHHOH raMMbl fI nOCAe ee rroaropaoro npOBetJ;eHflHaa 9TOT pas C 6YKBaAbHbiM nOCAetJ;OBaTeAbHbIM nos-ropeaaen - M n P M B e tJ; e H M H tJ;BMmeHHH K KatJ;aHCOBOH !fJopMYAe yraepasnaer TOHMKY nocpencraoa crperrnoro npofiera (T. e., B CYIgHOCTM, nYTeM Tome noaropaoro tJ;BHmeHHH B pasasrx roxocax ) r AaBHOH TeMbl. B KOtJ;e 9TOH tJ;aH KAaCCll'leCKllH npaxiep tJ;llHaMll3agllll.... paaaarna MY3bIKH as nOBTopHbIX npoaenenaii B caMoH rrocxeaneii, 3aMbIKaIOIgeH see pa3BHTHe yeep'noper, CTatJ;llH tJ;BI12KeHllR.

yiTaK, nOBTopHIOIgeecH tJ;BH2KeHlle B OtJ;HOM II TOM 2Ke rOAoce-- 6YKBaAbHoe II He6YI<BaAbHoe: OHO acer zta HBAReTCH nOCAetJ;OBaTeAbHblM (rop1l30HTaAbHbIM), rorna KaK npa tJ;ByX llAll HeCKOAbKllX r-oxocax npOllCXOtJ;llT YCA02KHeHlle B CllAY npasneceaaa B03MomHO-

38

CTeH neprnxaxumsx nepeYCTaHOBOK (pa3AH'IHbIX THnOB nOB1'Ope,' HllH), a raxase B CllAY npllMeHeHllH ocofioro BlltJ;a rOpI130HTaAbHOnOtJ;BHmHoro noaropeaaa - HMllTagllll. B nOCAetJ;HeM cxysae B03HHxaer Y2Ke MOMeHT pasnooripaaaa, npHtJ;al{)lgllH tJ;BllmeHlll{) 60AbllIOH , mrrepec II MY3blKaAbHblH CMblCA, ror.aa KaK npocroe noaropeaae asraeraae'r B CAllllIKOM MaAOH crerrenn Olll,YIgeHHe npoaoxasaeMOCTH tJ;BH2KeHHH.DoBTopeHlle He CTOAbKO HMeeT 3Ha'IeHHe B036ytJ;HTeAH tJ;BllmeHllH, CKOAbKO cxyxcar cpeacraou 60Aee npO'IHOrO aaxpenxenna B naMHTH aannoro COOTHOllIeHHH 3BYKOB. Hanpaxep. COOTHOllIeHlle (a: b) + (a : b) + (a : b) etc., * 6YtJ;Y'lll nOBTopHeMO O'IeHb AOAro, Bbl30BeT OIgyIgeHlle MOHOTOHHOCTll II B KOHge KOHgos HenO,'l;BHmHOCTH. CAYX nocnpaaer 9TO KaK paaaanarorgeeca p;BllmeHHe TOAbKO npa nepasrx noaropeanax, B 3aBllCllMOCTH OT KOAll'IeCTBa 3BY'IaHllH II CAomHOCTH ax B KamtJ;OM ns p;aHHblX 9AeMeHTOB. I1Ha'Ie ronopa, 6YKBaAbHoe noaropenae 6yp;eT BocnpllHllMaTbCH xa« p;BHmeHlle P;O 'rex nop, noxa 6yp;eT narepec KcpaBHeHllIO, pa3AH'IeHllIO H aanosraaaaaro. KaK TOAbKO 9TOT mrrepec ncsepnaerca, TaK notrropeaae CTaHOBllTCH p;ocap;HbIM. ECAH B3HTb aaa aficoAIOTHO HHToHaglloHHo Tomp;ecTBeHHblx 3BYK09AeMeHTa (a: a) + + (a: a), TO CTllMYAOB K cpa B H e H II IO no-rm COBceM He OKameTCH, H60 pa3AH'IllH, Bbl3BaHHble TaKTOBblM aKgeHToM, llAll XOTH 6bl cooraonrenas P;AHTeAbHOCTeH Memp;y a II a [nanpaaep:

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TOAbKO BHeCTll B tJ;aHHoe Tomp;ecTBo MOMeHT llHToHaglloHHoro pa3- AH'IHH, XOTH 6bl B caMOM npllMllTllBHOM otixmce - nonropeaae B OKTaBY (A: a), KaK yase CTHMYA K cpanneaaro 6yp;eT HaAHgo. VI ecxn BBeCTll B HHToHagllIO xapaxrepnerii TeM6p, TO CAYX, C mrrepeCOM 6YtJ;eT BocnpHHHMaTb rasoe COOTHOllIeHHe, npn ero nOBTOp-

HblX B03BpaIgeHHHX, KaK tJ;BHmeHlle. .~_

B BOCbMOH CHM!fJOHHH EeTXOBeHa, B !fJllHaAe, nOBTOpHl{)IgHeCH OKTaBbI !fJarOToB H AHTaBp orgytgarorcx KaK !fJaKTOp, opr aaaaylOrgHH tJ;BHmeHlle, KaK opraanuecxaii 9AeMeHT B 06rgeM paaaepreraaaaa MY3blKH H KaK CTHMYA 9Toro pasaep'reraaaaa. "4eM CllAbHee PllTMO-llHToHagHoHHoe pa3AH'Ille P;BYX HAH HeCKOAbKllX nOBTopHO COnpH'2KeHHblX 9AeMeHTOB, TeM 60Abrue OKa3bIBaeTCH CTllMYAOB K cpa B H e H II IO Y cxyxa, TeM 60AbllIe p;BHmeHHe Hymp;aeTCJ.I B nOBTopeHHH II TeM eCTeCTBeHHee 9TO noaropeaae nocnpnnmsaerca KaR CTHMyA K npOtJ;BHmeHHIO MY3bIKH. I1MeHHo H3 rasoro pozta

* 8TO - YCAOB'Hble o6061!!eHHble 0603HaQeH'lUI, noa xoropere MorYT 6bITb nOAcTaBAeHbI AI06ble KOMnAeKCbl TOHOB. (eM. rarose nepBYIO CHOCKY na CTp. 162.-

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HeHs6eamOCTH ~BOHHOrO YCBOeHIUI asrrexaror CTOAb 06blqHbie B K.II.aCCHqeCKOH MY3blKe nOBTOpeHHH Kam~OrO oraexa H3.11.araeMOH nepe~ BapIfagHHMH TeMbl H - 'ITO eIge nOKa3aTe.ll.bHee - nOBTOpeHHe BCeH 9Kcn03HgHH B COHaTHOM axxerpo.

DpOCTeHUme BH,ll;bl HeTOm,ll;eCTBeHHOrO nOBTOpeHHH nOAyqalOTCH npa nposeaeaaa OII;HOH H TOH me <P0PMY.II.bl conpaaseana B opnaMeHTa.ll.bHO-BapHaHTHOM «aapxae», KOr,ll;a B KOHCTpYKTHBHOM OTHOlIIeHHH see OCTaeTCH HeH,3MeHHbIM. Tome noxysraerca npa PHTMHqeCKOM pa3,ll;p06.11.eHHH 3BYKOB, rrpn 06paIgeHHH axxopaa B apneamHpoBaHHblH 06.11.HK * H T. ,ll;. - C.II.OBOM, npH BceB03MomHbiX ,ll;eKOpaTHBHbIX H <pHrypagHoHHblX H3MeHeHHHX OCHOBHoro BH,ll;a COOTHOllIeHHH 3BYKOB. B CYIgHOCTH ronopa, aazse TOqHOe nonropeane MY3blKH B paansrx TOHa.ll.bHOCTHX npaaaaxeasar - npa YCAOBHH 6.11.H3KOrO TOHa.ll.bHOrO pO,ll;CTBa - K BH,ll;y·npocTeHlIIHx HeTOm,ll;eCTBeHHblX nOBTopeHHH. Ho '1eM oraaxeaaee TOHa.ll.bHOCTH zpyr OT ,ll;pyra H '1eM ocrpee H BbmYK.II.ee TOHa.ll.bHo-KO.ll.0pHCTHqeCKHH KOHTpaCT, TeM 60AbllIe OCHOBaHHH y cxyxa ,ll;.II.H «cpaBHHTeAbHbIX cym,ll;eHHH», TeM HHTeHCHBHee BocnpHHTHe TOHaAbHoro pa3AH'IHH npH Tom,ll;eCTBeHHOM MaTepHaAe KaK CTHMYAa K II;BHmeHHIO H, C.II.e,ll;OBaTeAbHO, KaI~ O<POpMAHIOIgero qiaxropa. B CHM<POHHHX, O,ll;HaKO, na 60AbllIHX pacCTOHHHHX, npHeM nOBTopeHHH 60.ll.bllIHX 9nH30,ll;OB B paspatiorxe B BHlI;e napaxxexenoro rrponeaeaaa P.X B paanerx TOHa.ll.bHOCTHX ('1aIge scero B TepgoBoM OTHOllIeHHH) He scer-na Bbl3blBaeT orgytgeaae HanpHmeHHOCTH ,ll;BHmeHHH H noaaasaer ,ll;paMaTH3M H ,ll;HHaMHKY pa3BHTHH. Eho Ha6.11.lO,ll;aeTcH y illYMaHa (HanpHMep, B I '1aCTH YeTBepToH CHM<POHHH B paspaoorxe - nosropeaae 60AbllIoro anasona B COOTHOllIeHHH MaAOH TepgHH, HAH B I '1aCTH DepBoH CHM¢OHHH, Tome B paspaoorxe - noaropeane Tome 60AbllIoro anasona B KBHHTOBOM COO'l'HOllIeHHH). beTXOBeH noxesyerca rroaotiHbIM npHeMOM pa3pa60TKH B I '1aCTH Il.lecroii (Tlacropaxeaofi) CHM<POHHH.** PHMCKHH-KopcaKoB YMeAO npHMeHHeT nO,ll;06HOrO pozta nponeaemre KaK cpeacrao CHM<poHH'IeCKOro pa3BHTHH B rearpa.ll.bHOH MY3bIKe, B oc06eHHOCTH B CTaTHKO-,ll;eKopaTHBHbIX H onacarexsnerx (H306pa311Te.ll.bHbIX) MOMeHTax. OH naer B paHHOM OTHOllIeHH~ no c-ronax J\IlCTa. K 9TOMY rrpuesry eIge npanercx sepHYTbCR.

Ha060poT, npaxreuerrne nOBTopeHHH O,ll;HOH II TOH..,me MY3blKll B pa3Hbix Aa,ll;aX (Mamop - MHHOpP..II.H MHHOP - Mamop) KAaCCHKaMH oIgYIga.ll.OCb KaK HPKHH KOHTpacT. 06 9TOM cnanerexecrayior ax aapaagan, rae, nanpaxep, MIIHopHoe rrpoaeztenae TeMbl C.II.ymHAo He06xo,ll;HMb1M cpe,ll;CTBOMpa3pymeHHH TOHa.ll.bHOH MOHOTOHHOCTH. MHHopHaH BapHal!HH B geHTpe MamopHblx socrrpauaaaxacs oseae pexserpao H BocnpHHHMaeTCH TaK H renepe, H60 CAYX Ham 06.11.a-

* DPH nepeueceuaa B .l(pyrHe per-nc rpet H npa TeM6poBbIX pa3AHQHlIX.

** B CpOTHOUIeHHH C e K y H .l( ° B ° M, BlIyTpH 2Ke noaropnoro anasona rrpaxeaeuer repgosere TOHaAbHble OTHOUIeHHlI, QeM CMlIrQaeTClI KOHTpaCT.

40

~aeT 3aMeqaTeAbHoH .cnocoriaocreio pery AHpOBaTb socnpaar ae Ii crenens ero OCTPOTbl cootipaaao CTHAIO MY3bIKH, H MHoroe, 'ITO B COBpeMeHHOH MY3blKe nOKameTCH BHAbIM, 3ByqHT KaK CMe.ll.blH KOHTpaCT 13 MY3blKe aaoro THna Mblm.ll.eHHH. DOCAe pana ¥amopHbIX npOBe,ll;eHHH TeMbl ('1aCTO B BH,ll;e opHaMeHTaAbHO-,ll;eKOpaTHB,. HbIX BapHaHTOB ee) MHHOP C031l;aBaA 0IgYIgeHHe n e pe x 0 M a ,lI;BHmeHllH, H BCAe,ll;CTBHe aroro, HeCOMHeHHO, ,lI;aHHbIH npaea npeanO'lHTaACH nposenenmo TeMbl B TOM me xaay, HO B apyr ax TOHaAbHOCTHX.

I1CTOPHH pa3BHTHH aapnagaonasrx <pOPM, B KOTOPbIX npHHgHn TOm,ll;eCTBa (<<Y3HaBaHHe CXO,ll;CTBa») ,lI;OMHHllpyeT scegexo Ha.1 npHHgHnoM KOHTpaCTa (<<KOHCTaTH_POBaHHe pa3AHqHH») H nazt CTpeMAeHHeM BblPOBHHTb ero ,lI;aAbHeHllIHM ,lI;BHmeHHeM HAH me ycyry6HTb HOBblMH KOHTpaCTaMH,- aaer B03MomHOCTb nOCTeneHHO npocxemrre 9BOAIOgHIO nee 60Aee H 60Aee CMeAbIX H ,lI;aAeKHX OTXO,ll;OB H OTKAOHeHHH OT 6AH3KHX H nO,ll;06HbiX nOBTopeHHH K noBTopeHHHM KOHTpaCTHbIM. B HHX Y3HaBaHHe CXO,ll;CTBa npOHCXO,ll;HT nYTeM ,lI;OArOrO H ,lI;AHTeAbHoro npacnocofixenaa cxyxa K '1ym,ll;bIM, HaCAOHlimHMCH B npogecce BapbHpOBaHHH 9AeMeHTaM. B CAOmHbl1( COBpeMeHHblX sapaagaax Ha6AIO,lI;aeTCH ropaaao MeHee nocreneaaoe orxoasaeaae OT nepBH'IHOrO 06AHKa TeMbl, '1eM B BapHagHHx xxacCHKOB, H, HHaH CHAbHO pa3BHTaH' BapHagHH e<raHOBHTCH HaCTOAbKO OT ,il;aAeHHoH OT caoeii nepBOOCHOBbl H 3aKAIO'IaeT B ce6e CTOAbKO KOHTpaCTHblX HOBo06pa30BaHHH, 'ITO BocnpHHHMaeTCH CAYXOM xa« CHAbHblH TOA'IOK K ,ll;aAbHeHllIeMY ,lI;BHmeHHIO H HCKaHHIO CHHTe3a. Ho KaK pas TO 06CTOHTeAbCTBO, 'ITO B aapaagaoanerx <popMax ncerna npeanoxaraerca TOm,ll;eCTBeHHbIM nepBOCTHMYA ,lI;BHmeHHII (TeMa),- ,lI;ae.T npaso rrpoaoxasare BCHKoe BapHaHTHO-BapHa!!HOH-

/ Hoe ,ll;BHmeHJ1e 6eCnpe,ll;eAbHO, T. e. C'IHTaTb ary <POpMy p a 3 0", ( M K H Y T ~ H. '\Be,ll;b KaK 6bl HH 6blA 6.11.eCTHIg H ,ll;HHaMH'IeCKH'HpOlt'-/1 ,.g,_H_H,!~ AI06blX BapHagHH - B npaagane MomHO MblCAHTh sa HHM eIge 60Aee CHAbHYIO BapHagHIO! ••

YT06bl He npaaoaare MHomeCTBa npaxepon nocrenenaoro pasBOpa'lHBaHI1H H YCAomHeHHH aapaagaoanerx <POpM C TO'lKH 3peHHH nOCTeneHHOH ,lI;H<p<pepeHgHagHlf Tom,ll;eCTBeHHblX MOMeHTOB H «aaTpY,ll;HeHHH» Y3HaBaHlfH CXO,ll;CTBa, MomHO COCAaTbCH na geAblH pH,lI; OOAee H.II.ll MeHee H3BeCTHbIX BapHagHH B HCTOpHqeCKOH IIOCAe,ll;OBaTeAbHOCTH. bblAO 6bl HeMblCAHMO asxarare mar aa tnarox POCT pa3AHqHH B paxxax nOB TOp HOC T H KaK npnagana <POpMHpOBaHHH. TOAbKO H3Y'leHHe npOH3Be,ll;eHHH HAH XOTH 6bl npOCMOTP HX 6blCTPO nOMorYT YCBOHTb xoz pa3BHTHH. Bbl,ll;aIOIgHMHCH no MaCTepCTBY H Bblpa3HTeAbHOCTH BapHagHHMH H BapHagHHMH «B Mepy» aceraa 6Y,ll;YT Te, B KOTOPblX ,ll;BHmeHHe, ,ll;HHaMHqeCKH aapacras, He n03BO.ll.HeT, O,ll;HaKO, COBceM norepnre qYBCTBO CBH3H Mem,ll;y 3BeHbHMH O,ll;HOH I,!enH. C-moll'Hble 32 BapHagHH beTXoBeHa H 33 sapaaI,!HH na BaAbC .l{Ha6eAAH, CHM<poHHqeCKHe 9TIO,lI;bl Il.lyuaaa, pHA aa pHagHH b pC/Mca, H C pe,ll;H HHX oc06eHHO aa TeMY r eunexa,

1

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41

3aTeM BapHagHl1 H3 T peTbeH CIOHTbl 4aHKOBCKOrO, BapHa~HH H3 CTPYHHOrO KBHHTeTa C tJ;BYMH BHOAOH'IeAHMH Taneeaa n03BOAHIOT ~OBOAbHO nOCAe~OBaTeAbHO npOCAetJ;HTb nYTb pa3BHTHH npogeccoB <l)QpMOBaHHH H3 TOm~eCTBeHHOrO MaTepHaAa aa OCHOBe npnngana nOBTopHOCTH - OT nepasrx s» nOCAe~HHX ~ecHTHAeTHH XIX sexa. 03HaKoMAeHHe me C HCTOpH'IeCKH rrocrenenasnr npH6AHmeHHeM J( YKa3aHHblM npOH3Be~eHHHM BbIClliHX H CAomHbIX <pOpM ~OCTHraeTCH H3Y'leHHeM BHtJ;OB aapnagnoaaoro !popMoBaHHH npH6J1.H3HTeAbHo C XVI sexa. AY'IllIHe noc06HR B ~aHHOM OTHoq:reHHH-3TO differencias (<<tJ;H<p<pepeHcHa») IfcnaHCKHX .d\IOTHHCTOB H opraHHCTOB XVI CTOAeTIfR, division (<<~IfBIfllIHH») H grPllnd .( «r paynn») aar AHHCKHX BHOAIfCTOB H BeptJ;mIfHaJ\HCTOB XVI-XVII CTOJ\eTHH If doubles (<<Ay6Ab») rppaagyscrcax KAaBeCHHHCTOB XVII-XVI II CTOAeTIfH.

MomHo HaMeTIfTb TPIf r xannsre cTaAIfH B <lBOAlOgIfH BapHagIfH C TO'lKH 3peHHR YBeAIf'leHIfH TPY~HOCTH Y3HaBaHllR CXO~CTBa. FlepBaH CTaAH.lI- 3TO xor-aa CAYX etge He MomeT paCCTaTbC.lI C OCHOBaHHeM HJ\If 6a30H, HatJ; KOTOPOH 'IepetJ;YIOTCH MeJ\OtJ;If'leCKIfe HOBO- 06pa30BaHIfH. Eac Bce BpeMH nOBTopHeT If36paHHoe COOTHOllIeHHe 3BYKOB HAIf TeMY (oTclOtJ;a aHrAIfHCKoe Ha3BaHHe ~AH TaKoro pOAa BapHagIfH IfJ\H Tom~eCTBeHHblX oopaaoaanaii: ground). <POPMbl naccaxaxua H 'IaKOHbl CYTb npHAomeHIfR aror-o npnagana. CJ\etJ;YIOIgaH CTatJ;llH - 9TO xor tJ;a KOMn03HTOp OTKa3blBaeTCH OT MOHOTOHHoro TO'lHorO nOBTopeHIfH OCHOBHOH <P0PMYAbI BapbHpOBaHIfH B 6acy, HO, coxpaaxa B HenpIfKOCHOBeHHOCTIf KOHCTPYKgHIO TeMbl HAH geAoH He60AbllIoH nsecer, sarpyasaer ee npn nOBTopeHHIf yxpallIeHIfHMIf, opHaMeHTaMH (9TO If ecru rppangyacxne doubles). HaKOHeg, TpeTbH CTatJ;HH - BapHagIfM C oxen» nOCTeneHHbIM pacxpiaTHeM B03MomHOCTeH TeMbl - OT 'IHCTO ~eKO~aTlIBHOrO AO CIfM<P0HH'IeCKH pasaaroro npoaeneana ee. OT r eHtJ;eAH H Eaxa K MogapTY H EeTXOBeHY a OT Hero K BapHagH.lIM pOMaHTIfKOB H COBpeMeHHblX KOMn03IfTop~B nyra 9TOT ace 60Aee YCAomHHeTC.lI. KpaHHe HCTOpH'IeCKH nOKa3aTeJ\bHbIMIf, KaK aoaopaaaex MemtJ;Y BapHagHHMH KaHoHIf'lecKo-KoHTpanYHKTu'IecKoro CTHAH H BapIfagHHMH rOMO<pOHHo-rapMOHH'IeCKHMIf, oKa3bIBaH?Tc~ ~O BapIfagHH H.-C. Eaxa Gvdur (Aria con XXX Var iazioni ), nORBHBllIHeCH OKOAO 1742 rozta. Bce yxaaaaasre CTa~HU OTHIOtJ;b He CJ\etJ;OBaAH zrpyr aa APyroM crporo XpOHOAOrH'IeCKH, n, aanpavep, aapnaguounoe <PopMOBaHHe MaTepIfaAa Ha HeH3MeHHOM 6acy (THn naccaKaAbH H 'laKOHbl) .lIBJ\HeT 60J\bllIYIO mH3HeHHOCTb. B 1885 roay B cBoeH 4eTBepToH CHM<pOHIfH EpaMc C03tJ;aA MOHYMeHTaAbHblH <pHHaA, '6a- 3HPY.llCb na OCTHHaTHOH yrrpyroii AHHHH BOCbMHTaKTHOH e-rnol l'noii TeMbl, 3aMe'laTeAbHOH CBOllM MeAotJ;H'leCKHM nanpaaseaaen, KOTOpoe ~OCTHraeTCH TeM, 'ITO nOAYTOH, nOMergeHHblH na nRTOM TaKTe (noasrmenaaa IV cryneus ), BHOCHT HPKYIO «HHTOHagHoHHYIO aCHMMeTpHIO» B ABHmeHIfe TeMbl, paspyurax CBOHM THrOTeHHeM 'leTHOCTb:

e1 : fisl : gl : al : aisl : hI : h : el.

42

. I

"

B03BpaIgaHCb K npOCTeHllIHM HeTom~eCTBeHHbIM nOBTopeHHHM MOTHBa HAH TeMbl npn O,1l;HOrOAOCHOH <paKType, cxeayer YKa3aTb erge aa HeCAomHble THnbl oriparaoro ,1I;BHmeHHR, n03BOARIOIgHe eocnpaaaaare ero KaK C II M MeT P H lJ H 0 nOB TOp Hoe. Eho <popMYAa: (a: b)+(b: a). BH,1I;bl ero xpaiine pasnoofipaaner. OT npHMHTHBHeHllIero nOCTpoeHHH MOTHBa H3 tJ;BYX HOT

2

, J J IJ J I

tJ;0 MeAO,ll,H'IeCKHX <p0pMy J\ Eaxa - nepsoii Cvdur' H~H <Pym, H~ «Wohltemperiertes Klavier» H oc06eHHO eige nepaon Cvdur HOH HHBeHt!IfH C xapaxrepnenr ,i1AH Eaxa npHeMOM MeAOtJ;H'IeCKOrO BOCxomAeHHR CKa'lKaMH H sanoxneaaoro TeCHblMH HHTepBaAaMH 06- parnoro ,1I;BHmeHHR C npHMeHeHHeM ceKBeHgHH. STOT npHeM naCTOAbKO lJaCTO npIfMeHHeTOI Eaxov, 'ITO cAymIfT KAlO'IOM K nOHIfMaHHIO oanoro H3 OCHOBHblX npnaganoa tJ;BHmeHHR H <popMOBaHHR MaTepHaAa B ero MY3bIKe: ,1I;HHaMHKa cxavxa nO'lTH BCer,1l;~ yCTYnaer MeCTO nOCTerreHHOMY nAaBHOMY CHHmeHHIO K HCXO,1l;HOIf TOlJKe (HAll HHme ee, eCAH He06xo,1l;HMO npO,1l;OAmHTb tJ;BIfmeHHe).* 4acroe npnweaenae ceKBeHgHH npaaaer HeKOTOpylO naCCHBHOCTb Ta· KOMY CHHmeHHIO, H OHO BocnpHHIfMaeTCH KaK ,11; B H me H Hen 0 H H e P g H H. (HeBOAbHO B03HHKaeT anaxoraa H3 06AaCTH MYCKY AbHO-MOTOPHbIX OIgyIgeHHH npn nOtJ;'beMe B ropy HAIf no xecruage, xorna ,1I;BHmeHHe nsepx BbI3bIBaeT meAaHIfe xpynasrx maroa HAH npmzsxoa xepes c-rynean, TortJ;a KaK npa cnycxe tJ;BHmeHue CTaHOBllTCR . MeAblJe, 3anOAHeHHee H nOCAe,1l;OBaTeAbHO ImepTHee - He B CMblCAe nCHXOAOrIf'leCKOM - 06bltJ;eHHOM, KaK npH3HaK 6e3BOJlHR, a B CMblCAe 6HOMeXaHH'IeCKOM, KaK Heo6xo,1l;HMOCTb TopMomeHHR n nocryrreaaocrn, 'IT06bl H36emaTb tJ;ellCTBHH YCKOeeHHR.) YKa3aHHblH npHHgHn - O,1l;IfH U3 OCHOBHblX B 6aXOBCKOH MexaHHKe. Ou npHMeHHeTCRHM H B rpyrax, 'IT06bl OTTeHHTb tJ;HHaMIflJeCKOe aanpmsenae B MOMeHTbl 'IHCTO TeMaTHlJeCKOll (<<ClOmeTHOH») sxcno- 3UgllH OT ,Il;BHmeHHH no HHepgHu, CBR3bIBalOIgero 3TH MOMeHTbl H nepeaergarotgero geHTpbl 3By'l~HHR. STO TaK Ha3blBaeMble HHTepMe,ll,llll HAll llHTepAlO,1I;HU.

HHBeHgHH Eaxa coaepacar MHoro B03MomHOCTen ,Il;AH Ha6AIO,Il;eHHJl3a MHorOpa3AIflJHbiMIf cnocofiaxra <popMOBaHIfJl MaTepHaAa nyTeM npasroro H B03BpaTHoro ,Il;BIfmeHHR, TaK KaK OHH n03BOARIOT CAet\HTb aa Kam,1l;blM rOAOCOM B OT,1I;eAbHOCTH U O,1l;HOBpeMeHHO sa npORBAeHIfeM aroro poz;a npoaaaacenaa B nOAH<poHHlJeCKOli qiaxrype, YMeHHe Eaxa pa3BHBaTb ,1I;BHmeHHe U3 TOm,1l;eCTBeHHblX npeanocsr-

* KaK yBl!,'I;UM 1I0CAe, 9Ta CMeHa ,'I;BI!.lKeHl!n CKa'lKaMI! I! nxasnoro pexsecpHo npoaaxaercn B CTOAb'KI!X Bl!,'I;aX MYSbIKI!, 'ITO raxoe 1I0CTOnHsCTBO 1I0SBOAneT BI!,'I;eTb S,'I;eCb O,'l;'IfH us Sa'KQHOB MYSbI'KaAbHoro otpopuxeaaa, TO'lHO TaK lKe, .KaK saKOHO'MepHbI sepeaosaaaa pac-raaseana I! coxpargenas (CTnrI!BaHl!lI) 3BYIWKOMlIAeKCOB.

43

AOK nopaasaer na Kam~OM wary. DpHMeH1IH npHeMbI npOBe~eHH}1 MaTepHaAa B YBeAHtIeHHH H B YMeHbwemm, a TaKme B 06paIgeHHH, T. e. nOAb.3YHCb npHHgHnaMH cpopMOBaHHH, npHcyrgHMH HMHTagHOHHO-KaHOHH'IeCKOMY CTHAfO, OH C nOMorgbfO HeMHorHX, B cyigHOCTH, npnaganoa ~06HBaeTCH HCKAfO'IHTeAbHoro MHoro06pa3HH B nperaopenan O~HHX H Tex me, B3HTblX aa HCXO~HbIH HMnYAbC, 3BYKOCOOTHoweHHH.

KOHe'IHO, npHHgHn HMHTagHH BblcTynaeT B ~aHHOM OTHoweHHH KaK nepBH'IHbIH H BMeCTe C TeM KOAoccaAbHO nAo~oTBOpHbIH. 11.306,. peTeHHe HAH «HaXO~Ka» B csoe BpeMH * HMHTagHH OTKpbIAa BO.3-

* [le.pBble npHMeHeHHll HMHTa!!UH O'THOCllTCll, corxacao COBpeMeHHblM aasrCKa'HHllM, K XII ,BeKY. ::11'0 npaeer repetito vocis,

UUTHPYIO KpaHue xapaxrepasui npHMe-p 'CpeJlHeBeCfWBOH HM'HTa!!HH XIII B

(H3 KOJleKCa H3 Mounexse ), KaK OH npHBOJlHTCll M. B r e net

B «Dictionnaire pratique et historique de 1a Musique» (Paris, 1926):

3

1\
l: s· on ~ ~ e u
- g.ar - d. son me - re - ga~ - de
oI ~ '- ~_:w ;st & Q etc

ShoT 2Ke npnxrep npH~JleH Y P H M a H a B «Musikgeschichte in Beispielen» (Lpz., 191 i). Oxene MHoro npasrepoa pa3AH'IHOrO runa «nOBTopHbIX» npoBeJlcHIiH B npHMHTHBax MHororOAOCHll (<t>OPMbl 0 6 M e H a T02KJleCTBeHHbIMH HHTOHa!!HJlMH B pa3AH'IHbIX roxocax] npnaeneao R paoore I. M ii I Ie r - B I a t - t a u. «Grundzuge einer Geschichte der Fuge» (Konigsberg, 1923). TaM )!(e o6wHpHa1l6H6AHorpa<t>Hll no JlaHHoOMY MaTepHaAY. 4aAee: «The Oxford History of Music», Vol. 1. «The Polyphonic Period» by H. E. W'O 0 I d rid g e (Oxford,1901).

BoOT neOKoOAbKoO JlaHHblX B caMOM C2KaTUM BHJle npauepoa H3 MH02Ke'CTBa TaKOBblX B nepacn ToOMe ynuMll'HYTOH «ORC<t>OPJl'ClKOH HCTOPUH MY3bIKH» (coxpatg. WoOoldridge, CTp. )- npasrepoa H3 :moOXH MHororoAoOcHllXIIXIV BB. (organa), B KUToO'PbIX npHH!!'Hn nOBTupnOCTH nj)oOll'BAlleTCll B «06- MeH'e roOAOCoOB» (aepaee «noneaox» H Bo0061!le To02KJleCT,BeHHbIX MeAOJlH'IeCKHX 06pa30BaHHH) H B CeKBeH!!HllX:

4

It ::' -r:: I; I: ': I:: I;: I; t :;;,,,1

..,1 (VVooldrldge 2101

B cantus firmus'e TJ'lHeTCJ'I TOH C.

44

B cantus firmus'e TJiHeTCll TUH d.

MomnOCTb nOAHcpOHHOrO ropHSOnTaAbnO-nO~I3HmnOrO pacwHP:H1i>l My.3bIKH - npO~BHmeHHH H.3 e~HHOH npe~nOCbIAKH. 4aHHbIH H OcpopMAeHHbIH B· HeKOeM COnpHmeHHH MaTepHaA nOAY'IHA HMnyAbc K ~BHmeHHfO H3 canoro ceoa, T aKHM 06pa.30M CAyX H nasorr», erge He npaaerxunre K OXBaTblBaHHfO nOAHcpOHH'IeCKOrO MY.3bIKaAbnoro ~BHmeHHH na 60AbHIHX paCCTOHHHHX, HMeAH nOCTOHHHYfO TO'IKY onoper B nOBTopHeMOCTH n P 0 H B A e H H H O~HOH H TOH me HHToHagHoHHoH CPOPMYAbI. MY.3bIKaAbHoe ~BHmeHHe nOAY'IaAO BO.3MOmHOCTb pa.3BHTHH yase B CHAY nOCTOHHCTBa nepeapergaaanaa Tom~eCTBeHHbIX 9AeMeHTOB B pa3HbIX roxocax B pasaoe BpeMH, roraa KaK B Kam~bIH ~aHHbIH MOMeHT npOHCXO~HT conpHKOCHOBeHHe HHToHagHH KOHTpaCTHbIX. 3~eCb He06xo~HMO nO~'IepKHYTb. 'ITO npocroe nepeaeigeaae Tom~eCTBeHHbIX9AeMeHTOB H3 roxoca B rOAOC, nosroraa no~~epmHBaTb ~BHmeHHe, He OKa.3bIBaeT ace me na Hero CTOAb HMnYAbCHBHoro B03~eHCTBHH, KaK HMHTagHH. aTO

, nOHHTHO. OPH HMHTagHH npOHCXO~HT B K A to 'I e H H e B O~Hy AH·· HHfO MeAO~H'IeCKOrO ~BHmeHHH ~pyroH, eH Tom~eCTBeHHOH; He npocroe npo.aox aceaae (noaropenae ) B ~pyroM roxoce, a HMeHHO ero B K A fO q e H H e ~O roro, KaK ~BHmeHHe nepBOAHHHH .3aMK~ HeTCH. aTO H 06YCAOBAHBaeT aaece B03MomHOCTb HeCKOH'IaeMOrO npO~OAmeHHH .3BY'IaHHH. B paHHHX cpOpMax cpe~HeBeKOBOH nOAHCPOHHH, KaK MbI TOAbKO 'ITO BH~eAH, Ha6AIO~aeTCH nOCTOHHHO 06~ MeH H nepesrergenae Tom~eCTBeHHbIX 9AeMeHTOB H3 roxoca B 1I0AOC, HO TO,AbKO cpaKT BKAfO'IeHHH noaoro roxoca B nesaaepureaaoe ~BH~ asenae nepsoro YCHAHBaA ~HHaMHKy ~BHmeHHH 6Aaro~apH HM~ ny xscapoaanmo ropH30HTaAbI-IOH nop;BHmHOCTH rOAOCOB. DpHHgHil Tom~eCTBeHHOCTH OCTaeTCH HeH3MeHHbIM BO scex BHp,ax HMHTagIH! H nepexoanr B pa3BHTHe cpOpMbI ee - B KaHOH. Pa.3BHTHe, YCHAe~

B cantus firmus'e TllHeTCJ'I TOH g.

45

HHe HanplImeHHOCTH MY.3bIKaAbHoro /1,BHmeHHlI B HMHTagHOHHoKaHOHH'IeCKOM CTHAe 3aBHCHT OT roro B xaxoii xrepe

rrpaexr ,npHMeHH1OTCJI

hI YBeAH'IeHHJI, YMeHbIIIeHHH, 06pargeHHH H B03BpaTHoro

/1,BHmeHHH, a(TaKme OT nepeaetgenaz BpeMeHH, paCCTOHHHH H MeCTa BCTYIIAeHHH aeprree: BKA1O'IeHHH) rOAOCOB.

---- -- KaHoH - 3TO 3aMKHYTaH B ~

caMOCTOHTeAbHblH opraaaax Ii

CTporo pagHoHaAhHO KOHCTpYHpOBaHHaH H TO'IHaH HMHTagHH KaK

OKpHCTa.l\AH30BaBIIIaHCH !popMa KaHOH B cynTH •

CTa 6 ' ..." OCTH, HBAHeTCH yase

THqeCKHM 0 pa30BaHHeM Ii MeXaHHqeCKOll /1,aHHocTb1O' B HeM

npHHgHil /1,BHmeHHJI H3 TOm/1,eCTBa B nO.l\HY1O npo ' '

ero me THBOnO.l\OmHOCTb

~ IIpOHB.I\eHH1O B BapHagHoHHbIX .!popMOBaHHHX /1,OBO/1,HTCH /1,0

KpaHHHX BbIBO/1,OB - /1,0 noxtroro oTpHgaHHJi H/1,eH pa3BHTHH XY/1,O-

asecraennoro opraHH3Ma H "eH . ~

( )' '" ,IIHTa1OrgeH KaK MOHOTeMaTHqeCKHe

BapH)!!HOHHble , TaK H IIOAHTeMaTHqeCKHe (COHaTa CHM!POHHH

POH/1,O !popMo06pa30BaHHH. n03TOMY He Y/1,HBHTe.l\b~O, 'ITO aBO~

. .l\1OgHH HMHTagHH KaK CTHMYAa K HHTeHCHBHOMY /1,BHmeHH1O He

4BYJ<rOAOCHbIM: KOHt\YKT (conductus duplex)·

~, .

,

(Wooldridge 254)

j

Si

Rondelus Ii

" II (CI)
oj OJ
" 1\ (eni ~A)
I " ·
" 1\ (A) (B)I
oj OJ t. " IA?
oJ oj
/I " (B)
oJ oj
/I " (el
OJ II .•. l

(Wi>oldlrldge. ;~2Q)

46

OCTaHOBH.I\aCb aa K a H 0 H e, a nOIII.I\a B HanpaB.I\eHHH K !p Y r ecosepureaaeiiureii !popMe HMHTagHoHHoro CTHMI.

<t>yra TaKme HB.I\HeTCH crporo 3aMKHYTbIM e/1,HHCTBOM H B aTOM OTHOllleHHH C6AHmaeTCH C KaHOHOM. Ho B npezexax /1,aHHoro e/1,UHCTBa OHa - B npOTHBOnO.l\OmHOCTb KaHOHY - npe/1,CTaBMleT C06010 He TO.l\bKO pagHoHaAbHO CKOHCTPYHpOBaHHbIll MexaHH3M, HO /1,HHaMU'IeCKOe !popMo06pa30BaHHe, nOCKOAbKY B HeH r AaBHbIM CBOllCTBOM Ha/1,O CqHTaTb He c06.1\1O/1,eHHe TO'IHOCTH HMHTagHu npn CTpOmanllIHX OrpaHH'leHHHX H TPY /1,HOCTJIX /1,OCTHmeHHH 3TOll TOqHOCTiI U He «cTa6H.I\H3agH1O» KOMn03Hguu /1,0 noxnoro n P e /1, 0 II P e /1, e - .1\ e HUH H MexaHH3agHH ncero npogecca o!popM.I\eHHH, a HeqTO COBceM otiparaoe: p o C T U P a 3 B H THe /1,BHmeHHH H3 MOHOTeMaTHqeCKOll npe/1,nOCbIAKH H.I\H H3 Tom/1,eCTBeHHoro npOBe/1,eHHH O/1,HOn H Ton me (coxpanmotgeii na BceM npOTHmeHHH !PyrH HeH3- MeHHbIMH COOTHOllIeHHH . 3BYK03.1\eMeHTOB) uHToHagHoHHon rpopMY.I\bI, cpasy me 06HapymHBaeMon B /1,BYX nxaaax (Bom/1,h H cnyrHHK) KaK /1,H!p!pepeHgHpoBaHHoe e/1,HHCTBO. Y raepasnemre TOHHKO/1,OMHHaHTOBOfO COOTHOIIIeHHH, KaK OHO JIBAeHO B 3KCII03HgHH !pyrH, 6hI.I\O - B CBoe BpeMH - xpaiiae cyrgecTBeHHbIM !paKTopOM O!pOpM.l\eHHH H CTHMY.l\OM HOBOH aBo.l\1OgHH. Pa3BHTHe /1,BHmeHHH, a COOTneTCTBeHHO TOMY H /1,HHaMHKa KOMII03HgHH COBepIIIeHHO He HMe1O-r saaseaas /1,.I\H !pOpMbI KaHOHa: B HeM BamHO rosnoe COBIIa/1,eHHeIIpU /1,aHHbIX TaKHX-TO H TaKHX-TO YC.I\OBHHX H IIpH COOTBeTCTBeHHO paCCqHTaHHbIX B K .1\ 10 'I e H H H X rOAOCOB - ncex HMuTagHoHHbIX XO/1,OB. noaTOMY TeMbI KaHOHa MorYT 6bITb 1:!_l!!2!:IalJ,!1_()HHO-/1,HHaMH-

\.1.1 _~'If!_CKH HeHTpa.l\bHbIMH H HeBblpa3HTeAbHbIMH. Hiw 6 ci·pOT , TeMbI l't !pyru /1,OAmHbI 6bITb MaKCHMa.l\bHO pe.l\beqllll:>IMH, ynpyrnsrn H noTeHgHa.l\bHO-/1,eHCTBeHHbIMH - B TOM CMbIC.I\e, 'ITO OHH /1,O.l\mHbI 06YC.I\OB.I\HBaTb H BbI3bIBaTb B03MOm.HOCTb pa3BHTHH /1,Bl,meHHH, He OrpaHHqeHHOrO TO'lHbIMH npenexaxa H paMKaMH. ABHmeHHe !pyrH (ero POCT H /1,HHaMHKa) 3aBHCHT OT TeMbI KaK sepna, KaK CTHMYAa, If" OT HaAH'IHH B Hell /1,aHHbIX K /1,BHmeHH1O. 3/1,eCb HeH::36emHO npHXO/1,HTCH BBO/1,HTb IIOHHTue 9HeprHH - 3BYKOBOH UAH TeMaTHqeCKOH, - IIOTOMY 'ITO naase He 06'bHCHHTb pasHugbI Mem/1,y MeXaHHqeCKH npe/1,YCTaHOBAeHHbIM, crporo 3aMKHyTbIM np0/1,BHmeHUeM KaHOHa U opraaasecsu pa3BHTbIM /1,BHmeHHeM

!pyru.

EC.I\H cpaamrre, narrpasrep, TeMY D-dur'HOll !pyrH H3 I qaCTH

«Wohltemperiertes Klavier» C TeMaMH cis-mol l'noii H es-moll'HoH !pyr OTTY /1, a me, TO CyrgHOCTb UX pa3AHqHH mHBO orgyrgaeTcH na CAyX, H Kam/1,OMY MY3bIKaHTY HCHO, 'ITO H3 D-dur'HOH TeMbI (Bparga10rgaHcH !pHfypa KaK npUfOTOB.I\eHHe K «npblmKY», KaK pasraax, .3aTeM CKaqOK na cexcry H «ycTYIIqaTbIH» XO/1, BHH3 K TO'lKe oTIIpaB.l\eHHH) He CMOfAU 6bI nsrpacrn HH narreaao-necenaaa «paBHHHHaH) rpyra, KaK es.moll, HH CypOBO-COCpe/1,OTOqeHllaH cis-moll'HaH !pyra.

\ _ Xapaxrep TeMbI HeCOMHeHHO npenonpeaexaer xapaxrep My3bIKH H

" /1,BHmeHHH !PYfH. Ho KaK 06'beKTHBHO 060CHOBaTb orgYI£eHHe aTHX

47

I,

V'

HeCOMHeHHblX ,lJ;aHHbIX, xoropere 06YCAOBAHBaAH 6bl HMeHHO TO, a He anoe B03,lJ;eHCTBHe TeMbl aa aecs CTPOH QlyrlH?

B TOHaAbHO~ CHC.TeMe, B. KO~OPOH opraHH3YIOTCH QlyrH Baxa, COOTHOIlIeHHe CIS: his , e : dis , CIS - TeMa cis-moll'HoH QlymHBAHeTCH HHTeHCHBHO conpaacernrsnr:

6 ~ Moderato e maestoso

)[!::; I,l: I.: I

fI >lIt
oJ r If r ~ r I- -I r r T
cresc.
J 1::: t::11:l 1 J I r1~- ::111 .1 ..1 I
I I I 1 I I I /I >I it, ~ _l
oJ r r t~r I r r r r I
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I I I I I r r I 1---1 r r r n .. lt _l I 1 ..1 _l
-
... I I I r 1 -t
dim. cresc, .
r I I r 1 I I I \ I

CTOHT TOAbKO, c'KameM, H3MeHHTb COOTHOIlIeHHe TOHOB B raaoe: cis: h : e : dis: cis, KaK OCTpOTa nporraaaer. jleAo B TOM, 'ITO B TeMe, H36paHHOH BaXOM, Kaa;:p;blH: MOMeHT rrpO,lJ;BHmeHHH OT 3BYKa K 3BYKY Bbl3blBaeT aanpazseaaoe BblmH,lJ;aHHe Y cxyxa: sa TOHHKOH cis cxeziyer BBO,lJ;HblH: TOH his - 3TO rrepsoe COOTHOIlIeHHe yase HBAHeTCH 06paTHbiM npaaersnoxy CAe,lJ;OBHHHIO TOHOB. .lI.aAbIlIe: 3Hal.(eHHe his KaK BBO,lJ;HOro TOHa rrO,lJ;pWBaeTCH ero «CKal.(KOM» Ha YMeHbIlIeHHYIO KBapTY, 'ITO na CAyX COCTaBAHeT (3HrapMOHHl.(eCKH) 60AbIlIYIO TepgHIO. TaKI1M 06pa30M, nropoe COOTHOIlIeHHe CO,lJ;epmHT B ce6e ,lJ;BOH:CTBeHHblH: MOMeHT ,llMI CAYXOBOH; oJ,!eHKH, H60 cAYIIIa-

II

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HHe My3blKH - rroBTopHIO orrHTb - rrpogecc HHTeHCHBHeH:I1IerO cpaBHeHHH Kam,lJ;OrO rrpenmecrayrorgero aaroaapyexoro MOMeHTa c rrOCAe,lJ;YIOIgHM. jlBOH:CTBeHHocTb aerpaasaercs B TOM, 'ITO, B3HToe

. BHe OTHOIlIeHHH K cis, caMOCTOHTeAbHO, 3BYl.(aHHe his: e OIgYIgaeTCH. KaK KOHcoHaHTHoe,' TOl.(HO TaK me, KaK eCAH 6bl B3HTb 6e3 his COOTHOIlIeHHe cis: e. Ho cis: e 'I e p e 3 his yase He ,lJ;aeT yCTOH:l.(HBOCTH H rpedyer npO,lJ;OAmeHHH. Torna HHToHHpyeTcH HOBoe OTHOIlIeHHe e: dis (npHl.(eM dis, KaK H ornpasaaa TOHHKa, rro ,lJ;AHTeAbHOCTH CBOeH: nasoe npeasnnaer ,lJ;AHTeAbHOCTb his: e). cho'r HOBblH: MOMeHT OCAomHHeT OTHOIlIeHHe, H60 aazse npn pHTMHl.(eCKOH:

TOm,lJ;eCTBeHHOCTH cis: his H e : dis H npa HBHOM HaAHl.(HH rrO,lJ;beMa cpasneaae He npHBO,lJ;HT CAYX K OIgyIgeHHIO paBHOBeCHH, TaK KaJ{ dis no OTHOIlIeHHIO K e HBAHeTCH MaAOH: ceKYH,lJ;OH:, rro OTHOIlIeHHIO K his - MaAoH TepgHeH:, a rro OTHOIlIeHHIO K Ha'IaAbHOH: TOHHKe- 60AblliOH: ceKYH,lJ;OH:. K .fOMY me dis noasepsuaaer ,lJ;HCCOHaHTHOCTb his: e, H OCTaHOBKa na dis nepez naaeaaexr ero B HCXO,lJ;HYID TOl.(KY - B cis - eIge 60Abilie aKgeHTHflyeT HeycTOH:l.(HBOCTb H aermH,lJ;aHHe. Ho B TOT MOMeHT, xor-aa 3BY'IHT ypasnoeeumaasotgee BCIO <l>0PMYAY cis, scrynaer cnYTHHK (gis), nasranaer HHTOHHDOBaTb TeMY KBHHTOH: nsnne H TeM caMblM rrO,lJ;XBaTbIBaeT ,lJ;BHmeHHe. • npOmme,lJ;eHHblH: KaK 6bl «non MHKpocKonoM» TaKOH: .li.eTaAbHbIH: aHaAH3 cis-moll'HOH: TeMbl nOKa3bIBaeT B HeH: PH,lJ; KpaH:He aeycroiil.(HBbIX HHToHagHH:. T Om,lJ;eCTBeHHoe ,lJ;BHmeHHe crrYTHHKa, KOHel.(HO, YCHAHBaeT HeycTOH:'IHBOCTb. B TO me BpeMH 3aMKHYTOCTb H AaKOHHl.(HOCTb TeMbl rr03BOAHIOT l.(aCTO ee noaropare, Kamp;oe nonropeHHe B HOB 0 M 0 K P Y m e H H If Bbl3blBaeT ,lJ;aAbHeH:I1Iee cpasneHHe COOTHOIlIeHHH:, H anrepec ,lJ;BIfmeHHH B0306HOBAHeTCH C xazs,lJ;bIM HOBbIM nposenenaesr, HeCMOTp:ll aa rrpHCYTCTBYIOIgHH: BCIO,lJ;Y MOMeHT rrOBTopHOCTH OCHOBHOH: QlOPMYAbl conpxacenaa 3BYKOB. BOT &TO ace OTCYTcTByeT B KaHOHe KaK CaMO,lJ;OBAeIOlgeH: QlopMe. .lI.HHaMHl.(eCKHe Ka'IeCTBa TeMbl KaHOHa uecytgecraenner ,lJ;MI QlopMo06pa- 30Ba:HH:II - BamHbl . ee 'IHCTO KOHC'I:PYKTHBHble ,lJ;aHHble. B rpyre me, l.(eM CHAbHee cnocoriaocre TeMbI BbI3bIBaTb CBOHM rrO:llBAeHHeM orgyIgeHHe HHToHagHoHHOH: HOBH3Hbl H He06bll.(HOCTH npa cpaBHeHHH Kam,lJ;OrO ,lJ;aHHOrO MOMeHTa co BceMH rrpe,lJ;I1IeCTBYIOIgHMIf, TeM aanpaaseaaee esce ,lJ;BHmeHHe MY3blKH H TeM 60ra'le rroTeHgHH K pasBHTHIO, 3aKAIOl.(aIOIgHeC:II B rene. * CAe,1J;OBaTeAbHo, 3BYKoBa:ll aneprRlI AI060ro COOTHOIlIeHH:II 3BYKOB - BeAH'IHHa OTHOCHTeAbHa:ll. OHa Onpe,1J;eAHeTCH B TOH: me Mepe COBoKyrrHocTbIO B TeMe HaH60Aee HeYCTOH:l.(HBbIX (rrpa ,llaHHOH: CHCTeMe 3BYKOCOrrp:llmeHH:II) HHToHa: j!HOHHbIX MOMeHTOB, KaK H HX cnoco6HOCTbIO Bbl3bIBaTb ,lJ;aAbHerrI1Iee HHTeHCHBHoe ,lJ;BHmeHHe.

To me cavoe MomHO Ha6AIO,lJ;aTb H B CHMQlOHH'IeCKOM pa3BlfTHH: ,lJ;HHaMHKa TeMbI nepsoro allegro n:llTOH: CHMQlOHHH BeTxoBeHa BbIHBAlIeTCH xepes ropH30HTaAbHO-rrO,lJ;BHmHoe corrpnzcenne HAII

* Dux B KaHOHe, B CYIgHOCTH, eIge He rejaa.

4

B. B. Acaqn.en

49

I .J

BCRKoro OTHOIlleHHR K HX peaxsnoxry 3ByqaHH1O (HHTOHHpOBaHH1O), COCTaB.II.R~T npezerer CaMOCTORTeAbHO·TeKTOHHqeCKOrO aHaAH3a. C npyroa CTOPOHbI, npe06.11.aAaHHe B mrronapyevoii MY3bIKe ypaaHOBeIlleHHblX MOMeHTOB .a;0 CTeneHH nOqTH OTCYTCTBHR OIgYIgeHHlt Heo6xo~HMOCTH nepexona H3 O~HOH BepTHKaAH (KOMnAeKC O~HO~ BpeMeHHbIX C03BYtIHH) B apyryro, TO'IHO TaK me n03BOAHeT Ha3bI~ BaTb npOH3Be~eHHe C TaT H 'I H bI M, HO yase B CMbICAe npOTHBOnOAomeHHH MY3blKe ~HHaMHqeCKH·nO~BHmHoH. TaK,HanpHMep, Tep!.10BbIe TOHaAbHbIe COOTHOIlleHHR, H3J1.106AeHHble. pOMaHTHKaMH, B csoe BpeMH 6blAH peaKgHeH aa CAHIIIKOM [qaCTO] HcnOAb30BaHHbie H naxaaasume repare CHAY B03,ZteHCTBHH TOHHKO-~OMHHaHTOBbIC OTHOIlleHHR. KOAOpHCTH'IecKH cneasne, OHH - TeM He MeHeescxope OKa3aAHCb BRAblMH B KOHCTPYKTHBHOM OTHOIlleHHH It B KOH!.1e KOHgOB He npeO~OAeAH 3HaqeHHH TOHHKO.,ZtOMHHaHTOBoH crpeper. BKA10qeHHble me uB nee, OHH 3aMeTHO 060raTHAH H YCHAHAH HHTeHCHBHOCTb ee B03,ZteHCTBHR KaK CTHMYAa ,ZtBHmeHHH.

u ECAH MY3blKaAbHY1O KOMn03H!.1H1O paccaarpaaare B ee KOHKpeTHOH .a;aHHOCTH - B p,BHmeHHH - H60 OHa ecre npezsae ncero KOMnAeKC nop,BHmHbiX 3BYKOOTHOIlleHHH:,- TO H3 CTa~HH H3yqeHHSl !popM·cxeM (!pOPMbl B HenO~BHmHOCTH HAH OKpHCTaAAH30BaBIllHXC.>I HHTOHaYHH) HeH36emHO npHXO~HTC.>I nepexoaars K Ha6A1O~eHH1O aa CTa~HRMH p,BHmeHHH MY3bIKH HAH aa npogeccasm !popMOBaHHn' H OT Ha6A1O.a;eHHn K H3yqeHHIO C H A, cAymaIgHX npHqHHaMH HAft CTHMYAaMH ~BHmeHHH. OTO H 6y ner 06AaCTb1O MY3blKaAbHOll ~HHaMHKH. C TOqKH 3peHHH MY3bIKaAbHOH ~HHaMHKH, 9BOA1OgHH My- 3blKaAbHbiX !P0PM npe~CTaBAneTCH CTpeMAeHHeM xexoae-recnoro MbIIllAeHHH p,06HTbCH MaKCHMaAbHOH (npn p,aHHbIX sanpocax) rrpoTH~eHHOCTH MY3blKaAbHoro p,BfDKeHHH. I1Haqe rosopa, YCHAHTb p,eHCTBHe CTHMYAOB, B036ymp,a1OIgHX POCT H npo.a;OAmHTeAbHOCTb p,BHmeHHH (a C HHM H 9HeprH1O ~aHHOll 3BYllaIgeH MaCCbl), HOT~~ a A H T b B03MomHO aaxsure nacrynxeaae MOMeHTa p a B HOB e _ C HR. CpeP,CTBa, KOTOPbIMH OCYIgeCTBAHAOCb raxoe CTpeMAeHHe, 6blAH pa3AHqHblMH na p,OArOM nyra 9BOA1OYlIH, p,a H caaa 9BOA1OyHH npOHcx~p,HAa p,aJl.eKO He nOCAep,OBaTeAbHo·nOCTeneHHO, a sepes PHA MyTayHH H OTKAOHeHHH, 110 B CYIgIIOCTH CBoeH npoyecc OCTaBaACH Op,IIUM H TeM me na npOTHmeHHH BeKOB. I1~eH «6eCKOHeqHOH MeAop,HH» Barnepa B 9TOM OTHOIlleHHH HHqYTb He HBAHeTCJI 60Aee yeHlIoH HAH 60Aee HOBOH B cpaBHeHHH C HHTeHcHBHblM CTpeMAeHHeM K npopacramno H npO,1!BHmeHH1O nOAH!pOHHqeCKOH TKaHH y KOMn03HTopOB cpeaaeaexoaoro MOTeTa B YBeTYI!!Y1O nopy ars nova (XIV B.) HAH eIge paasure (XII-XIII BB.) Y MaCTepOB napHmcKoH IllKOAbl Notre-Dame B HX organa.

. Ope06Aap,aAH, KOHeqHO, B' aasre anOXH TeHp,eHgHH K YCHAeHH10 CTHMYAOB, YCTaHaBAHBaBIllHX paBHOBeCHe H ~oMHi:lHpOBaBIllHx Ha~ «B3pblBqaTblMH CHAaMH». Ho, ao-nepasrx, no caMOH rrpapoae CBoeH MY3blKa HHKor.a;a He MorAa 6blTb a6COA1OTHO CTaTHqHOH, H CTpeM" AeliHe K 06pa30BaHH1O see 60Aee H 60Aee CAomHblX 3BYKOCOOTHO-

HaCAaHBaHHe 1I0BTopeHHH PYKOBO~HIgeH PHTMO-HHToHagHoHHoH rpopMYAbl (H3 Tpex BOCbMblX C aKgeHToM na qeTBepTblH .a;AHTeAbHblH: 3BYK). HeAb3H n09TOMY H30AHpOBaTb OT acero nocxenyrotgero pasBHTHH nepBlIqHYIO HHToHagHIO g: g : g : es, KOTopaH no caoeii «.a;BYCMbICAeHHOCTH» MomeT npaaaaxeasa-n, H Es-dur H c.moll. B nepBOM cxysae 9Ta TepgHJI aayxaxa 6bl MeHee HHTeHCHBHO, noTOMY 'ITO cpaay B03HHKaAO 6bl YCTOHqHBOe yraepasaenae TOHHKH. 3~ecb me 6eTXoBeH H~eT OT p,OMHHaHTbl (g) na TepyHlo (es) OCHOBHoro Tpe3ByqHH, 3aTeM - nOBTopHblM p,IlHmeHHeM - OT cyfi~OMHHaHTbl (f) K sepxnexry BBO~HOMY TOHY (d) H TeM caMblM aaCTaBAHeT CAYX nacropoacarsca. HanpJlmeHHe YCHAHBaeTCH eIge BblmHp,aTeAbHblMH !pepMaTaMH. TOAbKO 1I0CAe ABYKpaTHoro HHTO· HHpOBaHHH OCHOBHOH npeanocsrxxa B YKa3aHHOM BH~e 1I0HBA.HeTCH noxaoe TOHHqeCKOe rpeanyxae, onpeaexarorgee Aap;. OOBTOPHOCTb asraaaxa cpaaneaae H norperiaocre B CHHTe3e, H noroxy TeMoH

~ OHTOH CHM!pOHHH nano CqHTaTb He p;Be HOTbl g: es, a COOTHOIlle-

I HHe (g: es) + (f : d), Bbl3blBa1OIgee Tpe3BYllHe g : es : C, T. e.,

B CYIgHOCTH, raxoe nOCAep;OBaHHe:

TaKHM 06pa30M, 9HeprHH TeMbl B03HHKaeT B COBOKYIIHOCTH pHTMOHliToHayHOHHblX !p a 3 H COB ee rpopxoaaaaa.

r x a B a III

yqEHHE 0 llEf1CTBYIOQ1HX CHJ\AX MY3bIKAJ\bHOfO Q>OPMOBAHHH H 1l0HHTHE aHEPfHH. )tHHAMHKA TOJ\qKA. YCTAHOBAEHHE 1l0HHTHH MY3bIKAAbHOfl mOPMbI

00 CBOHCTBaM TOH HAH HHOH CHCTeMbl 3BYKOOTHOIll.eHHH - CHCTeMbI, cosaasmeiica B YCAOBHHX TOl{ HAH HHOH KYAbTypbl H 3aBHcHlgeH OT MHoaiecTBa BHe ee AemaIgHX npHqlIH,- onpep;eAHIOTCH p;eHCTBY1OIgHe CHAbI MY3bIKH HAH npananst p;BHmeHHH. C 9TOii

(: TOqKH 3peHHH, Kam.a;aH MY3bIKaAbHaH KOMn03HgHH- 9TO KOMnAeKC / nOp;BHmHbIX 3BYKOCOOTHOIlleHHH:, COBOKYIIHOCTb KOTOPbIX MOmeT 6bITb CTpOrO 3aMKHYTOH H Y P a B HOB e III e H H 0 H !pOPMOH, HO

MomeT MbICAHTbCH H B BH~e pana 6eCKOHeqHbIX 3BeHbeB (pa30M-

:/ KHYTaH !popMa). Kor p;a TaKaH conoxynaoc're OXBaTblBaeTCH MblCAb10 KaK OKpHCTaAAH30BaIlIlleeCH e a H H C T B 0 BO BceH CAomHOCTH CBOHX COOTHOIlleHHH: H KaK HaXO~HIgeeCH B nOAHOM nosoe H p a B - HOB e C H H scex CHA 1.1 e A 0 e,- ror-aa MomHO r-onopirre 0 MY3bIKaAbHOH C TaT H K e. I13BAeqeHHe HI! aroro e~HHCTBa PHTMO-KOHCTpYKTHBHbIX OTHOIlleHHH, npHHHMaeMblX B Hellop,BHmHOCTH H BHe

4*

51

50

II1eHHH BCe-TaKH acer.aa npHBO.a;HAO H K POCTY .a;BHmeHHH. BO-BTOPbIX, B OTHOIl1eHHH anox «CTaTHqeCKOH» MY.3bIKH naao 6blTb cyryfio OCTopomHbIMH, qT06bl He no.a;MeHHTb CAYXOBblMH npe,ll,CTaBAeHHHMH ztpyr-ax anox CAYXOBble npe.a;CTaBAeHHJI AIO,lI,eH: 60Aee paaaax nepaO.a;OB MY.3bIKaAbHOH: 9BOAlOgHH. To, 'ITO HaMH MomeT B npOIl1AOM OlIjyrgaTbcJI KaK KOMnO.3HgHoHHaJi CTaTHKa, B csoe BpeMJI MorAO BocnpHHHMaTbCH ropaaao ocrpee,

0pHMep: CTHAb OaAeCTpHHbl, xxacca-recxoe COBepIl1eHCTBO KOroporo npe.a;CTaBAJleTCJI, B CBeTe COBpeMeHHbIX HCCAe.a;OBaHHH Morris'a H Knud Jeppesen'a, ,lI,aAeKO He aKa.a;eMHqeCKHM 6Aaro,ll,yII1HeM H 6e.3MJlTemHOCTblO, a cAe,ll,CTBHeM CAomHoro B.3aHMOAeH:CTBHJI KOHTpacTHpYlOrgHx rpaxropon, T. e. KaK pOm,ll,alOrgeecJI HS rrpor aaopesnii H H.306HAYlOrgee KOH<p.il.HKTaMH CTaHOBAeHHe.

OepBOH: sa.a;aqeH: H3yqeHHH tpopMoBaHHH My3hlKH KaK .a;HHaMHqeCKOrO HCKyccTBa JlBAJleTCH n09ToMY Ha6AIO,lI,eHHe aa .a;eH:CTBYIOrgHMH npHqHHa!VIH (cHAaMH), opraaaayrorgnsra ,lI,BHmeHHe (B yxaBaH HOM CMbICAe- OT.a;aAeHHe MOMeHTa HacTynAeHHJI paBHOBeCHJI), H aayxenae HX .a;eHCTBHJI.* OOHHTHe BBO,ll,HOrO TOHa, nanpaaep, MomeT 6bITb, C TOqKH .3peHHJI H3yqeHHJI MY3bIKaAbHOH: tpOpMbI KaK CTaHOBAeHHJI ,lI,eH:CTBYlOrgHX CHA, aaaxnaapyexo HMeHHO B CMbICAe BCKPblTHJI B HeM CBOHCTB ero, CTHMyAHpylOrgHX ,1;BHmeHHe. Mecro BBO,ll,HOrO TOHa B CHCTeMe eBpOneH:CKOrO HHTOHHpOBaHHJI n03BOAJleT ero paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK oany H3 HeCOMHeHHbIX CHA, asrasraaroigax HHTeHCHBHoe .3BYKOTJlrOTeHHe. Ha CAYIl1aTeAJI aeeaponejiqa, npnBblKII1erO K HHbIM CHCTeMaM 3BYKoconpHmeHHJI, 9HeprHJI aao.aaoro TOHa He npoaaaeaer TaKoro B03.a;eHCTBHJI, KaK aa eaponeiiga, BOCnpnaaaarotgero My3bIKy B npeaexax paBHOMepHOH: TeMnepagHH H TOHaAbHbIX OTHOIl1eHIfH:. O.a;HaKO 06'beKTHBHoe aaaaeaae asonaoro TOHa KaK .a;BlfmyrgeH: CHAbJ HAH aaaxeaae apyrnx tpaKTopOBtpOPMOBaHHJI, aanpasrep B a a e p m a H n H HAH «MHHMoro» xaaaaca (paapemenae .a;OMHHaHTbI B VI crynens ) KaK JlBAeHHH:, OT.a;aAJlIOrgHX aacrynxenae MOMeHTa paBHOBeCHJI, HHqYTb He YMeHbIl1aeTCH. Be3 H3yqeHHJI BbI.3bIBalOlI..!HX .a;BlfmeHHe CTIfMYAOB H .a;eH:CTBYlOrgHX B HeM eHA HeB03MomHO aayxeaae npogeccoB tpopMOBaHHJI, a 6e_" H3yqeHHJI 9TlfX rrpogeccoa BCJlKOe yxenae 0 tpOpMe nepecraer 6blTb HCCAe.a;OBaHHeM KOHKpeTHbIX KaqeCTB MY3bIKaAbHoro OtpopMAeHHJI H npeapaigae rcs B nayseuae TOAbKO O.a;HHX cxesr. Cxeua COHaTHoro axxerpo, KOHeqHO, oana, HO tpOpM ee npOHBAeHHJI CTOAbKO me, CKOAbKO ec'rs COHaT. "4T06bI nOHJlTb If X He CXeMaTHqeCKH, neofixo,lI,HMO KAaCCM:tpHgHpoBaTb HX no CXO.a;CTBY npnaganoa tpopMOBaHHH-, HCXO.a;H H.3 .a;HHaMHKH 3ByqaHHJI H He OTMeTaJi B HHX KaK HCKAlOqeHHe ace, 'ITO .a;eAaeT HX mHBOH: MY3bIKOH:.

OOHHTHJI KOHCOHaHca H .a;HCCOHaHca, paccnarpnaaesnae B MY3blKaAbHO-AHHaMHqeCKOM (He aKYCTHqeCKOM If He ncnxorpnaaoxor-a-

qeCKOM) nxaae, HByqalOTCH ror-na TOqHO TaK me KaK npHqHHbI. aazepacaaaiorgne HAH YCHAHBalOIgHe ABlfmeHHe, T. e. KaK CHAbl. B TaKOM cxynae npOJICHHeTCJI nyraanga, HarpOMomAaeMaJi noxpyr HHX. KOHCOHaHC H J);HCCOHaHC CTaHOBJlTCJI- <p a K TOp a M H C T H A JI;* T. e. peaAbHeHII1HMH BbIpa3HTeAbHblMH cpencmaaa My3bIKH, H60 CTHAb KaK KOMnAeKC cpeacrn BblpameHHJI .a;aHHoH 9nOXH HAH Macrepa 06YCAoBAHBaeTcJI .a;eH:CTBHeM .3aKOHOB ortiopa, xoropsre, C O.a;HOH: CTOPOHbI, 3aKpenAJIlOT HaH60Aee mH3HeHHbIe cpeztc'rna H npnexn» B03.a;eH:CTBHJI HCKyccTBa, a C .a;pyroi:i: - YCTaHaBAHBalOT xapaKTepHbIe.a;MI .a;aHHOH: cpeasr KpHTepHH xynoasecraenaocrn If caMoe nOHHTHe x y .a; 0 m e C T B e H H 0 r o. T ax HaMeqaeTCH CBH3b Mem.a;y - K'a.3aAOCb 6bl - HMMaHeHTHO-MY3bIKaAbHOH: .a;HHaMHKOH: II npogeccaraa MY.3bIKaAbHoro· tpopMOBaHHJI H Mem.a;y oKpymalOIgeii:

CTPYKTyp0H: 06rgecTBa - cpeaoii, nopom.a;alOrgeH: My.3bIKy.

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- Ho ,eM tpaKTOM, 'ITO aa his He nOCAe.a;OBaAa aenocpencraenno TO ..

HHKa cis H 'ITO nOJIBAeHHe nOCAe,ll,HeH: 6bJAO «OTTJlHYTO» no.a; .a;eRCTBHeM YKa.3aHHbIX BbIII1e HHToHagHH: HB HeKOTOpbIH: npOMemYTOK MY3bIKaAbHoro BpeMeHH,- BbI3BaHO 6bIAO .a;BHmeHHe H C HHM npo .. asseaeaa aarpara aneprna co CBOH:CTBeUHbIMH eH npenpargenaaaa ROAHqeCTBa COOTHOIl1eHHH: KOAe6aHHH: TOHOE B RaqeCTBO (paaapaaeeaae H peaxgaa). YeM HHTeHCHBHee OIgyIgaeTCH ara sarpara 9HeprHH, TeM cxoasuee .a;eJlTeAbHOCTb CO.3HaHHJI, cpasnaaarorgas Ram.a;blH: HOBbIH: MOMeHT 3ByqaHHJI C npenurecrnyrorgaa (<<CAYIl1aHHe MY3bIKH»). ** OOHHTHe 9HeprHH He MomeT He 6bITb npHAomlfMO

* HanoMI-lHalO, 'ITO aTH tleHCTBYIOIMHe CHAbI -- CHAbI, B03HHKalOIMHe

B caMOM npogecce HHTOHHPOBa-HHJI, a ae MHqlH'Ie-eKHe nepaonpnsnasr.

* Hanpnaep, tlAHTeAbllaJl 8BOAIO!!IIJ1 cenTUMbI tlOMHHaH'I'aKKOPtla, ee «Hecaotioanoe U eBo6oiliHoe» npnueaenae n0380AlleT HaMeTHTb HceROAbKO CTUAHCTHlIe-CiKH pa3AH<JHbIX snox H noxoraer KAaCCoH!pHKa'!!HH CO'lUHe'HHH B MY3bIKaAbHoM nxaae 6e3 npHBAe'leHHJI aKycTUK'H H $H3HOAo'rHH, xoropsre tlOAlKHbI H3Y'lltTb aTO zse JlBAeHHe B csoeii cqiepe.

** Hacraasaro, 'ITO ynopasna nOtl'lepKHBaHueM B npogecce aocnoaaras My3bl'KH opraHH3YIOIMeH tleJlTeAb'HOCTH -C03Ha'lIUJI (cpaBHeHue H ogenxa CXOtlcraa H HeCXOtl'Cl1Ba) II 'TeM caMbIM BOBce He o-raepraso c -0 tl e 'p lK a 1I H JI My- 3bl'RHH aM-O!!HOHa.l\bHOrO ee B03tleHCTBHII, Ka-K JlKo6bl «!popMaNHCT». CH.I\Y KaKOrO-.I\'H60 !pH3H'IeOKOrO Ytlapa MOlKHO 0IMYTHTb Ka'K 60.l\b, IHO H MOlKllO OC03RaTb KaK npH'IH'HY, nOpOlKtlalOIMYIO TO H.I\H aaoe tleH'CT'B'He H aaepr mo. 3AeCb JI CTpeM.I\lOCb OC03HaTb aTH AeH,cTBYIOIMHe npH'lHHbl B MY3bIIKe. BBOk Hblii ron, CTO.l\b 'Ia-eTO OTBOtlHMblH r pHrOM B ero Me.l\-Op;HKe U3 TOHIIKH B AO-

52

53

MMeHHO K HBAeHMIO COrrpHmeHMH C03ByqHH, rrOTOMY qTO nnane COBCeM YHHqTOmae'I'CH rrOHHTHe MY3bIKaAbHOrO MaT e P H a A a (<<3BYqaIgero BeIgeCTBa»), a 3HaqHT - H cpH3HqeCKaH p;aHHOCTb MY3bIKH. Ilp06AeMa CTaBMTCH TaK, rrOCKOAbKY rrpH HCCAep;OBaHHH rrpogeccoB orpopuxeaaa B MY3bIKe HHKaK HeAb3H HCKAlOqHTb casroro cpaKTa 3ByqaHHH HAH HHTOHHpOBaHHH (He B rraCCHBHOM, a axryaxeaou 3HaqeHHH aroro rrOHHTHH - KaK emeMOMeHTHoe otiaapyaseaae MaTepaaxa}, a TeM caMbIM,- KaK 6bI HH onpeaexare pe3YAbTaTbI HHTOHHpOBaHHH H MY3bIKaAbHoro p;BHmeHHH - 6y p;eT AH STO asrpaaceHHeM P;YlIIeBHbIX COCTOHHHH HAH Y P;OBOAbCTBHeM, HcrrbITaHHbIM 0'1' rrpHHTHbIX COqeTaHHH 3BYKOB,- rparcr p a 6 0 T bI, cpaKT nepexoaa nexoeii 3aTpaqeHHOH CHAbI B PHP; 3BYKOP;BMmeHHH H OIgYIgeHHe noCAeP;CTBHH aroro nepexoaa B BocrrpHHTHH HaAHqeCTByeT B MY3bIKe, KaK H B ztpyrnx HBAeHHHX oxpyasarorgero MHpa.

ECAH KOMII03HTOP B CBoeM TBOpqeCTBe rrpoH3BoP;HT pa60TY 11 sarpa-raaaer TeM caMbIM qaCTb csoeii mH3HeHHoH aaeprmr, TO KOHKpeTHbIH BHP; nOH pa60TbI - MY3bIKaAbHoe rrpOH3Bep;eHHe 6yp;eT BHP;OM npeapargenaa 9HeprHH KOMrr03HTopa. IloKa nponaseaenae He 3ByqHT, He HHToHHpyeTcH, - OHO see paBHO qTO He CYIgeCTByeT. T e HAH HHbIe CPOpMbI ero HHTOHHpOBaHHH, HaqHHaH OT MbICAeHHoro 03ByqHBaHHH HAH «qTeHHH» nap-nrryper, 3aTeM HcnOAHeHHH B nepeAomeHHH HAll, naxoneg; B rrop;AHHHOM BHp;e, npeapaigaror nOTeHgHaAbHYIO aaepraro rrpOHHTOHHpOBaHHOH KOMrr03HTopOM My3bIKH B KHHeTHqeCKYIO saeprmo 3ByqaHHH (aocnpoaaseaeaae ), nepexoP;HIgYIO B CBOIO osepeas B axre CAYlIIaHHH My3bIKH B HOBbIH BHP; 9HeprHH - «aymeanoe rrepezoraanae». i3TOT PHP; npespatgeaaii coCTaBAHeT Heo6xoP;HMbIH nyre My3bIKH OT nepasrx 9TanOB aapoaszteHHH ee B Bo06pameHHH KOMn03HTopa non p;eHCTBHeM oKpymalOIgdl: mH3HH P;O BocrrpHHTHH ee qyTKHM CAYlIIaTeAeM. CqHTaTb AH, qTO KOMn0311TOp BrrOAHe OC03HaHHO «aapazcae'r» CAYlIIaTeAH onpezexenHbIM qYBCTBOM HAH qTO OH «nepeaomer» H36bITOK CBoeH mH3HeHHOH 9HeprHM B SHeprHIO 3BYKOB,- pe3YAbTaT, T. e caMbIH cpaKT «sapaaseaaa», npOHCXOP;HT seer aa sepes MY3bIKaAbHO-MaTepHaAbnyro cpezty, xepes KOMrrAeKC 3BYKOCOOTHOlIIeHHH, BbI6paHHbIX KOMrr03HTopOM H 3acpHKCHpOBaHHbIX B HOTHOH 3arrHCH. Lh06bI peayxeTaT 6bIA HMeHHO TeM, KaKHM ero XOqeT CAbIlIIaTb KOMn03HTOp, He- 06XOP;HMO, qT06bI CAYlIIaTeAb Tome cnocotiea 6bIA rrOHHTb My3bIKy. T. e. 6bIA B TaKoH Mepe KyAbTYPHO pa3BI1TbIM, qT06bI 3BYKoBbIe COOTHOlIIeHHH He nOKa3aAHCb eMY cAyqaHHbIM Ha60pOM C03ByqHH. KpoMe Toro, OH p;OAmeH 6bITb SMogHoHaAbHO H Hp;eOAOrHqeCKH npenpacnoxoaseanerx K TeM nepeacaaaaaax, KaKHMH KOMrr03HTOp meAaA 6bI «sapaaarr.» ero xepea CBOIO MY3bIKy. IlpHHHMaH BO BHHMaHHe BCIO CAomHOCTb npofixea MY3blKaAbHoro coaepasaaaa H

TeCHO CBH3aHHOH C HHMH rrp06AeMbI nepexona SHeprHH OT xosmosaropa K CAYlIIaTeAIO qepe3 opraHH30BaHHbIH KOMrrAeKC 3BYKOCOOTHOlIIeHI1H - sepea npoaaaezeane, He06xoP;HMO 6blAO YKa3aTb na B03MomHOCTH paspemeaaa HX B HCCAep;OBaHHH rro cpopMo06pa30- Il"aHHIO. T eM caMblM YCTaHaBAHBaeTCH M e C T 0 MY3bIKaAbHoro npoH3Bep;eHMH KaK oaaoro H3 BMP;OB npenpatgeana SHeprHH - MeCTO Memp;y TBOpqeCKHM aKTOM H BocnpHHTHeM. BHP; 9HeprHH, npoanxeHHeM xcroporo He06xoP;HMO CqHTaTb p;BHmeHHe My3bIKH, HBMleTCH HHToHagHoHHoH aaeprneii, pasnepremarorgeiica B 3BYKop;BHmeHHH. OHa MomeT B036ymp;aTb B CAYlIIaTeAe Te HAH HHbIe 9MOgHH, noCKOAbKY OHa B HHX rrpernopaerca. Ho CAYlIIaTeAb me MomeT anaAH3HpOBaTb ee rrpOHBAeHHH B caMOM MY3bIKaAbHOM npogecce++ B pa3BepTbIBaHHH 3BYKOBoro rrOTOKa. IlpoHBAeHHe 3BYK09HepfHH - nOM HMO ee npeapargeanx B nepeacanaaae - CKa3bIBaeTCH P;BOHKO:

KaK cpaKT pa60TbI MAH 60Aee HAH MeHee p;AHTeAbHoro rrpoaoxasenas p;BHmeHHH H KaK HaAHqHe CHAbl, opraanayrorgeii 9TO p;BH~eHlfe-;'" T. e. npogecc cpopMOBaHHH MaTepHaAa. Hanpasrep, BBOP;HbIH: TOHCMAa, BOBAeKalOIgaH 3ByK KaK aanaoe OTHOlIIeHHe B nexoe p;BMmeHHe. Ho P a 6 0 T a HAH p;eH:CTBHe aroro p;BHmeHHH OIgyIgaeTC>l KaK T H rOT e H H e aaozmoro TOHa B TOHHKy. B 9TOM CMbICAe MomHO rOBopHTb 06 9HeprHH BBop;Horo TOHa H TOqHO TaK me 06 9HeprHH TPHToHoBoro uHTepBaAa H Bo06Ige 0 K a q e C T B e H H bI X pa3AHqHHX pacCTOHHHH: TOHOB (a He 0 MeXaHHqeCKOM rrepeMe~eHH~ HX)" rrpMqeMI He B nxane ynorpetiarexsnsrx TOAbKO B eBpOIleHCKOH CHCT~Me3BYKOOTHOlIIeHHH:.

IloHHTHe SHeprHH rrpennoxaraer sa C060H: rrOHHTHe MY3bIKaAbaoro p;BHmeHHH H CHA HAH CTHMYAOB, ero BbI3bIBalOIgHX H B HeM p;eH:CTBYIOIgtIX; 9TH me CHAbI HAH CTHMYAbl npeanoxar-aror rrOHHTHe TOAqKa KaK HBAeHHH, OT KOToporo B03HHKaeT caMoe p;BHmeHHe H 3aBHCHT pa3BHTHe 9HeprHH p;BHmeHHH. cPH3HqeCKH, H3BHe, TOAqO~ HBAHeTCH HAH yaapoxr no KAaBHlIIe, HAH MOMeHTOM BP;YBaHHH C HeH36emHbIM aKgeHToM npn 9TOM. i3HeprHH p;bIxaHHH ooecnexaaaer CHAY H SHeprHIO 3ByqaHlIH. Ho rrOHHTHe TOA~Ka OIgyIgaeTCH eIge H B caMOM My 3bIKaAbHOM p;BHmeHHH. Ilpemp;e scero STO MOMeHT naxaxa MY3bIKaAbHoro CO rr P H m e H H H. Y ztap rro KAaBHlIIe H OT.neAbHblH: B03HHKllmH: 3BYK 6e3 p;aAbHeH:lIIerO npoaoxaseana - My- 3bIKH He 06pa3YIOT. TOAbKO TOAqOK HAH yztap, BOBAeKalOIgHe name C03HaHHe B cHcTeMY OTHOlIIeHHH: 3BYKOB, noxyuaro-r MY3bIKaAbHO,1l;HHaMHqeCKOe snasenae, TaK KaK CTaHOBHTCH cHAaMH, BbI3bIBaIOIgHMH ,1l;BHmeHHe.

AaAbHeH:lIIee nocxe H3AomeHHH TeMbI Bomp;eM cpopMOBaHHe lJIyrH cis-moll l3axa nouoaser OC03HaTb POAb TOAqKa. Koraa TeMa co BTOPHqHblM rrOHBAeHHeM TOHHKH npnxoznrr aa MHr B paBHOBeCHe H B npangnne MomeT OCTaTbCH B COCTOHHHH rrOKOH (TaKT 4, rrpauep aa CTp. 48), - B STOT MOMeHT scrynaer cnyTHHK C TeMOH, HHTOHHpyeMOH: KBHHTOH: BbIlIIe. HaqaAbHblH 3ByK (gis) cnyrumca aocrrpnHHMaeTCH KaK xpaiine p;eHCTBeHHblH: TOAqOK H aKgeHT, rrOTOMY qTO

MIfHaIHTY, ecru tJ;BHlKYl!lal! C'HAa 6oAbilloro aanpazseaaa. B nocrrpaaran 9TO lIBAelHHe .BbI3bIBaeT 'IYBCT'80 Heo6bl'rHOCTH, 3aTeM HeYAoBAeT'BopeHHocTH H T. A., He repaa csoero 06beI\TIfIB'HO-MY3b£RaAbHoro 3Ha'IeHHlI xax A'IfHaMH'IeCROrO (jJa,KTopa.

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55

* XapaKTeJJHbIH npassep ,1lUaAe'KTH'Ie'CKOH HarrpaBAeHHOCTI! MY3bIKaAbHOrO II.BlllKeH'llJl, xoraa «'rOpH30HTaAb» H «BepTHKaAb» JlBAJlIOT cotioio !fJy,HK!!HOHaAbHo-rrpOTHBOpe'lHBble KOop,1lHHaTbI. 06 aTOM noapoonee - ,1la.\bIIJe.

c.II.a60ll: ~o.ll.e TaKTa. Bce aTH npHqHHbI BMeCTe BbI.3blBalOT ~a.ll.bHell:wee ~BHmeHHe H paaaepretaaaae eaepraa .3ByqaHHR. C Kam~bIM HOBbiM TO.ll.qKOM - HOBbIM BCTyn.ll.eHHeM - YBe.ll.HqHBaeTCR CH.II.a .3BYxosoro aanpaasenaa H paCWHpReTCR 06'beM .3BYKOBoro npoCTpaHCTBa. Do OTHoweHHlO me K ~a.ll.bHell:WeMY pa.3BHTHlO IPyrH BCR CTa~HR 9KCn0.3HgHH RBf\ReTcR npogeccoss HaKOn.ll.eHHR aHeprHH.

HeT He06xo~HMOCTH rrpoacxzsare ~a.ll.bHell:WHll: aaaxas ~BH-m-e-----"'" HHH cis-moll'Holl: IPYfH C TOqKH .3peHHR ~HHaMHqeCKHX IPYHKgHH OpraHH.3ylOIgHX ee 9.11.eMeHTOB H HarHeTaHHH saepraa ~BHmeHHR.

C nOMOIgblO ~aHHbIX YKa3aHHll: raxoro pona aaaxas BOBce He

TPY~HO npOBeCTH no KOHga 9TOll: IPYfH H npHMeHHTb ero K .ll.1060H

HHOll:. He06xo~HMo Tenepb ~06bITb HeKOTopbIe CYIgeCTBeHHbIe,

C TOqKH .3peHHR IPopMo06pa.30BaHHR, BbIBO~bI H.3 paccnorpenaoro npogecca H H.3 cnexaaasrx Ha6.11.lO~eHHll:.

T O.ll.bKO qTO 6bI.II.O YKa.3aHO aa Kpall:He aazsnoe, HMeHHO B aaaHOM OTHoweHHH, 06CTORTe.ll.bCTBO - na HeCOBna~eHHe IPYHKgHOHa.ll.baO-HHToHagHoHHoro .3HaqeHHR ~OCTHrHYTOll: TOHHKH C pHTMOI<OHCTpYKTHBHbIM pacnopanxou H.II.H paaxeigeaaea .3BYKOa.ll.eMeHTOB. To, qTO nORB.II.eHHe TOHHqeCKOrO xosmxexca He cosnaxo C CH.II.bHOll: ~O.ll.ell: TaKTa, MewaeT YCTaHOB.II.eHHlO noxaoro paBHOBeCHR. Aa.ll.ee:

B nxaae HHToHagHoHHo-~HHaMHqeCKOM nOCTORHHO OIgYIgaeTCR KOHIP.II.HKTHOCTb Mem~y IPYHKgHoHa.ll.bHOll: .3aBlfClfMOCTblO If poxstc Kam~oro oraexsnoro TOHa KaK TOqKH nO~BHmHOll: rOpH.30HTa.ll.H (Me.ll.O~lfqeCKlfll: nxan) If Mem~y IPYHKgHRMH aroro me TOHa KaK CO.3BYKa, npaaaaxeasargero aexoesry BepTHKa.ll.bHOMY KOMn.ll.eKCY. I1Haqe ronopa, Ka!K~oe zranaoe conpaasenae TOHOB MomeT paCCMaTpasareca B ~BYX xoopnaaarax If eige B nxaae B.3aHMO~ell:CTBHR PHTMO-TeKTOHHqeCKlfX {H.II.H KOHCTpYKTHBHbIX) H HHToHagHoHHo~ImaMHqeCKHX npaaganoa IPopMOBaHHR. Coaoxyrraocre KaK aTHX RB.II.eHHll:, TaK H panee YKa.3aHHbIX ~ell:CTBYlOIgHX BHYTPH ~aHHbIX xanoasrx THrOTeHHll: CH.II. (HO aaxexo He nepeqHC.II.eHHbIX), nO.3BOxaer paCCMaTp~BaTb npogecc IPopMOBaHHR My.3bIKH KaK npogecc ~Ha.ll.eKTHqeCKHH C nOCTORHHbIM cOCYIgeCTBOBaHHeM npOTHBOnO.ll.OmHOC Tell:. uB .3aBHCHMOCTH OT Toro, na xaxoe H.3 IPYHKgHoHa.ll.bHblX .3HaqeHHH TOHOB KaK na MaKCHMa.ll.bHO nerpaaarexaaoe YCTpeM.II.eHO CO.3HaHHe anOXH H KOMnO.3HTOpa, BO.3HHKaeT npe06.11.a~aHHe BepTHKa.ll.ubHbIX KOMn.ll.eKCOB Ha~ .ll.HHeapHbIMH TRrOTeHHRMH H.II.H 06paTHO • AeHCTBYlOIgHe CH.II.bI BKam~OM H.3 BH~OB MYBbIKa.ll.bHOrO IPopMOBaHHR MeHHlOTCR, H Ta CH.II.a, KOTopaR ~OMHHHpyeT B O~HOM cxyxae, MomeT nOqTH He npHHHMaTbCR B pacxer B zrpyrow. Ho BO scex C.II.Yxaax ~ell:CTBHe CH.II. HanpaB.II.eHO na npeoaoxeaae conpOTHB.II.eHHR MaTepHa.ll.a (MomHo CKa.3aTb: na npespargenae aKYCTHqeCKOrO RB.II.eHIiR B aMogHoHa.ll.bHo-BbIpaBHTe.ll.bHbIH R.3bIK MY.3bIKH) H na opraHII.3agmo ~BHmeHHR. C aToll: TOqKH .3peHHR, Kam~aR H.3 C H C T e M .3BYKoconpRmeHHR - 6y~eT .ll.H TO eaponeiicxan roaaxenaa CHCTeMa B pasasre 9neXH caoero CYIgeCTBOBaHHR, c 60.ll.bWHM H.II.H MeHbWHM rocnO~CTBOM npHHJ,!Hna a.ll.bTepagHH, 6y~eT .ll.H TO apxanuecxan

OH «nO~XBaTbIBaeT» ~OCTHralOIgee B ~aHHbIll: MHr TOqKH onopsr n C aero COCTORHHR paBHOBeCHR ~BHmeHHe Bom~R, H60 dis KaK BByK, TlIrOTelOIgHll: B CBoeM nanenan K YCTOll:qHBOMY cis - K TOHHKe. BbInO.l\HlIeT IPYHKgHH aepxnero BBO~Horo TOHa. Gis nepeaonar ~BHmeHHe B HOBYlO CTa~HlO HMeHHO [roraa], xoraa MOr.ll.O 6bI npoH.30ll:TH .3aMbIKaHHe. EC.II.H 6bI gis cnYTHHKa nORBH.II.CR na noxraara noaase, ero CH.I\a KaK TO.l\qKa H BbI.3BaHHbIll: HM HOBbIll: npHTOK anepqm 6bI.I\H 6bI HeCKO.ll.bKO MeHee .3HaqHTe.ll.bHbI. C.II.e~YlOIgee scrynxeHHe Bom~H (cis) npOHCXO~HT yase na noxraxra nocxe Toro, KaK TeMa, «axcnonapyewaa» cnYTHHKOM, ~OCTHr.l\a TOqKH onopsr, Ero ~HHaMHKa B aTOT MOMeHT He TO.ll.bKO He CHHmaeTClI, a YCH.II.HBaeTCR, TaK KaK TeMa cnYTHHKa nepea HHM, ~OCTHraR TOHHKH (gis), He ncxy-raer paBHOBeCHR, H3-Ba roro qTO HHmHHll: roaoc oopaayer C nero saaepasanae ceKYH,'I;bI. T aKHM 06pa.30M HOBoe acrynxenae Bom~R npHXO~HTClI na oxeae OCTPbIll: MOMeHT: cis (ToHHKa) B BepXHeM rO.l\oce .3ByqHT O~HOBpeMeHHO C pe3KO KOHTpaCTHpylOIgHM ell: TOHOM dis B HH2:KHeM roxoce. 81'0 dis BbInO.ll.HReT aaecs Ty me IPYHKgHlO sepxnero BBO~Horo TOHa H YB.II.eKaeT roxoc K TOHHKe. I1.3-.3a saaepasaaaa TOHHKa nORB.II.lIeTCR na qeTBepTOll: c.I\a60ll: ~O.ll.e TaKTa, H dis BPeMeHHO noxyxaer aaaxeane ynopa, qeM HHBe.ll.Hpyercs aaasenae TOHHKH (cis) KaK OTnpaB.II.eHHR. I1.3-.3a aroro 'B HHmHeM roxoce orrsrre He BOCCTaHaB.II.HBaeTCR paBHOBeCHe: H.3 cis ~BHmeHHe BO.3BpaIgaeTCR B dis, OCTpO ~HCCOHHPYR C ~ByMR sepxHHMH rO.ll.OCaMH, BHOBb yXO~HT B TOHHKY (cis) H 3~eCb KaK 6Y~TO 6bI ~OCTHraeT YCTOll:qHBOCTH. Ho, C O~HOll: CTOPOHbI, B aTOM HHmHeM roxoce yzse oopaaoaaxace HHepgHR ~BHmeHHR, KOTopaR BbI.3bIaaer noaorinere npeamecmyrorgaa Ba~ep2:KaHHR (TaKTbI 4-5, 6-7, 8-9) C «OTKaTOM» BHH.3 BCAe~ aa paapeureauesr: C ~pyroll: me CTOPOHbI, YCTOll:qHBOCTb HAM: KOHCOHaHTHOCTb BTOpOll: nO.ll.OBHHbI BOCbMoro TaKTa nO~PbIBaeTCR IPYHKgHoHaAbHbIM .3HaqeHHeM e B BepXHeM -roxoce. 8TO e BOBce He RB.II.ReTCR YCTOll:qHBbIM TOHOM: KaK YMeHbmenaaa xsapra, H~H aa his, OHO HaCTOll:qHBO rperiyer ~a.ll.bHeH:WerO '~BHmeHHR. KpOMe roro, aacrynnauree H.3-.3a KOHCOHaHTHOCTH aepTHKa.ll.H paBHOBeCHe Ha OTHOCHTe.ll.bHO c.II.a60H: ~o.ll.e TaKTa .3ByqHT KaK aceacaoe OKOHqaHHe. OHO RB.I\ReTOI MHHMbIM paBHOBeCHeM H.3- aa n pOT H BOp e q H R Mem~y rapMOHHtIeCKHM IPYHKgHoHa.ll.bHbIM .3HaqeHHeM 06pa.30BaBllierOCR Be p T H~, a x b H 0 r 0 xoxmxeaca (e-i-gis-s-cis, qHTall csepxy BHH.3) H IPYHKgHoHa.ll.bHblM me aaaxeHHeM Ka2:K~OrO OT ~e.l\bHOrO TOHa sroro xosmxexca B Me.l\O~HqeCKOM OTHOllleHHH KaK TOqKH rOpH.30HTa.ll.H.* I1 erge: eC.II.H ~ame npaaaare naronagaoaaoe aaaxenae ~aHHoro KOMn.ll.eKCa KaK TOHHKH-YCTOR, TO OHO BCTynaeT B npOTHBOpeqHe C PHTMO-KOHCTpYKTHBHhlM nOAO- 2:KeHHeM asxopaa, KaK 6bIAO TO.ll.bKO qTO YKa.3aHO, na OTHOCHTe.ll.bHO

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56

aHreMHTOHHaK CHCTeMa HAH aHTHqHble 3BYKOPKJI,bl, 06YCAOBAeHHble 'IHCAOM H HaCTpOHKOH CTPYH AHPbI,- BCe OHH B03HHKalOT B pesyxsrare ortiopa TOHOB B crpepe aKYCTHqeCKHX KBAeHHH C \!eAblO B03- MOiKHOCTH opramraagaa MY3bIKH B npeaexax norpedaoro Jl,aHHOH cpeae xpyra HHToHagHH. B npezexax CHCTeMbI 3BYKocorrpKiKeHHJI, KOTOpaJi Bblpa6aTbIBaeTCJI B peay AbTaTe AAHTeAbHoro pana YCHAHH:

H rrpacnocotixenaii cxyxa H B03HHKaeT H3 cogaaxsao OC03HaHHbIX nOTpe6HOCTeM,- TBOPHTCJI H HHToHHpyeTcJI MY3bIKa B nOCTOKHHOM CTpeMAeHHH K asrpaoorxe YCTOH'IHBbIX, ypaaaoaemeaasrx 3BYKOCOOTHOIlIeHHH, xoropere otipasyror csoero poaa OCHOBHOH CPOHtJ; HH~ TOHagHH, H B CTOAbiKe nOCTOJlHHOM TJlrOTeHHH K saxeae aTHX OKpHCTaAAH30BaBIlIHXCJI KOMnAeKCOB HOBbIMH. 0 TOM, KaK oCAa6- AJleTCJI qYBCTBO conpOTHBAeHHJI MaTepHaAa H KaK 3BYKOCOOTHOIlIeHIUI, xo'ropere BocnpHHHMaAHCb KaK HHTeHCHBHO Bblpa3HTeAbHble, nepecraror TaKOBbIMH 6bITb,- JI aaxarato B _l{o6aBAeHHH 2 (<<OcHOBbi MY3bIKaAbHoH HHToHagHH»).

Tepsercs AH, OJl,HaKO, TeM caMbIM tJ;AJI MY3bIKOBetJ;eHHJI 06 'b ~ e K T H B Hoe 3Ha'IeHHe TaKHX CTaBIlIHX «apXaHqHbIMH» HHToHagHH? KOHeqHO, HeT. ECAH HaIlIeH fIHTOHa\!HOHHOH: CHCTeMe qYiKtJ;O CPYHK~ gHoHaAbHoe anaxemre cantus Iirrnus'a B MOTeTe ars nova HAH B Meccax cppaHKo-cpAaMaHJI,CKOH IlIKOAbI, TO HCCAeJl,OBaTeAb, asexaioIgHH nOHJlTb aTY npaKTHKY MY3bIKH, npezsne scero tJ;OAiKeH nocrapaTbCJI YCBOHTb CPYHK\!HH aAeMeHTOB rocrrOtJ;CTBOBaBIlIeH: TorJl,a CHCTeMbI. T OqHO TaK ase, KaK, eCAH 6bI KOMrr03HTOp spozte XI1HtJ;eMI1Ta noasexax COqHHJlTb B nxaae rapMOHH'IeCKOrO MbIIlIAeHHJI WYMaHa HAH AHCTa, OH tJ;OAiKeH 6bIA 6bI npaaa'rs cpyHK\!fII1 TOHOB, KaK HX npI1HHMaAH YKa3aHHbIe KOMn03HTopbI.

I1TaK, asyseaae npOJIBAeHHJI CTHMYAOB MY3bIKaAbHoro Jl,BHiKe~ HHJI H aaepr-aa tJ;BHiKeHHJI B HCTOPHH pa3BHTHJI My3bIKH YKa3bIBaeT Ha He06xoJl,HMOCTb paCCMaTpHBaTb aTO Jl,BHiKeHHe KaK tJ;HaAeKTHqeC}(HH npogecc, B KOTOPOM TeHtJ;eH\!1IJI K paBHOBeCHIO OtJ;HoBpeMeHHO ocnapasaerca He MeHee CHAbHbIM CTpeMAeHHeM K OTAaAeHHIO MOMeHTa HacTynAeHH51 paBHOBeCHJI, a C HHM H nOAHOM KpHCTaJl.AH3a~ \!H1I tJ;aHHbIX COOTHOIlIeHHM. Taxas rrOAHa51 KpHCTaAAH3a\!H51 OKa3bIBaeTCJI HHKor tJ;a He OCYIgeCTBHMOH, nOTOMY 'ITO KaiKJI,Oe 113 CTaBIlIHX npIfBbJtJHbIMH COOTHOIlIeHHH, He Tep51Jl csoeii 06'beKTHBHoH CPYHK~ !!IfoHaAbHoH 3HaqHMOCTH B Jl,aHHOH: CHCTeMe, C H3MeHeHHeM npoH3:, BOJl,CTBeHHblX oTHoIlIeHHH, xoropsre 9Ta CHCTeMa B MY3bIKaAbHOH cnoeil «crregnrpaxe» o'rpaasaer, nepecraer OIgYIgaTbCJI KOAAeKTHB~ HbIM C03HaHHeM KaK ynpyraa axryaxnnaa cpopMYAa COnpJliKeHHJI H ycrynaer MeCTO HOBOH. 8rroxH aKaJl,eMH3Ma B MY3bIKe - ,:TO anoxa npeofixaztatras YAOBAeTBopJllOIgI1X 60.l\bIlIHHCTBO AIO.a;eI1 MaKCHMaJl.bHO (HO He a6COJl.IOTHO) npHBblqHbIX COqeTaHHH:. 9noxH KpH- 3HCOB H 60Pb6bI - aTO nOHCKH MY3bIKaHTaMH 60Aee HHTeHCHBHbIX H HenpHBbIqHbIX, a nOTOMY OCT pee B03AeHCTBYlOIgHX COqeTaHHH H npacnocoexeaae K HHM cAyxa OKpYlKalOIgeH cpeasr. u u

nOCKOAbKY rrOAHa51 KpHCTaAAH3a\!H51 3BYKOOTHOIlIeHHH Kam~OH

58

tJ;aHHOH anoxn OKa3bIBaeTCJI HetJ;OCTHIKHMOH, rrOCTOAbKY 06bIqHOe ysenae 0 rpopxax KaK HeKHHX 3aBepIlIeHHbIX cxexax scer-aa OTCTaeT OT MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHJI B erOKOHKpeTHOH: HCTOpHqeCKOH 'AaHHOCTH, H CPOPMbI-cxeMbI, CPHKCHpY51 y*e H3iKI1TbIH HHTOHa\!HOHHbIH orrerr npeasaax rrOKOJ\eHHH, BCTYIIalOT B HerrpHMHpHMbIH KOH~ cpAHKT C HOBoo6pa30BaHHJlMH. CAeAOBaTeAbHO, B tJ;eJlTeAbHOCTH KOMII03HTOPOB, C TOqKH 3peHHJI I13MeHJlIO'!!HXC51 rrpogeccon CPOpMO~ BaHHJI, He06xOAHMO paaxnsare tJ;Ba OCHOBHbIX YKAOHa B TOM OTHOIlleHHH, 'ITO OAHH H3 HHX, OTpaIKaJl BKYCbI H IICHXHKY xxacca, aaeoAoraMH xoroporo OHH 5lBAJIIOTCJI, IIpOtJ;OAiKaIOT YTBepiKAaTb AeAYKTHBHO rrpaewsr ocpopMAeHI151, HaKOIIAeHHbIe B rrpeAIlIeCTBYIOIgeM onsrre, ApyrHe IKe, HCXOtJ;51 H3 HOBbIX CBOHCTB BHOBb «aargynaaHbIX» CAYXOM 3BYKOCOIIpa2KeHHH, YCTaHaBAHBalOT HOBble IIpHHJ,!HIIbI rpopxroodpasoaaaaa. OtJ;HH, CTaAO 6bITb, rrpHCIIoco6AHlOT K AaH~ HOMY MaTepHaAY IIPHBbI'IHbIe cxexier, apyrne H1gYT B HeIIpHBbIqHOM MaTepHaAe COOTBeTCTBYlOl.!!HX CHAe ero BbIpa3HTeAbHOCTH CPOpM ee BbIHBAeHHH. TaK oopaayerca AHaAeKTHKa MY3bIKaAbHoro qiopMOBaHHH.

I1CXOAH H3 acex BbICKa3aHHbiX rrpetJ;IIOCbIAOK, Heo6xotJ;HMO C'IHTaTb BCHKoe MY3bIKaAbHoe .a;BHlKeHHe, xoropoe H B geAoM, H B Ka2KAbIH tJ;aHHblH MOMeHT 1I0CTHraeTCH KaK CTaHOBAeHHe opraHH3YIO'!!HX ero CHA, KaK aKT cpopMOBaHHJI,- Co C T 0 H H If e M Hey C T 0 H 'I H ~

B 0 r 0 P a B HOB e C H H, 3aMKHYTbIM MeiKtJ;Y nepnsnr TOA'IKOM \ (TOqKa OIlOPbI, HAH HCXOJl,HaH TO'IKa, HAH TOqKa OTrrpaBAeHI1a) H 3aMbIKalOIgeH Jl,BH2KeHI1e KOHeqHOH CPOPMYAOH (KOH!!OBKa, KaAaHC). \ 9TH HaqaAbHbIe H KOHeqHbIe CPOPMYAbI HaJl,O pa3AH'IaTb OT TOAqKOB \ Ii KaAaHCOB BHYTPH aamroro IIpO\!eCCa pa3BepTbIBaHHH MY3bIKH, xo-ropsre qaCTHqHO 3aMbIKalOT ABH2KeHHe OT Jl,eAbHbIX cTa.a;HH H HB- / AJlIOTCH KaJl,aHCaMH-BexaMH H pacrrpenexnrexava 3BYKoBoro noTOKa. OHH 3aKpeIIAHlOT TO HAH naoe HaIIpaBAeHHe tJ;BH2KeHHJI, HAH OTKAOHHIOT ero, HAH ase YKa3blBalOT HOBoe.l1cTopHH pa3BHTH51 CO~ sepmemroro xaziaaca KaK CPOPMYAbI, BIIHTbIBaBIlIeH B ce6J1 conpa- 2KeHH51, cyrgecr aeaaere H xapaxrepaere Jl,A51 aceii CHCTeMbI 3BYKOOTHOIlIeHHH paaa anox, rrpeACTaBAHeT C06010 BaiKHeHIlIYIO r AaBY

B 8BOAIO\!HH MY3bIKaAbHoro cpopMo06pa30BaHHH, a ara aBoAlOgHH

B CBOIO ouepean B CHeTe AHHaMHqeCKOrO yseana 0 MY3bIKaAbHbiX cpopMax OKa3bIBaeTCH tJ;AHTeAbHOH 60Pb60H aa MaKCHMaAbHO HHTeHCHBHoe 3 a rr 0 A H e H H e B C e y B e A H 'I H B a B III e roc JI p a c ~

C T 0 JI H H.JI «II P 0 6 era» M e iK A Y T 0 'I K 0 HOT rr P a B A e H H JI

H TO'lKOH BOCCTaHOBAeHHoro paBHOBeCH·H nYTeM HcnOAb30BaHH51 8HeprHH 3BYKOCOrrpH2KeHHH H T51rOTeHHH.

Pa:moo6pa3He 3BYKOOTHOIlIeHHH tJ;0 CHX rrop eIge He 1I0Jl,AaBa· -AOCb ac-repneraarorgeii KAaCCHcpHKa\!HH B nxaae HCTOpH'IeCKOM, HO OCHOBHble rrpHHQ;Hrrbl rpopssoaaaas see iKe AocTynHbI Ha6AlOAeHHlO H o606'!!eHHIO. KaK 6bI HH 6bIAH CKpOMHbI aTH nonerrxn Ha6AlOAeHHH H o606IgeHHH, OT HHX HeAb3H orxaasraarnca, paBHO KaK HeAb3JI 60HTbCH H ranorea, nOMoralOIgHX 06'bHCHeHHIO rex HAH HHbIX HBAe-

59

mdi B CAOmHblX npogeccax MY3blKaAbHoro qlOpMo06pa30BaHHH. DOA06Hbill nyre CBOllCTBeH KamAOMY HCCAeAOBaTeAbCKOMY CTaHOBAeHHlO. KAaCCH<pHKa!!IUI H CHCTeMaTHKa !f>opM-cxeM B '1HCTO KOHCTPYKTHBHOM OTHOIIIeHHH H C OTKa30M OT npOHHKHOBeHHH B CYIgHOCTb HHTOHa!!HOHHbIX npO!!eCCOB H npeBpargeHHll 3BYKoaHeprHH, poasaarorgax aTH OKpHCTaAAH30BaBilIHeCH cxeMbI, HH'IerO He AaeT AAH nOCTHmeHHH 3aKOHOB MY3blKaAbHoro ABHmeHHH B ero CTaHOBAeHHH, B axre !f>opMo06pa30BaHHH H B nperaopenna OAHHX !f>OpM B apyrae. HHCKOAbKO ae OTpH!!aH nOAeSHOCTH TaKoro poaa accxenoaaaaii, HeAb3H He YKa3aTb na HX OrpaHH'IeHHOCTb H na onaCHOCTH, CBHSaHHble C npeACTaBAeHHeM 0 rpopvax KaK 0 cxevax, 6e3pa3AH'IHb1X K CBOllCTBaM MatepHaAa H KaK 6bl H3BHe Han 0 AH HeM bl x conepacanaexr. ::ho !f>opMaAHcTcKoe npeACTaBAeHHe cerrpaxo xpaiine BpeAHYIO POAb, OTAeAHB !f>OPMY OT HHTOHa!!HH,' H AOBeAO AO a6cYPAa AyaAH3M !f>OpMbI H coaepasanaa, MHHYH!f> a K T, 'ITO MY3blKa KaK 1JYBCTBeHHO nenocpeacrneaaoe n03HaHHe MHpa eCTb oonapyasenae MaTepHaAa B rpopsrax ABHmeHHH, opraHH30BaHHbIX qeAOBe'leCKHM C03HaHHeM H Y M e H HeM ( TeXHHKa HCKYCCTBa), BeAb Aame npHMHTHBHbIe BHAbI MY3bIKaAbHOll «CHrHaAH3a!!HH» BbIcTynaIOT B CBoeM B03AellCTBHH KaK orpopsrxennsre 3BYKOCOOTHOIIIeHHH. I1Haqe MYSbIKa He ABHHYAaCb 6bl AaAbIIIe HHTOHa!!HH-MemAOMeTHll. I'opoacanan uanreji anOXH MomeT BOBce He nOA03peBaTb o cyrgecraoaaann raMM H He H3Y1JaTb «aAeMeHTapHOll 'reopaa» MY- 3bIKH, HO nepBH1JHO-OCHOBHble 3BYKOCOOTHoIIIeHitH (a aTO yme !f>oPMbI) eaponeiicxoii MY3blKaAbHOH CHCTeMbl aanaxn B ero C03HaHHe Hero naMHTb H3 onsrra BocnpHHTHH MYSblKH - 6YAb TO AOMa, aa Y AHye, B KOHgepTe, HAH B KHHO, HAH B peCTopaHe,- H OH, caM roro He nOA03peBaH, acrrerrersaer aMogHoHaAbHoe B03AellCTBHe MYSblKH tOAbKO xepes ee !f>OpMbl. J\IOAHM me, He BocnpHHHMaIOrgHM MY3blKY opraHHSOBaHHO,- OHa npeACTaBAHeTCH xaOCOM H IIIYMOM: aTO Ael'KO Ha6AIOAaTb, xor.aa Aame BbICOKOKYAbTypHbre cxyurarexa rocrroncruyrorgero xxacca CTaAKHBaIOTCH B CBoeM BocnpHHTHH C HenpHBbI'IHbIMH AAH HHX HHToHagHoHHbIMH 060pOTaMH H !f>opMaMfi MySbIKH, KOTopaH BOSHfiKAa B KAaCCOBO HM pOACTBeHHOll cpeae, Oeparuoe BHAHO, xor.aa xxacc YXOAHrgHll npHHHMaeT MY3blKY xxacca, HAyrgero eMY na CMeHY, B CHAY ee npOCTOTbI H 06rgeAocrynaocra - KaK peaK!!HIO na H3bICKClHHbie BKYCbJ. DpHMep: ycnex 6ypmya3Holl KOMHqeCKOll onepsr (c06cTBeHHo maHpoBoll, MergaHCKOll AHpH1JeCKOll KOMeAHH) C ee TeMaTHKoll H ceMaHTHKoll - naKaHYHe BeAHKoll !f>paH!!Y3cKOll peBOAIO!!HH - B apHcTOKpaTH'IeCKHX xpyr'ax. TO'lHO TaK me l\1HOrHe BHAHble npeAcTaBHTeAH aBcTpHHCKOll apacroxparan I1IAH HaBCTpe'lY DeTxoBeHY, Tor aa Kal\ B 6ypmya3Holl cpeze ero HCKYCCTBY AOAro OKa3bIBaAOCb CHAbHoe conporaaxenne (06 aTOM rOBopHT XOTH 6bI HCTOPHH pacnpocrpaaeHHH 6eTXOBeHCKHX CHM!f>OHHi:f), noxa He BbIpa60TaAHCb CAYXOBblc HaBbIKH. DeTxoBeH 6blA npH3HaH, TaK CKa3aTb, OT nporasnoro: xepes HCKYCCTBO pOMaHTHI\OB!

I

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T O.l\1JOK HAH OTnpaBHaH TO'lKa.

KamAoe MYSbIKa.l\bHOe npOH3BeAeHHe pa3BepTbIB'aeTCH MemAY nepBH'IHhlM TO.l\'1KOM (T01JKa OTnpaBAeHHH, MOMeHT OTTa.l\KHBaHHH) H TOPM030M HAH 3aMbIKaHHeM ABHmeHHH (KaAaHc). Ha6.1\IOAeHHe sa TO.l\1JKOM, OTTa.l\KHBaHHeM H.I\H Ha1Ja.l\OM ABumeHHH MY3bIKH CTO.l\b me BamHO, KaK H H3Y1JeHHe npogecca 3aMbIKaHHH. K cozsa.l\eHHIO, eC.I\H B 06.1\aCTH HSY'IeHHH xaztaaca KOe-1JTO AOCTHrHYTO B OTHOIIIeHHH KAaccH!f>HKa!!HH KaAaHCOB KaK KOHe1JHbIX !f>0PMY.I\ H Aame 1JaCTH1JHO czrexaaa nonsrrxa npOC.I\eAHTb aBo.l\IOgHIO COBepIIIeHHoro xaaanca (A I f red 0 Cas e II a. L'evoluzione della musica a traverso la storia della Cadenza perfetta. L., 1924), TO no '1aCTH HCC.I\eAOBaHHH npHeMOB H HHTOHa!!HOHHbIX !f>OPMYA, AeTepMHHHpYIOrgHX aaxaxo ABHmeHHH, npHxOAfiTCH cotiapare MaTepHa.l\ C 60.l\bIIIHM TpYAOM, H, KOHe'lHO, see I' xaaaoe B aTOM OTHOmeHHH AaeT TOAbKO Ha6.1\IOAeHHe. 01' ornpaanoro nYHKTa HAH nepBOHCTOKa (TO.l\1JKa) ABHmeHHH, ero C.H.I\bI H xapaxrepa 3aBHCHT MHoroe. C TO'lKH 3peHHH nCHXO.l\OrH1JeCKOll, nepBOMOMeHT HHTOHHpOBaHHH BOBAeKaeT BHHMaHHe C.I\YIIIaTe.l\H B npeacromgee CTaHOBxenae MY3bIKH. B aTOM MY3bIKa.l\bHO-AHHaMH'IeCKOM npogecce nepBOHCTOK ABHmeHHH orrpeaexaer ero 6.1\Hmallmee aanpaaxeaae, creneas CHAbI H CKOPOCTH, xapaxrep H pHTM. Ho a6CO.l\IOTHOll «MepbI» TO.l\'1Ka B MY3bIKe HeT, H eC.I\H nepaerii 3BYK eCTeCTBeHHO HB.I\HeTCH KaK rrepserii paaapaasarexe TO'lKOll OTnpaB.I\eHHH MY- 3bIKH, TO BCe-TaKH, KOHe1JHO, HaAO C1JHTaTb TO.l\'1KOM He TO.l\bKO nepBbIll TOH - nepnsni MOMeHT HHTOHHpOBaHHH, H Aame He TO.l\bKO nepBbill 'MOMeHT conpxaseaax 3BYKOB. T OA1JOK He ecre pe3KO OT'" rpaHH'IeHHaH HHTOHa!!HH, a !f>YHK!!HH TOHa H.I\H paaa TOHOB (:ilBY-KO" conpHmeHHll), AeTepMHHHpYIOrgHX ce6}f B AaHHOM CTaHOBAeHHH B Ka1JeCTBe nepBOCTHMY.I\OB ABHmeHHH.

6.1

KaK B npogecce 3aMbIKaHIHI ~BlImeHHH BbIHBAHIOTCH lJeTKlIe CPOpMbI KOHga, «C06HpaIOIgHe» B ce6e xapaxrepasre SAeMeHTbl xaaa, H BMeCTe C TeM geAble oraexer (KO~bI) cxyasar B OTHOIIIeHHH KO BCeMY npeanrecrayroigeay pa3BlITHIO CMbIKalOIgHM H TOPM03HIgHM ero ClIHTe30M, - TOlJHO TaK me CYIgeCTBYIOT CBOHCTBeHHble ~aHHOMY CTHAIO npHeMbI OTTaAKHBaHHH - HalJaAbHble HHToHagllH, npeapargatorgnecn IiMOr ~a B H3A106AeHHble CPOPMYAbl, H BMeCTe C TeM TOAlJKOM me CTaHOBHTCH geAaH rpynna 3BYKoconpHmeHHH. B xpyrmsrx gHKAHlJeCKHX cpopMax nepSOliCTOKOM ABlImeHHH HBAHeTCH 60Abilloe H nepeznco IIIHPOKO paaaaroe BCTynAeHlIe B CBoeM OTHOIIIeHlIH K nocxenyioigevy COHaTHOMY axxerpo. Bcesoaaozsaere HaHrpblIIIH, pHTypHeAH, petppeusr B MeAKHX cpopMax TOlJHO TaK me cxeayer paccaarpanare KaK OTnpaBHOH MOMeHT MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHH. B rrpogecce pa3BHTHH p o H ~ 0 nOCTOHHHoe B03BpaIgeHHe K PYKOBO~HJf!eMy naneny, K rexre, HBAHIOIgeHCH BMeCTe C TeM H n p 11 rr e s 0 M - cpYHKgHeH, YHaCAe~OBaHHOH' OT HapO~HOH XOpOBO~HOH neCHH C" XOpOBbIM peqipeaosr (cpe~HeBeKOBbIH Rurid. gesang ), - }aKOe B03spaJf!eHHe nOAYlJaeT CMbICA, etge 60Aee noKa3aTeAbHbIH ~AH npogecca cpopMoBaHHH, 'leM A106ble HaHrpbIIIIH B KynAeTHbIX HAll TaHgesaAbHbIX qiopxax. B pOH~O rasoro pozta nOCTOHHHoe THrOTeHHe K nepBOHCTOKY YKa3bIBaeT na aeotixoaaMOCTb genAHTbCH sa OTnpaBHOH MOMeHT, KaK aa HaH60Aee opraaa- 3agHoHHo CHAbHbIH H 06'beAHHHIOIgHH qiaxrop scero ABHmeHHH. I1HalJe, BHe sroro rpaxropa, ace paaaepr eraaaae ABHmeHHH H rrpogecc cpopMOBaHHH He HMelOT B pOH~O npOlJHbIX CBH3eH H ~epmaTCH na CPYHKgHoHaAbHO 3bI6KHX, MaAO aKTyaAbHbIX conOCTaBAeHHHX. B03BpaJf!eHHe K nepBOHCTOKY - xapaxrepasrii npH3HaK STOH cpOpMbl, BblIIIe~IIIeH H3 ynoMHHYTOH xpyroaoii nAHCOBOH neCHH. B onepe POAb nepBOHCTOKa BbITIOAHHAH ysep nopa H aHTpaKTbI nepea ~eHcTBHHMH. BarHepoBCKHH cpopIIInHAb (B «J\osHrpHHe», «T pacrane», «MeHCTep3HHrepax», «lIapcatpaxe») czsaro CYMMHpyer B CHMcpoHH'leCKOM cpopMOBaHHlI see AeHcTBHe H cAymHT ~AH Hero ~paMaTHlJeCKHM BBeAeHHeM HAH TOlJKOH OTnpaBAeHHH.

TaKHM 06pa30M, aHaAH3HpYH B caxrerx 06Jf!HX qepTax TOAlJOK HAH HalJaAbHbIH MOMeHT MY3blKaAbHoro ~BHmeHHH C TOlJKH 3peHHH npogecca HHTOHHpoBaHHH, He06xo~HMO BbI~eAHTb B HeM: nepBblH OTnpaBHOH: 3BYK, * 3aTeM nepsoe, xapax'repaoe ~Ml acero ~aAbHeH:urero ~BHmeHHH corrp azsen ae 3BYIWB, orrpenexsrotgee pHTM H TOHaAbHOCTb, H, naxoneg, paCIIIHpeHHoe BBeAeHHe (HanpHMep, Me~xenaoe BCTynAeHHe' CHMcpOHHH). Mozsao paCCMaTpHBaTb Kam~oe AaHHoe CTaHOBAeHHe My3bIKlI B ero KpaHHHX npeaexax KaK «npo- 6er» OT nepBoro TOAlJKa ~O nOCAe~Hero KaAaHca H O~HOBpeMeHHO MOm.HO BHYTPH aroro CTaHOBAeHHH Ha6A1OAaTb OT AeAbHble . conoaxaaennere geAOMY «TOAlJKH H TOPM03bl». B STOM npofiere aaxaxe-

* To ecr s YlKe caMbIH ¢ a K T - naaaxo HHTOHHposaHHlI MY3bIKH, ee 06Ha'PYlKeHII1I ,1IAli cxyurarexei].

62

HblH H nOCAeAYIOJf!He TOA'lKH KaK onpeaexarexa ABHmeHHH ,lleHCTBYIOT TeM CaMblM na 60Aee HAH MeHee ~aAeKOe paCCTOHHHe. T yr Heo6xOAHMO nOMHHTb, lJTO KamAblH nepBbJi:i MOMeHT HHTOHHpOBaHHH HMeeT CBOell: Henocpe~CTBeHHOH geAblO BKAlOlJeHHe C03HaHHH cxynrarexa B TO H, B crpepy MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHH aa OCHOBe CBOll:CTBeHHon ~aHHOH anoxe H cogHaAbHon cpeae C HC T e M bl coo'mourexaa 3BYKOB. ECAH B3RTb KaKYIO-AH60 cpeaaeBeKoBYIO HHToHagHoHHYIO CPOPMY Ay ncaAMO~HpoBaHHH, pelJHTagHH, TO B Hen 06bIlJHO pa3AHlJHMbI: HalJaAbHblH MOMeHT (Initiurn), pe-' 'lHTlipOBaHHe Ha OCHOBHOM TOHe (Tenor) C ge3ypHbiM nOAyKa~aHCOM (Metrurn) H 3aKA1OlJeHHe (Punctum); nanpavep: *

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r OAOC KaK 6bl «noA6HpaeTCH» K meAaHHon TO'lKe onopsr, a He araxyer ee cpasy, TOAlJKOM saece 6y~eT «noaxoa» H MOMeHT

'cpHKcagHH TO H a, Ha KOTOPOM Be~eTCH pe'lHTagHR. -- __

COOTBeTCTBeHHaR cpyHKgHH BCRKon KOHgOBKH, BCHKoro xaaaaca - 3aMKHYTb ABHmeHHe B 06YCAOBAeHHOIf AaHHOH: CHCTeMon 3BYKOCooTHorueHMn crpepe. 06bIlJHO- B Ton crpepe, B xaxoii 6bIAa MY3bIKa B aaxaxe HAH BO BpeMH r AaBHbIX PYKOBOP;HIgHX STanOB CTaHOBAeHMH. T ax, eCAH DepBaH CHMCPOHHH Cvdur Berxonena aalJHHaeTCH He C aKKOPAOB TOHHKH, a 3aKA1OlJHTeAbHbin Kap;aHC I ee lJaCTM 6yp;eT ace me aa C-dur'HoM Tpe3BY'lHH, T. e. 6yp;eT COOTBeTCTBOBaTb Tpe3BytJ.HIO TOHaAbHOCTH r AaBHOH: nap'ran axxerpo, a He nepBOTOAlJKY, TO B STOM qiaxre HeT nnxaxoro npOTHBOpe'lHR C TeM, 'lTO xaaaac p;OAmeH xongearpapoaare OCHOBHYIO, onpenexennyio ~AH ~aHHon nsecer rpyrmy TOHOB. ::ha oCHOBHaR, orrpenexeanaa rpynna TOHOB oonapyasaaaercs B pesyxurare T H rOT e H M H acero MeAAeHHoro BCTynAeHMR CHMCPOHHH K nepaoii TO'lKe (C-dur'Hoe Tpe3BY'lMe) nepnoii TeMbI H KO BCeH: r AaBHon nap'ran - ace me npeznnecrnyrorgee STon TO'lKe H STOll TeMaTH'leCKOH: rpyrme CTaHOBAeHHe My3blKH ecr» 60AbruOH CHAbI H ~.I\.HTeAbHOCTH TOA'lOK, MHTeHCHBHO B bI 3 bI B a 10 Ig H n, no Mepe csoero pa3paCTaHHH, H STHM CBOHM paspacranaea no P; rOT a BAH B a 10 Jf! H H caoe «paspeureHHe», CBOll «paapsn» B MY3blKe rAaBHon naprna. TaK CKa3bIBaeTCH ~HHaMH'leCKaH CYIgHOCTb BCHKoro OpraHH'leCKH aerpocurero MY- 3blKaAbHoro BCTynAeHHH. B npHBeAeHHOH asnne npHMHTHBHon HHTOHa!!HH pO.l\.b TOA'lKa HAH OTnpaBHbIX 3BYKOB TaKOBa m.e: OHH HeH3- 6emHO - B yCAOBHHX p;aHHOH Aa~OBOH: CHCTeMbI - BbI3bIBa1OT HMeliHO STOT, a He p;pyroll TOH. no MY3blKe csoeii H no ee paanepax COBceM HHOll TOA'lOK K nepBOMY a.l\.AerpO 6eTXOBeHCKOH CHMCPOHHH

* ElTo O,1lHa 113 IIHToHaglIoHHblX QlOPMYA 8 gep.KOBIIOr() rona (npauep B311T 113 G. A die r. Handbuch der Musikgeschichte. F. a. M., 1924, S. 90).

63

(OH CaM BHYTPH cetia, B CBoeM CTaHOBAeHHH, HMeeT H TOAlJKH, H Mo.MeHTbI .3aMbIKaHHH) - aa p;eAe He TaK p;aAeKD DTCTDHT OT CBDerD npezixa. oeTXDBeH T~Kme He IIpHMD HalJHHaeT C TOHa-YCTOH p;aHHDH lJaCTH CHM<PDHHH, a «IIOP;BOP;HT» K HeMY CAYX H.3p;aAeKa, C p;pyrHx CTYIIeHeH-CD.3BYlJHll: Aap;a. CDBpeMeHHHKaM oeTXDBeua IIDP;XDP; xa.3aACH p;aAeKHM, MbI me CAbIIIIHM renepe B IIepBbIX axsopaax BCTYIIAeHHH BDBce He lJymp;bIe C-dur'HDMY CTpOID CD.3BYlJHH. <lJDpMYAa cpep;HeBeKDBDH ncaAMDp;HH BBDp;HAa CAYX B TO. H, HP;H no. PDP;CTBeHHbIM xapaxrepnem cryneuaa p;aHHDrD Aap;a, - pasaaga C BerXDBeHDM, .3HalJHT, TDAbKD B CTeneHH .3aDCTpeHHDCTH Dp;HDrD H TDrD me rrpnesra, a He B CYIgeCTBe.

l1TaK, IIepBaH <PYHKgHH TOAlJKa - B K A 10 "I e H H e CAY X a

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KDH, AaKDHHlJHDll: H T 0. H a A b H 0. DIIpep;eAeHHDH HHTDHagHH, BBDP;HTC.SI B Ty cqiepy, B KDTDPDH 6yp;eT pa.3BHBaTbCH p;aHHDe CTaHDBAeHHe. 8TD MDmeT 6bITb IIPH3bIBHaH rpanrpapa (lJTD oxeue lJaCTD B MapIIIax), HAM. YIIDTpe6HTeAbHaH B p;aHHYIO 9nQXY B p;aHHDM CTHAe CDlJHHeHHH BCTynHTeAbHaH qiopsryxa (KaK, aanpnxep, aalJaAD «lOI1HTepa» Mogapra}, HAH, HaKDHeg, IIPDCTD aKKDpP; HAH p;ame DP;HH TO. H, B3HTbIH BceM DpKeCTpDM forte, KaK IIpH.3bIB K BHHMaHHIO (ysep-noper: «8rMDHT», «KDpHDAaH», rperen «AeDaopa» H BTDpaH CHM<POHHH oeTxoBeHa*).

r AHHKa HalJHHaeT yseprropy K «PYCAaHY» I1DAHD3BYlJHbIM HH-

* B «Kopnoxaae» aTOT BCTynHTeAbHblH TO H .3BY'lUT HenOCpe]!CTBeHHO nepez; TeMOH, B «8rMOHTe» - aTO n p H .3 bl B K BCTynHTeAbHOH MYllblKe, To lKe B TpeTbeH «Aeonope» H BTOPOH CHMq,OHHH.

64

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rOIUlpDBa.HHeM aKKD{lp;DB <Po.{lMYAbI CDBepIIIetlHDrD xaaaaca (I, IV, \I, I CTyneHH D.dur).« PHMCKHll:-KopCaKoB HalJHHaeT BCTynAeHHe K orrepe «HDlJb nepea pDmp;eCTBDM» xapaxrepasra P;MI BceH 9TOll:

BeIgH llDCAep;DBaHHeM Tpe3BYlJHH B TepgDBDM DTHDIIIeHHH - csoero poaa MY3bIKaAbHDe motto. - Y MDgapTa B naxaxe yaeprroper «iKeHHTb6a <lJHrapD» HaAHlJeCTByeT «rrpooer» CTPYHHbIX B npeaexax TDHHKH - p;DMHHaHTbI CTpDH C 3aXBaTDM «CDcep;HHX» r AaBHblM CTyIIeHHM IIDAYTOHDB (H cpeaa HHX - axnrepagua ), lJeM cpaay P;DCTHraerca AaP;DBbIH CHHTe.3, T. e. DXBaT He TDAbKD DCHDBHDll:, HD H CDnyTcTBylOIgHX TOHaAbHDCTeH: HHTeHCHBHDe p;BHmeHHe 9TDll: ynepTlOpbl asrseraaer BI1elJaT AeHHe HMeHHD cHIiTeTHlJeCKDrD, KaK 6bI He npepuraaroiger-oca Dvdur' a. He MeHee 3aMelJaTeAbHD Mep;AeHHDe BBep;eHHe yaeprroper « <lJp ell: III lOT g» Be6epa - DHD 3aKAlOlJaeT B ce6e B IIDTeHgHH He TDAbKD IIDCAep;YIOIgee axxerpo, lID coaepasar 3epHD pa3BHTHH MyabIKH BCtll: orrepsr B CDIIDCTaBAeHHH CBeT ADrD, , CI1DKDHHD-cD3epgaTeAbHDrD lJYBCTBa npnpoaer (maHpDBbIe BaAropaet ) H lJYBCTBa HaCTDpDmeHHDCTH, Bbl3bIBaeMDrD tremolo C HH3KHMH KAapHeTaMH H yp;apaMH timpani pp c pizzicato 6aCDB. PDMaHTHKa IIpHpDP;bl (MDmHD CKa3aTb: xec p;HeM npa cDAHge H xec HDlJblO) - Aell:TMDTHB BceH 9TDH oneper,

51 HaMepeHHD ccerxarocs eige aa HDBbIH <PaKTDP - na KDADpHT MY3blKH BCTYllAeHHH yaeprropsr, lJTD6bl YKa3aTb, lJTD p;aHHbIH qiaxTDp arpaer xpaiine CYIgeCTBeHHYIO poxe B D6pa3DBaHHH «BBDP;HbIX HaCTpDeHHH». HD cavoe HalJaAD, nepuere noceus TaKTDB yaep noper «<lJpeHllIIOTg», HBAHHCb OTllpaBHbIM nYHKTDM acero BCTynAeHH.SI, TDlJHD TaK me conepasarexaasr. KaK cxexra TDAlJKa - 9TD I1pOCTDe CDIIDCTaBAeHHe TDHHKH H p;DMHHaHTbI, HD KaK HHTDHHpyeMaH <PDPMYAa initii - DHa p;HHaMHlJHa. BCAYlliaeMCH B nee, 113 TDHHKH C BbIBDP;HTCH CDDTHDllIeHHe sepxaero H HHmHerD IIDAYTDHDB (h H d). Day3a npepsraaer 3BYlJaHHe (HD He P;BHmeHHe).** DepBble CKPHIIKH «IIepeBDp;HT» 3BYlJaHHe BHH3, 3allDAHHH B3HTYlO DKTaBY, HD He 3aXBaTbIBalOT p;OMHHaHTY - g. HaD6DpDT, CAep;YIOIgHH: aHaADrHlJHblH a'rart My3blKH - TDmp;eCTBeHHaH HHTDHagHH DT g - He KaCaeTC.SI

,~ Ka]!aHC BbInOAHlieT .3]!eCb npoTHBonoAolKHYIO cnoeii CYI!!HOCTH q,YHK!!HIO: OH CTaHOUHTCli o'rrrpaanoii HHTO'Ha!!'Heii ,!I;BulKeHHlI, naase ronopa, rrepeXO,'(HT B CBOIO npOTHBonOAOlKHOCTb. K aTOMY lIBAeHHIO el!!e Heo6xo]!HMO 6y]!eT aepayreca.

** j{HHaMH'leCKali q,YHK!!HlI naya B MyablKaAbHOM CTaHOBAeHHH KPaHHe aHa'tHTeAbIHa. nay 3 a - II H a K M 0 A'l a," H 1I - OTHIO]!b He npeKpa1,!!aeT MY3bJ,KaAbHoro ,'(BHlKeHHlI, He BblKAIO'laeT socnpaaraa Hll xpyra aayxoconpa)KeHHH H nOTOMY 1I.BAlieTCli q,aKTopOM MY3blKaAbHoro q,opMouaHHlI. Flayaa 'lal!!e acero «cpeasmaer» K 0 A H 'l e C T B 0 .3BY'laHHlI, HO cpeaaanerii llBYKOKOMnAeKC nponoxasaer BAHlITb (He repaer CBOHX q,YHK!!nii) n, nepecran <tJaKTll' 'leCKH 3BY'laTb, YCHAUBaeT aanpaaceaae ]!BHlKeHHlI, a aaaxar - Bbl3blaaeT etge 60AblllYlO HanplilKe-iIHOCTb BHHMaHUlI, KaK, narrpassep, B aaxaxe yaeprsopsi ,«tPpeHIllIOT,!!». naYlla B nOAHq,OHH'leCKOM CTHAe nepen TeMaTH'leCKHM BCTyn· AeHlleM roxoca CO]!eHCT.ByeT pa3AH'leHHIO ero q,YHK!!HH II aK!!eHTupyeT TO A'lOI<. nay II a - !! e 3 y P a, npepsraaa ]!BHlKeHHe KaK HeolKHlIaHHoe . npenar-

CTBlle, KaK caocro poaa IIAoTHHa, YCHAHBaeT ero ,HHTeHCllBHOCTb. ..___

5

B. B. Acadn.eu

65

TOHHKH. STllM ,1I;OCTHraeTOI orgyrgeHHe KOHTpaCTa na TO.lK,1I;eCTBeHHOll OCHOBe H TOHaAbHbIll CHHTe3, TaK KaK ,1I;aHbI ace aAeMeHTbI C-dur'HOll raMMbI. BMeCTe C TeM aanpanxenae ,1I;BH.lKeHHH OT TOHHKH K ,1I;OMHHaHTe (ooparaoe 6eTxOBeHcKoMY BBe,1l;eHHIO B OepBoli CHMqlOHHH) BbI3bIBaeT HOBoe THrOTeHHe K TOHHKe.

Ornpasaoii MOMeHT yaeprropsr Be6epa K «06epoHY» - 3BytIHT H KaK AellTMOTHB onepsr, II KaK oTKpbIBalOrgIIH CAyXy 3aMaHtIIIBble nepcneieraast BAeKyrgIIll CTIIMyA (rrO,1l;06HOrO pozta rrpHeM II B ysepTlOpe «Maficxaa HOtIb» PIIMcKoro-KopcaKoBa). OOAHaH rrpOTHBOrrOAO.lKHOCTb HeHCHbIM «pOMaHTlItIeCKIIM ,1I;aAHM» HatIaAO yaeprropei «BoAIlIe6HaH <pAellTa» MogapTa, r,1l;e tIeTKIIe yaapsr aKKOp,1l;OB, aaTeM rrAaCTHtIHOe pa3BepTbIBaHIIe Aa,1l;OBbIX <POp My A II nanopacrere CIIHKorrbI AHHaMHtIeCKH, a He KOAOpHCTHtIeCKH rrO,1l;rOTOBAHIOT BHHMaHHe. 8TO BeAHtIaBOe, HO aanpaaseaaoe ,1I;BH.lKeHHe KaK 6bI C,1I;ep.lKHBaeT casro cetia, tITo6bl TeM HHTeHCHBHee ,1I;aTb astpaarecx rexe axxerpo."

Ho Me,1l;AeHHoe BCTyrrAeHHe He scer-aa nrpaer POAb nenocpenCTBeHHoro TOA'IKa. I1Hor,1l;a OHO OT,1I;eAHeTCH OT axxerpo H oopasyer caaocroarexsasrii OT ,1I;eA, a Me.lK,1I;y HHM II TOHaAbHOll crpepoii, K KOTOPOll OHO ,1I;OA.lKHO rrpHBeCTH, BKAHHHeTCH «pastier» (tIarge acero na opraHHOM rrYHKTe ,1I;OMHHaHTbI H npn aenpeaenaoee crescendo, ,T. e. npa O,1l;HOBpeM(;HHOM HapaCTaHHH KOAHtIeCTBa 3BYKOB H YBeAH<leHIIH CHAbI 3BytIHOCTH). 8TOT pastier CAy.lKHT MorgHblM ,1I;HHaMHtIeCKHM TOAtIKOM. 0pHMepbI: yaep-nopsr K «KHH31O I1roplO» DOPO,1I;HHa - r Aa3YHOBa (paatier C <paH<papaMH aa opraHHOM nyaxre A nepez r-xaanoii nap meii II pasfier BHyTpH yaeprropsr B BH,1I;e Bvdur'uoro rrpoaeaeaaa O,1l;HOll H3 MeAO,1l;lIll II3u ctpepsr MeAoca uKOH- xaxa}, rrOArOTOBKa axxerpo B I 'IaCTH T pernen CIIM<pOHHH YaHKoBcxoro, «<p0pMYAa nepexoaa» K TeMe nocxe BCTyrrAeHHH B I 'IaCTH YeTBepToll CHM<pOHHH Berxoseaa H T. ,11;. OO,1l;06HOrO poaa rrpaex «c06HpaHHH aHeprHH» rrepe,1l; aKgeHToM Ha KaKOM-AH60 cyrgecTBeHHOM MOMeHTe CTaHOBAeHHH My3bIKH, KaK aTO BH,1I;HO H3 ,1I;aHHbIX rrpHMepOB, oc06eHHO 'IaCTO rrpOHBAHeTCH B TaK Ha3bIBaeMbiX <meAaAHX» HAH opranaerx nyaxrax, rrO,1l;rOTOBAHlOrgHX penpasy (a B onepax - <pHHaAbl HAH cyr'yfio aazsnsre HBAeHHH H C06bITHH). TaKHe «BHyTpeHHHe TOAtIKH» Ha,1l;O paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK BeCbMa cyrgecTBeHHble C ,1I;HHaMHtIeCKOll TO'lKH 3peHHH <paKTOPbI o<popMAeHHH.

---- OCTaeTCH B CHAe H ,1I;pyraH <PYHKgHH TOA'IKa - Ta ase, KaK II B initio, HO BHyTpH CTaHOBAeHHH: YTBep,1l;HTb TO H, nocxe ,1I;OArHX OTKAOHeHHll orrare YCTaHOBHTb OCHOBHYIO TOHaAbHYIO crpepy. ,8TO

* AHaNOrlfqRbIH IJPI!e'M - HaqaAO «Aparoacaoii XOTbI»" fAUHKH: 3TO

grave CTOAb IlIIHRMHqHO (6Aarolla'pll 3aMeqRTeAbHbIM IJO CBoeH COIJplllKeHHoCTH rapMO'HHqeCKHM KOMIJAeKCaMH aKgeHTHpyeMoMY HHToHagHoHH~MY aaaxeHHIO TOHa d IJOCpellCTBOM «IJOKa3a» IJepeMeHqHBOCTH ero. !PYHKgH~), qTO Bee IJOCAellYIOIgee Es-dur'noe axxerpo ,BOO!l!pHHHMaeTCli B CBoeH rA<tBHOH !PYHKYHH KaK P a 3 'p 1I Il HaKOIJ)\(~IIHoii: B grave 3HeprHH, KaK OIJOpHall 3TOMY grave H «paspematotgaa» ero TOHHqeCKall crpepa,

66

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npOHCXO,1l;HT He TOAbKO rrepea perrpnsoii, "0 H nepea KO,1l;OH:, C geAblO ,1I;06HTbCH ee HHTeHCHBHOCTH (tIY,1l;eCHblll npnxrep no CAHT:

HOCTH C npe,1l;IlIeCTBYlOrgHM ,1I;BH.lKeHHeM H eCTeCTBeHHOCTH CBoeH opraHHbIll nyHKT na TOHHK~ KaK HatIaAO KO,1l;bl B yneprrope «IKeHHTb6a <l>Hrapo» MogapTa). MO.lKHO npHBeCTH etge AI060nbiTHbie npOH3BeAeHHH, B KOTOPblX aece npogecc O<popMAeHHH npencraaAHeT C060ll pH,1I; nOCAe,1l;OBaTeAbHblX opraanerx nYHKTOB. Ka.lK,1I;aH CTa,lJ;HH TaKOll My3blKH no xapaxrepy cnoero 3BytIaHHH aocrrpnmrMaeTCH KaK aaxonxenae 3BYKOBOll aaepr aa H aanpaaseaaaa nonrOTOBKa K pasp azty, K nrory, - HO nepexreigaercx 6ac, H npOHCXO,lJ;HT aHaAOrHtIHblll npogecc ,11;0 'rex nop, noxa ,1I;BH.lKeHHe BHOBb He rrepeiiaer B HCXO,1l;HylO cqiepy (He06H3aTeAbHO, tIT06bl H B TO.lK,1I;eCTBeHHbIll MaTepHaA), H TeM caMblM He BOCCTaHOBHTCH ,1I;aBHO asexaaxoe paBHOBeCHe. 3aMetIaTeAbHbie KAaCCHtIeCKHe rrpasrepet raxoro pozta CTaHOBAeHHH MO.lKHO noxepmry're B TOKKaTax XVI I Bexa, Harrpauep, TOKKaTa in F <l>pecK06aAb,1l;H: B Hell CMeHHIOTCH CTa,lJ;HH naxonxeana OT TOHaAbHOH crpepsr F tIepe3 C, g (moll), D, C xapax'repaerx ,1I;AH snoxn recnenr -repenoaanaexr Tpe3BytIHll d H D KaK TOHHKH d-moll, KaK ,1I;OMHHaHTbI g.rnoll (0603HatIalO B npnBbltIHblX ,lJ;AH Hac <PYHKgHHX), 3aTeM A, orrrrre C H F TOAbKO B caMblll nOCAe,1l;HHll MOMeHT, B 'nOCAe,lJ;HeM TaKTe, XOTH aJi.eMeHTbl F-dur'HOCTH nO,1l;rOTOBAHIOTCH yzse B HHToHagHHx HaA, H60 aTO MeHee Bcero c<pepa Onpe,lJ;eAeHHoro Tpe3BytIHH, a AH60 ,1I;OMHHaHTa K npenurecruyrorgeay D, AH60 He BblHBAeHHaH ,11;0 KOHga crpepa d-rnol l H F-dur.* B c06paHHH Tor chi «L'arte musicale in Italia» HMeeTCH erge O,1l;Ha HHTepeCHaH TOKKaTa <l>pecK06aAb,1l;H B g (CooTHoIlIeHHe cqiep: G-C--F-A-D-G) C HpKO HeYCToH"IHBOll HHToHagHell B HatIaAbHblX TaKTax: cis npa O,1l;HOBpeMeHHOM 3BYtIaHHH t. B pa3BHTHH TOKKaTbI crpepa C BKAIO"IaeT B ce6e <PYHKgHH Tpe3BytIHH Ccdur He-moll H ,1I;OMHHaHTcerrTaKKopAa F'-dur -KOHeqHO, He B CMblCAe RBAeHHH MO,lJ;YARgHH, a KaK CHHTeTH'IeCKHll A a,1l; , tITO Ha6AIO,lI;aeTCH H B Csdur' ax coapeuemroii My- 3bIKH, nepecraaumx 6blTb ,lJ;HaTOHHtIeCKOll TOHaAbHOCTblO C OTKAOHeHHHMH H aAbTepagHHMH, a OpraHHtIeCKH BKAlOtIHBIlIHX B cefia pH,lJ; 06epToHoB. B aTOM CMblCAe HHToHagHoHHaR crpepa C y <l>pecK06aAb,1l;H (c, d, es, e, i, tis, g, as, a, b, h, c) ,lJ;HaTOHHtIHa, KaK H ,lI;pyrHe crpeper, COOTBeTCTBeHHO pas anr-ere.

OPH ,lI;aHHOM asnne nOHHMaHHH «opraHHOCTU» HAH «nenaxa» HaK HHToHagHoHHbIX craaaii, aaxarrxrraarorgnx 3BYKOBYlO saeprmo U <uepaapaasarorgax» ee ,11;0 nOCAe,1l;Hero MOMeHTa, - rrO,lJ;06Hble TOKKaTHble KOMn03HgHH, He HMeIOrgHe csoero MeCTa HAH rrOAOtIKH B Ta6AHge qiopsr-cxea, asrcryrraror KaK cyryfio aarepecasre <pOPMbl B ,1I;BH.lKeHHH, KaK ,1I;HHaMHtIeCKOe CTaHOBAeHHe. 8TH TOKKaTbl B OCHOBe KOHCTPYKgHH H <PaKTYPbl CBoell HMelOT HpKO BblHBAeHHoe

* cha TOKKaTa IJOMeIgeHa B «1. Classici della Musica Italiana», rerpazus 12 (MiliiflO, 1919).

5*

COCTOHHHe HepaBHOBeCHH, HeYCTOHlfHBOCTH - K a K n p n H g H rr K 0 M n 03 H g H H, TeM caMbIM oco6eHHO o6HapymHBaH CBOHCTBO, npncytgee MY3blKaAbHOMY CTaHOBAeHHlO KaK nepexozy H3 YCTOH B HeYCTOH H 06paTHO. B TOKKaTax Kam~a.H H3 lfepe~YIOIgHxCH CTa~HH-ccpep noxyxaer anaxenne c06HpaHHH CHA H HaKonAeHHH arreprHH - KaK TOAlfKa ~AH nOCAe~YIOIgeH CTa~HH.

Ho TOAlfKaMH, «HHTeHCHcpHgHPYIOIgHMH» ~BHmeHHe, MorYT 6bITb OT~eAbHble oc06eHHO HeYCTOHlfHBble H OCTpO ~HCCOIiHpYIOIgHe B ~aHHOH CHCTeMe HHToHagHH. OHH KaK 6bI «BCTpHXHBaIOT» HAH «nO~CTerHBaIOT» ~BHmeHHe, BpbIBaHCb S Hero, H cxyasar npasuaKaMH caoero po aa «KPH3HCHbIX CTa~HH» B ~aHHOM CTaHOBAeHHH. T aKOBbI 3HaMeHHTble «KAeBaHHH» EopO~HHa, TaKOBbI paaxasnoro BH~a «3Hr3arH», «npOCBepAHBaIOIgHe» TKaHb, B MY3bIKe npoxoqrseaa. Bee noaoriaere «B036ym~aIOIgHe» cpencrna npenHTCTBYIOT B03HHKHOBeHHlO HHepgHH CTaHOBAeHHH (~BHmeHHH H cpopMOBaaaa ). B CYIgHOCTH roaopa, CIO~a me MomHO npHlfHCAHTb anaxaTeAbHYIO ~OAIO «neoasnztannerx» rrays, a r AaBHblM 06pa30M C H H K 0 nyc ee B3aHMHO HCKAlOlfalOIgHMH CPYHKgHHMH: rrepesreIgeHHe axgenra C ero 06bIlfHoro MeCTa H O~HOBpeMeHHO, TeM caMbIM, yrnepasnenae pHTMa (ua aTOM OCHOBbIBaeTCH BCH CHCTeMa OCTpO HeYCTOHlfHBoro paBHOBeCHH ~ma3-6aH~a, r ~e CHHKona CTaAa KOHCTpYKTHBHbIM CPOpMHPYIOIgHM npHHgHnOM: noaaepxayraa CAa- 6aH ~OAH TaKTa 3aCTaBAHeT CAYX ace BpeMH «BHOCHTb» paBHOBeCHe B 3BYlfaHHe Bo06pamaeMbIM yTBepm~eHHeM CHAbHOH ~OAH).

06paTHMCH reneps OT Ha6AIO~eHHH aa paaxaxaoro po.a;a nalfaAbHbIMH TOAlfKaMH KaK ~eHCTBYIOIgHMH CHAaMH MY3bIKH, n p e nB a p a 10 Ig e H rAaBHYIO TeMY, HAH MeAO~HIO, !JAH geAYIO lfaCTb nOOH3Be~eHHH, H aa TOAlfKaMH BHYTpeHHHMH, rrepeBO~HIgHMH ~BHmeHHe H3 O~HOH CTa~HH B ztpyryro HAH «BCTpHXHBaIOIgHMH» ero, K H3YlfeHHlO HCXO~HbIX HHToHagHH HAH onopasrx nYHKTOB H nepaoCTHMYAOB ~BHmeHHH B r AaBeHCTBYIOIgHX MOTHBax, TeMax, naprnsx H MeAO~HHX. Haase roaopa, npencraaaa ce6e, lfTO aAeMeHTbI, COCTaBAHIOIgHe geHTp cpe~HeBeKOBOH HHToHagHoHHoH CPOPMYAbI, CO~epmaTCH B AlO60H rexre yaep-noper HAH CHMCPOHHH, B AlO60H MeAO~HH MaplIIa, He3aBHCHMO OT «CHrHaAH3HpYIOIgHX» HX scrynxeHHH. Tor.aa B aHaAH3e nOHHTHH TOAlfKa MbI nOH~eM OT IIIHpDKoro DXBaTa HBAeHHH K H3YlfeHHlO rrepBDCTHMYAOB TeMaTHlfeCKorD .a;BHmeHHH. * nO~lfepKHBalO onsn-s-raxa nepesrennoc're H nepexoa B CBOIO npDTHBonOAomHOCTb CPYHKgHH Kam~oro qiaxropa MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHDBAeHHH. r AaBHaH naprua H ~ame nepaeiii TOH (c 1 ) nepnoii TeMbI 6eTXOBeHCKOH Flepnoii CHMCPOHHH no OTHOlIIeHHIO K npe~lIIeCTBYIOIgeH, «BbI3bIBaIOIgeH» H no~rOTaBAHBaIOIgeH HX MY3bIKe HBMIIOTCH pe3YAbTaTOM, HTorDM, pa3pH~OM HaKonAeHHOH:

* Hano AH roaoparn, 'ITO, H3Y'lall <lTH rrepBOCTHMYAbl KaK 'raxoasre BHYTPH MY3bIK'H, 1I ,BOBce TeM 'He ,oTpHgalO, 'ITO ,caMH-TO OHH 06YCAOBAeUbi BHe MY3blKH J\eHCTBYIO'!!HMH ipaKTopaMH, cnoco6CTBYIO'!!HMH 06pa30lBaHHIO B MY- 3bl'Ke KalKJ\OH HCTOpHqeCKOH :mOXH HMe'HHO TaKHX, a He apyr-ax HHTOHa!!HH.

68

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aaeprnn, rrpO~BHmeHHeM, 06YCAo,BAeHHbiM CHAbHbIM TOAlfKOM. Ho 1Il0 OTHOlIIeHHIO K rrOCAe,a;YIOIgeMY OpraH.Hlfe-CKDMY pa3BepTbI'BaHHlO 'My3bI'KH nepaoe CTaHOBAeHHe, nepBblH: pastier TeMbl BblcTynalOT KaK ero rAaBHbIH CTHMYA. 11 9rrJITb me pacoaarpanaeeaax BHYTPH ce6H TOAbKO RaK O~Ha H3 cTa~Hii: 'CTaHOBAeHHH - ara TeMa Tome BI,AIO'IaeT B ce6e H MOMeHTbI TOAqKa, H ~BHiKeHHH no HHepgHH, H CTOAKHOiBeH.HH CHA C nepesseaoii Hanpa'BAeHHH, H TopMoiKeHHH, H 3aMbIKaHH}! ~BHmeHHH. KOHe'1HD, eCA,u pexe ,H,a;eTHe 0. TOH HAH HHOH CTa;,(HH My3blKH B npcnliKeHHDM rrpQH3Be~eJHHH, a 0 AaK6HHlfHDH necae, TaHgeBaAbHQH MeAQ~HH, MaplIIe 11 T. n., - TO BCKPbITb see aTH MQMeHTbI 06bI'IHO 6bIBaeT AerJ\O. YeM ,ll;AHTeAbHee H cxoasnee (no CODTHOllieHoHHM OT.a;eAOB H MeAblfaHIIIHX lfacTHg) MY3bIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe HAH npogecc DcpopMAeHHH, TeM 'rpynaee aeraxuao BblHBHTb aeiicrueaasre cpaKTQPbl s-ror-o rrpogecca B HX B3-3.HMO,'l;eHCTBUH. To, -rro .a;HcgHnAHHHpo,BaHHbIH H lfYTKHH CAyX .a;eA-3.eT co IOKa30lfHOH 6bICTPOTOH, - n,PH aHaAH3e ,H QrrHCaHHH pe3YAbTaTOB a.HaAH3a rpetiyer 60AblIIOH sarpar sr aaepran H YCH.a;lfHBOCTH. Ho rrpH sceii CAOiKHOCTH H paaaoofipaaan HBAeHlfH OCHOBHble npaagHrrbI O'cpDpMAeHHH pa3AHlfHMbI seane H nOMQralOT YJICHeHHIO npogecca.

TOAlfoK Bbl3bIBaeT paafier. Ye:M KOHTpa,cTHee conocr'aaxaesnsre n a nYTH .a;BJHKeHHH 9AeMeHTbI, TeM CHAbHee paatier H TeM HHTeHCHBHee nOCAe.a;YIOIgHH paspaa, npHMepbI: aa-raxo yaep nopm K «PYCAaHY» (pastier na opraaaon nYHKTe - /lR KaK na ~OMHHaHTe Dvdur }, aaxaxo axxerpo yaep'rroper «CDpeHIIIIOT!!» (oecrroKOHHDe .a;BHiKeHHe DT c-moll'HDrD Tpe3BYlfHH .a;o TorD MOMeHTa xorna c-moIl'HocTb acnsrxaaae-r BD BceM opxecrpe KaK aaaepurenae, BDcnpHHHMaeTCH TaKiKe nD~06HD pa36ery H KaK pa3BHTHe .a;aHHoro TDAlfKa); yme ynoMHHYTDe naxaxo DepBDU: CHMCPDHHH EeTXDBeHa, rzte C-dllr'HbIH KOPDTKHH HaqaAbHbIH MOTHB, CD~epiKaIgHH B ce6e, D,ll;HaKO, CYIgeCTBeHHble 9AeMeHTbl Aa~a (TDHHKa, ~DMHHaHTa, BBD.a;HblH TDH), nepenxrovaercn B d.rnoll, 3aTeM B ctpepy .a;OMHHaHTbl, nOCAe xero cAe~yeT CPDPMY Aa xaaaaca, H TDAbKD scxen aa aTHM «aspsra» (MYTagHH) yrnepacnaer C-dllr'HDCTb ff BO BceH ee nOAHOTe. .3aMelfaTeAbHO, lfTD ~AH "'TDrD yTaepm~eHHH BOBce He nona.a;06HAOCb nDBTopHTb TeMY B ee nepnosr D6AHKe. TaKoe noaropenae YMeItblIIHAO 6bl anexarxenae DT ~aHHorD MeCTa, TaK KaK ror-aa He 6bIAD 6bI CHHTe3HpYlOIgerD HOBOD6pa3DBaHHH, He BD3HHKAD 6bI OIgYIgeHHe pasp aaa KaK peay AbTaTa acero npeanrecrnyroigero pas- 6era. * HD MblCAHMO He MeHee HpKDe D6HapYiKeHHe DCHOBHOH TOHaAbHOuCTH, xoropoe 6y zter BMeCTe C TeM nOBTDpeHHeM yase H3ADmeHHDHTeMbl, npHlfeM nee CTaHDBAeHHe ,ll;HHaMH'IeCKH He ocxaoeer.

* 11 "

,w,aAbHeHIuee pa3BHTHe npOHCXOJ\HT nYTeM .nepeaona My3blKH nocpea-

CTBOM o6p . ". "' d

e II a30BaHHOH H3 nepBOMOTHBa BOcxoJ\lI'!!eHceKBeH!!HH uepes -moll

-rno H T . .l\. B crpepy J\OMIIHaHTbl yzse He. KaK V cryneaa, a 'KaJ< TOHaAbHoli c'1lepbl, KOHTpacTHoH C-dur.

Flonoenoro po aa npavep - B na-raxe T pereeii, Es-dur'noii CHM<POHHH lllYMaHa. TOA'IOK ~aeTCH 6e3 nO~rOTOBKH, Cpa3Y. TeMa nO~HHMaeTCH llIHpOKHMH CKa'lKaMH, CeH'IaC zse aTH npOMeiKYTKH 3anOAHHlOTCH rrpn nOCTerreHHOM cnycxe. HOBoe npoaeaeaae TeMbI B 6acax, O~HaKO, npeperaaercs HOBbIM 060POTOM MY3blKH (Il PHTMH'IeCKIlM H MeAO~H'IeCKHM). T eM caMbIM aapyuraercs B03HHKllIaH 6blAO HHepgHH. T eMa KaK TOA'IOK, O~HaKO, He nporraaaer COBceM, a BpeMH OT BpeMeHH asrcryrraer B pHTMH'IeCKOM CBoeM 06AHKe TO B nOCAe~OBaHHH aKKop~OB MHHopa, TO BeIge 60Aee nepBo6bITHOpHTMH'IeCKOH npnpone - B HHToHagHH oAHoro 'rOHa g:

9

@

I I }! I j I g JI I·ic.
<i g g J. g g
--- --- T eM caMBIM coxpanxerca e~HHCTBO 3aMbICAa H npOBe~eHHH, TeM caMblM yTBepiK~alOTCJI cpean nanpmsenaoro pa3BHTHH MOMeHTbl TOiK~ecTBa H nO,ll;rOTOBAHeTcH B03BpaIgeHHe TeMbl, H60 OHa He 6bIAa eige pacxperra AO KOHga n He savxnyxace B xaaaace, BBH~Y ncer-o aroro HOBoe HHTeHCHBHoe npoaeaeaae TeMbl (TaKT 57, corni etc.) HBAHeTCH BnOAHe OpraHH'IHbIM. Y Berxonena me B Flepaoii CHMcf,>OHHH TaKOBoe He Tpe6oBaAOCb B CHAY HHOH cnryagHH, H60 TaM nepBOMOTHB

10

4;;.

cpasy «BbICKa3bIBaeTCH» sec», H pa3BHTHe ero MbICAHTCH KaK pHA nepeMeIgeHHH H nepeCTaHOBOK, a He KaK ~OBepllleHHe H pacxpsrrae.

Ho H na ,nOT pas lllYMaH He sasepmaer pa3BHTHSI TeMbl H onHTb npepsmaer ee npemHHM npHeMOM (sforzando). Otipaayerca rrapaxxexenoe npenurecrnyrorgevy ~BHmeHHe - B ~pyroM TOHaAbHOM nxane, xoropoe npHBOAHT K n060'lHOH nap-rna B g.moll. HHr~e He aaaepuraevoe otinapyasenae nepaoii TeMbI CTaHOBHTCH f>yKOBO~HIgHM CTHMYAOM a c e r o AaAbHeHllIero p a 3 B H T H H M Y 3 bI K H I 'IaCTH aroii 3aMe'laTeAbHoH CHM<POHHH. T eMa npoxozurr KaK TomAecTBeHHbIH 3AeMeHT xepes caxsre pas.J\H'IHbIe CTa~HH CTaHOBAeHHH, HanOMHHaH 0 ce6e BClOAY (TO B BHAe TOAbKO pHTMH'IeCKOrO pHCYHKa, T:!l 06AeKaHCb B HOBblH MaTepHaA, TO BbIcTynaH KaK 3aMMKalOIgaH 9Kcn03HgHlO Ka~aHCOBaH HHTOHagHH) H BClO~y OCTaBaJICb HeAOCKa3aHHOH: H TeM caMbIM (WXpaHH}1 CB0lO tpYHKgHIo TO A 'I K a HAH ynopaoro AHHaMH'IeCKOrO CTHMYAa.

EIge O~HH xapaxrepnerii npnjaep TeMbI-TOA'IKa MomHO BHAeTb B I 'IaCTH Il.Iecroii CHMtp0HIUI llaHKOBCKelrO - onncrc H3 reaaaxeHeHllIHX no A~rHKe o~opMAeHHH npoH3BeAeHHH:. T exra nOHBAHeTCH B mf3KOM perncrpe MeAAeHH(,)ro BBeAeHHJI KaK tpYHAaMeHT.

79

B axxerpo OHa r AaBHbIH crparer H PYKOBOAHT pa3BHTHeM, BCTpe'IaH npOTHBo~eHCTBHe B MOTHBax npOTHBonOAomHoro HanpaBAeHHJI. TeMa-TOA'IOK KaK pHTMH'IeCKaH 'IeTKaH crona (AaKTHAb), yrnepas~alOIgaJI ce6H C oco6eHHOH ynpyrocrero CKB03b HeCKOAbKO rpas pa3BHTHJI H o6'beAHHHlOIgaH HX, - npOHH3bIBaeT BClO C-dur'HYlO <l>aHTa3HlO llly6epTa. TaM iKe HMeeTC.H xapaxrepusrii npnaep pozsAeHHJI MeAOAHH H3 xaaaaca nocpencraoxr spargarexeaor-o ABHmeHHJI aoxpyr TOHHKH (<<3aTaKTOBbIH» TOA'IOK), CTaHOB}1IgeHCJI AOMH-

HaHToH: * ---- ... ---

IiI

fl ..
.; ---'- -- ~
'J1P Ie ~ ---
, ~ l

I1HorAa TaKOH «gaTaKTOBbIH» TOA'IOK npespargaercs B «saxpeaoe aapacranae» nepea oc06eHHO 3Ha'lHTeAbHbIM npoaeneaaess TeMbI. npHMepoB CKOAbKO yroaao y 4aHKoBcKoro, H OAHH HB oco- 6eHHO nOKa3aTeAbHbIX - B «Eype»: B3AeT CTpYHHblX (allegro rnolto, CTp. 87 naprnrypsr ) {H3~. n. lOpreHcoH] nepezt rpaHAH03- HbIM npOBeAeHHeM TeMbl B Cvdur. 3TOT npauep xapaxrepea onare KaK «nepexxroueaae» xaaaacoaofi, 3aTopM03HBllIeH: npeaurecrayroIgee ~BHmeHHe MeAO~H'IeCKOH rppaaer - B TOA'IOK, B CTpeMHTeAbnyio <pHrypagHlO. HMelO B BH~y:

12

,~I'!j

Allegro molto

J J ;~g~11 S 1 f ff91i,l~I~JS 19,;6,9 rq#cr 11'6

"~J;J J

ppp

etc.

EIge OAHH H3 BH~OB TOAtJKa KaK pastier-a - 9TO nocrertenaoe npO~BHmeHHe OT TOHHKH C B03BpaIgeHH}1MH K HeH, HO TaK, 'ITO C Kam~blM pa30M 3aXBaTbIBaeTCH see 60AblllHM: ~Halla30H. J\ytJllIHH npnaep - HatJaAO tpHHaAa [Iepsoii CHMtpOHlIH EeTXOBeHa:

* 8TO 1l0Ka3aTeAbHbIH IlJHlMep mepexo.aa !PyHK!!HH J\aHHoro 1'OHa B CBOIO npoTHBOIlOAOlKHOCTb - MoryqHH CTHMYA MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHJI (J\BHlKeHHJI H !pOPMOBaHUJI).

71

13 Adagio.

~ ~

t j.

____ ~============ a

f.f

Allegro mollo e vivace

~ ",. fl---f'

¥r~Altrq~

II: r-=u I etc.

pP

T aKHM 06pa30M y-reaae 0 TOAqKe KaK HCTOKe MY:3blKaAbHoro ~BHlKeHHH eCTeCTBeHHO nepexoaar CHOBa B yaeane 0 ~BHraTeAHX, o ~ellcTBYIOJgHX CHAax, opraHH3YlOJgHX H HanpaBAHIOJgHX ;;ITO ~BHlKeHHe, H 0 HX pafiore (aHepreTHKa). CHAbl, KaK aTO Mbl BH~eAH, B03HHKalOT H nopOIK~aIOTCH B caMOM 3BYKOCTaHOBAeHHH H3 Tex COOTHOlIIeHHll, B KaKHe BCTynalOT MelK~y C060H: TOHbl ~aHHOll CHCTeMbl. COOTHOlIIeHHH aTH, nOM HMO yase YKa3aHHbIX, 06YCAOBAeHbI: ao-rrepnsrx, ~HHaMHKOll paCCTOHHHll MelK~y 3BYKaMH (DistanzPrinzip Be6epa *) H BbITeKalOrgHM OTCIO~a B3aHMo~ellcTBHeM HHTepBaAOB (BbICoTHocTell) H ~HHaMHKoH ~HCCOHaHca - KOHCOHaHca; BO-BTOPblX, PHTMO-HHToHagHoHHblMH cOKp;argeHHHMH (CT HrHBaHHHMH) H paCIIIHpeHHHMH HAH paCTHlKeHHHMH «3BYKOCOCTaBOB» (AHHHll H aepr-axaxeii}: B-TpeTbHX - xepeaonannexr nenxasnoro (<<cKaqKaMH») H r.IAaBHOro [aanoxaeaaor-o ) npO~BHlKeHHH rOAOCOB; a-nerneprerx - conOCTaBAeHHHMH TOHaAbHOCTeH H rrepesrergeHHHMH MaTepHaAa H3 O~HOH TOHaAbHOH crpeper B ztpyryro, ECAH, CKalKeM, ~AH My3blKH OaAeCTpHHbI OC03HaH~IOe KaK KOHTpaCT COOTHOlIIeHHe KOHCOHaHca - ~HCCOHaHca H paBHOBeCHe MelK~y «nepTHKaAblO H ropH30HTaAblO» ecr e HBAeHHe CTHAH H cyrgecTBeHHblH ~HHaMHqeCKHll rpaxrop tpopMOBaHHH, ** npHqeM ~AH 06HapYIKeHHH

* eM. M a x Web e r. Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen

der Musik. Mtinchen, 1921 (roToBHTCJI K neuarn PYCCKHH nepenoa I1ropJI

I'neriosa 6).

** 06 STOM - B 3aMe'laTeAblloH patiore: Dr. K n u d J e p pes e n. Der Palestrinastil und die Dissonanz (Lpz., 1925). «Der Palestrinastil muss also auf Grund seiner innersten Faktoren definiert werden als der pr aktisch gesehen vollkommene Gleichgewichtszustand zwischen den Dimensionen, demzufolge das Ideal des Vertikalen: «Vollstiindiger Dreiklang in moglichst klarigschoner Disposition», das Ideal des Horisontalen: «Schrittweise diatonische Bewegung» heisst. Kriterium des Gleichgewichtszustandes ist die strenge schrittweise Behandlung der Dissonanz. In der Geschichte der Dissonanzbehandlung bedeutet der Palestrinastil den Moment, worin die vollstiindige Erf assung der Dissonanz als Musikalisches Phiinomen und gleichzeltig die vollstiindige Herrschaft tiber sie erreicht ish (S. 265). H1cxotlJl Ii:! ero BHYTpeHHHX ocotieauoc-reii, CTHJ\b OaAecTpHHbI tl0J\1KeH 6bITb, cxeaoaarexeno, onpeaexen KaK asrcuras c-rynens npaKTH'leCKH OCYIJ!eC'TBIiMoro paBHOBeCHJI tlBYX H3MepeHHH, COOTBeTCTBeHHO 'leMY HtleaJ\OM BepTIiKaAIi OKa3bIBaeTCJI «noxnoe Tpe3BY'lHe B lIaIi60.\ee npexpacuo 3BY'laIgeM pacnoxozsenna», a HtleaJ\OM ropH30HTaAH - «nocrynenaoe tlHaTOHH'leCKOe tlBHlKeHHe». KpHTepHeM C06AIOtlCHHJI paBHOBeCHJI JlBAJleTCJI crporo nocxeaona're xeuoe ncnoxeaonanue tlHCCOaaaca. B HCTOPHII npauenenas tlHCCOHaHca CTHAb OaJ\ecTpHHbI xapaxrepaayer

72

Ii qeTKOrO noxaaa aroro B3aHMo~ellcTBHH Bblpa6aTblBalOTCH crregHaAbHble npaexrsr (na OCHOBe KOTOPblX aKa~eMHqeCKHe yqeHHH yrnepasnaror pagHoHaAbHYIO cHCTeMY npHroToBAeHHH H paspeureHIiH ~HccoHaHcoB), - TO ~AH My3blKH Il.Iytiepra B raxoii IKe Mepe CYJgeCTBeHHblM tpaKTopOM naao npasnar s HBAeHHe MO~YMlgHH. lliy6epT B COCTOHHHH «3anOAH5ITb» rpoxraaasre no ~aAbHOCTH COOTHOlIIeHHll «nOAH 3BYKOTHrOTeHHll» 6Aaro~apH CBoeMY HCKJUOqllreAbHOMY xyrero TOHaAbHOH CBH3H H TOHaAbHO-KOAOpHCTHqeCKOll aKcnpeCCHH.._

MO~YAHgH~ orxperxa fior-arere nepcnearaaer H B03MOIKH~TH-7 nepe.a MY3blKaAbHblM CTaHOBAeHHeM, TaK KaK TOHaAbHble COOTHOlIIeHHH ~aBaAH B pyxa KOMn03HTopaM Moryqee cpe~CTBO noaasa MaTepHaAa B KpaCOqHO pasnootipaaasrx nxanax. K TO My IKe erge

B MO~yAHgHOHHblX npogeccax 06HapYIKHBaACH npang an sepeaoBaHH5I TOHaAbHblX nAaCTOB, anaxor-axnerii qepe~OBaHHIO nxaaaoro

H aenxaaaoro npO~BHlKeHHH rOAOCOB: MO~YAHgHH-CKaqKH B OT~aAeHHble CTPOH C 9AH3Hell npOMelKYTOqHblX TOHaAbHOCTell aocnoxHRIOTCH MO~y AHgHHMH, B03MeJgalOrgHMH 9TH npoaaxsr. AaAee: .IIBAeHHIO «oneaaana» YCTOH B MeAO~HqeCKOM CTaHOBAeHHH* COOT BeTcrayer spatgenae TOHaAbHOCTell soxpyr TOHHKH. Ho nyru K no-' ~p06HoMy aHaAH3Y ztaunerx tpaKTopoB, oprauasyrotgax MY3bIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe, AelKHT He TOAbKO xepes aayxeaae «TOAqKOB» HAH ornpaauerx CTHMYAOB npO~BHlKeHHH My3blKlI H npHBO~HMbIX HMH

B ~ellCTBHe CHA, HO H HenpeMeHHO qepe3 paCCMOTpeHHe tpaKTopOB

H npogeccoa TopMOlKeHHH H 3aMblKaHHH ~BHmeHHH, a TaKme ROHgOBO'lHbIX tpOPMYA - Ka~aHCOB. OepeqHCAHTb cxeMbI HX HeT na.l106HOCTH. YTO xacaercx HCTOpHqeCKOrO xoaa Bergell - B03HHKHOBeHHH H 9BOAIOgHH Ka~aHCOB, TO, KaK H yase rOBopHA, pa60TbI

B ~aHHOll 06AaCTH TOAbKO 'ITO HaqHHaIOTCH. 11 eCAH BbllIIeynoMHHYTaH KHHra KOMn03HTopa Ka3eAAbl (A I f red 0 Cas e I I a. L'evo. luzione delIa musica a traverso la stor ia delIa Cadenza perfetta) HBA5IeTCH caoer-o po aa xpecrowarneii no COBeplIIeHHOMY xanaacy, YBbI, secswa HenOAHOll, TO HCCJl.e~OBaHHe Machabey (<<Histoire et evolution des formules musicales •.• ») yace Ha~o CqHTaTb geHHell-

lUHM BKAa~OM B asysenae ~aHHoll 06AaCTH. .

HeT COMHeHHH, 'ITO B nepnete sexa eaponeiicxoro MHororOAOCH.!I Ha BbIpa60TKY tp0PMYA, saapenxaroigax TOHaAbHoe qYBCTBO Ii 3aMbIKalOrgHx ~BHmeHHe yTBepm~eHHeM onopnoro ~A'H ~aHHoro Aa~a TO H a, 6bIAO norpaxeao xoxoccaxsnoe KOAHlIeCTBO YCIiAHll, npa-

TOT MOMeHT, xoraa HaH60Aee nOJ\HO paCKpbIBaeTCJI npnpoaa tlHCCOHaHca KaK MY3bIKaAblloro cpeHOMeHa H OtlHOBpeMeHHO tlOCTHraeTCJI noxaoe rOCnOtlCTBO Ha,ll; HHM».] (HeM.).

.~ ·'ITOH me paoo re KpaHHe aaasen 06CTOJlTeJ\bHblii aaaxas oooaPYlKeHHlI B tleli'CTBHH CTOAb cyigecrnenaoro cpaKTopa tlBHlKeIlHJI, KaK CHHKonHpOBaHHhlK AaceoHaHc (Synkopendissonanz ).

* ,,0 n e a a H He» - rpynuapoaxa TOHOB aoxpyr YCTOH'lHBbIX cTyneHeii Aatl~ - COCTaBJ\JleT rAaBHbIH rpaxrop 06pa30BaHHlI n npO,ll;BHlKenHJI MeAOtlH'leCKOH (oco6eHHO necennoji ) TKaHH.

73

qeM npogecc 9TO'T lI1eA necexra MetJ;AeHHO'. OTClOtJ;a BO'3MO'LIma nUIO'reaa, qTO' eCTeCTBeHHaR .1lAR BCRKO'rO' TBO'pqeCTBa YCTHO'H TpatJ;HgHH, H B O'CO'6eHHO'CTH rrpn TO'AbKO' qTO' HaIgynbIBaeMO'H: HMnpO'BH3agHO'HHO'H: nparcrnse nO'AH<pO'HHH, «6O'R3Hb» norepa O'IgYIgeHHR O'rrO'PHO'rO' TO'Ha, He TO'HHKH B HalI1eM CMbICAe (XO'TR qYBCTBO' finalis H TRrO'TeHHe K HeMY, tJ;YMaeTCR, 6bIAO' He MeHee CHAbHbIM), a TO'Ha, KaK «Be3tJ;eCYIgeH:» HHTO'HagHO'HHO'H: BeXH, 3aCTaBARAa rreBgO'B-«tJ;HCKaHTHCTO'B» genARTbCR aa cantus firmus KaK aa nponno CHtJ;RIgHH B naMRTH Han e B, KaK aa cnacarexemaii xpyr B MO'pe erge HeYCTO'H:qHBbIX HHTO'HagHH. MHe tJ;YMaeTCR, qTO' BbICTaBAReMaH MHO'lO rnrroreaa 0' PO'AH cantus firrnus'a - KaK MHeMO'HHqeCKO'H: <PO'PMYAbI AatJ;a H CBO'erO' PO'tJ;a rrYTeBO'tJ;HTeAR tJ;AR cxyxa H naMRTH - MO'meT O'6'bRCHHTb nece XO'tJ; pa3BHTHR cpetJ;HeBeKO'BO'H noAH<PO'HHH O'T rrapaxxexsnoro opranyaa, B KO'TO'PO'M HMeHHO' napaxAeAH3M, KaK BrrO'AHe HHTO'HagHO'HHO' HatJ;emHbIH BHtJ; CO'rrpO'BO'mtJ;eHHR PYKO'BO'tJ;RIgeH MeAO'tJ;HH, RBAReTCR BnOAHe eCTeCTBeHHO'H: CTatJ;HeH B rrO'HCKaX nO'AH<pO'HHqeCKO'H: <PaKTYPbI H O'T pa3AHqHbIX crrO'CO'6O'B JJ,HCKaHTHPO'BaHHR tJ;O' BeTBHCTbIX MO'TeTO'B MalI1O' (XIV B.) H Mecc HHtJ;epAaHtJ;geB. nO'tJ;O'6HO' TO'MY KaK CAYX HCKaJ\ O'nO'PbI B HHCTPYMeHTaAbHbIX BbItJ;epmaHHbIX 6acax (<<6YPtJ;O'HbI»), - TaKHM me cpetJ;CTBO'M tJ;AR YCTO'HqHBO'rO' HHTO'HHPO'BaHHR B BO'KaJ\bHO'H rrpaxTHKe 6bIJ\a AHHHR cantus Iirrnus' a, pexseqnro sanesar AeHHaR B naMRTH paaa nO'KO'AeHHH:, KaK na erge 6O'Aee rrpHMHTHBHbIX CTatJ;HRX pa3BHTHR MY3bIKH CO'XpaHRAHCb B CO'3HaHHH HHToHagHH rrpH3bIBO'B, IVI.HqeH H T. n. T aKO'rO' PO'tJ;a rnno'reaa HaXO'tJ;HTCR B nO'AHO'M CO'O'TBeTCTBHH, BO'-nepBbIX, C <paKTHqeCKHMH YCAO'BHRMH, B KO'TO'perx pozsaaxac» HaBbII{H rrO'AH<pO'HHH, BO'-BTO'PbIX, C JJ,aAbHeH:lI1eH: tJ;e<pO'PMagHeH: H, MO'mHO' CKa3aTb, «M'exaHH3agHeH:» KYAbTO'BO'rO'

cantus firmus'a H3 mHBO'rO, TeCHO' CBR3aHHO'rO' C TeKCTO'M

H BceM nO'HRTHO'rO' aaneaa B <pparMeHTapHblH: (O'T tJ;eAbHble

norrenxa aanena) H npO'TRmeHHbIH: O'nO'PHbIH: rO'AO'C, BepO'RTHO', HHTO'HHpyeMbIH: HHCTpYMeHTaMH. BrrO'AHe rrO'HRTHO' raxase anenpeHHe MeAO'Ca HapO'tJ;HbIX CBeTCKHX necen B xasecrae DrrO'PbI JJ,AR nO'3tJ;HeH:lI1HX KO'MIIO'3HgHH: HMHTagHO'HHO'-KaHOHHqeCKO'rD CTHAR:

B CBR3H C npO'geCCO'M ace 6DAblI1eH: cexy J\RpH3agHH MY3bIKH, DKO'Hxarexsao BbmeTpHBlI1HH:CJl KYAbTDBbIH: cantus firmus 3aMeHRACH CBemHMH MeJ\O'tJ;HqeCKHMH HHTO'HagHRMH ncexr 3HaKO'MbIX norry J\HPHbIX aarreaoa, 8TO' onare xaneapnsre B e x H tJ;AR cxyxa H naMHTH B CADmHO'H: nO'J\H<pO'HHqeCKO'H: rpaxrype Mecc H MO'TeTO'B - BeXH TeM 6oJ\ee HeO'6xO'tJ;HMbIe, qTO' rapMO'HHqeCKHe <PYHKgHH BepTHKaAbHbIX 3BYKO'KO'MrrJ\eKCO'B erge He 6bIAH O'CO'3HaHbI. HpO'CMO'TpeHHbIH: MHDlO aec» JJ,O'CTyr.:,HbIH: MHe MaTepHaJ\ no cpetJ;HeBeKO'BO'H: MY3bIKe, aa MO'H:

B3r J\RJJ" rrozrrnepasjrae'r YKasaHHYlO rHrrO'Te3Y. OHa HaXO'tJ;HTCR B CO'rAaCHH H C HaMeqalOIgeHCR ];I HCCAetJ;O'BaHHH Machabey AHHHeH 9BO'J\lOgHH MY3bIKaJ\bHbIX <PO'PMYJ\ C I rro XV BeK. YTO' xacaerca nO'tJ;TBepmtJ;eHHR ee <paKTHqeCKHMH YCAO'BHRMH, B KO'TDPbIX pa3BHBaAaCb rrpaxraxa npHMHTHBHO'H: nDJ\H<pO'HHH, TO' tJ;eAD saece CBO'JJ,HTCR

74

i

K' CAetJ;YlOIgeMY: npaarnxa 9Ta 6bIAa npeMMYIgeCTBeHHO «YCTHDH:»,

n~MRTb, a He HO'TbI (KaK' nO'Ka3bIBaeT CaMbIH: cnocof HeBMeHHO'rO' llHCbMa), xpannxa MY3bIKY. nO'AH<pO'HHR MO'rAa HMrrpO'BH3HPO'BaTbCH H nO'AH<pO'HHqeCKHe HaBbIKH MO'rJ\H CO'XpaHHTbCR TO'AbKO' npa 0' n 0' p e aa CBO'H:CTBa CJ\YXO'BO'H: naMRTH Ii MY3bIKaAbHO'rO' BO'C-

npHRTHR.

I1CXO'tJ;H H3 9THX CBO'H:CTB, tJ;eTepMHHHpYlOIgHX BO' MHO'rO'M MY3bIKaAbHYlO KO'MnO'3HgHlO, R yrsepasnaro, qTO' cantus firmus KaK Bce~ 3HaKO'MaR KYAbTO'BaR MeJ\O'tJ;HH CJ\ymHT cnepna BnO'J\He HatJ;emHO'H DnO'PO'H: tJ;AR HMnpO'BH3agHH: oigynero, tJ;J\R BO'3HHKHO'BeHHR, aa He~i H rrO'JJ, HliM KaK napaxxexsnerx, TaK H reTepO'<pO'HHbIX liHTO'HagHH. MaAO'-nO'MaAY, rrO' Mepe TO'rO' KaK Bblp~6aTbIBalOTCR 6O'J\ee nponaere HaBbIKH tJ;HCKaHTHPO'BaHHR, cantus ftrmus MexaHH3HpyeTCR. IloBTO'PRlO: DH «paaxaraerca», JJ,H<p<pepeHgHpyeTcR, tJ;eAHTCR HaO'Tpe3KH a CJ\O'Ba R HeM TaK paCTRrHBalOTCR, qTO' TepRlOT CBO'e 3Haqefme: TeM He MeHee cantus firmus RaK ~O'HCTPYKTHBHaR 6a3a JJ,O'J\rO' JJ,epmHTCR B npaxr-axe HHTO'HHPO'BaHHR H Bb~cTynaeT B BHtJ;e rapMO'HHqeCKO'rO' <PYHJJ,aMeHTa KaK O'6'betJ;HHHlOIgHH (TO'mtJ;eCTBeH:

HbIH: 9AeMeHT) H O'<PO'PMARlOIgHH: <paKTO'P, KaK BeXH JJ,AR CJ\YXO'BO'H naMRTH cpeaa nO'AH<pO'HHqeCKHX rrAeTeHHH: HMHTagHO'HHO'rO' CTHJ\R. CTaB, nO'-BHtJ;HMO'MY, HHCTpYMeHTaJ\bHbI.M H npHHRB <PYHKgHH 6a-

.. CO'BO'rO' 0' n 0' P H 0' r 0' ro.aoca, cantus firmus JJ,e<PO'PMHpyeTcR KaK

MeAO'tJ;HR-naMHTKa, KaK PYKO'BO'tJ;RIgHH nanea H naxanaer nO'CTeneHHO' rrpaooperare CBO'H:CTBa rapMO'HHqeCKO'rO' <PYHtJ;aMeHTa, onpeJJ,eJ\RlOIgerO' TO'H BepTHKaJ\eH: (HJ\H KpHcTaAAH3YlOIgHXCR B aKKO'PtJ;bI 3BYKO'KO'MnAeKCO'B). OPH 9TO'M B HeM BbIHBARlOTCR xapaxrepnere JJ,J\R TO'HaAbHbIX <PYHKgHll 6aCO'BO'rO' roxoca «CKaqKH» B KBapTY H KBHHTY - BbIRBJ\RlOTCR eige 3atJ;O'ArO' tJ;O' TO'rD, KaK 9TH <PYHKgHH O'KO'HqaTeJ\bHO' C<PO'PMliPO'BaAHCb H npeapar'axaca B CHCTeMY reaepax-tiaca. MO'MeHT nO'RBJ\eHHR ~THX <;cKaqKO'B» - naxaxo O'KO'HqaTeAbHO'H: MeTaMO'P<PO'3bI cantus Iirrnus a KaK MeAO'tJ;HqeCKDrO' H~rreBHO'rO' roxoca B rapMO'HHqeCKHH: <PYHtJ;aMeHT - B basso contmuo. 06pa3O'BaHHe 6aCO'BbIX XO'tJ;O'B na KBapTY H KBHHTY He KaK 9AeMeHTDB cantus Iirrnus'a, T. e. AemaIgerO' B O'CHO'Be rrO'J\H<pO'HHH narresa, a KaK rapMO'HHqeCKDrO' <PYHtJ;aMeHTa, eCTeCTBeHHO', MO'mHD CqHTaTb sa KpHCTaJ\J\H3agHlO KaJJ,aHCO'BbIX <PO'PMYA B TO'M HanpaBJ\eHHH H O'6J\HKe, B KaKO'M O'HH BnO'CJ\etJ;CTBHH, B anoxy YCBO'eHHR TeMnepHPO'BaHHO'rO' CTPO'R, O'KDHqaTeJ\bHO' YTBeptJ;HJ\HCb.

B npogecce 9BO'J\lOgHH xanaaca MO'mHO' npO'CAeJJ,HTb AIo~O'rrbITHO'e RBAeHHe: erge B cpet!;HeBeKO'BO'H MY3bIKe rrepef~L YCTO'eM, .nepen 3aMbIKalOIgHM t!;BHmeHHe TO'HO'M (HAH KO'MrrAeKCO'M TO'H6B) CAYX crpeMHJ\CR CO'Cpet!;O'TO'qHTb maximum HHTO'HagHO'HHO'rO' nanpaasena a,

* B Ka'leCTBe KOHCTPYKTIIBHoro nplIH!!Una cantus firmus ~epmlITOI B Tau!!eBaJ\bHbIX lfIopMax - B naccaxaxee II :B '1aKOHe, a ~MeHHO - B 06J\IIKe II B pa3J\If'lHb1X npeTBopeHHHx basso ostinato, Cantus Iirrnus, KaK II IIMIITa!!'HH,- ''1eTKlIe lfIaKToPbI lfIoPllioo6pa30saHIIH ua OCHOBe npangana -roasaecraa B cpeaaeaeaonofi If peHeccaHcoBoii MY!)bIKe.

75

maximum Hepa,BHOIBeCH5I II HeYCTOHquBOCTu, no 6

n n ,1l0 ,HO TOMY KaK

BnOC.I\e,1lCTBlili C pa3BHTHeM m

, 't'0PMbl coaarao-caarponasecsoro

axxerpo, KOMfl03HTOPbl, ocotienno BeTxoBeH CTa.l\H KOHJ!,eH-

'rpnpoaare H pa3BHBaTb B K O,1l e - nOC.I\e penpnaer - ,1lHHaMHqeCKli HHTeHCllBHble KOHTPac*THble conOCTaB.I\eHH5I II JJ;06HB<lTbC5I

CTpeMllTe.l\bHOCTH "BHmeHua T

,_, n.n. axoe me 51B.I\eHHe MomHO Gbl.l\O

Ha6.1\lOJJ;aTb H (

T B crper-rax !JlyrH «recnoe npOBeJJ;eHHe»).

51rOTeHHe K CllHTe3Y no .1\ 51 P HOC T e H: B KOHeqHOM xa-

JJ;aHce nepeHOCH.I\O B 3aK.I\lOqllTe.l\bHYlO CTaJJ;HlO CTaHOB.I\eHll51 IIeHTp HanpHm~HH5I My3blKH H B CBOlO oaepeae CTa.l\O Bbl3blBaTb yc7r.l\e~Hoe aKJ!,eHTHpOBaHHe TOHHKH. KpoMe, roro, Bbl5lBliAliCb JJ;Ba KOHTpacTHblx THna rapMOHHqeCKHX KaJJ;aHCOB - aBTeHTllqeCKllH: (JJ;OMHHaHtTa) H 'bII.I\ara.l\bHblH: (cy6JJ;OMliHaHTa), MeHee HHTeHCHBHblH: 6e3

no e senSl Ie (BBOJJ;HOrO TOHa). '

3bI * BOT HeCKOAbKO nplI1VIepO'B xapaxrepasrx Kap;aHCOB cpeP;HeBeKoBoii My~U C ~BYMlI IlOJIYToHaMu (l\I!TUPYIO 1I0 xnnre: A. Mac h abe Y Histoire

et evolution ... , pp. 162, 202): .

dt) XIV B-. Mawo

Ka,1laHCbI He'OKOAbKIIX POH,1l0 Adam de la Hale II 1I3 'PYf

• . H. ... IIX PYKonlI-

ceH. napH.mOK?H aJ!HOHaAbHOH 6u6AIIOTeK'II - J!IITHPYIO 1I3 KHlIfH «Rondeaux, VI~elals und BaIladen aus dem Ende des XII., dem XIII. und dem ersten. Drittel des XIV. Jahrhunderts mit den iiberlieferten Melodien herausgegeben von Friedrich Gennrich» B. I. (Dresden 1921 SS 59 61' 62 68, 263, 264): " , . . , ,

76

~ho KaCaeTC5I MeAOJJ;lItIeCKOrO xananca KaK JJ;aAbHeHweH 9BO.l\1OJ!,H npnessoa TopMOmeHH5I H 3aMbIKaHH5I JJ;BHmeHH5I B MOHOJJ;HH H B OJJ;.I\llHHOM - HerapMOHHqeCKOM - MHorOrO.l\OCHH, TO pa3Ho06- pa3 e !JlOpM ero npOC.I\eJJ;HTb HeMbIC.I\HMO.C OJJ;HOH CTOPOHbI, pasBHT¥e MeAOJJ;HqeCKOrO KaJJ;aHca JJ;OAmHO 61:>IAO OCTaHOBHTbC.H C Toro MOMeHTa, KaK cyxgeCTBOBaHHe MHoro06pa3HbIX MeAOJJ;l1qeCKI1X qiopMY J\i..noneBoK cpeJJ;HeBeKOBbIX AaAoB nOTep.HAO CBOH: CMblC.I\ 113-3a npapaaaenaa AaJJ;OB K AByM OCHOBHbIM - Mamopy H MliHOPy, C KOBCTPYKTllBHO TomAeCTBeHHbIMH KaAaHcaMH B KamAOM H3 HHX. C APyrOH: CTOPOHbl, MeAOAHqeCKHH: KaAaHC CTaA HHAHBHAyaAH3HpOBaTbC.H. nepeCTaB 6bITb MHeMOHHqeCKOH: !Jl0PMYAOH: AaAa,' OH naqa.l\ !JlOpMHpOBaTbC.H no BHAaM H THnaM npOH3BeAeHHH:. To 91'0 npOCTO qeTKHe H pe.l\be!JlHble KOHJ!,OBOqHble HHTOHaJ!,HH na .KaAaHCOBblX CTyneH.HX; TO csoero poza MeAOAl1qeCKI1H: cHHTe3, CBOA, casaToe H3.1\OmeHHe npeAweCTBYlOxgero Me.l\oAHqeCKOrO MaTepHa.l\a; TO BocnpOH3BeAeHHe B KOHJ!,e nanooxee xapaKTepHOH: TeMbI H.I\H noneBKH AaHHoro npOH3BeAeHH.H (KoHeJ!, I qaCTH BOCI:>MOH: CHM!JlOHHH BeTXOBeHa, TO me - B jJ;eB.HTOH CHM!JlOHHII).

Ho B MY3bIKe HeT Henpe.l\OmHO YCTOH:qHBbIX cTa6HAH3IIpOBaHHbIX !JlYHKJ!,HH:, H OAHO II TO me COOTHoweHIIe 3ByqaHHH: B pasxaxHblX KOMn03IIJ!,llOHHbIX nxaaax nepeXOAIIT B CBOlO npOTIIBOnO.l\02KHOCTb. 3BYKOCOOTHOWeHH.H, COCTaB.I\51lOxgIIe TOAqOK, 51B.I\51lOTC5I HepeAKO no OTHoweHIIlO K npenruecrayrorgexy CTaHOB.I\eHIIlO My3bIKH KaAaHcaMII, T. e. BbIIIO.l\H5IlOT !JlyHKgIIH TopMOmeHH5I IIAII nepeBOA.HT JJ;BII2KeHIIe na IIHOH: rryr e, na ztpyroe nanpaaxeaae. To me Ha6.1\lOJJ;aeTC5I 11 C KaAaHCOM, HO B 06paTHoM OTHoweHHII. 113 !Jl°PMY.l\bIOCHOBHoe CBOH:CTBO KOTOPOH: 6bITb KOHJ!,OBKOI1:, BeXOH:, saaepmaroIgeH ABIImeHIIe (COBepweHHbIH: KaAaHC) IIAII perYAIIpYlOrgeH: ero (nO.l\YKaAaHC), - KaAaHC npespargaercx B MoryqIIH: CTIIMYA npo.ABIImeHH5I MY3bIKII, MoryqIIH: r .l\aBHbIM 06pa30M or-roro, qTO eMY npacytge 06paTHoe CBOH:CTBO 3aMbIKaHII5l.* 81'0 CBOH:CTBO, ofipaxga5lCb B CBOlO npOTIIBOnO.l\OmHOCTb, AeH:CTByeT TeM CIIAbHee, qTO

* Ka,1laHCOM nOAb30BaAIIcb KaK TOA'l.KOM YlKe KAaCCIIKIl CIIM!jlOHIlII II KaMepHoro ancaM6AlI. YnoTpe61I1eAbHeHwall Ha'laAbHaJl !jl0pMYAa:

HJ1H

_ B CYI!!HOCTII Ka,1laHC. raHAH aa'l.IIBaeT OJJ;RB 83 CSOIIX aaapreroa (Gvdur, op. 33, Nil 5) !jlOPMYAOii:

16

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u I

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OTKADHeHHe xaaaaca DT rrpnxroro nyrn (BepHee: DTKADHeHHe TJlrDTeHHH MY3bIKH K TDHHKe) HAH npespatgeane «SHeprHH paspeIIIeHHJI» B HDBbIH BHA THrDTeHHH, H TeM caMbIM YCHAeHHe STDrD THrO'TeHHH 6AarDAapH «O'TTHmKe», p;aAD B pyxa KDMn03HTO'paM erge O'P;HD cpeACTBD K D6DraIgeHH1O TDHaAbHD-rapMO'HH'IeCKO'H TKaHH. K TDMY m.e nDAD6HDrD PO'Aa O'TKADHeHHe erge ace 6DAee H 6O'Aee YCHAHBaADCb pa3AH'IHDrD pozta aAAHTepagHHMH. B peayxsrare CDBceM He rrapaaoxcaxnnene 6bIAD 6bI YTBepmAeHHe, 'ITO' ear-neposCKaH «6eCKOHe'IHaH MeAO'AHH» MO'meT 6bITb paccaarpaaaena KaK CTaHDBAeHHe, rpaHHgbi KDTDpDrD nDCTDHHHO' pa3ABHra1OTCH nyrexr aerrpeperaaoii genH «AO'mHbIX KaAaHCDB» H O'T AaAeHHeM «nenanaHHH» B TDHHKY. XDTH rapMDHH'IeCKaH qiaxrypa 3AeCb Ae!pDpMHpyercs P;O TaKO'H: crerreaa, 'ITO' CTaHDBHTCH «MeADAHeH: BepTHKaAeH:», - Bce-TaKH STD He AHHeapHDe MeADAH'IeCKO'e CTaHDBAeHHe, He CTaHOBAeHHe naneaoa, a BbITeKa10Igee H3 MaKCHMaAbHDrD paaxoaseHHH CTpDrD KDHCTPYKTHBHDro nepHO'Aa HHTeHCHBHDe rrpDpaCTaHHe (CTHrHBaHHe H paCTHrHBaHHe) rapMDHH'IeCKDH: TKaHH.

ECAH STD npopacraane He Ka3aADCb AHHeapHD aMDp!PHbIM, 6ec!pDpMeHHb1M BDcrrpHHTH10 HeCKO'AbKHX rrO'KDAeHHH: A1OAeH: (XDTH «CAYXDBaH O'nrrD3HgHH» BarHepDBCKHM AAHHHDTaM HHKDrAa He npeKpap-!aAaCb), TO' HaAO 3aMeTHTb, 'ITO' H aMO'P!pHDCTb, 6eC!pDpMeHHDCTb «TpHcTaHOBCKO'H:» TKaHH, C TD'IKH 3peHHH AHHeapHDH KDHc.TPYKTHBHDH rrO'AH!pDHHH, 6e3ycADBHD yssepaxace BarHepDBCKO'H cHcTeMDH paccraneaaa «aex» AAH «naMHTH» - CHCTeMO'H AeHTMO'THBDB, cAymHBIIIHx CBDerD poaa cTa6HAH3HpDBaHHblMH cantus firmus'aMH H B TO' me BpeMH TeMaTH'IeCKHM MaTepHaAO'M. * CeK-

* AeHTMOT'lfB Bar-aepa, KacK H BClIKuH!flaKTO'P MY3bI'KaAbIHO'rO' otpopaxeHHlI, ,1J;HaAeKTH'leH H, KaK !flYBlK,gHlI, 06Aa,1J;aeT IOBO'WCTBOM nepexoaa B [CBO'IO] rrpO'TH!BorrO'AO'lKHO'CTb. C O,1J;HO'H CTO'PO'HbI, <lTO' 'KO'HCl1PY<KTUBHbIH <lAeMeHT, O'6'be,1J;BlHlIIOIMHH TKaHb, rrO'MO'raIOIMHH YC'H'O'eHHIO KO'AO'OCaAbHO'rO' no MaCWTa6aM MY3bIKaAbHO'rO' CTaHOBAeHHlI, - ero HCH3MeHHOCTb, ero pexserpaocre lIBAlilOTCli YCAOBHlIMH ero YSHaBaHHlI. C ,1J;pyrO'H CTO'PO'HbI, AeHTMO'THBbI - TeMbI, T. e. MaTep'HaA ,1J;AlI CHM!floHH'leCKO'rO' pa3BHTHli. C O',1J;HO'H CTO'PO'HbI, <lTO' ceMaHTH'lecr;.IH Pll,1J;, SBYKO'o6pa3bI, ,BorrAOIMaIOIMHe HeH3MeHHble B CBoeH CYIMHOCTH xapaxreper, C ,1J;PyroH CTOPOHbI - HMeHHO KaK 06pa3bI"xapaKTepbI - B311Tble B ,1J;paMaTH'leCKOM nxaae _ AeHTMOTHBbI nenpecraaao B ,1J;eHCTBHH, B ,1J;BHlKe-, HHH, B CTaHOBAeHHH, T. e. CYTb «BeAH'lHHbI H xauecraa nepeaeaasre».

78

0' B npna-

Be gl1H «T pHCTaHa», HarrpHMep, CTaHO'BJlTCH nepeax - 'BO'

H e C TD'IKH 3peHHH CTpDHTeAbHO'rO' D6'beAHHeHHH TKaHH, - C - g , basso ostinato rraccaKaAbH H 'IaKO'Hbl HAH «geMeHTHer PO'Aa can' tus Iirrnus'ox HHAepAaHAgeB, HO' B rrpHADmeHHH py IgHM» u OAHK r pMOHH'IeCKH-ycAO'mHeHHDH: rDMO'!pDHHH - K «rDMO'!pO'HHO'H n

rpo HH». KaK

Ha STO'M JI O'CTaHaBAHBa1O paccMoTpeHlle HBAeHHH KaAaHca 6

I H3 !paKTDPO'B MY3bIKaAbHO'rO' CTaHO'BAeHHH C TeM, 'ITO bI

o Ai,: 0' :b~H K HeMY eIge pas npn aHaA1I3e STO'rO' CTaHO'BAeHHH B CO:

Beg ~HO'M AeH:CTBlIH B C e x CDCTaBAH10IgllX ero !paKTDpOB, 'ITO 06 BO'KY aeTCH B AHaAeKTlI'IeCKDM CDOTHO'IIIeHHH TDmAeCTBa 11 KO'H:;~~:':H:aK B3aHMDlICKA1O'Ia1OIgHx H O'AHOBpeMeHHD B3aHMO'CBH3aHHbIX npllHgHnDB MY3bIKaAbHorO' !pO'PMDBaHHH.

f x a s a V

PA.3BHTHE lJ,BHmEHlHI (CTAlJ,HH npOABHmEHHH ME~

Y TOAqKOM H .3AMbIKAHHEM): PABHOMEPHOE ~EnpEPbIBHOE lJ,BHmEHHE H lJ,PYfHE EfO BHlJ,bI; lJ,BH-

mEHHE: a) Docpep,CTBOM BKAIO'IeHHJI HOBblX <lAeMeHTOB, 6) nocpeaCTBOM D pep bl B a HaAaAHBmerOCJI ABHlKeHHJI H DOBopOTa ero aa HOBblH DyTb (p,AJI H!l6elKaHHJI HHepTHocTH).

DpDcTeH:IIIaH BblIIIenpllBelleHHaH. HHTDHagllO'HHaH cpeAHeBeKO'-

( 63) BKA1O'IaeT B ce6e cTaAlI10 ABlImeHlIH,

BaH ¢opMYAa CTp. Tenor 8Ta CTaAlIH B CBO'eM npHMllTHB-

0603Ha'IeHHY1O TepMlIHO'M ce6e O"AlIH MY3bIKaAbHO'-HHTDHagHO'HHbIH HDM BllAe CDAepmHT B u lIAH

O'AlIH TO'H DnpeAeAeHHO'H BbICO'TbI, na KO'TDPO'M

SAeMeHT - 'IHTlIPY1OTCH CAO'Ba. Dpep;rroAaraeTcH nOTO'MY, 'ITO B KO'TO'PO'M pe HX nO'Aa'IlI O'HH CTaHO'BHTCH p;O'XO'p;'IHBee AMI npa TaKO'Mu crrO'cO'~e npO'CTDM 'ITeHHH He na MY3bIKaAbHO'-, HHTDHHPYCAYIIIaTeAell, 'IeM. u 11 STO'T

T minimum MY3bIKaAbHO'rO B03AellCTBlIH,

eMO'M TO'He. yr lIBO'rO' 11 sMogHO'HaAbHO'-

minimum llO'p;'IHHeH C A 0' BY, pap;lI DT'IeT A

6HapymeHHH KO'TDPO'rO CAaraeTCH p;aHHaH ¢DpMYAa.

HHTeHClIBHDrD 0' 11 MY3bI-

H HeH: yme HaAHgo see DCHO'BHble CTap;lI

o BMeCTe C TeM B He'IHaH O'nDpHble TO''IKH,

KaAbHO'rO' CTaHO'BAeHHH: lICXOAHaH 11 KO' ..... HHH llBHmeHHH

mp;eHHH cTaAHH TO'PMDme ,

cTaAHH TO'A'IKa H BO'CXD, (Tenor) 3AeCb

HaKO'Heg geHTpaAbHaH O'6AacTb HHTO'HlIPO'B)aHC ~ TO''IKH

TO'AbKO' na DAHO'M TO' He (rrpDCTeHIlIllH BHA· P;~lIH(YTDe

6 Pa::mTeAbHO'll AAH AaHHDrO'

orroper H ADCTlIrIIIee Hall oxee BbI H

H npDADAmaeTCH no HHepgH ,

CAY'IaH) 3BY'IHO'CTH HHTDHHpDBaH e 6

" ne3ypbI H 3aTeM B03O' -

rroxa eCTb aanac AblxaHHH, 3AeCb -,..,0' ", , . "''''

HO'BAHeTOI BHO'Bb. 3axBaT sepxnero TO'Ha pe KaK KYAbMHHagHll 6XD "HM 'ITD6bI YAepmaTbcH

B MO'MeHT «paapeaa> p;BHmeHHH HeD ,_., , o:::l

u 6 I He cnacre C TO'Ha. ClTO me

na CDO'TBeTCTBeHHDH BbICO'Te, 'ITO' b

79

11 3.1\eMeHT KOHTpaCTa- «OTMeTKa» HeKOTOpOH: rpaaa cpean MO 0- TOHHOrO rrOBTOpeHMJI O~HOrO TOHa. 3pMTe.l\bHaJl npoexgns aan ro BM~a ~BMmeHlfJl MY3bIKM ~aeT ClfMMeTpIflJ:HYlO qmrypy. KOHe HO, BCJlKaJl ~ame He OlJ:eHb rrpOTJlmeHHaJl If M3BM.I\IfCTaJl Me.l\O~MlJ:e .l\HHIfJl ~aeT 60.l\ee C.I\OmHbIH: PlfCYHOK, 06bIlJ:HO BO.l\HMCTbIH: ( «CTOJlHlfe» na O~HOM TOHe - c.I\ylJ:aH: pe~KlfH:), HO KOM6MHa nanpanxenaii - orpaaaseaasr. BBepx If BHlf3 If.l\lf, Ha060pOT, crre aa BHlf3, rrOTOM asepx. rIocTerreHHbIH: - CKO.l\b3J1IglfH: rrO~'beM If.l\M i me nperzsox (<<CKalJ:OK»), pe3KlfH: If.l\lf C paCCTaHOBKOH:. CKalJ:OK If ~lfTe.l\bHOe npetieraanae roxoca B ~OCTHrHYTOH: crpepe H.I\M me 6bICTpoe B03BpaIgeHHe.

He 6y~y rrepevacxrrre, O~HaKO, pa3.1\HlJ:Hble aparexsnere npoeKj!lflf MY3bIKa.l\bHoro ~BlfmeHMJI, oc06eHHO ~BlfmeHMJI Me.l\O~lf'Iecxoro. * 3~ecb He06xo~lfMO ~aTb .l\lflIlb HeCKO.l\bKO PYKOBO~JlIglfX npnagarroa CTaHOB.I\eHlfJl Me.l\Oca. KaK TaKOBoe OHO «OCJl3aeTCJI» C.I\YXOM, a He r .l\a30M. BcrrOMHUM XOTJI 6bI r .l\aBHYlO naprnro 6eTXOBeHCKOH: yaeprropsr «Flpovereii» I OTTO.l\KHYBlIlIfCb OT cl, ~BMmeHMe (OHO panaosrepnoe, BOCbMbIMU HOTaMH) nesoropoe BpeMJI BpaIgaeTCJI noxpyr aroro TOHa: OHO HarrpaB.I\JleTCJI CKa'IKOM B HumHHH perUCTp B g, rrO~HUMaeTCJI, KaK OT TO.l\'IKa, CKO.l\b3H rro BceM c'ryneaax, B el M H3 Hero B.I\lfBaeTCH Bel (<<pa36er» If «ooparnoe rrorraaanae B TO'IKY»). B 3TOM apaigemra HaKOrr.l\JleTCH anepr n a rrO~'beMa M na TpeTIfH: pas roxoc He ~BlfmeTCH nocxe el Bet, a ~OCTlfraeT gl, orufiaer ero (tis 1 M al) If nocreneaao aacnaaaer Bel, HO KaCaeTCJI aroro TOHa na C.I\a60H ~o.l\e TaKTa. Y nop, aKj!eHT rrpnxomrrcx na d), M aaaxoraxaoe ~BlfmeHIfe aa-maaerca CHOBa, HO OT ~pyroH TOqKH. OHO ~Ba paaa BpaIgaeTCJI OKO.l\O dl, na rpeTlfH: me pas He onYCKaeTCH CKaqKOM B xnapry, a B3.1\eTaeT C-dUr'HOH: raMMoH OT dl na oKTaBY aaepx, r ~e Tome He OCTaHaB.I\HBaeTCH, H, 3aXBaTlfB e2, CTpeMlfTCH nxaaao BHlf3. Ha 3TOT pas ynop npnXO~IfTCJI aa e '. Tenepb yme lf3MeHHeTCH narrpa axeane: Tplfm~bI nOBTOpHeTCJI (BK.I\lOqaH ynosraayroe aacnaaanae ) raMMa BHlf3

* 0 Me!l.O~H'IeCimx !l.HHHHX - B paoore 3pHCTa Toxa «Y'IeHHe 0 Me!l.O~HH». M., 1928. B POOCHH Ilp06AeMa Me!l.oca 6bl!l.a Bbl~'BHHYTa MHOIO B 1917- 1918 rr.7 Onsrr o6061!!eHHH aparexsnsrx npoe:K!!HH: Me!l.O~H'IeC'KHX AHHHH: na MaTe'pHa!l.e PYCCKHX HapO~HbIX necen, C~e!l.aHHbIH MHOIO B 1924-1925 rr., OCTa!l.CH HeH3p,aHHbIM. B CBOeH: BbllIleYlloMHHYTOH parior e 0 lla!l.eCTpHHOBCKOM CTH!l.e Jeppesen YCTaHaB!l.HBaeT ~Ba pe3KO KOHTpaCTHblX BH~a HallpaB!l.eHHOCTU xexoca, y Eaxa:

____ IH B rpHropHaHCKOM xopa!l.e:\ ____

a IlPOTHBOlloctaBAHeT HM lla!l.eCTpHHOBCKYIO ypaBHoBemeHHYIO KPHBYIO (Kurvenbildung), B KOTOPOH «halten sich Auf- und Abstieg hier beinahe mathematisch genau die Wage» (S. 39) [«1l0~'beM H CUYCK ypaaaosenmaaror ~pyr p,pyra 1l0'lTH C MaTeMaTH'IeCKOH: TO'lHOCTblO»]. Tor aa KaK Y Eaxa: «Starkste Interessebetonung des Werdenden, hingerissenes Erleben des Entwicklungsverlaufes» [«cHAbHeH:llIaH 3aHHTepeCOBaHHOCTb B BbIHB!l.eHHH caepuraromeroca, BOCTOp2KeHHOe nepeasnaaaae npogecca pa3BHTHH»], a B Me!l.OCe xopaxa: «Konzentriertes Gefiihl fur das Abgeschlossene, das in sich Ruhende» [ecocpeuoTO'leHHOe Of!!,yweHHe 3aMKHyTOCTH, 1l0KOJlWeHClI B caMO» eerie» 1 (HeM.).

80

r

\

,

(OT e2 ~O el nee B Cvdur ), nocxe xero ~BlfmeHIfe OCTaeTCH B j!eHTpax HOM perncrpe Mem~y el M al (OTTa.l\KMBaHCb OT el cnepsa ~O I ,nOTOM OT e 1 ~O ai, M3 a I naaaer B tis I, nOJJ;HIfMaeTCH ~o a I

HCXO~JlIgeH TOHa.l\bHOH: ceKBeHj!Hlf onYCKaeTCH K c I etc.):

I

17 Allegro, molto e con brio

,¢ JJJJJ1JJIJQJJJJ:l jlJJQJfJjJI41J J4J W1)1

, pp s taocato

, J4JiJn n 1 JJjJ n JJI nn rffll CF U roo 1

, f?l ))"331 f?l n] J 1 J J J JHJ J JJ 1 J J ijJ J J J J J 1

etc.

,. I

I

\

Cnoc060B peureaaa np06.1\eMbI raxoro poaa «rrpotiera» OT C I B e2 H 06paTHO MomHO soofipaarrre 'Ipe3BbI'IaHHO MHoro, HO B MY3bIKe aaasea q> a K T ~aHHoro KOHKpeTHoro peurearra - <paKT TBOp'IeCKOrO H306peTeHMH, nO~qHHeHHbIH: nplfHj!HnaM CTaHOB.I\eHHH, CBOH:CTBeHHbIM ~aHHOH: 3BYKOCHCTeMe. rIpem~e acero MbI BH~HM, 'ITO oeTXOBeH BbI6pa.l\ ~BHmeHIfe p a B HOM e P Hoe M Hen pep bI B Hoe. B ~aHHOM OTHOlIleHlfH OHO npOXO~MT 6e3 KOHTpaCTOB. 113 ~ByX cnocotios aanoxaenas npocrpaacrna (MY3bIKa.l\bHoro KaK TJlrOTeHHH Mem~y 3By'IaIgIfMlf rpaHHj!aMlf cl H e2)_ n.l\aBHbIMH no C T yrr e H H bI M If lfHToHaj!MJlMH H C K a 'I K a M H - npeorixanaer nepBbIH:

BIf~. CKaqKH Ha KBapTy BHH3 (5 pa3), Ha OKTaBY BBepx (2 pa3a) H na repgmo BHIf3 (5 pas ) TOT'IaC 3 a n 0.1\ H HlO T C H H cxyzsar ~.I\H etge 60.l\blIlerO noasepxnaaana n.l\aBHOCTM M MepHOCTH. COOTnourenaa Mem~y .l\IfHIfHMlf n 0 ~ 'b e M a M H a K.I\ 0 H H bI M If pacnpe~e.l\lIlOTCH paBHOMepHO, HO rrpogecc B 0 C x 0 m ~ e H If H ~.I\HTe.l\bHee npogecca H H C n a ~ a H H H (8 M 4 TaKTa)- OTClO~a ycaxeuae crpeMIfTe.l\bHOCTH. C06cTBeHHo na nacnaaaane OKa3a.l\OCb ~OCTaTOqHbIM O~HOH raMMbI, Tplfm~bI nOBTOpeHHOH:, a nocxenaae ~Ba TaKTa CYMMHpylOT H.I\H, aepnee, orpaasaior, KaK 3XO, aecs npogecc, HO B fioxee Y3KlfX npeaexax (el-al-cl)-H TeM caMbIM ero 3 a M bI K a ro T. rIO.l\HOe COOTBeTCTBlfe HHTOHaj!HH: Mem~y nepBbIMqeTBepTbIM H nHTbIM - BOCbMbIM TaKTaMH If36erHYTO: CXeMaTHqeCKH OHIf nOqTH Tom~eCTBeHHbI, HO TOHa.l\bHbIH: KOHTpaCT (C-dur 1I d-moll) nO~'beMOB, KOHeqHO, 060CTpHeT lfHTeHCHBHOCTb nO~'beMa H CTpeMIfTe.l\bHOCTb naneana.

CpaBHlfBaH npooer 6eTXOBeHCKOH: TeMbI C npIIMlfTlfBHOH cpe.aaeBeKOBOH IIHTOHaj!MeH, ,MbI BM~MM re me 3.1\eMeHTbI, HO C paaxaxHbIM COOTHOlIleHMeM Mem~y HMMlf. Bo-nepnsrx, Mbi MMeeM ~BOH:HOe BOcxom~eHMe If B Kam~OM - MOMeHT OTTa.l\KMBaHIIJI If MOMeHT KacaHIIH BepXHeH: TO'IKIf, noc.I\e Ky.l\bMlfHaQ;lfOHHoro nyaxra - pes-

, ,)

6

81

(

i ~

KOe, XOTH H nocrynennoe rraaenne. MOMeHT me 3aMbIKaHHH B ~oeH

CHMMeTpHlIHOCTH HBAHeTCH MeAO,1l;HlIeCKHM CHHTe30M acero np TeKmero npogecca, OCHOBHaH pasnaga: B cTa6HAbHOCTH (,Y3blKaAbHO-HHTOHaYHOHHOH) «renopa» B Cpe,1l;HeBeKOB~H q,opM~Ae ~ M HMO A e THO C T H npe6bIBaHHH B ,1I;OCTHraeMOH Bepm~HHOH 06AaCTH Y BeTXOBeHa. MomHo CKa3aTb, xro nO,1l;'beM - MoMeHT nepexoua (ye3ypa) H nOBopOT (CKn) B 6eTXOBeHCKOH TeMe CAHBalOTCH (KaK B TaKTe 4, TaK H B TaKTe 8). OTClO,1I;a CTaTHlI~OCTb HHToHaYHoHHoH rparopaancxoii CPOPMYAbI (TaKoH eH H Ha,1l;AemaAO 6bITb), H ,1I;HHaMHlIHOCTb MeAO,1l;HlIeCKoro CTaHOBAeHHH «DpoMeTeH».

B03bMeM eige O,1l;HH npasrep H3 MY3bIKH anor o nOpH,1I;Ka, C uraPOKOH BOCXO,1l;HIgeH MeAO,1l;HeH, H nOCMOTpHM, KaK opraHH30BaHO nenpepsranoe, HO aepaanoxepaoe ,1I;BHmeHHe (Barrrep. «3HrCPPH,1I;»):

18 Molto moderato ~. ~ ---._ -..

§5fe fJipIT?~J)rlhJiJumr IMJr I

.. sempr« legato

-mol1o tra~u,llo .~ ~t' g Fe fEEtEr f;tr tf&~ff

,~; r r fIr r r f r I E:t Ci I I I

poco rail.

~,. r F r mil r r Jail F F n ~

~ eo:::::::=:::::::

•• ,. fi 11.1 F mJ )1ft I m;J jJ€ 1FYf] I

E#:;t~ piup . :::: :::: etc.

O "HO H3 3aMellaTeAbHblX «BOCXOm,1l;eHHH»

8Ta MeAO,1l;HH - ....

Ee HanpHmeHHOCTb ,1I;OCTHraeTCH nepexonou AHHHH B MY3bIKe. [ ] H

C He3anOAHeHHbIMH «paCCTOHHHHMH» B 3anOAHeHHYlO AHHHIO ~

«OCTaHOBKaMH» na «rouxax», no CBoeMY noxoaseamo ~ B ,1I;aHHOH CHCTeMe Tpe6YlOIgHX HeMe,1l;AeHHOro nepexona H aaxeaeaurero ,1I;BHmeHHH. DoaTOMY BCHKoe npovenxenae na. HHX BocnpHHHMaeTCH CAYXOM KaK MOMeHT ocrporo HepaBHOBeCHH H BbI3bIBaeT CTpeMAeHHe ,1I;BHraTbCH BbIme H BbIme (TO me lIYBCTBO, KaK npa o~OjibIX

, ) Haxaxenaa HOTa g - cerrraxa cerrraxxopaa -

nO,1l;'beMax.. -a

82

• i

\

\

nodeneHHO YTpallHBaeT csoe 3Hallemre H nOAYlIaeT CPYHK!!HH rep!!HHl Tpe3BYlIHJI OT e, HO B CAe,1l;YlOIgHH: MHr OCTaHOBKa na d' nxexe-r CAY.x; ,1I;aAbme K «BbIJlCHeHHlO» CPYHKYHH aroro 3BYKa. T OH h, KOTOPbIH Mor 6bI BbI:r.HHTb nOAomeHHe (TaKTbI 5 H 6), ofiaapymHBaeT ce6J1 nOCAe e yase He KaK TOHHKa h-rnoll, a KaK KBHHTa e-rnoll H T. ,11;. H T. ,11;. DPOHCXO,1l;HT ace BpeMJI «nepeKpeIgHBaHHe» CPYHK,YH~, H Onpe,1l;eAJllOIgHH TOH TO 3BYllHT paHbllIe (HanpHMep, BBO,1l;HblH TOH 6epeTCJI rrosase TOHHKH), TO 3ana3AbIBaeT H sasreIgaeTCJI 3BYKOM, 06HapymUBalOIgHM auoe rarorerrae, Ha «aeptnane» HOTa c4 nO,1l;,1I;epmaHa rapMOHueH (c - dis - g) aa sererpe OKTaBbI paCCTOJIHUH BHH3, lIeM ,1I;OCTHraeTCJI OIgYIgeHue BbICOTbI (U r xy- 6HHbI) TeM 60Aee CHAbHoe, liTO 3TOT HanpJlmeHHeHmHH 3BYK CKpunKH sepea ceKYH,1I;y nepeBO,1l;HTCJI erge asrrne B cis', TOAbKO liTO, Ka3aAOCb 6bI, ,1I;OCTurHYToe paBHOBeCHe na caMOM ,1I;eAe TaKOBbIM He 6bIAO, H c4 06MaHlIHBO 3BYllaAO B KaKOH-TO MaAbIH MHr TO H.H K ~ H:. rapMOHUJI c: dis: g nepeXO,1l;UT sepes c : dis: fis B h : dis ; [is : a - U na aTOM qioae nOCAe KaCaHHJI cis' HallHHaeTCJI noCTerreHHbIH: crrycx (OH xopoue nO,1l;'beMa). CrrYCK ,1I;OXO,1l;HT ,11;0 gis H a, nOCAe lIero HallHHaeTCJI CHHTe3upYlOIgHH: BTOpOH: nO,1l;'beM _ CBoero poaa MeAO,1l;HlIeCKaJl KO,1l;a nOCAe MeAO,1l;HlIeCKoro pa3BHTHJI. EIge Ha,1l;O 06paTHTb BHHMaHHe, liTO ,1I;aHHoe HHCXOm,1l;eHHe OT cis' OCHOBbIBaeTCJI na O,1l;HOM, nOBTOpJleMOM B rpex OKTaBax, MOTHBe H

B K 0 H T p a c T HarrpJlmeHHOMY Bocxom,1l;eHHlO COBepllIaeTCJI KaK 6bI no HHepYHH. T OHHKa MOTHBa CAbIllIHa ace BpeMJI KaK onopa npa cnycxe. T OAbKO BHH3Y, lIT06bI He OCTaHOBHTb ,1I;BHmeHHe BOBce,OCTaHOBKa ,1I;eAaeTCJI He na h (TOHHKa), a na ai, OTKY,1l;a HallHHaeTCJI 3aKAlOlIHTeAbHbIH aran scero 3rrH30,1l;a - HOBOe BOCXOm,1l;eHue C rrepeMeHOH CPYHK!!HH a H3 cerrTHMbI cerrTaKKOp,1l;a OT h B TeP!!HlO Tpe3BYQHJI OT fis H B arcre - B KBHHTy Tpe3BYllHR OT d-moll, TOllHO TaK me, KaK nprr 60AbllIOM nO,1l;'beMe 3TO npoac:XO,1l;HAO C TOHOM g. HHalle rOBOpJl, aa BpeMJI nO,1l;'beMa cosepuraAHCb TOHaAbHble «MeTaMopCP03bI». BbIA MOMeHT (TaKT 10), xoraa

'no 3BYllaHHlO H YCTpeMAeHHlO TOH g3 CTaHOBHACJI KBHHTOH: K TOHy 4 (KaK nOTOM TOH a - KBHHTOH: d-rnoll_ B KO,1l;e nO,1l;beMa)

3 ,

~KaK pas 0 C T a HOB K a aa g 6bIAa HeCKOAbKO npem,1l;eBpeMeH_

HOH ,1I;AH aroro, H B TO BpeMJI, KOr,1l;a CAYX 3HrapMOHHlIeCKH BOC-

C-dur'Hoe Tpe3BYllHe rrocxe his» dis3 e3 g3 h3 c4_

3 ' " , , _ '

. B 3TOT MHr g OKa3bIBaeTCJI YBe,1l;eHHbIM B h3 H nOTOM B c4, a B rap-

MOHHH nOHBMIeTCH aHrapMOHHlIeCKHH: c-rnoll (TaKTbI 10-12).

.H C03HaTeAbHO nxozsy B MeAbllaHmHe ,1I;eTaAH ,1I;aHHoro HHTOHa-' YHOHHoro CTaHOBAeHHH, H He ,1I;AH cpopMaAHCTHlIeCKOH CTaTHCTHKH, a lIT06bI nOKa3aTb, KaK opraHHlIeH npo!!eCC OCPOpMAeHHH pa3BHTOH:

MeAO,1l;HH H KaK B TO me BpeMH 3TOT npogecc HMeeT re me CTa,1l;HH, liTO H npUMHTUBHaH UHTOHaYHOHHaH CPOPMYAa ncaAMO,1l;HpOBaHHH H CPOpMYAa coaepnrenaoro xaaaaca B TeMnepHpOBaHHOH 12-cTyneHHOH TOHaAbHoH cHCTeMe, H60 MY3bIKaAbHoe cTaHoBAeHHe scer-zia:

TOAlIOK - OTnpaBHaH rosxa 3BYllaHHH H C,1I;BHr - ,1I;BHmeHHe HAH

6*

83

)

u O'BeCIHI _ BO'3BpalgeHlle K llCTbKY,

CO'CTO'HHHe HeYCTO'll'IHBO'rO' pasn :

K CO'CTO'HHHIO paBHO'BeCHH (K YCTO'IO), HAH .3aMblKaHHe P,BHmeHHH:

i (initium-Ha'-laAO'): m (moVere-P,BllraTb).

T. e. CO'O'THO'IIIeHlle anca

t (terminus - KO'HeJ,!, npeaex}. cPO'PMYAa CO'BepIIIeHHO'rO' Kall

O'TO'6pamaeT B ce6e p,aHHblll: Tlln CTaHO'BAeHHH II cO'P,epmD' Mem]l,Y T II T (nO'rpaHH'-IHble TO'HHKH) - S (cy6p,O'MHHaHTY) II (P,O'MHHaHTY) KaK cq>epbI, O'6pa3YIOIglie rro OTHO'IIIeHHIO K nepBO'HMnt)\b~:~ K T CTap,Hll HeycTO'll:'-IliBO'CTH. Be3 aTO'rO', 6e3 cp,BHra O'T 'c 6

CO'nO"CTaBAeHllH IIHTO'HaJ,!llll: - HeT MY3bIKaAbHO'rO' p,BllmeHHH. 0'-

CTBeHHO' HeT HaP,O'6HO'CTH npHBO'p,llTb npliMepbl MeAO'p,ll'-leCKO'rO' CTaHO'BA'eHIIH, B KO'TO'PO'M ]l,BHmeHlle npO'IICXO']I,llT HepaBHO'M:p;~ II npepsraao. npIIHJ,!llnbI O'CTalOTCH Te 2Ke ull O'6HapymllBalOT T *

i . m . t BO'T npHMHTHBHelliliaH MeAO']I,HH PO'H]I,O',

CO'O'THO'IIIeHHH •. .•

B KO'TO'PO'll: n P 0' P, B II m e H II e O'6ycAO'BAeHO' npepblBHO'CTblO - TeM,

<ITO' cpenuas CTap,HH CTaHO'BAeHHH COCTO'HT H3 C P e .3 a H H 0' r 0' perppena, 6AarO'p,apH '-IeMy ]l,BHmeHlle IIHTeHCHq>llJ,!HpyeTcH:

\9

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e HO'Bble)

KaKHe me !flaKTO'Pbl (aa OCHO'Be CKa3aHHO'rO' H elg

O'6YCAO'BAHBalOT n P 0' P, B H m e H H e MY.3bIKli (llMelO ~ Bllp,y cIICTe~~ eBPO'nell:CKO'H MY.3bIKll) Memp,y TO''-IKaMH O'TnpaBHO'H H KO'He'-lH~:~ ECAH TO'A'-IO'K IIp,eT O'T TO'HIIKH (T)- 6Y]l,eT All aTO' O']I,llH TO'H

ll: TO' ]l,BHmeHHe CTaHO'BliTCH

BO'O'61ge YCTO'll:'-IliBaH c¢epa HHTO'HaJ,!ll ,-

TeM HaCTO'HTeAbHee, '-IeM CliAbHee HepaBHO'BeCHe Memp,y nepBHO'-

B en HanpHMep '-IaCTO' nax -

nO'CbIAKO'H II cO'nO'CTaBAeHHeM. eTXO'B 'u ' U ¢ e

aaer pa3BIITHe C npO'Bep,eHHH BblCKa3aHHO'H B roaaxecsoa C ep

ell B nO'BTO' HO'M (TO'mp,eCTBeHHO'M) BH]I,e, HO' TO'HO'M Bblilie (CKa:

H]I, C-dur ~ d.rnoll ). BO'T yase TyT BO'3HHKaeT HHTO'HaJ,!llO'HHblH

meM, 6 HU CBO'erO' BbIHBAeHHH. CAYX,

«KO'H¢AIIKT», HaCTOHTeAbHO' Tpe ylOlg II . He He-

Ylll aer BO'3HHKIIIee CO'CTO'HH

cpaBHHBaH p,Ba npoaeaeuaa, O'ig """ 7f. M '-ITO' nO'CAe

'CTO'll:'-IHBO'rO' paBHO'BeCliH J1 «HlgeT» ncxozra. p,O'nycTli , 0

) C-dur • d.moll IIp,eT p,O'MHHaHTO'BaH rapMO'HHH. na

~~~:H~::~ll;cHAIIBae~ HHTeHCHBHOCTb p,BH2KeH~H, HO' Bbl3blBaeT H

""" . CHAY CBO'IICTB BBO'p,HO'rO' TO'Ha

THrO'TeHHe K BO'3BpaTY B TO'HliKy B u

(H TpIITO'Ha). ECAH B03BpalgeHHe npoasoaaer TO'T'-IaC, Mbl nO'Ay'-lHM

0' eaae p,O'CTHrHYTO'rO' paBHO'BeCHH na 6AH3KO'M «paCCTO'HHllH». E~~; me aa MecTO' TO'HHKH BCTynHT aoasre, erge p,aAbilie YBO']I,HrgHe O'T nee llHTO'HaJ,!Hll, - HanpHmeHlle YCllAliTCH, HO' P,O' KuaKO'rO'-TO' «nO':

U TO'A'-IKa _ O'TnpaBHO'H TO'HH'-IeCKO'H

pora», aa KO'TO'PblM ]l,ellCTBlie

F r. G e n n ric h. Rondeaux, Virelais ...

* 113 BblweynDMlIHYTDH KHHrH:

(B. I., S. 82).

84

cc{lepbl - npexpararcn: 3a p,aAbHO'CTbio «OTCTO'HHHR» CAyX (He noAY'-laH onO'PW p,AH cpaBHeHHH) TepHeT 113 BHp,y J,!eAb CTaHO'BAeHHH.

HQ nanpaaceaae MO'meT llC'-Ie3HYTb II no p,pyrO'll:, Q6paTHO'll: npaxane - O'HO' MO'2KeT HC'-Ie3HYTb, eCAH p,BII2KeHlIe CTaHO'BIiTCH lIHepTHblM, ecxn O'HO' He noxyxaer HO'BbIX CTliMY AO'B II npespaigaerca B paBHO'MepHQ-nO'p,O'6HO'e, '-ITO' lIMeeT MeCTO', KO'r p,a O'HO' ocytgecr axaerca npemayrgecraeaao C nouorgero ceKBeHJ,!Hll:. CeKBeHJ,!IIR - crrocof npO'p,O'A2KlITb II npO'p,BHHYTb MY3blKy C AI06O'H p,aHHO'll: TO''-IKII B p,pyrylO AI06ylO TO''-IKy nO'Cpep,CTBO'M nO'BTO'peHlIH p,aHHO'rO' O'Tpe3Ka My3blKli B nanpaaxenan asepx HAll BHH3, nO'BTO'penna no O'p,IIHaKO'BbIM paCCTO'RHlIHM (no crynenmr, no TQHaM, rro nO'AYTO'HaM liT. rr.), CeKBeHJ,!lIR - 6O'AbillO'e y P,O'6CTBO' I CAYX, nO'AY'-laR rro-rra TO'2Kp,eCTBeHHble nO'BTO'PHble pa3p,pa2KeHIIR, «onpaa]l,bIBaeT» casnsre p,aAeKHe nepeMergeHlIR II caM acrynaer B crpepy ]l,BlI2KeHIIH no HHepJ,!Hll. HO' C TO''-IKII .3peHIIR MY3bIKaAbHO' J,!eAeCO'O'6pa3HO'rO', T. e. !PYHKJ,!IIO'HaAbHO' 06YCAO'BAeHHO'rO', a He CAY'-IaHHO'rO' «npeapaigeana» MaTeplIaAa KaK nenpexremroro YCAO'BIIH p,lIaAeKTlI'-IeCKO'rO' CTaHO'BAeHIIH MY3bIKII - '-Ipe3MepHO'e rroxeaoaaaae ceKBeHJ,!IIRMIi RBAHeTCR O'6HapY2KeHlIeM «AeHIIBO'rO' MbIlliAeHIIH». * MO'2KHO' p,a2Ke CKa3aTb, '-ITO' B HeKO'TO'PO'M O'THO'llieHlI1I BCHKO'e '-Ipe3- MepHO'e nO'Ab3O'BaHlie ceKBeHJ,!HRMli nO'p,O'6HO' '-Ipe3MepHO'My nO'Ab.30- BaHli10 lIMIITaJ,!IIRMIi (KaK CTIIMY AQM naxaxa p,BlI2KeHIIR IIAli TO'A'-IKa - aTliM cpep,CTBO'M 3AO'ynO'Tpe6ARAli J,!eAble anO'XH). TeM He MeHee, KaK B CBO'e BpeMH aa nepasrx s'rarrax MHQrO'rO'AO'CIiH n so- 6peTeHlle HMIITaJ,!1I1I 6bIAO' !paKTO'M IIHTO'HaJ,!lIO'HHO' peBO'AIOJ,!llO'HHO'rO' 3HaqeHIIR ,'lAR ,'laAbHell:IIIerO' CTaHO'BAeHllR My.3bIKlI - nfio O'TKPblnoasre BO'.3MO'2KHO'CTII ¢O'PMO'BaHIiH (npQ,'lBll2KeHllR MaTeplIaAa

CaMO'rO' ce6R),- TaK B 6O'Aee nO'.3,'lHIOIO arroxy sneaeaae B TKaHb 1.:t:lll:lit:Hll,IIH TQ'-IHO' TaK 2Ke B cllAbHeHiliell: Mepe pacurapaxo BO'3MO'2KII MY.3bIKll. nO'CTeneHHO' IIMllTaJ,!llH 1I.3 aKTyaAbHO'rO' crmry Aa eapar axace B MeXaHII'-IeCKllH npnesr. T ax 2Ke rrpO'II.3 0' III AO' II ceKBeHJ,!llell:. Y 2Ke Y Baxa ceKBeHJ,!lllI n pea paigarorca naor aa IIITaMnbl ,'lAH .3anO'AHeHllH «npocrpaacrna» Me2K,'ly aKTY-

llHTO'HaJ,!llRMII-npOBe,'leHllHMlI. Pa.3YMelO ceKBeHJ,!lllIB qiyrax II IIHBeHJ,!lIRx. O,'lHaKO' TaKO'e «nosretgeaae» ax BnO'AHe AOrH'-IHO'. OHO' CAY2KIIAO O'6HapY2KeHlllO ,'lllHaMll'-leCKO'rO' KO'HTpaCTa Me2K,'ly, KaK R Y2Ke CKa.3aA, aKTyaAbHblMll HHTO'HaJ,!lIRMll (BO'2K,'lb - cnyrnax ) II cMeHRlOrgllM llX ,'lBH2KeHlleM rro llHepJ,!llIf.

* H BDBce He D'I'pHgaIO, 'ITO ceKBeHgHli MOllleT 6bITb 9KcnpeCCHBHbIM cpeACTBOM H npueM<YM xapax repacrmor, 'lTD Dco6eHHD .lIOKa3aAa pDMaHTH'IeCKaJl rearpaxsaas H CHMcfJoHH'IeOKaJl MY3blKa CBDHMH «Hapa'CTaHHJlMH» 3BY'IHOcTeH rrocpencreox BDCXD.lIlI!,!!HX ceKBeHgHH, BepHbIM Cpe.llCTBDM 9MogHDHaAbHDrD B036YlII.lIeHHJI. HD BMe,CTe ,CTeM YTBeplK.lIaIO, 'lTD 9TO He aKTyaAbHbIH

• TBOp'IeOKHH CTHMYA H He Cpe,1l.CTBO npeoaoxenaa CDnpOTHBAeHHll npHcy!,!!eH MaTepHaAY HHepTHDCTH H 'ITO .lIBHlIIeHHe THna ceKBeHgHH B OTHDweHHH K MY- 3blKaAbHOMY pa3BHTHIO HCTaHOBAeHHIO H.lIeH lIBAlieTCli cfJaKTapDM naCCHBHbIM Ii .lIalKe oTpHgaTeAbHbIM. B cexaeauaax MaTepHaA nepexergaerca H3 O.llHDH ccfJepbI B .lIpyryIO, HO He «pacrer» H HHBO 'ITO He «npeapatgaercn»,

85

E npaaxaerca no AliHlili naafioxe-

CAli paanarue ,lI;Bli2KeHliH Ha n. n.

urero corrpornaxenaa aaepruocrn H MOHOTOHHOCTli, OHO He M02KeT OCHOBblBaTbCH TOAbKO aa cexseagasx, qT06bl e2KeMOMeHTHO asrpa- 6aTblBaTb B ce6e CTliMYAbl, otiecnexaaaroigne npOTH2KeHHOCTb. CTenena THrOTeHHR KaK OT,lI;eAbHbIX TOHOB B ,lI;aHHOH cacrexe, TaK H KOMnAeKCOB 3BYKOB, H HX paauetgeaae B ornourenaa «TOqeK» HAH «Y3AOB», eocnpaaaaaeasrx KaK YCTOH (OHH B pasxsre 9nOXH Mory~

MeHRTbCR HO caMblH npangarr pa3AHqHR 3BYKOCOOTHOllleHHH

, u a

B CHCTeMe CYIgeCTByeT acer aa, H B 9TOM CMblCAe rpexecxaa rerp -

XOp,ll; H COBpeMeHHblH CHHTeTHqeCKHH Aa,ll; - coxaaapuer), - 9TH C Ten e H H 06eCneqHBalOT BnOAHe ,lI;OCTaTOqHOe qHCAO cnocooos rrpoaaaasenaa. OTqaCTH Mbl HX nerraxacs 06HapY2KH,Tb npa aaaAH3e MeAO,ll;HqeCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHR B npe,ll;A02KeHHbIX aenne npasrepax. Hanpaxep, 9AH3HH HAH OTTRrHBaHHe TOHHKH - TaM, rae CAYX ee «2K,lI;eT» ,lI;A;-no.i\yqeHHR OIgYIgeHHR «nonasr nOA HoraMH»,YCHAHBaeT HanpR2KeHHOCTb ,lI;BH2KeHHR; TOMY 2Ke cnocoticrnyer 06paTHblH npnesr - nOHBAeHHe TOHHKH He B ¢YHKgHH TOHHK~ «nacrynarotgeii» TOHaAbHOCTH, a HeCKOAbKO pansme, KaK O,ll;HOH H3 cryneaeii npenurecrayrotgeii TOHaAubHOCTH, HO u C BKAlOqeHHeM nOCAe nee BBO,ll;HOrO TOHa nOCAe,ll;YIOIgeH 02KH,lI;aeMOH HAH Bbl3blBaeMOH TOHaAbHOCTH. CKa2KeM, TaK:

20

,~! 11 I fiIJ J J r r ~ r r I r r F F r II r r r I etc

AOA2KHO 6blTb nOHRTHO H TO, 'ITO pHTMHqeCKHe nepeMeIgeHHR caMH no ce6e He HMelOT 3HatIeHliR, a TOAbKO B CBR3H C HHTOHagHOHHOH ,lI;HHaMHKOH (c pacnpe,ll;eAeHHeM CHA Me2K,lI;Y cTyneHRMH xana ), KpoMe roro, aa npHMepe H3 «3lir¢Pli,ll;a» HeTpY,lI;HO 6blAO 3aMeTHTb, KaKYIO KOAoccaAbHYIO poxs B pa3BHTHH He06xo,ll;HMOCTH ,lI;BH2KeHHR nrpaior «nepe,ll;ep2KKH» (3a,ll;ep2KaHHR) TOHOB, T. e. OTTRrHBaHHe BCTynAeHHR 02KH,lI;aeMoro CAYXOM 3BYKa nOCpe,ll;CTBOM nponxenas ,lI;AHTeAbHOCTH npe,ll;lllecTBYIOIgero 3BYKa na CHAbHYIO ,lI;OAIO TaKTa. EIge O,ll;HO Cpe,ll;CTBO YCHAeHHR HHTeHCHBHOCTH ,lI;BH2KeHHR - 9TO peBKO nepeaecrara TOH H3 RCHblX TOHaAbHblX OTHOllleHHH B OTHOllleHHR «MHor03HatIHMOCTH».

3aMetIaTeAbHblH npaaep B ,lI;aHHoM pone:

23

':~"t.

r I {'

JlrrCIV

H

tIl

x

E rOn ;11 e'

COCKaAb3blBaHHe TOHa d B cis co06IgaeT resse HHTeHcHBHeHlll1il1 TOAtIOK, orxpsraaer HOBbIe nepcneKTHBbl rrepe a ,lI;BH2KeHHeM, MeHReT HanpaBAeHHe H OIgYIgaeTCR KaK He02KH,lI;aHHbIH C,lI;BHr. T aKHX npHMepOB B 6eTXOBeHCKOM CHM¢OHl1tIeCKOM pa3BI1THli _ MH02KeCTBO.

ECAH 06paTHTbCR K ,lI;eHCTBYIOIgHM caxaa, 06YCAOBAHBalOIgHM COOTHOllleHHR xpyrrnsrx OT ,lI;eAOB MY3bIKH, H HaMeTHTb npHHgHnbl npO,ll;BI12KeHHR na 60AblllliX paCCTORHHRX, TO npa HaAl1tIHH rex 2Ke npHHgHnoB O¢opMAeHliR B HHX paCKpblBalOTCR erge HOBbIe RBAeHHR, TPY,lI;HO nO,ll;,lI;aIOIgHeCR YtIeTYHa MaAblX npOTR2KeHHRX. FxasHoe H3 TaKHx RBAeHHH M02KHO 6blAO 6bl 06pa3HO Ha3BaTb «,lI;blxaImeM» TeM, ¢pa3, nepaoaoe, OT,lI;eAOB H T. ,lI; • .HXOtIY YKa3aTb na cnoc06HOCTb BCRKOH OpraHHtIeCKH paCTYIgeH MY3blKaAbHOH H,lI;eH KaK 6bl MYCKYAbHO COKpaIgaTbCR H paClllHpRTbCR, HanOAHRTbCR H C2KHMaTbCR. IIpa 3pHTeAbHOM paCCMOTpeHHH MY3blKH _ BHe 3BYqaHHR - TaKoro npogecca He CYIgeCTByeT, a ecre BCRKorOpO,ll;a MeXaHHtIeCKHe ,lI;06aBAeHHR, A02KHbIe xaaaacsr, YKOp0tIeHHR H T. n. flPH BocnpHRTHH 2Ke MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHR CAYXOM KaK opraHH30BaHHoro H H T 0 H H P ye M 0 r 0 ,lI;BH2KeHHR - ace CTa,ll;HH ero npe,ll;CTaBARIOT~R ,lI;aHHblMli eaaaor-o ,lI;HHaMHqeCKOro npogecca, B KOTOPOM, C O,ll;HOH CTOPOHbI, HaAHgo nOCTORHHoe B3aHMO,ll;eHCTBHe TOHOB H 3BYKOKOMnAeKCOB, a C ,lI;PyroH - Ka2K,lI;bIH MOMeHT 3BYtIaHHR onpe,ll;eAReTcR BceH COBoKynHoCTblO ,lI;aHHbIX COOTHOllleHHH TOHOB, T. e. HeT CA02KeHHR TaKTOBblX e,ll;HHHg, a TOAbKo npOH3Be,ll;eHHe 9AeMeHTOB pa3AHtIHOH CTeneHH HanpR2KeHHR.

npH n03HaBaHHH a'roro npogecca M02KHO H,lI;TH OT Ha6AIO,lI;e-

HH.lI aa «,lI;blxaHHeM» pa3BHTblX npOTR2KeHHbIX MeAO"HtIeCKHX

.l\H u ,..,

HIiH, COTKaHHbiX H3 tIepe,ll;OBaHHR H nepeMeIgeHHR «nonesox»,

HeT B03M02KHOCTH nepetIHC.I\lITb MH02KeCTBO cnocofioa «npo: ,lI;BHm.eHHH» MeAO,ll;HtIeCKOH AHHHH, TaK KClK, nOMHMO COOTHOllleHHH cryneaeii, He06xo,ll;HMO 6blAO 6bl ysecrs xepenoaanae T02K,lI;eCTBeHHbIX H KOHTpaCTHbIX BHYTPHMOTHBHblX «MOAeKYARpHbIX» tIaCTHg. AeAO He B CTaTHCTHKe, a B YRCHeHHH CAYXOM «nOCTORHCTBa ~peBpaIgeHHH» 9THX tIaCTHg H nepeMeHqHBOCTH HX ¢YHKgHH -TOHaAbHbIX, pHTMHtIeCKHX, ,lI;HHaMHqeC:,"HX - H eige B TOM, 'ITO 9Ta nepexenxaeocre - RBAeHHe He CAYtIaHHOe, a npencranxaer coooio xopeaaoe CBOHCTBO MY3blKaAbHoro CTaHuOBAeHHR. .H~HO, nanpnaep, 'ITO eCAH npa pastiere 3BYKOB B KaKOH-AH6o YCTOH 9TOT meAaHHbIH onopasni nYHKT npH,lI;eTCH aa cAa60H ,lI;OAe TaKTa, H npHTOM eIge na MeAKOH, TO «a¢¢eKT paap aaa» nponaaer, HO ,lI;BH2KeHHe He TOAbKO He 3aTopM03HTCH, a, Ha06opOT, CTaHeT HHmHCHBH~e. TOtIHO TaK 2Ke OCR3aTeAbHa pasnaga B yaep ncpe « eHHTb a <l>Hrapo» MogapTa Me2K,lI;Y

21

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86

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npoxao YCBOeHHblX 11 aCCI1MI1Al1pOBaHHblX KOAAeKTI1BHOH naMRTblO' TOll cpeasr, KOTOPOll OHI1 ,1I;eTepMI1Hl1pOBaHbl 11 B KOTOPOH OHI1 «6bITYlOT». TIpl1Hgl1n TomAeCTBa npORBAHeTCR 3AeCb B nOBTOpHOCTI1 BpeMH OT BpeMeHI1 O,1l;HHX 11 Tex me noneBOK (HAll COCTaBMllOIQ,I1X HX 'IacTHg) HAH noneBOK-BapHaHTOB. CTRrHBaHHe H pacumpenae HX COCTaBAReT enaa All He r AaBHblH <fJaKTOp, 06YCAOBAHBalOIQ,I1H nOABHmHOCTb, rH6KOCTb H Bbl3blBalOIQ,Hll OI!!YIgeHl1e mH3HeHHOCTH ,1I;aHHoro BH,1I;a CTaHOBAeHHH MY3bIKH. TIpl1HgHrr KOHrpacra rrpOHBAReTCH B pa3AH'IHOrO pona conoc-raaxena ax. ,lJ,HHaMH'IHOCTb me CTaHOBAeHHR MeAoca 06YCAOBAeHa «6bpb60ll» YCToeB BHYTPH HaneBa H TO'leK onop, K KOTOPblM HHTeHCHBHO YCTpeMAHeTCH rOAOC, 'IT06bl naxoaeg, YTBep,1l;HBllIHCb na TaKOll TO 'IKe, «aerasare» (06br'1HO B crescendo) rrocxeaaaii aanac ,1I;bIXaHHH. 3TO oxene HeTpYAHO 3aMeTHTb npa Ha6AlO,1I;eHHH sa KOAAeKTHBHblM HCKYCCTBOM rOAOCOBe,1l;eHHH KpeCTbRHCKHX xopon. BCR TeXHHKa HX TaK Ha3bIBaeMOH: reTepo<fJoHHH 06ycAoBAeHa ,1I;HHaMHKoH nxeaspnoro ,1I;blXaHHH H 3aBHCHT OT MeAOAH'IeCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHH Hero HenpepbIBHOCTH, OT B3aHMHO oxaaemaeaoii rOAOCOM rOAOCY (T. e. AHHHell AHHHH) nO,1l;,1I;epmKH (<<nOAXBaT») rrpn nepeMeIQ,eHHHX H3 YCTOH B YCTOH H npu «OlleBaHHRX» YCTOH (npa spaigenaa roxoca aoxpyr KaKorO-AH60 H3 OCHOBHblX TOHOB). *

TIepeMeIQ,eHHe H «oneaaaaes--e- B cyrgHOCTH, ABa r AaBHblX Bll/.l,a CTaHOBAeHHR MeAoca. I1 B TOM H B /.I,pyroM H3 HHX HHTOHHpOBaHue I1POHCXO,1l;HT na CMeHe 3arrOAHeHHorO paCCTORHHH (nocrynenaoe npoxozaztenue roxoca H /.I,ame r AHCCaH,1I;O) H neaanoxuenaoro (<<CKa'10K» HAH «apxa» Mem/.l,Y AByMH TOHaMH). Taxoro poza pHTM nepeMergeHHH HAH nepHO,1l;H3agHH CTOHT B CBR3H CO CMeHOH HanpaBAeHHR AHHHH: H 'Iepe/.l,OBaHHH CXOAHblX H necxoauerx noneaouaerx aAeMeHTOB. K TOMY me «CKa'lOK» acer-aa orgyrgaeTcR KaK aanpameHHe, B cpaBHeHHH C HHepgHeH CKOAbmeHHR. ,lJ,AR MeHH HeCOMHeHHO - XOTH aTO TPY /.I,HO CeH'IaC /.I,OKa3aTb, - 'ITO BO BceM aToM npogecce rAaBHYlO POAb nrparor He <fJH3HOAorH'IeCKHe, a cogHaAb-

*, H HaOTaH'BaW, 'ITO raxoro poza nop;p;epmKa, noaxsar H rrpopacraaae nO,1llrOAOGKOB, 'KaK nooeroa na BeTKe (snxor» P;O nOAHOH HeB03MOlKUOCTU Bblp;eAUTb OCHOBHYW AUHHW),- IHoe aTO OTHWP;b He n p U e M bI ucnOAHeHUH, a 0 Y I!I HOC T b npouecca CTaHOBAeHHH (P;BUlKe'HUlI U !jlOpMOBaHUlI) B raxoro pona nOAutpOHHU. MeAOP;UH 'B 06bI'IHOM OMbIOAe KaK PYKOBOP;Hl!lero roxoca, KOTOPOMY nOp;'IUHeHbIOCTaAbHbIe, TYT HeT H 6blTb He MomeT; <lTO KOAAeKTUB:; Hoe o6Ha'PymeHue MY3bIKH OCHoBblBaeTCJl aa ~OCTOHHHOM nepexoae Kamp;~u CPYHKg'HU B CBOW npOTH'BOnOAOmHOCTb - IKamp;blH rOAOC M~lKeT 6bITb B KaKOUAu60 p;aHHblii MOMeHT PYKOBOP;HI!IUM, a B nocAep;ywl!IHu - cOnOP;'IUHeHHbIM. Bsicurae BUP;bI MY3bIKU eBponeiioKoii ropoacxoii MY3blKaAbHoii KYAbTypbI p;oUHp;UIBUP;yaAuCTU''1eCKOii rropsr lIBMIAH'Cb xyp;omecTBeuHo pag!!OHaAbHbIM npereopeHueM npaaganon KOJ\AeKTuBHoii nOJ\ucpoHHU, U rpyr-a B CBOUX J\y'lIllUX 06pa3- !!ax <lTO p;oKa3bIBaeT, ocorieano y r eHp;eJ\H B ero reHuaAbHbIX xopax. l1p;eH eJl,UHCTBa, MaccoBOTO y,cuJ\ulI U pasnonpaaaa BOUJ\ol!leHa B COOTHOIlleHHH BOlKP;lI, cnyTHHKa u rronroxocxoa (BOlKP;b - aaneaaxa, YCTaBl!luK xa.aa, KOHe'!HO He oaaaxaer BOlKp;lI- llOCHTeJ\lI IlAaCTH).

Hble <fJaKTOPbI, H 'ITO CaMbIH 0 T 6 0 P HMeHHO TaKHX, a He ,1I;pyrHx «npHeMOB» <fJopMOBaHHH ,11; B H m Y rg e H C R H3MeH'IHBOH: MeAO,1l;H'IeCKOH: TKaHH 06YCAOBAeH npaKTHKOH: H HHToHagHoHHbIM (nOCTOHHHoe ncnsrranne CAYXOM) 0 n bI TOM, BbI3BaHHblM ,1I;aHHOll cpezoii He B nxaae TOAbKO 6bITOBblX YCI\OBHH:, a r Ay6me - H3 AaHHbIX npOH3BOAcTBeHHblX OTHOllIeHHH. cPH3HOAOrH'IeCKHe YCAOBHH onpeAeAHIOT TOAbKO B03M02:KHOCTH H npenexu 3BYKOBocnpOH3Be,1l;eHHSI, ero CHAY, OKpaCKY H T. /.1,. Ho TO, 'ITO BblmHBalOT H ynpano KOM- 6HHHPYIOTCH H3 naoro KOAH'IeCTBa 3BYKOCO'leTaHHH: HMeHHO Te, a He nnsre, H 'ITO npn H306peTeHHH H YCBoeHHH HOBblX 3BYKOCO'leTaHHH Mbl Ha6AlOAaeM seer Aa npOTHBO,1l;eH:CTBHe cogHaAbHoH cpeasr (<<cogHa.ll.bHOH: npHBbI'IKI1» ),- B aTOM <fJaKTe HeCOMHeHHO CKa3bI~ BaeTCR ,1I;eH:CTBHe HHToHagI10HHOrO oroopa. CTaHOBHTCR He06xOAHMbIMH H npHBbl'lHblMH Te HHToHagHH, xoropsre OKa3bIBalOTC},! MaKCHMaAbHO YCTOH'IHBbIMH H ,11; 0 x 0 /.I, 'I H B bl M I1 B AaHHbIX YCAOBHHX. I1Ha'le r oaopa, xoropeie Aame B CBoeH asrcmeii, H,1I;eOAOrH'IeCKOH:

CTa,1l;HH npe-raopeaaa RBAHIOTCH ace me caoero poaa «CAYXOBbIMH CHrHaAaMH». * B aTOM rrpogecce nOHCKOB H npHcnoc06AeHHH HHTOHagUH: Mbl H HMeeM npennocsrxxa <fJOPMbI.

TIPI1BbI'1Ka nOHHMaHHR <fJOpMbl KaK OTopBaHHOH OT rrpogecca orfiopa OKOH'IaTeAbHO OKpHCTaAAH30BaBUIeH:CH cxeMbl npaaexa erge K nOAHOMY HenOHHMaHHlO 3Ha'leHHH HMnpoBH3agHH B MY3bIKe, ror-aa KaK eIQ,e B nana.ae XIX sexa (B 'IeM MomHO y6e,1l;I1TbCH no 6Horpa<fJHH Eerxoseaa ) HMnpOBI13I1pOBaHHe 6blAO AeAOM 06R- 3aTeAbHblM /.I,AR MY3bIKaHTa. 4eM ,1I;aAbllIe ar Ay6b Mbl YXOAHM OT XIX aexa, TeM RCHee, 'ITO MY3blKa B CYIQ,HOCTH CBOeH: ecru TBOp'leCTBO B CTaHOBAeHHH, 'ITO BCRKaR KOHCTpYKgHR H cxexa B HeH: ecre pe3YAbTaT ortiopa - C OAHOH CTOPOHbl, H B03AeH:CTBHe CTOAb aazsaoro <fJaKTopa, KaK cogHaAbHaR HHepgHH HAH npaBbl'lKa,- C ,1I;pyroH. Y CBoeHHe MY3blKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHR He Momer I1POHCXO,1l;HTb 6e3 HaAH'lI1H B HeM - B aTOM CTaHOBAeHHI1-rr 0- B TOp H bl X paanpazseaaii, xoropsre Bbl3blBalOT noaropnsre peaKgHH H eCTeCTBeHHoe 3anOMHHaHHe TomAeCTBeHHblX 06pa30BaHHH:. OTCIOAa me cxenyer, 'ITO nocnpaarae MY3blKH He ecru naCCHBHoe COCTOH~ HHe, a ceoero poaa n03HaHHe,Ho n03HaHHe ecrn cpanaeaae, T. e. He O,1l;HO TOAbKO 3anOMHHaHHe CXO/.l,CTBa, a H YCTaHOBAeHHe pa3AH~ 'IHR.LIeM npuaersaee CTaHOBRTCR HHToHagHH, TeM CHAbHee nOHCKH HOBblX paaapaaorrexeii, TeM pa3AH'IHee CTeneHH KOHTpaCTOB. LITO xpaiine CYIQ,eCTBeHHO - aTO TO, 'ITO Heo6xo/.l,I1MOCTb B HHToHagHoH~ HOH: KOHTpaCTHOCTH 60Aee ncero 06eCne'1HBaeT HaAH'IHe H 30 6p e - T e H H R B TBOp'leCKOM MY3blKaAbHOM npogecce, H xepea TO nOCTOHHHoe conOCTaBAeHHe «,1I;BHmeHHH rro HHepgHH» C ,1I;BHmeHHeM,

* B p;a:HHOM OTHOIlleHHH Il ,oB'oeii reopna ;CO!!'HaAbHoro orfiopa H npacnoC()6AetHHJI uHTOHa'!!uii 1I p;eJ\aw AHIllb rrocxeaoaarexnaere BblBOP;bI U3 ,runOTe3bl WTYMncpa (C a r 1St u m p f. Anfiinge der Musik. Lpz., 1911. PYCCKUH liepeBOp;: flpouCXOml\eHHe MY3blK'H. J\., 1928).

88

89

HIUI H pacmapeaas 3BYKOKOMnAeKCOB),- MY3blKaAbHOe CTaHOBAeHHe acer-aa 06HapY2KHBaeT Ce6R B aenpepsmnsrx H3MeHeHHRX. BCRKHH aKT BOCnpOH3Be,ll;eHHR MY3blKH (Ka3aAOCb 6bl, HaHTOqHeHUIee HCnOAHeHHe TOqHeHlllHM 06pa30M 3acpHKCHpOBaHHbiX npoasneaeHHH) B CHAY scero cxaaaaaoro He M02KeT 6bITb AHUIb MeXaHHqeCKHM «06HapY2KeHHeM HOT», a TBOpqeCKHM BOCC03,l1;aHHeM npogecca cpopMOBaHHR C 60Aee HAH MeHee HeH36e2KHbIM nepeaeigeaaeu CPYHKgHH HHToHagHH.

AonYCTHM, qTO HeCKOAbKO BbI,lI;a1OIgHxcR nHaHHCTOB csn-paxa OAHy H TY 2Ke BeIgb. Y Ka2KAOrD DHa BHAoH3MeHHTcH. KDHeqHO, OCHOBHble 3BYKDCOnpR2KeHHR cpopMaAbHO OCTaHYTCR HeH3MeHHbIMH (HanpHMep, HHTepBaAHKa HAH KOHCTpYKTHBHble rpaan H 06'beM nsecer}, HO ,lI;HHaMHKa cTaHoBAeHHR, arorasecaae H KDAOpHCTHqeCKHe ero CTOPOHbI - a BeAb ,lI;AR BHHKa1OIgero H CPOPMHpY1OIgero cxyxa 9TH xaxecraa 3ByqaHHR CYTb TaK2Ke r xaanere HHTDHagHoHHble cpaKTopbl - Tpe6Y1OT TBOpqeCKOrO OCD3HaHHR. [Iepesrergeaae aKgeHTDB odpaayer pHTMHqeCKUe CABuru, Bbl,ll;eAeHHe KaKDrO-Au6o roxoca HAH KOMnAeKca TOHOB H 3aTeHeHHe apyr'ax 3aHDBO nepesreigaer' 3BYKOCOOTHOUIeHHR - CAOBOM, ,lI;a2Ke B YCAOBHRX COBepUIeHHOH TDqHOCTH socnpoaaseneaaa Bce-TaKH KOHKpeTHO 06HapY2KHBaeMY10 My 3 bl K Y COCTaBAReT HeKaH CYMMa cpaKTDpOB, npORBAR1OIgaH ce6R TOAbKO B npogecce HHTOHHpOBaHHR. Aa2Ke HaHcpopMaAbneiinnre BOCbMHTaKTbI «,lI;blUIaT» npn HcnOAHeHHH.

HOB AHqHOM KOMn03HTopCKOM TBOpqeCTBe 6blBa1OT 9nOXH, Kor,ll;a H na KOHCTPYKgHH npOH3Be,ll;eHHH OTpa2KaeTCR B03,l1;eHcTBHe He02KH,lI;aHHOCTH, HMnpoBH3agHoHHocTH KaK ,lI;OMHHHpoBaHHR H306- peTeHHR Ha,ll; npHBblqKOH'- B npoTHBonOA02KHOCTb anoxan, xor.aa YCTOHqHBble, H3,l1;aBHa CA02KHBUIHeCH HHToHagHH nO,ll;,lI;ep2KHBa1OT cD6010 cxexrer COqHHeHHH, xoropsre BAHR10T ofiparno na rnopseCTBG H CBR3blBa1OT uHuguaTuBHoe MblUIAeHHe. * I3blAo BpeMH, xor'aa «fiecrpopsrennsre» na BU,ll; npeA1O,lI;UH ,lI;aBaAH BbIXG,lI; H3 oxrepTBeBUIHX cxesr. B TaKHe 9nOXH aazse casrete cpGpMaAbHbIe cxeusr HaqHHa10T «AblUIaTb»: H3 MY3bIKH HCqe3a1OT «aaanparmae» MGHGTOHHble U cpuAHcTepcKH rrpaaaxensre nocrpoenas, AHHaMHKa H CD01'HDUIeHHe CHA 3ByqaHHH G6YCAoBAHBa1OT C06010 see - ,lI;a2Ke KGHCTPYKTHBHble rpaHHgbI. HD sa rrepaonaun pa3pYUIeHHH cxex Ii HCKaHHH CAe,ll;Y1OT 9nOXH oTpHgaHHH oTpHgaHHH, H TGr,ll;aCHGBa HHToHagHR H KDHCTPYKgHR CTaHDBRTCR e n H H C T B 0 M H cxesra«pDpMa He npGTHBOnOCTaBAHeTCR MY3bIKe. B 9TH 9nGXH BDcnpOH3Be,lI;eHne MY3bIKH CTaHOBHTCH CYPOBD TOqHbIM, nOTOMY qTO HeT Ha,ll;o6,_

OTKAOHReMbIM C nYTH «HHHgHaTHBHbIMH» HHToHagHRMH. * B CYIgHOCTH, HMnpDBH3agHR H RBAReTCH B03Be,ll;eHHeM npangnna TBOpqeCKOrD H306peTeHHR KaK HOCHTeAR He 0 2K H ,lI; a H HOC T H B PYKOBO,ll;RIgHH qiaxrop ocpDpMAeHHH. npe,ll;eAbI 9TOH He02KH,lI;aHHOCTHacerzta cogHaAbHo ,lI;eTepMHHHpOBaHbI H orpaaasenasr, HO TeM He MeHee B AuaAeKTHKe H306peTeHUH H HHepgHH - CYIgHOCTb CTaHOBAeHHH MY3bIKH. ::ho CTaHDBAeHHe acerna '3aKOHOMepHO HMnpoBH3agHoHHo, H60 B03HHKaeT KaK aenpepsraasrii, 06YCAOBAeHHblH KAaCCOBOH 60Pb6oH onerr orfiopa HaH60Aee A 0 x o z; q U B bI X H3

aaooperaesosx HHToHagHH. •

Bce 9TO H nOBTopR1O saece, qTo6bI caexarn etge 60Aee HCHbIM YCBoeHHe cpopMoBaHHR MeAoca KaK B MY3bIKe YCTHOH Tpa,ll;HgHH, TaK H B HHbIX otixacrnx MY3bIKaAbHoro TBOpqeCTBa, H60 B MeAOAHqeCKOH TKaHH - UCTOK scex OCTaAbHbIX BH,lI;OB cpopMoBaHH.H. «Onesaaae» OT ,lI;eAbHbIx TOHOB H nepeuetgeaae H3 TOHa B TOH, sepeaoaaane nDneBOK H T. ,It. H T. ,It.- see 9TH OT,lteAbHble npogeccbI OIgYIga1OTCH CAYXOM KaK opraaaaosamroe B Ka2K,lI;bIH aanHbIH MOMeHT H B geAoM ,lI;BH2KeHHe. 3,l1;eCb HHepgHR CTaAKHBaeTCH C «He02KH,lI;aHHOCTb1O», KOCHOCTb cxyxa (npHBblqKa K U3,1taBHa YCBOeHHbIM COqeTaHHRM) C «02KH,lI;aHHeM He02KH,lI;aHHoro», H602KH3Hb-TO ztaaaoro npogecca 3aKA1OqaeTCR TOAbKO B ,lI;HaAeKTHKe CTaHOBAeHHH, B 6oPb6e npoTHBOnOA02KHOCTeH. Eepex AH MbI 9TOT npogecc B rrpeaexax HeKoeH rrpo-rao YCToRBUIeHcH pagHoHaAbHoH CHCTeMbl 3BYKooTHoUIeHHH (9noxH a K a,ll; e M H q e C K He) HAH B CTOAKHOBeHHH 9TOH YCTOHBUIeHCR CHCTeMbI C CHAaMH, ee pa3pYUIa1OIgHMH (9nOXH K P H T H q e C K He) ,- CYIgHOCTb (,lI;HHaMHKa) npogecca OT 9TorO He MeHHeTCR. OH acerna HMnpoBH3agHoHeH ** B 60AbUIeH HAU MeHbUIeH CTeneHH, acer aa COCTOHT H3 genH He02KU,lI;aHHOCTeH - H3 MYTagHH, H3 HHToHagHoHHbIX «B3PbIBOB» B npenexax conocrasAeHHH ,ltaHHOH CHCTeMbI HAH B 6opb6e aa pacnnrpenae 9TMX npeaexon. CAYUIaeM AU MbI PYCCKoe KpeCTbRHCKoe MHororOAOCHe (ocooenno neCHH n A e H 9 P H bI e - «3BOHqaTbIe» ), BHHKaeM Ali B rH6KHe H BMeCTe ynpyrHe AUHHH ,ltpeBHHX pacneBOB HAH rpHropaaacxoro xopaxa, BocnpHHHMaeM AH «nRTb opxecrpoaerx naec» UJeH6epra (B O,ll;HOH H3 HHX OH HaIgynaA nYTb Qepe3 HMnpeCCHOHH3M K «6HOAOrHqeCKOMY HaTypaAU3MY», BbI3BaB noxaoe oIgYIgeHHe «,lI;blxaHHR opKeCTpOBOH MY3bIKH»-«MYCKY AbHoro» coxpatge-

* Pa3AUqUe Me2KP;Y "llMupOBu3al!IIOH'HbIM MY3bIKaAbIHbIM HCKYCCTBOM KOAxexraaaoro onsrra .If .lfHp;uBup;yaAI>HbIM TBOpqeC1'BOM B TOM, 'ITO KOMn03HTOp P;MI IBblpa2KeHlIlI ,!l:H'lHbIX nepelKHBaHHH UYlKp;,aeTCli ,B 60AbllleHcno6op;e H30- 6pe1'elHUlI, HO '3a'TO U 'B 160Aee CUAb'HOH ICTeneHH noaseoeae-rcs onaOHOCTH 3aMKHYTOCTH H Op;UHOqeCT,s,a. Torp;aKaK IBO ncex npO~BAeIHHlIX «06I!lUHHOH» (TBOPHMOH cooriiga) 'MY3bl'K"ll-. AHqHOMY naxaxy oraoaarca crporo orrpezexeaaaa H KOHTpoAupyeMali poxe [ope aacaexosere 10611AlIl!1IH; aepeaeacxae rrplIqeTbl u nxaxa: B KOH!!epTllpYIOI!lIlX cpopMax - coxsneie Kap;eHl!bI etc.).

** I1MnpoBlI3aglloHeH B BblweYKa3aHHOM CMbICAe: KaK soaaeneaue Heo lK II p; a H H 0 rOB rrpllHl!lIrr cpopMOBaHlIlI, KaK npeoaoxeaae CXeMl>1 H306- pe-reuaeu.

* nOP;qepKllaalO: YCTOH''faBble, npn,BblqHble B p;aHHOH, cpeae HUT 0 H a ~ l! H n, T. e. MY3bIKa, KOHKpeTHO 3Byqal!lall, n 0 p; p; e p lK H B a 10 r CO 6 0 10 cyl!leCTBoBaHHe KoHCTPYK1'HBHbIX cxesr, HO OTHIOP;b He caMH HeMble, 6e33ByqHble cxeMbl-tp0PMbl «TBOPllT» MY,3bI'KY. Bue HH1'OHagHH 'OUH npOCTO He CYl!leCTBYIOT. cho TOAl>KO apnrexsaaa npoeKgHli MY3bl,KH p;orrYCKaer BbIBep;eHH'Oe sootipazseUHe<l>! H3 uee «MHHM.oe» ,6b1THe a6CTpaKTIHblxcx,eM 'BHe p;aHaMHKH 3ByqaHHlIa'ae npo!,!eoca HHTOHHpOBaHHlI.

90

HOCTH HH B KaKHX HSBHe BOSAeHCTBYlOIgHX <paKTOpaX (Aame B rubato): BCe, qTO COCTaBMleT MYSbIKY, BCe, qTO O<pOpMAHeT ee MaTepHaA (T. e. He TOAbKO apXHTeKTOHHqeCKHe 9AeMeHTbI, HO H AHHaMHKa rpaAal!l1HCHAbI SBYKa H TeM6pa),- B C e B K A 10 q a eTC 51 B MYSbIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe, OpraHHqHO C HHM conpnzseno H aaxoHOMepHO otinapyzanaaercn, He Tpe6YH «BOSMeIMeHHH» HSBHe. 8TO nOAAHHHO KAaCCHqeCKHe SIIOXH MYSbIKH, H COBceM He napaaoKcaAbHO, qTO TorAa-TO H BbIABHraeTcn aa nepnsrii IIAaH HAen KOHCTPYKTHBHSMa, xor Aa saKOHOM rpopwoeanaa aexaercs HHToHagHH.

Herrpexoasnocre npOHBAeHHH KaK 6bI MYCKY AbHoro pacr aasenaa H COKpaIgeHHH (<<npogecca AbIxaHHH») B MYSbIKe KaK CTaHOBAeHHH, a He MeXaHHqeCKOM ABHmeHHH nar AHAHee acero cxaaeraaerca HMeHHO na HaH60Aee YCTOHqHBbIX rapMOHHqeCKHX 1I0CAeAOBaHHHXKpHCTaAAHsagHHx, xoropsie, B sexax CAomHBIIIHCb H B03HHKHYB B pesyxerare p;AHTeAbHoro orriopa, IIpeBpaTHAHCb B aerrpepexaeMbIe TOHaAbHbIe <P0PMYAbI, I1MelO B BHP;Y CPOPMYAbI Kap;aHCOB (CPopMYAbI TopMomeHHH H saMbIKaHHH MY3bIKaAbHoro ABHmeHHH). OHH, KaK nOKa3bIBalOT Ha6AlOP;eHHH, H3MeHHlOTCH CTHAHCTHqeCKH He TOAbKO na rrpOTHmeHHH snox, HO H Y op;Horo H Toro me KOMnosnropa. KpoMe Toro, OHH npHHHMalOT aa cefia paaxaxasre CPYHK!!HH B OAHOM H TOM me npOHSBep;eHHH. B caMOM p;eAe, ecr s rAy60- KaH pasHHga Memp;y TeM, eCAH 6bI I sacru .lI,eBHToH CI1MCPOHHH EeTxoBeHa 3aKOHqHA~Cb aKKopAOBbIM nOCAep;OBaHHeM rnna COBepIIIeHnoro xanaaca, H TeM, Ka:K OHa aa caMOM p;eAe OKaHqHBaeTCH,MeAOp;HqeCKI1M Kap;aHCOM-CHHTeSOM: qeTKHM BOAeBbIM YTBep2KAeHHeM r AaBHOH TeMbI. Ha060poT, "4aHKoBcKOMY B CI1McpoHHqeCKOH nOSMe «EYPH» nOKa3aAOCb BnOAHe HeH36e2KHbIM npepaare KOHTpacrao-narrpaasesnoe oopaanoe pa3BHTHe MY3bIKH OP;HHM H3 A106HMbIX CBOHX npHeMoB - ynopHbIM «BKOAaqHBaHHeM» ff axxopnon xaaanca, * qeM OH aasacryro r'pyfio npeperaaer CBOH AHpHqeCKHe BbICKa3bIBaHHH, KaK 6bI «CTblP;HCb» HX qpe3MepHOCTH, 11 pe3KO OCTaHaBAHBaeT MOIgHbIH pasfier p;BHmeHHH.

ECTb mrrepecnas CTaTbH 0 TpaKToBKe xanaaca Paxapaou Illrpaycoa (R 0 I and Ten s c her t. Die . Kadenzbehandlung bei Richard Strauss.- «Zeitschrift fiir Musikwissenschafb>, 8. J ahrg., H. 3). HcnoAb30BaHHbIH 3p;eCb MaTepHaA (npaana, B OrpaHHqeHHOM KOAHqeCTBe) paCCMaTpHBaeTCH HeCKOAbKO H30AHpOBaHHO - B IIAaHe H 3 Me H e H H H KatJ,aHCOBbIX CPOPMYA, a He B nxaae AHHaMHqeCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHH H CPYHKgHoHaAbHO neotixoaaxoro, BbITeKalOIgero H3 acero npogecca ocpopMAeHHH, «npopsma» rpaHeH: STHX CPOPMYA. T eM He MeHee. OCHOBHaH npeAIIOCbIAKa aaropa CTaTbH (<<Die Kadenz ist durch jahrhundertlangen

* I1MelO B .BII,!lY allegro risoluto C TPHTO'HO'BbIMIl nO'CJ\e,!lO'BaTeJ\bHOCTliMIi y.'6acoB HOCJ\e umpOKoro C-dur'fHoro T1pOBe,!leHHH AI06O'BHOH TeMbl (andante nOI1 tanto). Crp, 90 etc. naprrrrypsr (M., 113,!l. IT. IOpreHCO'H). HanO'MIIHal0 r axase 0' ,!lIlHaMIlKe CTaHO'BJ\eHIIH 3aKJ\IQ'IlIreJ\bHDrO' Tpe3BY'I1i1i (H-dur) ''s, ynepr iope «PO'MeO' II .lI,lKYJ\beTTa».

92

Gebrauch eine abgegriffene Formel geworden und ist doch wiederum Itir den Schaffenden nicht zuentbehren, da sie ein durchaus notwendiges Mittel darstellt, den Verlauf einer Komposition durch Herausarbeiten von ·Ruhepunkten zu gliedern und ihr Ende durch Hervorrufen eines Schlussgefiihls iiberzeugend zu gesta Iten» *) BbI3bIBaeT K ce6e BHHMaHHe IIpaBHAbHOCTblO MOTHBHpOBKH. Paccssorpeaae npHBeAeHHbIX B crarrse aar AHtJ,HeH:IIIHX IIpHMepOB TpaHccpopMagHH KatJ,aHCOBbIX CPOPMYA B npOH3BeAeHHHX PHX. Il.Irpayca (H3 «8AeKTpbI», «CaAoMeH», «KaBaAepa P03», «AereHtJ,bI 0 HocHcpe» etc.) AeAaeTCH oc06eHHO !!eHHbIM, eCAH

,CBH3aTb ero C BHHMaTeAbHbIM npOCMOTPOM rex me 060POTOD H TomAeCTBeHHblX HM B COOTBeTCTBYlOIgeM HHToHagHoHHoM oxpyaseHHH B xxanapaycnyr-ax H naprnrypax. PacIIIHpeHHH (pacTHmeHIiH) a COKpaIgeHHH KaAaHCOB CTaHOBHTCH erge 60Aee IIOKa3aTeAbHbIMH B 1I0pOAHBIIIeH: HX HHToHagHoHHoH cpe.ae na acesr npOTHmeHHIi MY3bIKH, xor p;a <P0PMYAbI 3aMbIKaHHH CBH3aHbI C TeMaTHqeCKHM MeAOAHqeCKHM MaTepHaAOM. B MeTaMopcp03ax IIITpaYCOBCKHX KaAaHCOB MbI IiMeeM Ii rrpauepet «OlleBaHHH» (BpaIgeHHH OKOAO KaKOH:;' AH60 T01JKH HAH rapMOHHqeCKOH crpeper), Ii 60Pb6bI OIlOPHblX IIYHKTOB H pa3AHqHOrO pona CABHroB (pIiTMHqeCKHX H TOHaAbHbIX). Hanpaaep, B «8AeKTpe» TaK HHToHHpyeTcH AOMHHaHToBaH crpepa xaaaaca (KAaBHp, CTp. 19):

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B crepryro ·CPOPMYJ\Y. O,!lRaKD D60HTIiCb 6e3 HerO' B KDMnD311tlllil HeBD3MDlKHD, Ta'l( KaK O'H, C03,!laBaH tle3YPbl, HBJ\HeTLH HeO'6xo,!(IIMbIM cpe,!(CTBO'M ,!(J\H pac'IJ\eHell'IIH <MY3blKaJ\bHO'rD CD'IIIHeHllli II n03BO'J\lIeT CJ\YIIlareJ\1O 6e3DIIlll6o'lHO' nD'IYBCTBDBaTb O'KO'H'laHHe nponaaeaenas (1-teAl. -- Bee nO'I\CTPO''IHble nepenoaer BblnO'J\HeHbl MHO'ro. - PC/i.

93

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r K a /1, a H C - caxaa MYCKYAllCTaH crpepa llHToHagllH. KOHCTPYKTllBHblH KOCTHK, Ae.maIgllH B OCHOBe coaepureaaoro Ka/1,aHCa,Hall60Aee YCTOHqllBaH 06AaCTb aayxoconp sasenaii-yc-roea, noaaepasenaaa OqeHb Me/1,AeHHbIM ll3MeHeHllHM C TOH srroxn, KaK OHll OKpllCTaAAH30BaAllCb B Bll/1,e roaaxenor-o caaresa. HaAllqlle COKpaIgeHllH II paCTH.meHllH B 3TOH 06AaCTll * nar AH/1,Hee acero otiaapy.mllBaeT /1,llHaMllqeCKYlO npnpony MY3blKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHllH KaK B ero r-opnaotrraxeno nO/1,Bll.mHOH 06AaCTll - B MeAoce - TaK H B nanfioxee HenO/1,BH.mHbIX qJopMYAaX-KoHgoBKax. I1Haqe II He Mo.meT 6bITb, nOTOMY 'ITO MY3blKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHlle - genb MYTagllH, 06YCAOBAeHHbiX KaK llMMaHeHTHblMll 3aKOHaMH qJopMOBaHllH MY3blKaAbHOH TKaHll, TaK II /1,eHCTBlleM cognaxsnoro 0 T 6 0 p a, ofiecrre-maarorgero .mll3Hb O/1,HllX II orsrapaaae zrpyrax llHToHagllH. **

* HaJnoMHIHalO eige '0 rrpaesrax «pacceaaannx» qeTKHX QqepTa:HHii KatlaHCQDQii cflQPMYAbl B Kil:tleHgax.

** Pa3YMelO 3TQ CQQTHOlIleHHe HMMaHeHTHQCTH H KaY3aAbHQCTH B MY3blKe QTHlOtlb HeB CMblCAe o06YCA<YBAeHH-QCTH 'JHCTQ ,6bITQIBQ,rQ nQP,lI,1J;Ka ('HaQ6oOPQT, 6bnQBaJl MY3bFKa qaIge IBCerQ - 'KQHCep'BaTHBHblii ,H HHe'pTHblii 'cflaRTQP, H 'Hen'OCpetl'CT'BeHHQToO MQCTa '0'1' [flee K BblCllIHM CTatlHJlM MY3bl'KaAbHQrQ CTa'HOBAeHHJI HeT: 'TYT ,I1!HOr,!la «oxasrox> 'Hatl ,6e3,111H'Oii HU3MeHIHbiX B.Kyc,QB). ,KaY3aAbHOCTb JI nQ'HHMalO 6AH3K'O 'K ToOMY, 'Ka'K IB Jl3bl'KQ3Ha!HHH naxaraer cfl<l!KTbl Jl3blKQBblX MYTa,!!Hii 'Bbl,!laIOIguii'cJI cfl'palH!!Y3'CKUH: AHHrBHCT A. M e i II e t B CBQeH: «Linguistique historiqu€ et linguistique generals» (Paris, 1921, pp. 15-18): «Les lois de laphonetiqueou de la morphologic gener ale histcrique ne suifisent done a expliqucr aucun fait. .. Mais il y a un element dont les circonstances provoquent de perpetuelles variations, tant6t soudaines, et tant6t lentes, mais jamais entierernent interrompues: c'est la structure de la societe.

Or, Ie langage est eminemment un fait social. .. » [«3a,K'OHbl cfloHeTHKH

HAH BceQ6IgeH: HCT'OPHH !MQP!PQAQTHH ,CaM'H no vcede He MQrYT nare 06bJlOHeHHJI HH QP/HQIMY 'cfla'KTY. HQ ecre TaKQH: cflaK'TOp, K<l!K 'CTPY'KTypa Q6IgeCT!B,a, YCAQBHJI pa3'BHTHJI 7(,QT'OPQH: 'BbI3bl'BaIOT nerspepsmaere H3MeHeHHJI B Jl3b1Ke, HHQT tla SHeaanasre, 'HHQrtla 3'aMetlAeHHble, 'HQ HII1K'OT,!la IllQNHQCTblO He rrpexpargarotgrreca,

TaKHM Q6pa3QM, Jl3blK ecre JlBAeHHe HCKAlOqHTeAbH'O C'O!!l!aAbH'Oe ••• »J.

J.13 n'OA'02KeHHlI, qTQ «Ie langage est une institution sociale, il resulte que la linguistique est une science sociale, et Ie seul ele!TIen~ ,:ariable auquel on puisse recourir pour rendre compte du changement linguistique est Ie change. ment social dont les variations du langage ne sont que les consequences parfois imrnediates et directes, et Ie plus souvent mediates et indirectes ... [«Jl3bIK JI,BAeHHeC''O!!l!aAb'HQe, MQ2KHa caexar's Bbl:B'OtI, qT'O H AHHr'BHCTHKa ecru HaYKa Q6IgeCTBeHHaJl, H TQAbKQ Ca!!HaAbHble H3MeHeHHJI MQrYT asraaar» I! a6bJlCHHTb HaM H3MeHellHJI B H3b1Ke, npHTQM 3TH' H3MeHeHIIJI, aaoraa npOIICXQIlJlT HeMe,!lAeHHO H aenocpeacrneano, HQ qaIge onocpeaonaao II KaCBeHHO ••• »]. 11 aaxee: « .. .ce ne sont jamais les faits historiques eux-rnernes qui deterrninent directe-

94

Ka.m/1,bIH Bll/1, MY.3blKaAbHoro conpaaceaas llMeeT cnoe Ha'IaAO, CBOH nepaoa pacgaera (Hall60AbllleH Bblpa3llTeAbHocTll), nepaoa o6paIgeHllH B XO/1,HqylO MOHeTY II nepaoz; BbIMllpaHllR. Hasaxou 6bIToBaHllR (ll306peTeHllR) Ka.m/1,OH HOBOH llHToHagllll - KaK npocreiiureii, TaK II CAO.mHOH - RBAReTCR TOT MOMeHT, KOr/1,a OHa 06- napyasnaaerca BHe3anHoH MYTaglleH (<<cKaqKOM») as npeaurecrBYlOlIJllX eH Bll/1,OB llHToHagllH. KOHgOM ee 6blToBaHllR RBAReTCR nOCTeneHHaR yrpara Bblpa3llTeAbHocTll. Ho O/1,HoBpeMeHHo nponcXO/1,RT HOBbIe MyTagllll, HOBbie «B3pbIBbI», HOBble rrpea pargeaaa, BCRKllH HOBbIH 3BYKOKOMnAeKC OTHlO/1,b He OTMeHHeT O/1,HOBpeMeHHom CYIgeCTBOBaHllR /1,aBHllX Bll/1,OB llHToHag'llH, noxa OHH np0/1,OA.malOT 6bITb coguaxsao He06xo/1,llMbIMll, - II /1,a.me TOr/1,a, xorzta cxyurarexn C nO/1,BllHYTOH CAYXOBOH opraHll3aglleH yzse He qYBCT-' BYlOT pa3/1,pa.meHllR npll BocnpllHTllll OKaMeHeBllIllX /1,AR HllX 3BYKOCOqeTaHllH. *

TlocAe acero cxaaanaoro 0 B03MO.mHOCTHX II rpaxropax MY3bI~ xaxsaoro /1,Bll.meHllH CAe/1,OBaAO 6bI nepeii-ra K aaaxasy nOHRTllH p a 3 B II T II H B MY3bIKe II CBH3aHHoro C 3TllM nOHRTlleM rexnaneCKOro repsmaa p a .3 p a 6 0 T K a. Ho H cxararo 60Aee geAeco06pa3- HhlM OCTaHOBllTbCH Ha nO/1,06Horo pO/1,a np06AeMe B CBR3ll C pac-

rnent les changements linguistiques, et ce sont les changements de structure de la societe. qui ~euls ,peuvent modifier les conditions d'existence du langage. II. faudra determiner a quelle structure sociale repond une structure Iinguistique donn~e et comm~nt, d'une maniere generals, les changements de structure sociale se traduisent par des changements de structure linguistique» [«caMI! rro eerie 'IlCTapHqeCKlle cflaKTbl HI!KOr,!la He onpezexmor aenococacraeaeo AI!HrBHCTHqeCKl!e H3MeHeHIIH, II T'OAbKQ ll3MeHeHllJl CTPYKTypbl a6meCTBa etlHHC,[,BeHIHQ MorYT "lll~MeHllTb yc.;'\aBHJI CYIgeCT,B'OBaHIIJI H3b1Ka. Heoexoaaao onpe,!leAllTb, K KaKQll C'O!!HaAbHall' CTpYKType aTHaCI!TCJI ra llAll HHaH AHHrBHCTIIqeCKaJl crpyx'rypa I! KaKI!M 06pa3'OM 'B ,geAoM H3MeHeHHH CO!!llaAbHaH: CTpYKTYPbl ~a~QtlJlT caoe QT,pa2Ke'HHeB H3MeHeHHHX 'CTPYK'TYPbl AI!HrBnCTllqeOKOH» J. B aTQI! sacra Bn'OAHe Ma2KHa 3aMeHllTb nOHJlTIIH: Jl3bIKQ3HaHl!e, Jl3blK H ero CTPYKTypa nQHJlTllJlMH: 'MY3bIKQ3HaHl!e, 'MY3bIKa KaK H3bIK II ee cflapMbl flQ- 3T'OMY llMMaHCHTHble CBQHCTBa MY3bIKll- JI aaxar aro MblCAb Meillet, npH~eHJIJI ee ,K MY3blKaAblHaMY ,CTaH'OBAeHlllO,- TaAbK'O 'Bblpa6aTbl'BalOT 're I!All HHbIe Ba3- MOlK'HoC'TI! pa3~"TI!H, HO 'TeM,qTO onocoricreyer HAll ITpenHT,cTByeT oCYIge'CT:A'eHI!IO II tlell'CTBHIO 3TI!X BQ3MQ2KHaCTeH, He JlBAJle'TCJI B K'OHe'qHQM cqeTe

I! nCI!XaqJI!3HaA'OrllqeCKaJl crpepa MY3blKI!, HH cfll!31!qeCKali crpepa a TQAbKa np'Oll3Batl'CT'BeHHbie aTHallleHHJI - 'C T :P Y'K 'I' Y ,p a '0 6 Ig ec 'I' B a. ITpH6aBAIO:

II lHe Ka'K !MCXaHl!qeOKHH: TaAqOK, a Ka'K nenocpeac'raeanoe ITp'eAOMAeHlle B cne-

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pa!!ecc Q6pa30BaHI!JI, paC!!BCTa II Bb~MHPilJHHJI HHTQIHa'!!HH JI 'OTHlOtlb He MblCAIO Ra'K 'KaKYIO-Ta AHHlllO pa"BI!'THH «'aT,!leAbHQC'TeH» _ OT,!leAbHbIX nnTOHa~llOHHbIX cqiep, B CYi!!'H'OCTI!,- '3'1''0 'eAI!HblH: rrpogecc: pa'C!!BeTY T'OrO llAH

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95

CMOTpeHHeM My3bIKaAbHOrO CTaHOBAeHIUI COHaTHOH <pOPMbI HAlf, TO'lHee, <pOPMbI COHaTHOrO axxerpo. 3p;eCb a:e ~HaP;O erge tJ;06aBHTb, 'ITO paCTHmeHl1e H cOKpargeHl1e MY3bIKaAbHOH TKaHH <;'TaHOBI1TCH He06xop;I1MbIM YCAOBl1eM BCHKOH p;I1HaMI1'1eCKH nOp;BHmHOH <P°PMbITaM, rae MY3bIKa He Hp;eT aa nOBOP;Y CAOBa HAH TaHga H rp;e~ OHa BbIpa6aTbIBaeT CBOH mH3HeHHbIe npHHgHnbI. noaTOMY OP;HOH H3 06bI'IHbIX <P0PMYA (HAH CTepmHeM) MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHH nano C'IHTaTb: 06HapymeHHe TeMbI, ee nOBTopeHHe (BnOAHe HAI1 OT'IHCTH Tomp;eCTBeHHoe, paCIIIHpeHHoe HAH cacaroe l-rnepeKAIO'IeHHe p;BHmeHHH B HOBYIO crpepy, 06Hapym~eHHe noaoro MaTepl1aAa Hero YTBepmp;eHHe - PHP; conOCTaBAeHHH yase 06Ha~ pymeHHbIX HHToHagHH - HX CHHTe3 - K 0 P; a (<<B036ymp;eHHe» HAll HOBaH HHTeHCHBHaH «acnennsa» p;BHmeHHH AH60 nocpeacraox npnMeHeHHH CTHMYAOB, BbI3bIBaIOrgHx «aaeprmo paapxaa» HAH «'1yB~ CTBO TOHHKH» H B TO me BpeMH OTTHrHBaIOrgHx «KOHeg», AH60 nocpep;CTBOM 60Aee npHMHTHBHoro cpeacraa arOrH'IeCKOrO nopanxa; YCKopeHHe TeMna p;BHmeHHH npu OP;HOBpeMeHHO~ CTpeTTHOM, «CTHCHYTOM» HAH «CP;BHHYTOM» npOBep;eHI111 r AaBHOH TeMbI - narrpaxep, B KOHge I '1aCTH 4eTBepToH CHM<pOHliH 4aHKoBcKoro).

B CBoeM H3AomeHHH cyrgecTBeHHbIX CTHMYAOB, aa KaKHX OCHO~ BbIBaeTCH npop;BHmeHHe My3bIKI1 HAH nop;p;epmHBaeTCH COcT.?HHHe HeycToH'IHBoro paaaoaecus (nocpep;c.TBoM pYHKgHoHaAbHoH aaMeHbI) Memp;y TO'lKOH OTnpaBAeHHH H TO'lKOH 3aMbIKaHHH, Memp;y MOMeHTOM BKAIO'IeHHH C03HaHHH CAYlIIaTeAH B MY3bIKaAbHoe P;BH~ meHHe 11 MOMeHTOM BbIKAIO'IeHHH (<<rrpeKpargeHI1H TOKa») - 51 He KOCHYACH nop;p06HO etge pana Bblpa311TeAbHblx cpeacra, nocpeacrBOM KOTOPbIX p;OCTl1raeTCH cOKpargeHl1e II pacTHmeHHe MY3bIKaAbHOH TKaHH. TaK, '1pe3BbI'IaHHO p;I1HaMI1'1eCKH g:HHbIMI1 CTI1MY AaMH CTH~ rHBaHHH HAI1 cOKpargeHI1H MY3bIKaAbHoH TKaHI1 HBAHIOTCH Te PHTMO-HHToHaglloHHble TOA'IKH, nepe60H H cp;BHrH, xoropere ofipa- 3YIOTCH npn pa3AH'IHOrO po zta «cpe3bIBaHHHx» HAH «CTa~KHBaHHHX» 3BYKoKoMnAeKcoB. Hanpl1Mep, xor p;a 3aKAIO'IHTeAbHbIH TaKT My~ 3bIKaAbHoro nepaona cAymHT BMeCTe C TeM H OTnp~BHbIM TaKTOM cAep;YIOrgero, HAH Ha060poT; xor p;a B Tpexp;oJ\bHbIH pHTM BKAI1- HHIOTCH P;BYXp;oJ\bHble conpHmeHHH, xor aa B genb paanerx TaKTOB

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pa3Mep); xor aa KOM611HHPYWTCH rrapasre H aenapaere (P;BY-, TpH-, IlHTH-) TaKTbI H T. p;. H T. p;. Bce nonofinoro poaa HBJ\eHHH OTHIOP;b HeJ\b3H C'II1TaTb «nrpoii» pl1TMl1'1eCKOrO nopaaxa, He 06YCAOBAeHHbIMH HHToHagHoHHoH, 3BYKOBOH npapoztoii ztannoro KOHTeKCTa. OHH BJ\HHIOT na HHTeHCI1BHOCTb p;Bl1meHHH I1MeHHO B KOHKpeTHOM ero 06HapymeHHH, B BocnpHHHMaeMOM CJ\yXOM, a He 3peHI1eM CTaHOBAe~ HHH. raHP;HOBCKl1e H 6eTXOBeHCKI1e «CTaAKHBaHHH» TaKTOB, TO'lHO TaK me KaK Mo~apTOBCKHe c'rpe'rr-aere BCTynAeHI1H (HanpHMep, B MeHyaTe g.rnoll HOH CHM<p0HHH), HBJ\HIOTCH <paKTopaMH p;HHaMI1'1ecxoro rropaaxa. 4epe3 HMX 06HapymHBaIOT csoe B03p;eHCTBHe CI1AbI, pa36HBaIOIgHe KOCHOCTb H HHepTHOCTb «KBap;paTHbIX» nepaoaoe.

B aTOH pafiore CBoeH 51 xoay see me npexsae scero BblHCHHTb caMbIH npogecc MY3bIKaAbHoro cTaHoBAeHHH, 113AOml1Tb He peayxsTaTbI B 3aBeplIIeHHOM BI1p;e, a xozt Ha6AIOp;eHHH Hap; HI1M. T O'iHO TaK me 51 He p;aIO I1CTOpl1'1eCKOrO 0630pa scex <paKToPOB H acex CTHMYJ\OB, OpraHI13YIOrgI1X, onpeaexmoigax II COCTaBAHIOrgliX Myasrxaxunoe rpopsroaanae. npH'IHHa TOMY npOCTaH: 51 60IOCb, 'ITO, OTKAap;bIBaH eige II eige 113AomeHHe r AaBHbIX CTaP;llH MoeH xafiopaTOPHOH pa60,TbI, 51 Boo6rge He ycnero aarpaxcnpoaare MOHX Hp;eM.

Flocxe aroro neaoxsnoro pro dorno sua * 51 npoaoxasaro nepexacAeHHe BamHeHIIIHX H3 <p0pMo06pa3YIOIgHx CHA, <paKToPOB HAH CTHMYAOB npoaaaaceana. HeCOMHeHHO, 'ITO K TaKOBbIM, KaK yace rOBOPllAOCb, npananxeasar KOHCOHaHC H p;HCCOHaHc. B p;aHHOM KOHTeK~ CTe H 6epy 9Tll rrOHHTHH He B HX Cl.KYCTH'IeCKOM H He B HX MY3bIKaAbHO-CTHAllCTll'leCKOM 3Ha'leHHH (XOTH 3p;eCb me exazsy "TO nOHHMaHHe Jeppesen'ou p;HCCOHaHca npeacae acero KaK <p a K:

TOp aCT H A H rrpep;CTaBAHeTCH MHe '1pe3BbI'IaHHO nAop;OTBOPHbIM, H60 BCKpbIBaeT p;HHaMHKY CTHAH). TO'lHO TaK me H He 6epy 9TH nOHHTHA 3p;eCb B HX <paKTH'IeCKOH 06CTaHOBKe. MHe naasea He Ta~ KOH-TO H TaKOH-TO p;llCCOHaHC B HCTOPHKO-CTHAHCTH'IeCKOH p;aHHOCTH (CKameM, He cerrmxra P;OMHHaHTcenTaKKOPtla, nplirOTOBAeHHaH HAH HenpHrOTOBAeHHaH, paspenrenaaa, HAH «nepeKAIO'IeHHaH», HAll OTBep;eHHaH), a P; H HaM II 3 M KOHCOHaHTHOCTH H p;HCCOHaHTHOCTH B ero B03P;eHCTBlili na MY3bIKaAbHoe orpoperxenae H KaK CTliMyA 3ByKOp;BllmeHHH. C 9TOH TO'lKli 3peHHH HBAeHHe P;HCCOHHpOBaHHH HMeeT pHP; CYIgeCTBeHHbIX CBOHCTB.

B 0 - n e p B bI X, OHO BbI3bIBaeT orgyIgeHlle llHToHagHoHHoro TOA'Iaa If cziaar-a 60Aee apxoe, '1eM eCAH conocraaxenae p;aeTCH xepes KOHCOH~llpYIOIgee CO'leTaHHe. ECAli OTrrpaBHbIM TOHOM cxyaorr C TO

B3HTbill aa HliM h f' '

. TOH llAH is norpetiyer «nponoxaeeaaa» p;Bllme~

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II B Bep~llKaAbHbIX COOTHOlIIeHHHX. B 0 _ B TOp bI X - p;HCCOHaHTHO~Tb 0 OCTpHeT OIgyIgeHlle KOHTpaCTa. npaBP;a, ecxu B KaKyIO~ All 0 9~OXY KaKOH-A1l60 tiHccoHaHC CTaHOBHTCH oc06eHHO '1aCTO ynoTpe AHeMbIM B cnxy CBOliX 9KcnpeCCHBHbIX CBOHCTB, TO P;MI

* no AH'IHOMy sonpocy (./laT.).

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97

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anOXH nOCAeP,YIOIgeH OH CTaHOBHTClI «XOP,lI'leH MOHeToih H npnsnaKOM «nOlliAOBaTOCTH», nyxsrapaaapyerca H cxyasar nOKa3aTeAeM ztypnoro sxyca, T. e. repaer CBOIO Bblpa3HTeAbHOCTb. Ho ,lI;eAO OT aroro He MeHReTCR B npnagane: Kam,ll;aR HCTOpHtIeCKaR anoxa HMeeT NaK Bblpa311TeAeH KOHTpaCTOB tIYBCTBOBaHHH - ,lI;HCCOHaHTHble COtIe~ TaHHR, H cpena nax KaK BbICllIYIO crynene O,ll;HO llAll HeCKOAbKO Ma~

, KCllMaAbHO 9KcnpeCCHBHbIX, KOTOPbIX O,ll;HH KOMn03HTopbI 601l3AHBO H36eralOT, a ,lI;pyrHe oc06eHHO tIaCTO HHTOHHPYIOT B conOCTaBAeHHH C 3BYKOCOtIeTaHliRMH, BblpamalOIgHMH 0IgyIgeHHe nOKOR, CTaTllKH II 3aMbiKalOIgllMH ,lI;BllmeHHe. COOTHOllIeHHR 9TH H3MeHtIHBbI H CTH~ AHCTHtIeCKll pa3Ho06pa3HbI. /(OCTaTOtIHO HanOMHllTb 0 «60R3HH TpliTOHa» H rAaBeHCTBe KBapTbI Ha,ll; TepgHeH B cpeaane sexa, o KOAe6aHHRX B OTHOllIeHllH ceKYH,lI;, 0 po All YMeHbllIeHHoro cerrraxxopaa y pOMaHTHKOB, oc06eHHO B onepe, 0 Bblpa311TeAbHOM aaaxeHHll HOHaKKop,ll;OB y BarHepa II T. n, II T. ,lI;. B O,ll;HY H TY .lI:{e anoxy KOMn0311TopbI-COBpeMeHHHKH pa3HO aocnpaanaaro'r HHTepBaAbI. ,llAR EOpo,ll;HHa npHeMAeMbI napaxxexsaere ceKYH,lI;bI, ,lI;AR Mycoprcxoro npHeMAeMbI KBapTbI, KaK H B Cpe,ll;HeBeKOBOH nOAHcpOHHH, B I1X napaxxexuaoa ,lI;BHmeHllH. Y PHMCKoro~KopcaKOBa OHH BbI- 3bIBalOT nenpnraopnerii yasac (<<Xop pacKoAbHHKOB C ynapasra KOAOKOAa nepea caMocommeHHeM, HanHcaHHbIH arrropoja B napnapCKHX nycrerx xaaprax H KBHHTax, R coaepmeaao nepeaexax, TaK KaK nepnonavaxenerii BH,lI; 6bIA HeB03MomeH»*). /(AlI AR,lI;oBa xaaprcexcraaxopa «BHCHT B soaayxe», ecxa OH He nO,ll;rOTOBAeH II caMOCTORTeAbHoro «onopaoro» suasenaa, nO,ll;06HO ztpyroay 06- paIgeHHIO Tpe3BytIHR, He HMeeT. /(AR Pax, Il.lrpayca-xaaprcexcraxxopzt B Ty me anoxy yxse nOtITH nOTepRA csoe TOAbKO nocpeacTByIOIge~,lI;llCCOHaHTHoe aaaxeaae,

B Hallie BpeMR H36eraeTCR 06HameHHaR ,lI;OMllHaHTa KaK aenpeMeHHbIH npnaaax xananca, sepaee, H36eralOTCR cnegHcpHtIeCKH ,lI;0- MllHaHTaKKOp,ll;OBble anroaagaa ** H 3aMeHRlOTClI llHbIMH, OTtIerO TOHllKa CTaHOBHTCR peAbecpHee II ee CPYHKgHR KaK ynopa oc06eHHO aKgeHTHpyeTclI ,lI;ame 6e3 06H3aTeAbHoro npeaaapeaaa BBO,ll;HbIM TOHOM. A eIge aenasno B MY3bIKe CKpR6HHa OIgyIgeHHe TOHllKll KaK ynopa 6bIAO no-rm na yIgep6e: TOHHKa tIaCTO llHTOHHpOBaAaCb He ,lI;llHaMHtIeCKH KaK MymecTBeHHaH CHAa, BAaCTHO yraepasnarorgan KOHeg ,lI;BHmeHllH, a HeCKOAbKO KOAOpllCTlitIeCKll-naCCllBHO, KaK I' a p M 0 H H H - T e M 6 p, KaK caoero poaa «HHToHagHoHHaH nep-

* H. A. P II M C K II H - K 0 P C a K 0 B. .J\eTOIIllCb MoeH MY3bIKaAbHOH 3t1l3Hll. M., 1926, CTp. 260 [HOB. 1137J;. DOAHoe coopaaae coxaaeaafi. T. I.

MY3rH3, M., 1955, CTp. 148]. K

** BCIIOMHHM OT3blB eIge r AllHKll 0 Be6epe: «Do MoeMY MHeHHlO, ap~-

Map as Be6ep 6blA 7J;AlI MeHlI oxen» neyaoaxernopirrexea (/lame BO <dlJpeu:; UlJOTue») OT asxaumero ynorpeoxenaa /lOMliHaHT-cenTUM axxopaa B nepnou ero ;;03H!!Hll». (M. 11. r A H H K a. 3aIIllCKH, CD6, 1887, CTp. 181)M[HOB·1911537J;2· M. 11. r A II H K a. .J\HTepaTYPHoe aacxeane, T. I. MY3rH3, .J\.-., , CTp. 230].

98

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B 06HapymeHlle cnoero pozta MY3blKaAbHOH CBeTOTeHH. CTllMYAbI KOAOpllCTlitIeCKOro nopaaxa BbI,lI;BllraIOTCH na nepBbIH nxaa. 11 yase B aTOM nxaae nOAYtIalOT HOBae I1HToHagHoHHoe coaepacanae H TOAtIOK, H cztarrr', II KaAaHC, II KOHTpaCTHble conOCTaBAeH1l1l. /(06aBHM, OAHaKO, tITO TeM caMblM BOBce He OTMeHHAaCb cpopMaAbHO rapMOHH~ tIeCKaH xornxa, HH CKPH6HH, HH HMnpeCCHOHHCTbI He BblXOAHAH

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7*

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HBAeHHe geAHKoM B ~HHaMHqeCKHH nAaH, BO B3aHMO~eHCTBHe HHTOHagHH, CTHMY AHPYlOIgHX ~BHmeHHe, H HHToHagHH, yraepasaaroIgHX ynop, OCTaHOBKY ~BHmeHHH. COOTBeTCTBeHHO 9TOMY H q>YHKgHH nAaraAbHOCTH H ~OMHHaHTHOCTH, H pacgeaxa MeAO~HqeCKHX q>aKTOpOB C TOqKH 3peHHH q>HrypagHoHHo-rapMOHHqeCKOH (BCnOMOraTeAbHbIe H npOXO~HIgHe HOTbI), H yxeaae 0 npHrOTOBAeHl!HX, aaaepasannax H paspeurenaax - BCe 9TH npnaganer q>opMOBaHHH, He nOTepHB CBoeH HCTOpHqeCKOH pa3YMHOH 06YCAOBAeHHOCTH, nepeIllAH B HOBYlO CTa~J1lO csoero 6bITHH (~HHaMHqeCKH-KOHCTPYKTHBHbIH CTHAb).

B CBoeM 3HaqeHHH qiaxropa, B036ym~alOIgerO H aarrpaaxmoigero MY3bIKaAbHoe ~BHmeHHe, HBAeHHe KOHCOHaHca-~HCCOHaHca, KOHeqHO, OIgYIgaAOCb KaK OpraHHqeCKH geAeco06pa3Hoe. YqeHHe 06 HHTepaaxax, KOHCOHHpYlOIgHX H ~HCCOHHPYlOIgHX, rrpenpar axoc» n09TOMY B onopnyto 6a3Y TaK Ha3bIBaeMoH 9AeMeHTapHoH TeopHH H acero 3~aHHH rapMOHHqeCKOH MY3bIKH - B OCHOBY HHTOHHpOBaHHH. He npHXO~HTCH, CAe~OBaTeAbHO, y~HBAHTbCH TOMY; "ITO, xorzia KOMn03HTopbI na nopore XVI I I-XIX CTOAeTHH CTaAH HHTOHHpOBaTb B xaxecrne nepBOTOAqKa He TOHHKY, a ~HCCOHHpYlOIgHe HHTepBaAbI, KaK EeTXOBeH B DepBOH CHMq>OHHH HAH KaK MogapT B 3HaMeHHTOM BCTynHTeAbHOM adagio Cvdur'noro xaaprera, rae TaK OCTPOYMHO 3aByaAHpoBaHbI q>YHKgHH TOHHKH (oHa C TaKTa 1 OCTHHaTHO 3BY'lIfT Y cello, HO aa TpeTbeH "leTBepTH as Y axe-ra H ~aAbHeHIllHe BCTynAeHHH rOAOCOB B CAe~YlOIgeM TaKTe «c6HBalOT» CAYX H «YBepHlOT» ero, "ITO TO 6bIAa He TOHHKa), - TaKHe npHeMbI ~eHCTBHTeAbHO BocnpHHHMaAHCb KaK CKaqOK B HeH3BeCTHoe H 6bIAH HeCOMHeHHOH «HHToHagHoHHoH peBoAlOgHell» H, KOHeqHO, HpKHM

* CTHMYAOM 3BYKO~BHmeHHH, ero «~HHaMH3HpOBaHHeM».

Menee 3HaqHTeAbHOH n06e~OH B 9TOM nxaae naao CqHTaTb npeYBeAHqeHHOe nOAb30BaHHe ceKBeHgHHMH, «rnnepr porpmo cexaenl,!HH», KaK 9TO Ha6AlO~aeTcH BO nceii pOMaHTHqeCKOH MY3bIKe XIX H nanaxa XX CTOAeTHH. CeKBeHl,!HH KaK cpe~CTBO npO~BHmeHHH H y~06HbIH npaesr ~AH nepexo aa H3 O~HOH CTa~HH ~BHmeHHH B ~pyrylO CBoHcTBeHHbI H KAaCCHqeCKOH nOAHq>oHHH. ,4ocTaTOqHO Ha3BaTb HHBeHgHH H q>yrH Eaxa, 0 qeM yase npHXO~HAOCb rOBOpare, Hacxozongae ~HaTOHHqeCKHe nAaBHO nocrynerraere ceKBeHgHH CAY maT TaM oc06eHHO qaCTO 3anOAHeHHlO TOAbKO "ITO HMeBIllero MeCTa rrpofiera H nO~'beMa H BbI3bIBalOT orgyigenae ~BHmeHHH no HHepgHH ao nepsoro HOB oro TOAqKa. ::ho qHCTO ~HHaMHqeCKOe

* B «Gr atias» cnoeii Grosse Messe (c-rnoll) M01!apT npUBOAHT ABHlKeHHe K KOHeqHOH TOHHKe (a-moll), OTTOAKHYBWHCb OT cis KaK OT 6a3bl ceKCTaxxopna H YMeHbweHHoro cerrrasxopna TOHaAbHOCTH d, I1pHQeM «110 aopore» aa I1pO'THlKeHHH AeCHTH Ta!KTOB MeAAeHHoro ABHlKeHHH (adagio) TOHHKa He aaXBaTbIBaeT()H. K'BapToeK'cTaKKoPA a-rnoll 110HBAHeT'CH ua ceAbMOM TaKTe. Bees cpparMeHT npeACTa'BAHeT {)06010 AI060l1blTHblH I1pHMep AOBarHepoBcKoH peaAH; 3a!!HH I1pHHgHlla «6eCKOHeQHOCTH» ABHlKeHHH 110cpeACTBOM gel1l1 OTKAOHeHHH

OT TOHII'KII If TeM caMt>IM YCI!AeHI!H THrOTeHI!H K HdiKa'K KOHeQHOH '1!eAI!. '

100

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104

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B HCTOpH'IeCKOM xoze BeIgeH B .n;AHTeAbHoH 9BOAlOgHH MY.ilbIKH nepasre aransr ocpopMAeHHH MaTepHaAa C HeH36emHOCTblO H306AH'IalOT rrpeotixazraaae npaagana roacnecraa, npH'IeM, nO-BH.n;HMOMY, eCAH KaKOH-AH60 aran HHTOHHpOBaHHH .n;OCTHraA aercmeii TO'lKH pa3BHTHH, TO HOBbIH arart onare BbI3bIBaA B03BpaIgeHHe K npOCTeHIIIHM cpaKTopaM CTpOHTeAbCTBa (HanpHMep, COOTHOIIIeHHe Mem.n;y UbIIIIHbIM H CAomHbIM CTHAeM a cappella H B03HHKalOIgeH MOHO.n;HeH aa nopore XVI-XVII BB.). ECAH cpaaaarn MeAOC rparopaaacxoro xopaxa H MeAop;HKY rondeaux H virelais C napaxxexsno npOTeKaBIIIHMH onbITaMH MHororOAOCHH, TO MeAOC xopaxa CTOHT aernre no CBoeMY pa3BHTHlO I)OpH30HTaAeii: TaHgeBaJ\bHbIX necea, B ~KOTOPbIX .n;OBAelOT nOBTopeHHH KOPOTKHX perppeaon, a B nOAH CPOHH'IeCKHX CO'lHHeHHHX nopaasaer genAHeMOCTb aa cantus firmus KaK sa fiasy, KaK sa npHBbI'IHbIH H 3HaKoMbIH p;aHHOMY xpyry nesgOB, oceBIIIHH B HX naMHTH KOMrrAeKC Tom.n;eCTBeHHbIX * HHToHagHU, aa KOTOPOM HAH noxpyr xoroporo pacgneraror ztpyrne roxoca. Ha noaofiaoro pozta CTHMY xax MHOI'OrOAOCHoro p;AHTeAbHoro p;BHmeHHH, KaK MbI BHp;eAH, opraHH30BbIBaAHCb BrrOCAep;CTBHH naccaxaxua H .n;pyrHe cpOpMbI C OCTHHaTHbIM 6aCOM.

IIpaeeny HeCKOAbKO xapaxrepnerx npaaepos MeAOp;H'IeCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHH, B KOTOPOM p;OBAeeT nOBTopHOCTb H r.n;e HOBbIe 9AeMeHTbI asrcrynaso'r HAH KaK MeAOp;H'IeCKHH xanaac, HAIi B BH.n;e P06KO npopacraroigax nofieron OT PYKOBo.n;HIgeii: HHToHagHH. Bce rrpmtepsr - H3 ynoMHHYTOH yase KHHTH Fr. Gennrich'a, «Rondeaux, Virelais ... » (Band 1.). Hanessr npnaoasy 6e3 CAOB. DoBTopeHHH He BbIUHCbIBalO P;AH COKpaIgeHHH MeCTa. **

* T OlKl\CCTBeHHbIX He B CMbICAe CXOI\CTBa ncex aanenoa cantus firmus' a, a Ka,K TBCPI\O YCBOeH'HbIX OOO'l'HOIIIeHHR TOHOB.

** DOl\po6HO aa MeAOI\HqeCKOM CTaHOBAeHHH BapHaHTHO-ilOIleBOqHOrO HM- , IlpOBH3a!!HOHHOro cxxaaa H 'CTHAli II OCTaH3BAHBaACli B OBoeR «KHHre 0 CrpaBHHCKOM» (J\., 1929) B rxaaax, IlOCBlIIJ!eHHbIX aH3AH3Y «BaRKH» H "CKa3KH

o COJ\l\aTe». J\i06oIlbITHble TpaHcqJopMa!.\HH MOTHBHO-T10IleBOqHOrO HHCTPYMeHTaAbHoro MaTepHaAa B pa3J\HQHbIX TOHaAbHblX nxaaax ccaepacar BpaHl\eH6yprcxne KOHgepTbI l1or.-Ce6. Eaxa.

106

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B IIOcAe,1(HeM npliMepe otipargaer na ceOH BHHMatlYie crporo KOHCTpYKTHBHoe paCIIOAOmeHl1e pO,ll,CTBeHHbIX nOl1eBOK (a 11 b) no TOHaM xaaa OT d2, c2, a1 II s'.

B03Bpal!!aJ'ICb K npepBaHHOMY onacaarrro ,lI,BYX OCHOBHbIX xareropaii, na xoropsre ,lI,eAHTCH - BCAe,ll,CTBHe ,lI,OMHHHpOBaHHH O,ll,HOrO H3 ,lI,BYX B3aHMO,ll,eMcTBYlOl!!IIX npHHgHIIOB ocpopMAeHIIH - MY3bl~ KaAbHble CPOpMbl C TOqKH 3peHHH nOHHMaHHH qJOpMbl KaK opraaaaosaaaoro naronapyeeroro 3BYKO,ll,BlImeHHH, naao oriparara cyrytioe BHHMaHHe na ,lI,Ba OCHOBHblX pYCAa B xareropnn qJOpM C Tom,ll,eCT~ BeHHblMH 3AeMeHTaMH. O,ll,HO PYCAO - napaagaouaue qJOPMbl, T. e. ,lI,BHmeHHe C noapaaaexenaev na arraaozrsr, cnaMKoH KOTOPblM CAy~ ml1T aapnapyesraa reraa; B CBoeM pa3BHTHH 3TH qJOpMbl MoryT ,lI,O~ CTlUaTb, KaK yase 6blAO YKa3aHO, xpaiine BblCOKHX cryrreneii, ripeO,ll,OAeBaH 3nH30,ll,HIIHOCTb gHKAH3agHeM Bce 60Aee H 60Aee CAom~ HblX KOHTpaCTHblX npespargenaii TeMbl. npHMep CHMcpOHHIIeCKHX BapHagHM (CHMqJOHHIIeCKHX 3TlO,lI,OB.- Pen.) WYMaHa noxaasraae-r, CKOAbKO y,ll,HBHTeAbHoro MaCTepCTBa H 3MogHoHaAbHOH nacengenHOCTH coaepzsar TaKoro poaa qJOpMbl: B MeTaMopqJ03ax oonapyzaaBaeTCH pa3BHTlIe, 11 BMeCTO xaxreaeonoacxoro nepeoaeaaaaa HAH pa3YKpaUIHBaHHH HeH3MeHHeMOH no cyrgec'rny TeMbl pa3AHQHOrO poaa opHaMeHTaMH TyT Ha6AlO,lI,aeTCH csoero poaa rr e pep 0 m ,lI, e ~ H R e TeMbl. OHa BocnplIHHMaeTCR KaK T 0 A II 0 K TaKOM MOl!!HOH:

CRAbl, IITO ace nocxeayrorgae a n1I30,ll,bl B bl p a c T a lO T H3 nee H O,ll,HH H3 ,lI,pyroro, a He npOCTO sepeayrorcs KaK caMOCTOHTeAbHble 3BeHbH O,ll,HOM genH .

.l!;pyroe PYCAO, no KOTOPOMY HanpaBAHeTCH npHHglI11 roasneCTBa,- 3TO KpaMHe pa3BHTaH H 60raTaH 06AaCTb HMHTagHoHHblX 11 KaHoHHIIecKHX qJOpM, BblClIleM TOIIKOM pa3BlITHH KOTOPblX 6blAa II OCTaAaCb rpyra. B npOTHBOnO.l\OmHOCTb HeH36emHOM CTaTHKe aapHagHH (npeonoxeaaaae CTaTHKH - CTHMYA HX pa3BHTHH), qJOPMbl, 06YCAOBAeHHbie HMHTagHeM, * C O,ll,HOM CTOPOHbl, CTHMYAHpOBaAH ropaaoa-raxsno-nojiaazanyro nOAHcpOHHlO, a C ,lI,pyrIOll'- npa MaKCH~ MaAbHOll 3KOHOMHH MaTepHaAa (HMHTagHH B03HHKAa B snoxy, ROr,ll,a HH,lI,HBH,lI,yaAbHoe MeAo,ll,HIIeCKoe H306peTeHHe B aaureu CMbl~ CAe, T. e. KaK O,ll,HH H3 OTAHIIHTeAbHblX npH3HaKOB KOMn03HTopCKoro ,lI,apa, BpH,lI, AH CYl!!eCTBOBaAO) 06ecneIIHBaAH MaKCHMaAbHYlO ero nO,ll,BHmHOCTb H pagaoaaxsnoe rrepeuergeaae. B03HHKHOBeHHe HMHTagHH 6bIAO easa AH He rrepnoji peBoAIOgHeH B 06AaCTH cpeaaeaexonoro HHTOHHpOBaHHH. OHO HeBbIBO,ll,HMO H3 nocxeaoaarexenoro pa3BHTliH H HBAHeTCH 6e3ycAoBHO KaIIeCTBeHHblM C,lI,BHrOM no OTHOurenmo K xapaxrepnovy ,lI,AH ,3nOXH HlvmpoBH3agHoHHbiX nOHCKOB

* aTO' renaaxsnoe Hl106peTeHHe qberO'-TO' TBOpqeCKO'rO' YMa HAIi pesyxeTa1' KO'AAe'KTIIBHbIX YCIIAHH MY3bl,KaHTO'B XII-XI II CTO'AeTIIH ,llaAO' 'KO'AO'CcaAbHbla caanr O'nbITaM MHO'rO'rO'AOCIIH: BO'3HHKAa BO'3MO'lKHO'CTb O'praHH30'BblBa'l'b ,llBHlKeHHe Ha ,llAIITeAbHO'a craamr, ncxoa« H3 TO':If{,ll e C T ae H Ii 0' r 0' .lfaTepHaAa, cO' ace 6O'AbllllIM II 6O'AbllllIM qllCAO'M rO'AOCOB: cantus firmus 6blA C,llBIIHYT C MeCTa.

109

3al<OHOMeplloro MlIOfOrOJl.OCHDrO A£lHm.eHiHl rt p n e M Y 0 0 M e H a r 0 - A 0 COB (Stimmtausch), xorna CXOAHble norreasa CB},!3bIBaAIl CBOIlM nOHBAeHlleM TO B OAHOM, TO B APyroM roxoce nOAll<pOHHYIO TKaHb. *

I1MHTaj!IlH - «CKaqOK» B 9BOAIOj!Hll eBponeHCKOH nOAH<pOHHfI, noaxexumii 3a c06010 caoero pona 06pa30BaHHe aosoro xaxecraa. ,l.laAbHeHlIllle pa3BeTBAeHHH H 060naIgeHHH nepacroanyxsca HMHTagHIl (B03HHKHOBeHHe TomAeCTBeHHoro ABllmeHll},! B P;PyroM roxoce, rroxa nepBbIH He p;OBeA P;O KOHj!a CBoeH MbICAll) He p;OAmHbI CMYIgaTb HCCAeAOBaTeAH CBOHM MHoro06pa311eM. ITomaAYH, BO sceii HCTOPHIl eBponeHCKOH MY3bIKH Hll OAllH H3 npcgeccos <popMOBaHHH He nporexax H HH OP;Hll <POPMbI He OKpilCTaAAll30BbIBaAHCb C TaKOH AOrHqeCKOH nOCTeneHHOCTblO H C TaKHM paj!IlOHaAbHbIM BbIBeAeHHeM oaaoro npaeraa H3 Apyroro. ITO-BHAHMOMY, nexoropax COj!HaAbHaH paBHOAeHCTBYIOIgaH 3anpOCOB K KOMn03HTopaM H axycer 9nOXil n03BOAHAH Ha cpaBHHTeAbHO AAHTeAbHOM npOTHmeHHH BpeMeHHnpOTeKaTb AaHHOMY npogeccy KaK 6bl HMMaHeHTHO, nOqTH He noaaepraace BAH},!TeAbHbIM TOAqKaM co CTOPOHbl BHeMY3bIKaAbHblX qiaxropos. T eM He MeHee, npa MHoro06pa3Hll H npn CTOAb pagnoHaAbHOM pa3BHTHH OCHOBHhlX npeAnOChlAOK HMllTaj!HOHHO-KaHOHlllJeCKOro CTllAH,- r.vaaaere BeXIl ero 6a3HpYlOTCH na YKa3aHHOM nepBOHMnYAbce: na MHororOAOCHOM ABllmeHHH, nopoacnaeaov AaHHbIM MaTepllaAOM H3 caxroro cefia. Ho TorAa KaK B BapHaj!HoHHbIX <PopMax nepea HaMH npOABHmeHHe My3bIKH, TaKme nopoacaemroii Tomp;eCTBeHHbIM MaTepHaAOM, nporexaer B Bllp;e nOCAep;OBaTeAbHbIX 9n1l30p;OB H npeACTaBAHeT c06010 P}'!A npeBpalgeHllH AaHHOH PYKOBOAHIgeH MbICAH,- 3AeCb, B HMHTaj!HH, MaTepHaA nopozsztaer ABHmeHHe rrocpeacraoa nenpepemnoro Cj!enAeHHH 0 P; H H a K 0 B bI X 9AeMeHTOB B pa3AHqHbIX ro xocax, T. e. oopasyer npouno cna},!HHYIO nOAH<pOHHqecKylO TKaHb.

B cna},!HHOCTH H HenpepbIBHOCTH no A 0 6 H 0 r 0 ABHmeHHH - na OCHOBe no A 0 6 H 0 rome MaTepHaAa - CYIgHOCTb <POpM xaHOHa H <POPMbI <pyrll. Ho roraa KaK <POPMbI KaHOHa p;OAmHbI 6bIAH npHHTIl K caMoAOBAelOIgeH 3aMKHYToCTil H cTa6HAH3HpoBaTbcH (ABllmeHHe B npeaexax n p e a 0 n p e zt e A e H H bI x H36paHHbIM cnocofioja HMHTHpoBaHllH H qllCAOM BCTynAeHllH aa HeKOTopOH CTaAHH pa3BHTHH KaHOHa yase nepecraer socnpamoaaraca KaK ABHmeHlle-pa3BHTHe C 9AeMeHTaMH HeomHAaHHocTH), <popMa <pyrH HBHAaCb TeM HOBbIM BllP;OM 9BOAIOj!HH npHHj!llna HMllTaj!HH, B KOTOPOM HaHAeH 6bIA BbIXOA H3 nOTep},!BlIIeH CBOIO Bblpa3HTeAbHoCTb H CTaBureii, nO-BHAIlMOMY, <popMaAbHoii HrpoH paccyaxa opranaaagna ABllmeHHH nocpeacr-aosr nepecranoaox OAHOH npeanocerxxu.

* «ITO,!106Hble nOne-BKH» -CBOeI'O poaa 6AYlK,!laIOIMflH HAH nepenergaioIMHHCli cantus firmus - ,!laBaAll YCTOHqllBOCTb il'MnpOBHsaTopaM-neB!!aM (He naao sa6bIB,aTb, qTO 3TO anoxa npeorixaaaaan 'CAYXOBbIX HaBbiKOB YCTHOH Tpa,!lHi!!HH), HO He C!!enMIAH TKaHb B TOH Mepe, KaK HMHTa!!HlI. HpHMepbl yase 6blAH npaneaener panstue (CTp. 44-46), II aaecs II TOAbKO CYMMHPYIO H3AOlK'eHHoe 'B 60Aee WHPOKOM H o606IMeHHOM nxaae.

110

3p;eCb He MeCTO BAaBaTbCH B COj!HaAbHble llCTOpHqeCKHe npa'1HHbI, nopOAHBlIIHe HOBbIH: BHP; <popMOBaHH},! (<pyry), B KOTOPOM npacyigee KaHOHY MeXaHHqeCKOe ABHmeHHe 6bIAO npeOAOAeHO. ITepea HaMH OAHH H3 npogeccoa, Ha6AIOp;aeMbIX He pas na BceM rrpoTHmeHHH pa3BHTHH eBponeHCKOH MY3bIKH: YCAomHHIOIgaHCHH aaKanAHBalOIgaH AYXOBHbIe (B CMblCAe HaAllqHH HHTeAAeKTyaAH3Ma) geHHocTH KYAbTypa BeAeT K llHTeHCHBHOMY POCTy npogecca O<PoPMAeHHH B MY3bIKe, K AaAbHeH:IlIeMY paCIlIHpeHHIO <POPM H K nor AOIgeHHIO yase OKpHCTaAAll30BaBIlIllXCH <POpM nOCAeAYIOIgIlMll: KaHOH aonrex B <pyry, KaK BnOCAeACTBHH y DeTxoBeHa <pyra CTaAa COCTaBHOH: xacrero B pasaaroii COHaTe. <:PopMa, llMeBlIIaH caMOCTOHTeAbHoe CYIgeCTBOBaHHe, scrynaer KaK COCTaBHOH: 9AeMeHT B pHA 9AeMeHTOB-<PYHKj!HH: 60Aee cxoasnoro j!eAoro.

'4T06bl 9TO Mor AO npoasoiira B p;aHHOM cxyxae, opr-aaaaagas p;BHmeHH},! B KaHOHe H caxraa B03MomHOCTb pa3BHTHH aroro BHAa <popMOBaHllH AOAmHbl 6bIAil nepeKAIO'IllTbCH aa OCHOBe npaagnna TomAeCTBa B HOBoe H nO-HOBOMY KOOPAHHllpOBaHHoe ABHmeHHe. 8TO npOH30IllAO Tor aa, xor p;a OKpilCTaAAH30BaAHCb OCHOBHble (TOHHKOAOMHHaHTOBbIe) coornomeaaa. TeMnepaj!HH nx OKOH'IaTeAbHO 3axpemrxa, H B «Wohltemperiertes ,. Klavier» y Baxa Mbl BHAHM noxaoe TopmeCTBO KAaCCHqeCKOH: <pyrH - <POPMbl rH6KOH: H nOAHOH npHXOT AHBblX conocraaxennfi na OCHOBe PYKOBOAHIgero CTepmHH.

C repaseas 9TOT - COOTHOIlleHHe BomAH H cnyrnaxa (caoero pona cantus firm us) B j!enH npoaeaeanii, npll'leM aKTHBHoe 06Hapyaceaae Bomp;H H cnyrrraxa paCIgenAHeTCH p;BHmeHHeM naccnsaoro nopanxa - ceKBeHj!HHMH - ABHmeHlleM n 0 H H e p j! H H. MOTHBHblH MaTepllaA ceKBeHj!HH COCTaBAHeTCH AH60 H3 9AeMeHTOB BomAH H crtyruaxa (H nporaaonocraaxeanii ), AH60 H3 HOBblX AaHHblX. Tloc'reneaao B rpyry BKAHHHeTCH KOHTpaCTHoe nasaxo, H ee MOHOTeMaTllqeCKllH: CTpOH: naxanaer KOAe6aTbCH. B qaCTHOCTH, no noBOAY MbIIlIAeHHH Baxa HaAO CKa3aTb, 'ITO MOMeHTaMH OHO BOT-BOT rOTOBO nepeHTIl B c<pepy COHaTHOCTIl C ee KOHTpaCTHblM conOCTaBAeHHeM H nOKllHYTb CTe310 KaHOHa HAll BapHaj!HOHHOCTH, T. e. B TOM H ApyroM cxynae CTe310 MOHOTeMaTIl3Ma.

Bnposen, qT06bl Ha6AIOAaTb, KaK KOMn03HTopCKoe C03HaHHe HCKaAO asrxoaa H3 cxeu H IlITaMnOB MOHOTeMaTllqeCKHX <POpM H lIIAO aaaxaxe B CTOPOHY HMnpOBH3aj!HOHHoro nOAHTeMaTH3Ma, a nOTOM yace K TOHaAbHO-KOOPAllHHpOBaHHOH: ABynAaHoBOCTH (OTKyp;a BnOCAeACTBHll H BbIKpilCTaAAH30BaAaCb TaK naasraaesraa no- 60QHaH naprua), - He06xOAHMO H nOAe3HO aHaAH3HpOBaTb pa3HO- 06pa3HeH:1II11e <POPMbI p;BllmeHHH B opraHHblX H AIOTHeBbIX rrsecax XVI-XVII BeKOB (pa-repxaper, npexroasr, xarrpnsrsno, <paHTa3J1H, KaHj!oHbl' H CTllAH30BaHHble TaHj!bl-3BeHbH CIOHTbI, oc06eHHO a A A e M a H A bl). B nOCAeAHHX COOTHOIlleHllH TomAeCTBa H KOHrpacra npOHBMllOTCH na OCHOBe paaaosrepno-uerrpepnmnoro ABHmeHHH C He06bIqaHHOH neCTpOTOH BO MHomeCTBe npaevoa. YaCTO 6blBaeT p;ame TPY P;HO CKa3aTb, B03HHKAO AH TO HAll anoe KOHTpaCT-

111

Hoe conOCTaBAeHHe yase KaK pe3YAbTaT HOB oro MbIlllAeHHH HAH OHO 06HapymHBaeTCH KaK H a B bI K, OKpHCTaAAH30BaBlllHHCH H3 npaBblqHOH H BbIrop,HOH p,AH noxaaa CBOHCTB HHCTpYMeHTa MaHepbI 06pa60TKH MaTepHaAa. BbIpa6aTbIBaeTCH raxase THn HHCTpYMeHTaAbI-IOH p,eKAaMaj!HH. Harrpauep, H3AomeHHe MaTepHaAa nocpeaCTBOM qepeAOBaHHH ,HMHTaj!HOHHO-MeAOp,HqeCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHH H «KOAOHHap,» BepTHKaAeH (06blqHO apnenacapoaaaaerx ) p,aeT conoCTaBAeHHe qeTKHX AHHeapHbIX KOHTypOB C KOMnAeKcaMH TOHOBC aKKopp,OBbIMH 06pa30BaHHHMH. OT HaBbIKa HAH MaHepbI pa3HO- 06pa3HOH nona-m 3BYKa TYT nyrn K BbIpa3HTeAbHOMY rrpHeMYK KOHTpaCTHOMY conOCTaBAeHHIO MeAOp,HqeCKOrO peAbelPa C MeAOp,HqeCKH HeKoopp,HHHpOBaHHbIMH 3BYKOCOOTHOllleHHHMH. B ,)TOH Aa- 60paTopHH peneccanconsrx HHCTpYMeHTaAbHbIX IPOPM, B aTHX naIgynbIBaHHHX HaH60Aee paj!HOHaAbHbIX BHp,OB H cnocotioa pasnepTblBaHHH p,BHmeHHH cnepaa onepasnaaror sepx rrpHHj!Hrr T02l{p,eCTBa H MOHOTeMaTHqeCKOe xaneapaoe MbIlllAeHHe, xoropoe, KaK yase CKa- 3aHO, p,OCTHraeT eepumnsr pa3BHTHH B 1P0pMe lPyrIl, II oc06eHHO y feHp,eAH H y Baxa (1-H rrOAOBHHa XVIII B.).

He naao p,YMaTb, qTO nocxenyroigee TpHYMlPaAbHoe urecraae conarnoro (CHMq)QHHqeCKoro) axxerpo Y BeHCKHX KAaCCHKOB coBceM OTTeCHHAO pa3BHTHe MOHOTeMaTH3Ma H npangana roasaecrea KaK p,OMHHHpYIOIgero B oIPOpMAeHHH. Bo-rrepBblx, rrpop,OAmaAH aBOAIOj!HOHHpOBaTb BapHaj!HOHHbIe 1P0PMbI H POHp,O, a BO-BTOpmx - HMKor p,a, B CYIgHOCTM, He npexpargaxace pafio'ra HaA lPyroH (BnAOTb AO Per-epa H ,'1,0 coapewenaoro peneccanca xaneapnoro OlPopMAeHMH M aonoro rrpeTBopeHHH MOHOTeMaTM3Ma).

B 06IgeM, xepes rrpMHj!Mrr TomAecTBa BbIABMHYTO 6bIAO csoeofipasnoe COqeTaHMe BapMaj!MoHHoCTM, BapHaHTHocTM H MHbIX npneMOB TpaHClPopMaj!MH MaTepHaAa B pa3AHqHOM rrpeAOMAeHHH sroro rrpangrrna. B caMOM AeAe, yme oztaa Hp,eH cantus firrnus'a KaK 0606rgaIOrgero ABHmeHHe H 1P0pMoBaHHe TKaHH aaneaa HAH MHeMOHHqeCKOH 1P0PMYAbI npomxa CKB03b pHA npeapargeanii, He TepHH csoero cyrgecTBa. Ilpencrasax ce6e naccauaxero, B KOTOPOH ee cantus firmus (basso ostinato) rrpOABMraeTCH rro pa3AHqHbIM ro)\OCaM (rrAaCTaM), napeapyace H 06pa3YH H3 ce6}1 HO~ble notier-aBapMaHTbI. TaKMM 06pa30M «CABMHYTbIH» cantus Iirrnus (KaK rrpaagrm o¢opMAeHHH, a He KaK HCTOpMqeCKH p,aHl'IbIH KOMrrAeKC 06 paayrotgnx IPYHllaMeHT rroAMlPoHHqeCKOH TKaHM nanenoa ) rrpeAOMAHeTCH B KOHj!e KOHj!OB B BMAe nanena nporecranrcxoro xopaxa BO MHoro06pa3HbIx IPMrypaAbHbIx 06pa60TKax TaKOBoro xopaxa M HaKOHej! 3aCTbIBaeT B rpyr'e B 06AMKe BomAH M cnyrHIIKa. * Ho aroro MaAQ, HAeH cantus firrnus'a KaK onopnoii BeXH noxysaxa AaAbHeHlllee IIAOAOTBopHoe pa3BMTMe.

* BOlKJI,b H cnYTHHK - 8TO TOT lKe cantus firm us, HO He CTaTH'IeC'KH, a Jl,HHaMH'IeCKH Tpa'KTyeMblli. cho CPYHK\!HH cantus firm us' a, nepeiuenmae B CBOIO npOTHBonOAOlKHOCTb. BMeCTe C TeM aTO Jl,Ba K 0 H T pac T H bl X 06HaPYlKeHHlI e JI, H H 0 Ii AaJl,OBOIi CYlJ!HOCTlI,

112

npeACTaBMM ce6e CTaHOBAeHHe My3bIKH He na OAHOM ¢YHAaMeHTaAbHOM H OCTHHaTHOM MOTMBe, a na p,BYX, rpex H T. s, nepeMemaIOrgHxcH H cxpetgnaaroignxcst MOTMBax, nonesxax H naoro poaa IPparMeHTax, nepaoaa-recxn B03BpaIMaIOIgHXCH HAH nOBTOpHIOIgHXCH BpeMH OT BpeMeHH. nYCTb B aTOM sooripazsaexoa CTa-

lIoBAeHHH TO KOOPllHHHPYIOTCH, KaK B COHaTHO-CHMlPoHHQeCKOM axxerpo, TeMaTHqeCKHe crpepsr, TO npOHCXOllHT HMnpOBH3aj!HOHaoro nopanxa npopacranae llBHmeHHH, npHqeM onopnsre TOqKH B03HHKaIOT 6AarOllapH YKa3aHHbIM nepaoaasecxau B03BpargeHHHM , Tomp;eCTBeHHoro MaTepHaAa. ECAH raxoro poaa npogecc CBH3aTb C nporpaMMOH HAH C TeaTpaAbHbIM p,eHCTBHeM (c nmlTHQeCKHMH 06pa3aMH HAH Hp,eHMH, C xapaxrepaenra HAH Cj!eHHqeCKHMH CHTyaj!HHMH), TO MbI nOAyqHM CBOHCTBa H BHp,bI IPopMOBaHHH nporpaMMHbIX CHMIPOHHH, CHMIPOHHqeCKHX rroaxr, YBepTIOp HT. n.C OllHOH CTOPOHbI, H AeHTMOTHBHbIX orrep - C p,pyroH. BepAH03, AHCT H Barnep BcrrOMHHaIOTCH TOTqaC me. Flpaana, B npOBep,eHHHX idee fixe y BepAHo3a H B AeHTMOTHBHOCTH Baraepa He scerna npa. CYTCTByeT COHaTHO-CIiMIPOHIIqeCKaH paapatiorxa, T. e. KOOpp,llHIIPOaanaoe TeMaTllqeCKOe pa3BI1THe. Ho B OCHOBe AemHT BCe-TaKT:! npnagan He HMMaHeHTHO-MY3bIKaAbHOH p,llaAeKTHKll, T. e. qHCTbIH CllMIPOHll3M, a conocraaxeaae AeHTMOTHBOB BbI3bIBaeTCH nsaae narrpaBAHIOrgHMH CTllMYAaMll (<<nporpaMMHaH KaY3aAbHOCTb»), CaMH , me no ce6e OHH pacnpOCTpaHHIOTCH KaK n'Hoe qHCAO aAeMeHTOB, COCTaBAHIOrgMX Tomp,eCTBeHHbIe rpyrrnsr H opraHH3yIOIgHX llBHmeRHe (OHO MomeT B npangane 6bITb 6e3rpaHHqHbIM - «6eCKOHeQHaH MeAOp,HH» y BarHepa) nocpeacrnoa nepeCTaHOBOK H npespargeanii 9THX aAeMeHTOB H HX, KaK 6bIAO CKa3aHO, 60Aee HAll MeHee nepnop,HqeCKHX nOHBAeHHH-npoBep,eHIIH. He 06ycAoBAeHbI All aTH npoaep,eHHH erge KaKIIM-AH60 llMMaHeHTHO-KOHCTPYKTHBHbIM npHH!!HnOM IPOpMOBaHIIH? * 4YMaeTCH, qTO crpoenne BarHepOBCKHX onep npeaCTaBAHeT C060IO npogecc IPopMoBaHHH rrpoMemYTOqHbIH MemAY cTporHM npoaeaenaexr rrpangnna roacaecraa (tpyr-a, KaHoH) H CTOAb me crporma rrponeaeuaesr npHH!!Hna KOHTpacTa (cona'ra, ,CliMIPOHHH) II' KOOpp,HHHpoBaHHbIM corrOCTaBAeHHeM TeMaTHqeCKHX crpep, Moasao CKa3aTb, qTO earuepoacxaa AeHTMoTHBHaH TKaHb, C Op,HOH CTOPOHbI, HBMleTCH lPyroH C n'HbIM KOAllqeCTBOM Bomp,eH H cnYTHHKoB H n' HbIM qHCAOM Tomp,ecTBeHHbIx rrpoaenennii, a C apyroii CTOPOHbI - CHMlPoHllqeCKHM pa3BHTHeM nnoro KOAHqeCTBa TeMaTllqeCKHX crpep, TO crporo TOHaJlbHO KOOpp,HHIfpOBaHHbIX, TO - 6J1arOp,apH xpOMaTH3MY If aAbTepIfpOBaHHbIM rapvoHHHM - CBo6op,HO (KOJlOpHCTHqeCKH) corrOCTaBAHeMbIX p,pyr C p,pyroM If pa3BHBaeMbIX C nOMorgbIO npHeMOB COHaTHO-CIIMIPOHHqeCKHX npoBep,eHHM (pa3pa60TKll). CJlep,OBaTeJlbHO, TyT HaJlHj!O ornpaaxenae

* B nacc axaxee, eCAH npeJl,cTaBHTb ee C HeCKOAbKHMH OCTHHaTHbIMH cantus firmus'aMH, KOHCTPYHPYIOIgHM «rHJI,OM» CAYlKHT pHTMH'leCKali ljJopMYAa ca.Moro r anua.

S. 13. Acacpaen

113

"

01' KOHCTpYKTllBHbIX npaaganoa, xaxae npe.a;CTOHAH CAYXY yase Y Cpe.a;HeBeKOBbIX .a;llCKaHTHCTOB: npoaezteaae TOm.a;eCTBeHHbIX xaCTHj! B pa3AHlIHbIX rOAOCaX HAll cgenxenae TKaHH 1l0CpetJ;CTBOM HeCKOAbKHX cantus Iirrnus'os (AellTMOTHBOB), xoropsre, 6y.a;Yllll YCBoeHbI llaMHTb10 'CAYlliaTeAH H OKpHCTaAAH30BaBIIIlICb B HeM:, n03BoAH1OT BOCllpllHlIMaTb aazse xpaiiae rrpoaoxasnrexeaoe CTaHOB; xenae My3bIKll - My3bIKy na rpOMa.a;HOM npor saceaaa KaK .a;BlImenae, opraH1I30BaHHoe nocpencraon COllOCTaBAeHllM: paaa ycrojlxaBbIX aAeMeHTOB. To, xro naraepoacxae cantus Iirrnus'si (AellTMOTliBbI) He Haxo.a;HTCH nenpexemro B 6acy, T. e. He npe.a;CTaBAH1OT c06010 OCTHHaTHoro <PYH.a;aMeHTa, aexa He MeHHeT. Cantus firmus CTaA no.a;BlImHbIM etge B cpeznae aexa. OCTllHaTHbIli MOTllB naccaKaAbli H lIaKOHbI Tome MomeT nepeMergaTbcH 1I3 OCHOBaHllH B aepxnae CAOll. Pasaarae 9TOM: <pOPMbI Y BpaMca (<pHH3A 4eTBepTOM:

CllM<p0HlIll) cAymlIT TOMY no.a;TBepm.a;eHlleM.

CyrgHOCTb ztexa, KOHellHO, B rrpangnrre, a He B pa3AlIlIHbIX ero 06HapymeHlIHX. npllHj!lInlIaAbHO me BarHepOBCKaH cncrexa AeiiTMOTliBOB ztaaaxa B03MomHOCTb «nponanrar» My3bIKy» na rpouaaHble paCCTOHHllH llMeHHO B cnxy CBOeM: KOHCTPYKTllBHOM: cnaauHOCTli. AeliTMOTliB - pe<popMlIpOBaHHbIli PYKOBO.a;HrglIM: cantus Iirmus. * AeM:TMOTliB .a;o aexoropoii c'rerrena B KOHCTPYKTlIBHOM OTHOIIIeHlIli - r e me r AaCOBbIe llAli xanoasre noneaxa, 3anOMHHaH xoropere sarronnaaxa cyigecr aeaaere lIHTOHaj!lIll .a;aHHoro xaaa, JI He B COCTOHHlIll BbIBeCTll re 3aKOHbI, no KOTOPbIM npoacxoaar xepezoaaaae rxana AeliTMOTliBOB (cantus firmus'oB), ecxa OTHHTb CTliMYAbI, lI.a;yrglle 01' CAOBa 1I .a;paMaTyprlIli y Barnepa. Ho, oxeBH.a;HO, MY3bIKaAbHaH 3aKOHOMepHOCTb B aTOM xepenoaaaaa lIAli «acnxsraaaaa» Toro lIAli naoro AeliTMOTllBa lIMeeTCH, KaK lIMeeTCH 3aKOHOMepHOCTb B nOHBAeHlIHX Bom.a;H lIAll crryrrmxa B <pyre cpena 1I BHYTPll pasarrraa.

MomHO, MHe KameTCH, BbI.a;BllHYTb rnnoresy 0 M Y 3 bI K a AbH 0 - M HeM 0 H 1I 1I e C K 0 M no p 0 reB OTHOIIIeHlIli <pOPM, B KOTOpetx npeaaxapyer npaagnn roasnecraa, Flopor lIAli npenex .<11'01' rpeoyer noaropnoro npoaeaenas opr-aaasyroigax TKaHb Tom.a;eCTBeHHbIX aAeMeHTOB - rrosropnoro npoaenenaa na KaKllX-TO OTHOCllTeAbHO HetJ;aAeKllX paCCTOHHlIHX, 6e3 lIero CAYX He B COCTOHHlIH 06'betJ;lIHHTb .a;AlITeAbHoe tJ;BlImeHlle. AeH:TMOTllBbI y Barnepa 01'AlilIHO BbITIOAHH1OT arn <PYHKj!lIli. By.a;YlllI He TOAbKO KOHCTPYKTlIBHO CBH3bIBa1OrgllMli TelleHlIe My3bIKlI <paKTopaMlI, HO 1I PYKOBO.a;llTeAHMlI .a;paMaTlllleCKoro ,.a;ellCTBllH llAll tJ;ame .a;ellcTBY1OrgllMH CllAaMll sar-nepoacxoii .a;paMaTyprllll, ona He Tpe6y1OT nenpesrennoro nOHBAeHllH nenga-axrepa aa cgene, lIT06bI nayurare CAYIIIaTeA10 n a M 51 r b 0 TaKOM-TO repoe npoaeneaaex ero AeliTMOTliBa.

* J\1060TIbITHO, 'ITO KaK pas J\eHTMOTUBHali CHCTeMa 06YCJ\<OBHJ\a coooio HHTeHCH'BHOe nO}['BJ\eHHe Fiihrer'oa, geJ\b ,KOTOPbIX npeasae ncero MHeMOHH'IeCKa}[ - «BHYIllHTb naM}[TH» J\eH'TMOTHBbl TIOCpe,1tCT'BOM CTIegHaJ\bHOH rpYTITIHPOBKH HX H COTIYTCTUYIOIgHX UM !flHJ\OCOtpOKHX H 'TI09TH'IeCKHX aCCO!;!Ha!;!HH.

114

3.a;eCb - CBR3b BarHepa C CHM<pOHHlIeCKHM AeHTMOTHBH3MOM, KaK OH 6bIA HaMelleH y BepAH03a, pacxprsrr AllCTOM H pa3BHT PaxaptJ;OM lllTpaycoM.

Y AllCTa erge OC06eHHO KHtJ;aeTCH B r Aaaa ero nonsrrxa MaKClIMaAbHO KOOp.a;HHHpOBaTb TKaHb aa OCHOBe npHHj!Hna Tom.a;eCTBa, nocpetJ;CTBOM npHMeHeHHH K CTpOHTeAbCTBY TeM HAH AeH:TMOTliBOB HCKYCCTBa Bapllaj!Hll H KOM6HHllpOBaHHH BapHaHTOB. OH 06pa30- BbIBa;T pa3A~HlIHbIe no B03AomeHHbIM na HHX <PYHKj!HHM TeMbI H3 O.a;HOH 06rgeH rrpennocerxxn (nonYAHpHellIIIHll npmrep - TeMaTHKa COHaTbI h.rnoll}, pH.a; conOCTaBAHeMbIX H KOHTpacTHpY1OrgHX AellTMOTHBOB OH 3~MeHHeT BapHaHTaMH HAll npeBpargeHHHMH O.a;HOM:

TeMbI, aocaige» BeCbMa pa3AHlIHbIe MaCKH. OpHHj!Hn TomtJ;eCTBa npOBo.a;~iTCH TaKHM nYTeM B CllAbHeH:IIIeli CTeneHH: eCAH B aaraePOBCKOH rxaaa Tom.a;ecTBo orgyigaercs lIepe3 yaaaaanae AellTMoTHBa B ero B a p H a H r a x, HO AeH:TMOTllBOB MomeT 6bITb MHoro H nparoxr paaxaxasrx, TO AHCT xoaer CBO.a;llTb HX K O.a;HOMY 3HaMeHaTeA1O, K O.a;HOMY TeMaTHlIeCKOMY KOMnAeKCY, lIeM, 6e3YCAOBHO, YM:eHbIIIaeT HHTeHCHBHOCTb H KOHTpaCTHOCTb conOCTaBAeHHH:.

Ha060poT, Bar-aep HH_?r tJ;a TaK KOHTpanYHKTHpyeT TKaHb, -rro BOBce HepOtJ;CTBeHHble AellTMon1BbI HallHHa10T c6AllmaTbCH .a;pyr C .a;pyroM KaK BbIllOAHH1OrgHe cxoansre <PYHKj!HH aAeMeHTbI. B aTOM CMbICAe rraprnrypa «MeiicTep3HHrepOB» npeacraaxaer. c06010 noAll<pOHlllleCKoe B3aHMOtJ;ellCTBHe ttnor-o KOAHlIeCTBa BomtJ;eH: 1I cnyrHliKOB. JI He XOllY CKa3aTb, -rro BCH TKaHb aTOll oneper - CAomHaH <pyra, HO HeCOMHeHHO, xro 3.a;eCb aexoropere AeH:TMOTllBbI B CBOllX nOAlI<poHlIlIeCKllX COOTHOIIIeHllHX BbITIOAHH1OT <PYHKj!lIli Bom.a;eH: II cnYTHHKOB <pyrll. He npllXOtJ;llTCH n09TOMY ytJ;lIBAHTbCH TOMY srro Cj!eHa .a;paKli B KOHj!e II tJ;eH:CTBllH BocnplIHllMaeTCH KaK .a; 1I H a M 1Ilie C K 1I KYAbMlIHaj!lIOHHbIH: MOMeHT «MeH:CTep31IHrepOB». cho npOlICXOtJ;HT He TOAbKO o'rroro, liTO 3tJ;eCb nepea HaMli tJ;ellCTBlITeAbHO MaCTepCKli 1I YBAeKaTeAbHO HanlICaHHbIH: an1I30tJ;, HO erge H norosry, xro Bblpa31ITeAbHOCTb My3bIKlI nOtJ;lIepKHYTa ee oqiopsixeHlI~eM KaK <p y r 1I, T. e. B O.a;lIH 1I3 casrsrx HanpHmeHHbIX MOMeHTOB .a;eH:TBliH ztocrnr-aercn MaKCHMaAbHaH KOHj!eHTpaj!lIH rroxaqioaaueCKOll TKaHli. HAll, nnarre roaopa, B <pyre, KaK paj!HoHaAbHeMllieH H3 nOAlI<p0HllllecKlix <pOPM, KOHj!eHTplIpY1OTcH nOAH<poHlilIecKHe TeH.a;eHj!HlI, sooorge TlI~HlIHbIe .a;AH <PaKTypbI 9TOH: onepsr, - KOHj!eHTpllpY1OTcH BcaMblH HPKlIH: B tJ;paMaTyprlIlIecKoM OTHOIIIeHlIli MOMe~lT. 06pa3yeTcH coananeaae: xapaxrepaujl .a;AH tJ;aHHOH: Bergli CTPOli HAll BlItJ; O<popMAeHHH 06HapymHBaeTCH C Ha1I60AbIIIeM ClIAOM If y6e.a;llTeAbHocTb1O KaK pas B TOT MOMeHT, Kor.a;a casro .a;eH:CTBlie rpeoyer COOTBeTcTBY1Orgero cocpeao'roneaaa 3BYKOBOli sneprmr.

KOHCTPY~THBH?-CTpOraH <popMa tJ;aeT maximum aKcnpeCClllI B CliAY maximum a opraHH30BaHHOCTli. T om.a;ecTBeHHbIli .a;AH MHOrHx MOMeHTOB aTOM onepsr npaexr o<popMAeHlIH (pa3YMe1O rroxnrpoHIf'lHOCTb) aaxo aar caoe noxaoe BblpameHHe B CaMOH: HPKOli Cj!eHe If TeM caMbIM ee aKj!eHTlipyeT.

8*

115

4aHHbIM npaaepou MHe BamHO bbIAO rroxasar-s CAe,1l;YIOIgee: q1'O npaaeuenae npaagnna TOm,1l;eCTBa Hero otiaapyaseuae HaqHHaeTCH C caMbIX npOCTeHIIIHX npHeMOB nOBTopeHHH O,1l;HHaKOBoro norreaoxaoro MaTepHaAa, 3aTeM pa3BHBaeTCH B BH,1I;e B pa3HOH CTeneHH aapeapoeaaaoro srarepaaxa HAH ero BapHaHTOB, 3aTeM otiaapyzsaBaeTCH B BbIBe,1l;eHHH MHororOAOCHoro ,1I;BHmeHHH H3 ,1I;aHHorO MOTHBa nOCpe,1l;CTBOM ero HMHTHpOBaHHH; qTO napaAAeAbHO HaKonAeHHe npHeMOB nOAH¢OHHqeCKOrO CTHAH npOHCXO,1l;HT aa 6a3e Tom,1I;eCTBeHHoro MaTepHaAa (cantus firmus). Ho qTO na 3TOM ero rrpaveaeaae He KOHqaeTCH, a H,1I;eT ,1I;aAblIIe; qTO ,1I;AH npogecca o¢opMAeHHH BamHbI TaKme MOMeHTbI TOm,1l;eCTBa B TeMnax H TeM6- pax H qTO He TOAbKO He06xo,1l;HMbl npOHBAeHHH HHToHagHoHHoro H pHTMHqeCKOrO TOm,1l;eCTBa, HO H pacnpenexenae TOm,1l;eCTBeHHOH ,1I;HHaMHKH. T OqHO TaK me HMelOT 3Ha seane MOMeHTbI TOm,1l;eCTBa ¢aKTypbI B npOH3Be,1l;eHHHX. C 3TOH TOqKH 3peHHH B «MeHCTep3HHrepax» ,1I;aeT cetia 3HaTb npeofixaaaaae nOAH¢OHHqeCKOH ¢aKTypbI, B «T pHCTaHe» me - rapMOHHqeCKOH, a conOCTaBAeHHe 3THX ,1I;ByX npOH3Be,1l;eHHH YKa3bIBaeT na ,1I;HaAeKTHKY qiaxr yper y Barnepa H na 3aBHCHMOCTb ¢aKTypbI OT TeMaTHKH, qTO onHTb-TaKH oxene noxa-

3aTeAbHO. _/'

Boaapatgaacs K TOAbKO qTO YKa3aHHOMY 3HaqeHHIO Tom1i"ecTBa TeMllOB B YHKAHqeCKHX npOH3Be,1l;eHHHX, Ha,1l;AemHT YKa3aTb, qTO rrpeofixananae Me,1l;AeHHbIX HAH 6bICTPbIX ,1I;BHmeHHH TOm,1l;eCTBeHaoro xapaxrepa B ,1I;aHHOM YHKAe, KOHeqHO, B CHAbHeHllieH CTeneHH MeHHeT aece npogecc o¢opMAeHHH. Ha 3TOM aaase 06blqHO CTPOJIT paaxaxne Mem,1l;Y HTaAbJIHCKOH H ¢paHYY3CKOH YBepTlOpaM!:I XVII-XVIII BeKOB. Paccaorpenae. CIOHT C TOqKH 3peHHJI npe- 06Aa,1l;aHHfI B HX saeae ax TOm,1l;eCTBa HAH KOHTpaCTa TeMnOB, a raxase Tom,1l;eCTBa !:IAH KOHTpaCTa pHTMO-¢OpMYA, opr aauayrorgax ,1I;BHmeHHe Kam,1l;OrO 3BeHa, - f1BAfleTCfI TOqHO TaK me noxaaarexsHbIM ,1I;AfI YflCHeHHfI ,1I;HHaMHKH o¢opMAeHHJI HAH npogecca ¢OpMO- 06pa30BaHHfI B 3THX nO,1l;BHmHblX H H3MeHqHBbIX yHKAax.

Q TOM, KaK pOMaHTHKH H HMnpeCCHOHHCTbl nOAb.30BaAHCb ,1I;AJI Bblpa3HTeAbHbIX yeAeH TOm,1l;eCTBOM HAH KOHTpaCTOM TeM6pOB H qTO OT npe06Aa,1l;aHHfI Toro HAH HHoro npHHyHna 3aBHceAO O¢OpMAeHHe MaTepHaAa, - roaopnr» He npHXO,1l;HTCfI. .HCHO, qTO YMeAO npOBe,1l;eHHOe B03BpargeHHe BpeMJI OT BpeMeHH KaKorO-AH6o xapaKrepnoro TeM6pa npanaer nsece COOTBeTCTBYlOrgee nacrpoeaae H BbI3bIBaeT uac-ropoacennoe OmH,1I;aHIIe, T. e. CTaHOBIITCfI KOAOPHCTIIqeCKH TOm,1l;eCTBeHHbIM ¢aKTopOM, COqeTalOrgHM paaxa-msre ¢a3bI ,1I;BIImeHilfi. TaKHX npasrepoa CKOAbKO yrO,1l;HO OT Be6epa II oepAII03a ,11;0 4e61OCCH H illeH6epra, ecxa He BOCXO,1l;HTb K 60Aee paHHHM. Xapaxrepaas rppaaa ¢AeHTbI B «Prelude a L'apres-midi d'un Faune» 4e61OccH 3KcnpeCCHBHO oqiopxxner «xennaoe, TOMHoe» ,1I;BHmeHHe MY3bIKH. T IInHqHO nefieponcxue TeM6pbl BaATopH H KAapHeTOB B «<:PpeHIliIOTye» 06'be,1l;IIHflIOT MHorile MOMeHTbI orrepsr H aa xarasor na ,1I;eHCTBile caoeotipaaasiii OTneqaTOK npa Kam,1l;OM

I.

116

CBoeM B03BflCl.rgeHHH. POAb TeM6pa B 3TOM OTHOlIIeHHU He ycrynaer £lOAU AeHTMOTHBa, XOTfi TeM6p H He CBfl3bIBaeTCfI C O,1l;HUM H TeM me MeAO,1l;HqeCKHM pHCYHKOM HAH rapMOHHqeCKHM IlOCAe,1l;OBaHHeM.

Haxoaeg, He MeHee BamHO npoaeaenne npnagnna Tom,1l;eCTBa B xaaancax. Flpeotixaaanne Toro HAH aaoro Tilna xa.aaaca, fieaycAOBHO, B CilAbHeHllieH CTeneHH BAilfieT aa rrpousaeneaae. CAYX 06blqHO COCpe,1l;OTOqHBaeTCfI na MOMeHTax 3aMblKaHHfI ,1I;BIImeHHfI, H TOT THn xaaanca, KOTOPblH npena xapye'r, ae.aer cxyinarexrr aa C0601O, npIlqeM ,1I;AfI aroro BOBce He nyzsao, qT06bl Ka,1l;aHC KaKAII60 cneYIl¢HqeCKH IlO,1l;qepKHBaACfI. CAYlliaTeAb MomeT He HMeTb aaxaxoro Ilpe,1l;CTaBAeHHJI 0 xaztaacax, HX COCTaBe, HX ¢opMax etc., HO He nO,1l;qHHHTbCfI Ka,1l;aHCaM OH He MomeT. 003TOMY HX rrxaraxsHbIH CTPOH 6Y,1I;eT B03p;eHCTBOBaTb naaae, qeM aBTeHTliqeCKHH CTPOH, II npeooxaaaaue roro HAH aaoro B KOHeqHOM cxere OT30- BeTCfI na arrexar xeaaa, Mbl yase Ha6AIO,1I;aAH, KaKYIO opr'aaaayrorgylO POAb arparor xpaiiae MHoro06pa3Hble li r aperonaaecxa pa3BHTble xanancsr B MY3bIKe Pnxap aa Il.lrpayca H KaK MeHfleTCfI B03- ,1I;eHCTBlie 3TOH My3blKli B 3aBliCHMOCTli OT necrporsr Ka,1l;aHCQB HAli, Ha06opOT, OT nepnonavecxor-o aoaapargeaas KaKOH-AH6o TOm,1l;eCTBeHHO-Ka,1l;aHCOBOH ¢OpMYAbl. HanOMHIO npocreiiunni H HaH60Aee li3BeCTHbIH npmrep H3 nxacxa CaAOMeH: pfl,1l; qaCTbIX noaropnsrx .3aMbIKaHIIH ,1I;BlimeHHJI rra aapaaarax aAbTepilpOBaHHoro aBTeHTHqeCKOrO xaaaaca (nonaaeeaaaa II crynens, noaaaseanaa V II T. ,11;.) B nepaoii qaCTII nAfiCKH (ziemlich langsam) npnnaer MY3bIKe xapaxrep CKOBaliHOCTH, CBfl3aHHOCTli: C03HaHlie 3arHIlHOTli3HpOBaHO O,1l;HOH H,1I;eeH, li MY3bIKa He MomeT OTTOAKHYTbCfI OT HeKoeH TOqKH orropsr. Kam,1l;bIH CliAbHbIH HaKAOH, Kam,1l;Oe HOBoe, nee 60Aee H 60- Aee liHTeHCIIBHoe pacxasnaanae Bbl3bIBaeT etge 60Aee I:IHTOHaYHOHHO saocrpeanerii, cMblKalOrgHH ,1I;BHmeHHe 060pOT. C03,11;aeTclI 06pa3, xapaxrepasrii ,1I;AfI BOCTO~IHoro TaHya: 1:13BHBalOrgliHcfI KOpnyc 1:1 HenO,1l;BHmHOCTb nor, CAOBHO I:IM He OTopBaTbCfI OT 3eMAH. B ,1I;aAbHeHllieM asxoaseaan 3Ta xaaaacoaaa MOHOTOHHOCTb I:IAH' aaCTOHqHBOCTb c6HBaeTCfI, 3AeMeHTbI xaaancoaoro roasaecraa 3aCTH;' AaIOTCJI, H ,1I;BHmeHHe naxaaaer KanpH3HO MeHflTb aanpaaxenae •••

KOHeqHO, ,1I;aHHblH npaxrep - O,1l;I:IH H3 MHomeCTBa He MeHee noKa3aTeAbHb1X. MHe XOTeAOCb TOAbKO erge pas nO,1l;TBep,1l;HTb 3Haxenae (He TOAbKO KOHCTpYKTHBHoe) Ka,1l;aHCOB H 3aBHCHMOCTb xapaxrepa MY3bIKH OT rrpeofixaaanna TOm,1l;eCTBeHHblx HAH KOH'" TpaCTHblX KOHYOBOK.

0606rgafl see CKa3aHHoe 0 B3aHMo06YCAOBAeHHOCTH npanganon TOm,1l;eCTBa H KOHTpaCTa B npogecce CTaHOBAeHHfI My3b1KI:I, npnXO,1l;I:IM K CAe,1l;YlOrgl:lM BbIBO,1l;aM. Kareropan 3TI:I He aticrpaarnere. OHI:I onpeaexarorca CBOHCTBaMH MY3bIKaAbHoro ,1I;Bl:lmeHlifi H yCAO,BHJIMI:I aocnpaarna aroro ,1I;Bl:lmeHl:lfI KaK npogecca, rrporesaroiger-o no BpeMeHI:I 1:1 aeoeparuaoro. BHHMaHHe aocnpmmaarorgero My- 3bIKY cy6'beKTa aarrpaaxaerca, qT06bI HaHTI:I TOqKI:I onopsr B npoTeKalOrgeH MY3bIKe, na noaropsrorgaeca I:IHTOHaYHOHHble MOMeHTbI

117

(H3 KaKHX 6bl 3BYK03.1\CMCHTOB OHn: Hn: COCTOH.I\H), HaTH MOMCHTbl KpHCTa.l\.I\H3YlOTCH B C03HaHHH. HHalJ.C roaopa, nama naMHTb Bblcrynaer KaK aKTHBHClllIlHll qiaxrop B YCBOCHHH MY3bIKH, H qiaxrop STOT HCH36C2KHO B.I\HHCT aa KOHCTpYKgHlO !Jl0pM-cxeM H aa BCCb npogecc MY3blKa.l\bHOrO o!JlopM.I\eHHH. Pa3.1\HlJ.HbIC BH,l(bl, THnbl, cnoC06bl, npHCMbI H xapaKTep 06HapY2KCHHH My3bIKH nOp02K,l(alOT pa3.1\HlJ.Hble !Jla3bl H !JlOpMbl MY3blKa.l\bHoro ,ll;BH2KCHHH. Ho pa3.1\HlJ.HH STH M02KHO CBCCTH K ,ll;ByM OCHOBHbIM: .l\H60 B npogecce qiopMOBaHHH H ,ll;BH2KCHHH npeofixaaaior nO,ll;06HbIC, T02K,ll;CCTBCHHble HHToHagHH, .l\H60 KOHTpaCTHble. OOCKO.l\bKY MY3blKa.l\bHaH !JlopMa HB.I\HeTCH opr-anasagaeii H paCKpblTHCM MY3blKa.l\bHoro ,ll;BH2KeHHH, nOCTO.l\bKY OT npC06.1\a,ll;aHHH roro H.I\H aaoro H3 ,ll;ByX yxa- 3aHHbiX THnOB HHTOHaQ,Hll BblTCKaeT TOT H.I\H HHOll BH,ll; O!Jl0PM.I\CHHH MaTCpHa.l\a - aa OCHOBe npaagana T02K,ll;CCTBa· H.I\H aa OCHOBC npaagana KOHTpaCTa • .HCHO, lJ.TO npHMCHeHHe Ka2K,ll;OrO H3 npHHgHnOB B lJ.HCTOM BH,l(e HCMblC.I\HMO H npHBO,ll;HT K aocypay: npHHQ,Hn a6CO.l\lOTHOrO T02K,ll;CCTBa ,ll;aCT 6CCKOHClJ.Hblll PH,l( nOBTopcHHH, a npHHQ,Hn a6CO.l\lOTHOrO KOHTpaCTa ztaer 6eCKOHClJ.HO H3MCHlJ.HBYlO 3BYKOTKaHb, He y.l\aB.I\HBaCMYlO C03HaHHCM, H60 HCT cnocotia !JlHKCHpoaare CC B naMHTH. 3HalJ.HT, B MY3blKC Mbl scer'aa HMCCM ,l(C.I\O CO B3aHMo06yc.I\OB.I\eHHOCTblO H B3aHMO,ll;CllCTBHCM 060HX OCHOBHblX npHHQ,HnoB 0!JlopM.I\eHHH.

PaCCMOTpeHHC oKpHCTa.l\.I\H30BbiBaBlIlHxcH B MY3blKa.l\bHOll SBO.l\lOgHH !Jl0PM-CXCM CBH,ll;CTCJl.bCTBYCT TaK2KC 0 B03M02KHOCTH ,ll;c.I\eHHH HX na ,ll;BC rpynner: rpynny C npC06.1\a,ll;aHHCM T02K,ll;CCTBCHHbIX H rpyrmy C npeooxaaaaaev KOHTpaCTHblx 3BYKoKoMn.l\eKCOB. 3a STHM ,ll;C.I\CHHCM .l\CrKO BCKpbIBalOTcH 06yC.I\OBHBlIlHC ero npogeccsr orpopM.I\eHHH. HCC.I\e,l(YH aTH npogeccsr, Mbl BH,l(HM, lJ.TO OHH - ,l(HHaMHlJ.Hbl H ,ll;Ha.l\CKTHlJ.Hbl H lJ.TO HH o,l(Ha H3 oKpHCTa.l\.I\H30BaBlIlHxcH !Jl0PM-CXCM HC HMCCT anxaxoro npasa npereaaoaar» aa nOCTOHHCTBO, aa SCTeTHtJccKYlO HCnpC.I\02KHOCTb, aa «BClJ.HOCTb» H afico.l\lOTHOCTb. Oaaa snoxa 3aKpCnH.I\a B C03HaHHH O,ll;HH OKpHCTa.l\.I\H- 30BaBlIlHeCH !JlOpMbl, ztpyraa HX paspynnrr H Hall,l(eT ,l(pyrHe, HD npHHQ,Hnbl !JlopMOBaHHH B CH.I\y CBOCll ,ll;Ha.l\CKTHlJ.eCKOll npapoasr OCTalOTCH na BCCM npOTH2KCHHH SBO.l\lOQ,HH My3blKH O,ll;HHaKOBbIMH, nopozsaaa CBOHM B3aHMO,ll;CllCTBHCM ,ll;HHaMHKY !JlopMOBaHHH H anOXH HHToHagHoHHblX PCBO.l\lOgHll (MYTaQ,Hll), xor'zta HC02KH,ll;aHHbIM CKalJ.KOM B HOBblll BH,ll; opraHH3aQ,HH MaTCpHa.l\a MY3blKa 3aBOCBblaaxa HOBbIC, COOTBCTCTBYlOIgHC HOBblM cp;BHraM npOH3BO,lJ,CTBeHHbIX OTHOlIleHHll cpeacrna Bblpa2KCHHH.

Ha T02K,lJ,CCTBCHHbIX CKpen.l\HlOIgHX TKaHb S.I\eMeHTax 6a3HPYlOTCH KaK BapHaQ,HOHHble, TaK H KaHOHHlJ.eCKHe !JlOpMbl. T OlJ.HO TaK 2Ke paaxaxaere ransr lIlHPOKO pa3BeTB.I\eHHbiX !JlOpM p o H ,ll; 0 HMClOT KOHCTPYKTHBHO 06'bC,l(HHHlOIgHll conOCTaB.I\HCMble OT p;e.l\bl !JlaKTOp - B P e <fI p e H C. Perppea Ka2K,ll;bIM CBOHM nOHB.I\eHHeM B03- spargaer ,lJ,BH2KeHHe K ncpBOHCTOKY. OH rpyrmapyer soxpyr ce6H H npHTHrHBaeT K cc6e HOBble KOMnAeKCbl 3BYKOB H.I\H KaK 6bl

118

BK.I\HHHCTCH B HHX, H8 ,ll;aBaH STHM HOBoo6pa30BaHHHM nO.l\YlJ.HTb caMOCTOHTe.l\bHOe 3HalJ.eHHe H npeBpaTHTbCH B .l\HlIleHHOe Q,e.l\eYCTaHOBKH lJ.CpC,ll;OBaHHC MOTHBOB, rapMOHHlJ.CCKHX nOC.I\e,lJ,OBaHHll H T. ,ll;. B SBO.l\lOQ,HH !JlOPM POH,ll;O MomHO Ha6.1\lO,ll;aTb, KaK TeH,lI;eHQ,HH K YBe.l\HlJ.CHHlO lJ.HC.I\a TeM POH,ll;O 60pO.l\HCb C TCH,l(eHQ,HCll KO see 60Jl.blIlCll H 60.l\blIlell KOHQ,eHTpaQ,HH STHX TCM aoxpyr perppena: KaK nOC.I\C,l(HHll nOCTcneHHO npHHHMa.l\ Ha CC6H !JlYHKQ,HH r.l\aBHOll napTHH COHaTHoro (CHM!JlOHHlJ.eCKoro) axxerpo H COnO,ll;lJ.HHH.I\ eerie ocr axsnere TeMbl; KaK B POHP;O BXO,ll;HT TCMaTHlJ.CCKaH P a 3 P a- 60 T K a H KaK B nrore o6pa3YlOTcH csseuranasie POH,ll,O-COHaTHbIC !JlOpMbl-CXeMbI. B POH,ll;O COHaTHoro THna perppea nOlJ.TH repaer csoe nepaonasaxarroe npeaaasnasenae: 6blTb MHcMoHHtJecKoll sexoii H nOCTOHHCTBOM csoero B03BpargcHHH YCTaHaB.I\HBaTb rpaaa ,ll,BH2KeHHH, npeapargare ero B xpyroaoe, Bo06rge 2KC B POH,ll;O npaagHn T02K,ll,eCTBa arpaer cytgec'raeaayro, H He TO.l\bKO 06'be,ll;HHHlOrgylO, HO H narrpanxsnorgyro poxs, OH H CTHMy.l\, H TOPM03, H HCXO,ll;HaH TOlJ.Ka, H Q,C.I\b ,ll;BH2KeHHH.

r ,\aB a VIII

<POPMbI, BA3HPYIOIJ!HECH HA fIPHHijHfIE KOHTPACTA (1)

Haansrcmee Bblpa2KCHHe aroro npHHQ,Hna - !JlopMa COHaTHoro (CHM!JloHHlJ.CCKoro) axxerpo. CxeMa axxerpo npocra: aKcn03HQ,HH, paspatiorxa, penpasa. 3a HCll cxpsraaerca npogecc: TO.l\lJ.OKnapyurenae pasnoaecna - BOCCTaHOB.I\eHHe paaaosecaa, MHKPOKOCM, B KOTOPOM 3anelJ.aT.I\C.I\CH aTOT npogecc, npeacraaxser C06010 !JlOPMY.l\y coaepnrenaoro xaaaaca. I1HalJ.e ronopa, COHaTHOC axxerpo no OTHOlIleHHlO K STOll opr-anaxecxoii !JlOPMY.l\C (K.I\eTKc) HB.I\HeTCH pa3BHTbiM opraHH3MOM. OpoQ,ecc <fIopMo06pa30BaHHH Ka2K,ll;Oro COHaTHoro a.l\.I\crpo BocrrpHHHMaeTcH KaK nO.l\araHHe KOHTpacTHoro MaTCpHa.l\a: cnepaa pacxperaaercs oana «TOHHlJ.eCKaH» rpyrma TCM (r xaaaaa rrapraa), 3aTCM - BTOPMI, lJ.arge scero «,l(OMHHaHTOSaH» rpynrra (nooosnas nap-rna}, TaK H2l3bIBaeMaH CBH3YlOrgaH napraa nepexxrovaer My3blKy H3 O,ll,HOll TOHa.l\bHoll c!Jlepbl B ,ll;pyrylO H nercrynae-r KaK KpallHe cytgecrsesneril, opraaaayrorgafi ,ll,BH2KeHHe !JlaKTOp. OpHBHToe ell Ha3BaHHe «xozr» C.I\HlIlKOM rrOBcpXHOCTHO OTpa2KaeT CyrgHOCTb npogecca, 4e.l\o B TOM, lJ.TO ara «MY3bIKa CBH3H» ,l(OJl.2KHa He CTO.l\bKO MeXaHHlJ.eCKIi nepeKJl.IOlJ.IITb cxyx 83 O,ll;HOll crpepnr B ztpy ry 10 , CKO.l\bKO, pa3BHBaH ,l(aHHblll TC3HC (r.l\aBHaH napras}, Bbl3BaTb II3 aero 2Ke H npOTIiBonOCTaBHTb eMY aHTHTC3HC (n060lJ.HaH napTIIH), HO C,ll;e.l\aTb 3TO C MaKCIIMa.l\bHOll SKOHOMIICll BpeMeHH II CPC,l(CTB Bblpa2KeHHH, lJ.To6bl sa aaxsaocrero paCCTOHHIIH He HClJ.e3.1\O I' .l\aBHOC - OCTpOTa KOHTpaCTa ,ll;ByX rrapTHll, zmyx roaaxsaerx crpep (06bllJ.HbIM COOTHOlIleHHeM 6blBaeT TOHHKO- ,ll;OMHHaHTOBoe).

119

8Ta npcmuorroxar-aevaa no CBoeMY xapaxrepy rAaBHOH napTHH HOBaR TeMa (rpynna TeM) B HOBOH TOHaAbHOH c~epe 3aKpenAReTCJI pa3BHTbIM Ka,ll;aHCOM - MY3bIKOH yraepaarexenoro, YCTOH'1HBOrO cxxaaa, 'IaCTO C HOBbIM TeMaTH'IeCKHM MaTepHaAOM (Tal{ naaeraaevas 3aKAlO'IHTeAbHaJl naprna). 4HHaMHKa rrpogecca RCHa: oaaa cqiepa He MeXaHH'IeCKH conOCTaBAHeTCH C zipyroji, a CBOHM pa3BHTHeM HeH36emHO B bI 3 bI B a e T zipyr'yto KaK CBOH aHTHTe3HC. 1'1s conOCTaBAeHHJI B03HHKaeT B03MomHOCTb ,lI;aAbHeHlllero ABHmeHHR MY3bIKH. 4ame 60Abille '1eM B03MomHOCTb - He06xo,ll;HMOCTb, nOTOMY 'ITO B YCAOBHRX TOHaAbHOH CHCTeMbI ,lI;aHHOe COOTHOllleHHe TeM (MomHO CKa3aTb: crporpa - aHTHCTpo~a H snoa] aocnpaaaMaeTCR KaK KpaHHe HeYCTOH'IHBOe H KOHTpaCTHoe. * OHO B03HHKAO H3 ,lI;OArHX H ynopasrx HCKaHHH H onbITOB npopacraaas ,lI;BHmeHHR H3 TOHHKO-,lI;OMHHaHTOBoro KOMnAeKca (TOA'IKa). B HenpepbIBHOCTH ,lI;BHmeHHH COHaTHOH 3KCn03H!!HH 6bIAO ,lI;OCTHrHYTO aenpepemnoe me KOHTpaCTHoe TeMaTH'IeCKOe CTaHOBAeHHe, B KOTOPOM ,lI;ame MOMeHT 3aMbIKaHHJI ,lI;BHmeHHJI (xaaanc B 3aKAlO'IeHHH 3KCn03H!!HH) O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO RBAHeTCH H TOPM030M H - B CHAY roro, 'ITO OH saxpen-

* B qiyre 9TO COOTHoweHHe .lIaHO B caMoH recnoii CBH3H H B conocr aaxeHHH BOlK.lIH H cnYTHIIKa; B KOHgepTHpYIOIgeM CTIIAe OHO CTaHOBHTOI CPOPMYAOH SKcn03HgHII nepaoro PYKOBO.llHIgero KOMnAeKca HHToHagHH (9TO eIge He COBceM rexa ). 113AolKeHHe, nO.ll06HOe 6aXOBCKOMY (aavaxo ITHToro 6paH.lIeH6yprcKoro KOHgepTa)

HMeeT MHOlKeCTBO BapHaHTOB H HaX0.llIIT B .lIOKAaCCH'IeCKOH COHaTe, xongepTax, B axxeuaaaax H T • .lI. MHOlKeCTBO npHMeHeHHH na 60Aee HAil MeHee 6AH3' KHX H .lIaAeKHX paCCTOHHHHX. MOlKHO CKa3aTb, 'ITO COOTHoweHHe BOlK.lIH-cnYTHHKa pacunrpaxoce .lIO KOHTpaCTHoro COOTHoweHHH TOHaAbHblX crpep aa OCHOBe 06Igero TeMaTH'IeCKOrO KOMnAeKca. KOHTpaCT TOHaAbHbIX crpep YCTaHOBHACH paaeure, '1eM '1eTKO Bbl.lleAHAaCb KOHTpaCTHaH rewa B KOHTpaCTHOH crpepe: 3TO Bbl.lleAeHHe H HBAHeTCH TeM «CKa'lKOM", KOTOPblH: onpeaexax CPOPMY COHaTHoro axxerpo B ee .lIHaAeKTH'IeCKOM CTaHOBAeHHH. 11 szecs. KaK B nOHBAeHHH HMHTagHH, RaK B B03HHKHOBeHHH oneper, KaK B 06pa30BaHHH KAaCCH'IeCKOH ct1yrH,- Mbl IIMeeM nepea C060H nOCAe.llOBaTeAbHYIO genb C06blTHH, npnseaurax K .lIaHHOMY «OTKPbITIlIO», HO caMO-TO 3TO «OTKpbITHC» BblcTynaeT KaK neoexon KOAH'IeCTBa B Ra'leCTBO - KaK C K a '10K, Ii nO.llTBep.lIHBWHH H B~1ecTe C TeM B30pBaBWHH 3BOAIOgliOHHblH xoz BeIgeH.

120

AJleT HOBbIH TeMani'IeCKHH H TOHaAbHbIH KOMnAeKC,- MOIgHbIM ,lI;BHraTeAeM MY3bIKH. C03,l1;aBaJl casra no ce6e nrre-rar AeHHe ,lI;OCTHrny ror'o paaaosecnn, 3aKAlO'HITeAbHaH naprna B OTHOllleHHH KO BceMY npeaurec'rnyrorgeny npoaaaaceumo My3blKH He JlBAReTCH MOMeHTOM BOCCTaHOBAeHHR C03,l1;aBlllerOCR HepaBHOBeCHJI. Ha060pOT, OHa ero KaK 6bI yr aepasaaer H TeM caMbIM 060CTpHeT, a CAe,ll;OBaTeAbHO, HeH36emHO H HHTeHCHBHO BbI3bIBaeT nconoxaseaae ,lI;BHmeHHR. *

8TO eCTeCTBeHHO. B CBoeM pa3BHTHH 3KCn03H!!HH CO HaTH oro axxerpo nanpaaxeaa K 3aOCTpeHHlO HeYCTOH'IHBOCTH ace B 60Aee H 60Aee CHAbHOH CTeneHH. r AaBHbIM Cpe,ll;CTBOM K TOMY cAymHT BHeApeHHe KOHTpaCTHOCTH BO ace COOTHOllleHHH (TOHaAbHble, PHTMH'IeCKHe, KOHCTPYKTHBHbIe) 3AeMeHTOB CTaHOBAeHHR H BbI3bIBaHHe KOH~AHKTHOCTH B caMOH HCXO,ll;HOH crpepe - B H3AomeHHH r AaBHOH napTHH,- He rosops yase 0 CBJl3YlOIgeH H n060'IHOH: naprnax. 00 Mepe ace 60Abillero pa3BHTHH B r AaBHoH nap-ran, CBR3YlOIgaH naprnx TepHAa CBOH Cne!!H~H'IeCKHH CMbICA My3bIKH, «nepexxro'IalOIgeH» ,lI;BHmeHHe H3 O,ll;HOH TOHaAbHoH ctpepsr B ,lI;pyrylO, H CAHaaxace C pa3BHTHeM nepsoii rpyrmsr TeM HAH r AaBHOH rraprna. Ho TeM ocrpee, npa ace 60Aee H 60Aee KOH~AHKTHOM xapaxrepe H3AomeHHR r AaBHOH napTHH,- nsrcrynaxo OT AH'IHe ee OT n060'IHOH naprnn H HX B3aHMHaH «aHTHTeTH'IHOCTb». AHpHKO-MeAO,ll;H'IeCKHH H HeCKOAbKO naCCHBHblH xapaxrep ABHmeHHH, CBOHCTBeHHbIH n060'IHOH naprmr, HAH me ee npeHMYIgeCTBeHHO MeAO,ll;H'Iecxoe CTaHOBAeHHe npOTHBonOAaraeTCH ynpyroii, AaKOHH'IeCKOH: H peAbe~HOH, ,lI;ame «HanopHCTOH» r AaBHOH rrapr-arr. 06pa3HO roaop s, HCXO,ll;HaR TeMa COHaTbl ,lI;OAmHa 06Aa,ll;aTb «BOAeH K pa3BHTHlO», B HeH ,lI;OAmHa 6bITb KOH,lI;eHCHpOBaHa 3HeprHR 60.ll.blllOH CH.II.bl uanpazsenas. **

8TH aerrpeaeaasre ,lI;aHI.lble YCHAHBalOTcR B KOAoccaAbHO~ Mepe, xoraa, r AaBHaH nap-rna aerrexaer H3 npenmecrayroigero eM Me,ll;.II.eHHoro BCTynAeHHH (HoBaJl CTa,ll;HH KOHTpaCTa B 3KCn03H!!HH) HcaMa HBAHeTCH aHTHTe30M K 3TOMY BBe,ll;eHHlO. YeM OHO MOHYMeHTaAbHee H 'IeM C 60AbilleH CHAOH: H nanopoja H3 Hero YCTpeM.II.ReTCR, KaK

* Bo06Ige MHe .lIYMaeTCH, 'ITO MOMeHTbl CBH3H I! nepexoaa (CBH3YIOIgaH napTIIH) II MOMeHT 3aMbiKaHIIH H YTBeplK.lIeHIIH (3aKAIO'IIITeAbHaH napTIIH) CYTb MOMeHTbl, onpeaexarotgue c06010 xapaxrep H IIHTeHCIIBHOCTb nporusope'!HH, paCRpblBalOIgHXCH B pa3BIITHH COHaTHoro .lIBIIlKeHHH,- CAOBOM, 9TO MOMeHTbl «aapera-rarere».

** IToHHTlle T e M a - rAy60Ko .lIlIaAeRTII'IHO. TeMa - O.llHOBpeMeHHO H ce- 6eAOBAeIOIgIIH '1eTKHH 06pa3, H .lIHHaMII'IeCI(1I «B3pbIB'IaTbIH» 3AeMeHT. TeMaII TOA'IOK II YTBeplK.lIeHlIe. Teua KOHl!eHTp"pyeT B ce6e 3HeprHIO ,il.BHlKeHIiH H onpeaex ae-r ero xapax rep H nanpaaxeaae. HeCMOTpH, O.llHaRO, aa cece r-xaaHoe CBOHCTBO - pex serpxoc-r-s, reua ooxaaaer cnoc06HOCTbIO K pa3AH'IHeHWHM MeTaMopcp03aM. Ee ct>YHKgHI! - KOHTpaCTHbl. CBOI!M CTaHOBAeHHeM resra Bb13bIaae-r oTpHgalOIgl!e ee HOBbie 06~a3bl H, nporuaonoxar-aaci, HM, YTBeplK.lIaeT ce6JI. T esra - 3TO HpKaH, HaXO.ll'lHBaH TBOp'leCKaH MblCAb, 60raTaH BbIBO.llaMI! IIp;eH, B xoropoii npo-ruaopenae JIBAJIeTCH .lIBHlKYIgeH CHAOH. TaK BKpaTge JI CYMMHPYIO CBOI! BblBO.llbI 1I3 1I3Y'IeHIiH TeM KAaCCI!'1eCKHX I! ppMaHTH'IeCKHX CIIM.pOHHH.

121

ropHblH nOTOK H3 cxaxer HAH KaK crpexa, nepaas TeMa,- TeM HHTeHCHBHee, aHeprH'IHee H ~aAbHO~eHCTBeHHee pa36er BCeH rAaR~ HOH nap-ran (6eTXOBeHCKHe CHMrpOHHH - IIepaaa, BTOpaH, YeTBepTaH, Ceaaxaa, 4eBHTaH aaior TOMY 6AeCTHIgee nO~TBepm~eHHe) H TeM ocrpee ee KOHTpaCT co crpepoii n060'lHOH naprnn. 3~ecb HeT B03MOmHOCTlf nO~p06HO OCTaHaBAHBaTbCH na TOM, KaK sexaxae MaCTepa CHMrpOHlfH aocrm-aror MaKClfMaAbHOH Bblpa3lfTeAbHOCTH 9Kcn03lfgHH; KaK npOHCXO~HT HaKOrrAeHlfe 9HeprHH BO BCTynAeHHH, KaK TOPM03HTCH B HeM ~BHmeHHe, 'IT06bl TeM 60Aee ynpyrax H CTpeMHTeAbHblM OIgYIgaAOCb axxerpo ; KaK CTPOHTCH rAaBHaH napraa, KaK OHa H3AaraeTCH H KaK H3AomeHHe aTO 06YCAOBAeHO BCeH ~I'IHaMHKOH aKcn03HgHH. Yepe3 YHCHeHHe rpYHKgHH KOHTpaCT~ HOCTH, npHcYIgHX OCHOBHblM 3BYKOKOMnAeKCaM (COnpHmeHHRM) eBpOneHCKOH HHToHagHoHHoH CHCTeMbl OT Eaxa ~O illeH6epra H CTpaBHHCKOrO, xepea aHaAH3 npogecca rpopMo06pa30BaHHH aa HenpeMeHHOH OCHOBe C A bllll a H H H (nOCTORHHoro OIgYIgeHHR HHToHagHoHHoH aaeprna, ee KOAe6aHHH, nepexoztoa - HeomH~aHHbiX H nOCTerreHHbIX, - ee HaKonAeHHR H ee paspaaoa) - BCRKoe oprana-: lIeCKH coanasmeeca MY3blKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe BocnpHHHMaeT'CR KaK ~HHaMHlIeCKoe' H CTaHOBHTCR nOAHOH npOTHBonOAomHOCTblO rocnoaCTBYlOIgeMY 'IYBCTBeHHOMY HaCAam~eHHlO OT ~eAbHbIMH MOMeHTaMH My3blKH H a6CTpaKTHOMY nOCTHmeHHlO rpOPMbl KaK cxeMbl nYTeM sprrrexeaoro aHaAH3a 6e33BY'IHbIX ropH30HTaAeH H BepTH~ KaAeH.

Floaoeacro poaa a6CTparHpOBaHHe aeaer K AomHbIM aHTH~Ha~ AeKTHlIeCKHM B033peHHRM aa npapoay H CMblCA MY3blKaAbHbIX rpOpM H K nOAHOH OTopBaHHOCTH rpOpMbI OT coaepasaaaa, H60 rpopMa, KaK 6e33BY'lHaHapXHTeKTOHH<IeCKaH cxexra, He ~aeT n03Ha~ HHH MY3blKH H npespaigaerca B HeHTpaAbHYlO cpeny, HanOAHHe~ MYlO A106blM conepasanaex. MHe ~YMaeTCH, lITO HCTOpH'IeCKHe KOpHH noaofinsrx B033peHHH AemaT B pagHoHaAHCTHlIeCKOH sereTHKe, 6a3HpOBaBllIeHCH na H306pa3HTeAbHbiX HCKYCCTBax. B Halle BpeMH OHH - HaCAe~He xenanoro rpHAHCTepCTBa B MY3bIK03HaHHH, nAO~ aaeprnor-o C03HaHHH H aeper B TO, lITO B cxexax YMeIgaeTCH BCH MY3bIKa. OCB060~HTbCH OT HHX MomHO TOAbKO Ha6J\1O~ajl rpOPMY KaK TeKY'lHH H H3MeH;;IHBbIH npogecc, HanpaBAHeMbIH H3BH!! ~eHCTBYlOIgHMH CTHMYAaMH H CHAaMH H BMeCTe C TeM ynpaaxaeMblH npHcYIgHMH MY3blKaAbHOMY MaTepHaAY CBOHCTBaMH rpOPMO-, BaHHH. CBOHCTBa me 9TH B CBOlO onepeae OTHlO~b He rrpaaanxemaT MY3bIKe, KaK MeXaHH'IeCKHe, nne xexoaeuecxoro opraaasyro-i igero C03HaHHll AemaIgHe, ~BHraTeAH. OHH 06pa30BaAHCb B 9BOAlOgHH BocnpIUITHH resysero MY3blKaAbHoro MaTepHaAa H, 06YCAOBAeHbi BocnpHHTHeM. B aTOM CMblCAe ecru rAy60KaH pa3HHg~ Mem~y 3BYKOM KaK flBAemfeM rpH3HlIeCKUM H 3BYKOM KaK HBAl'~' HHeM MY3bIKaAbHbIM.

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122

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H pOMaHTH'IeCKHX COHaT npaera nonropeaaa 9Kcn03HgHH BbI3BaH He06xo~HMOCTblO 3aKpenAeHHH H YCBoeHHfl (3anOMHHaHHH) C03Ha.::

HHeM CTOAb cxozsnoro H ~AHTeAbHoro paaa TeMaTHlIeCKHX B3aHMO~; OTHOllleHHH. T eM caMblM BHOCHTCH aAeMeHT Tom~eCTBeHHOCTH, Hi B naMHTH C 60AbllleH npOlIHOCTblO rpHKcHpyeTcH TOAbKO lITO npoii~eHHbIH ararr. KaK 6blAO YKa3aHO, KOHe'lHaH cTa~HH aKcn03HgHH yrnepasaaercx (3aMbIKaeTCH) pa3BHTbIM Ka~aHcOM B HOBOH, «3aBOeBaHHOH» TOHaAbHOH crpepe. DOBTOPHlO, 'ITO yraepacneaae HOBOH TOHaAbHOH cqieper, O~HaKO, He BocnpHHHMaeTCH C03HaHHeM KaK KOHeg HAH noxaoe 3aMblKaHHe ~BHmeHHH. Ha060pOT, B OTHOIlIeHHH K OCHOBHOH: TOHaAbHOH crpepe 3aKAlO'IHTeAbHaH napra s 3By'lHT KOHTpaCTHO KaK «rpeoem,», nepenax HAH KpaHHHH CTYneas HeYCTOH'IUBOCTH H HaCTOH'IHBO Bbl3blBaeT nocxenyioigee ~BHmeHHe.

B geHTpaAbHOM 'IaCTH COHaTHoro axxerpo, B TaK Ha3blBaeMOH p a 3 P a 6 0 T K e, C03~aBllIaHClI HeYCTOH'IHBOCTb nO~'IepKHBaeTCR erge ocrpee, H ace CTaHOBAeHHe MY3blKH CTaHOBHTCfl HHTeHCHBHee. B aTOM CTa~HH npHHgHn xoarpacraerx conocranxeaaii rocnoacrayer B nOAHoH Mepe:* see, 'ITO 6blAO nsrcxaaaao B 9Kcno3HgHH B nocAe~OBaTeAbHO'M xoae «C06bITHH»,- B «paapafiorxe» nepesreIgaeTCH H sc'ryrraer B HOBbie pfl~bl COO'THOllleHHH. DpOTHBO'nO'AOmeHHe TeMaTH'IeCKHX rrAaHOB Ha paCCTOHHHH rrepeXO'~HT B CTO'AKHOBeHHe KO'HTpacTHpylOIgHX 9AeMeHTO'B B HenO'Cpe~CTBeHHO'M HX C6AH~ meHHH, B conpHKOCHO'BeHHH H CKpeIgHBaHHH. 40CTHraeTCH 9TO CClMbIMH pa3HO'06pa3HbIMM npHeMaMH. KO'MnO'3HgHfl pa3pa60TKH unorna rrO'BTO'PlIeT 9KCnO'3HgHlO B pacurapenaose BH~e, nO''ITH He nepexrergas 9AeMeHTO'B, a HHO'r ~a coaepureaao neperacoaeraaer HMeBllIHe MeCTO' CO'OTHO'llIeHHH H BbI~BHraeT aa nepaerii nxaa re 'IacTHgbI MaTepHaAa, KO'TOpbIe Ka3aAHCb rrpa BO'CnpHHTHH sxcno'3HgHH BTopOCTeneHHbIMH H HeCYIgeCTBeHHbIMH. B Kam~O'H H3 paspa60TOK HeCOMHeHHO' npOHBAfleTCH 3aKOHOMepHO'CTb orpO'PMAeHHH, lIO' noxa etge HeT BO'3MOmHOCTH acvepnemarorge BCKPbITb npH'IHHbI, no. KO'TO'PbIM MaTepHaA BH~O'H3MeHfleTCH TaK, a He auaxe. 06Igall npH'IHHa - CTpeMAeHHe K BCKPbITHlO ~HaAeKTHKH TeM - KO'He'lHO', seer ~a npHCYTCTByeT H O'6YCAO'BAHBaeT O'T6O'P MaTepHaAa. MO'mHo B Kam~O'M O'T ~eAbHOM CAY'Iae Ha6AlO,lJ;aTb, KaK He~O'CKa3aHHO'e HAH TO'AbKO' HaMe'leHHOe B 9Kcn03HgHH npeapargaerca B paspatiorxe B saaepnrenaoe BbICKa3bIBaHHe, KaK pacxpsmatorcx HOBbIe rpYHKgUH H HOBbIe 9KcnpeCCHBHbIe B03MomHOCTH B, Ka3aAOCb 6bI, BnOAHe YTBep,lJ;HBllIHX ce6H 3BYKoKoMnAeKcax. MomHO' OTMeTHTb ~Ba OCHOBHbIX pycAa,no KOTOPbIM aarrpaaxaercx ~HaAeKTH'IeCKOe CTaHOBAeHHe TeM B paspatiorxe. VIAH aTO CTaHOBAeHHe HBAHeT C06010 ~HHaMH'IeCKH KOHTpacTHYlO «arpy» TeMaTH'IeCKHX rpparsrearoa, 6e3 oieTKo asrpaasenastx CMeH nO~'beMa (HapaCTaHHH) H pa3PJI,lJ;a;'

* Bsrcrynaa KaK naaooxee II Ii T Ii R.

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123

IfAIf, naotiopor, 8Ta eAHHaH AHHHH HapaCTaHHH CIfA zio HaMe'leHaoro rrpeaexa. HAH paapafiorxa CTpaHTCH B napaAAeAbHbIX (no B paanoii TaHaAbHaCTIf) npaBeAeHHHX xaxoro-xaoo H3 xpyrraerx aTAeAaB ee - B 'IeM npaHBAHeT cefia npHHgHn TamAeCTBa. HAH aHa CTaHaBHTCH AaKaHHqHaH: HaCTaAbKa, 'ITa CBaAHTCR K npa6AeMe a6paTHara nepeMe~eHHR TaAbKa 'ITa AaCTHrHYTaH: TaHaAbHaH: ctpeper HAH K rH6KaMY H casaroxry «nepeao.ay» ee B r AaBHYlO TaHaAbHaCTb (HanpHMep, AaKaHH3M B ynep rrope K «fKeHHTb6e <DHrapa» MagapTa!). Ha B 6aAblllHHCTBe cxyxaea geAeYCTpeMAeHHaCTb paspaoorxa BHAHa B MaKCHMaAbHaM paCKpbITHH TaHaAbHbIX KaHTpaCTHbIX coornourenaii MemAY canpRraeMbIMH 8AeMeHTaMH H BO BHeceHHH ClOAa, B 8TY a6AaCTb, pa3AH'IHOrO poaa neoasanan-:

IIbIX AAH cxyxa nOBopOTOB H OTKAaHeHHH: ABHmeHHH. Hartpmrep, BMeCTO roaaxsno nocxenoaarexerroro «coceacrna» a6pa3YlOTCH a A H 3 If If MemAy TeMH HAH HHbIMH KGMnAeKCaMH flHTGHagHH: * Ha6AlOAaeTCH CTpeMAeHHe npeapartrn, KaAaHC H3 3aMbIKalO~era H saaepmaroigero TY HAH HHylO CTaAHlO ABHmeHHH qraxropa B !paKTap, CTHMYAHpylO~HH: AaAbHeH:lllee ABHmeHHe (pa3AH'IHbIe BHAbI «AomHbIX» KaAaHCOB).

HG, HeCMGTpH aa «KYAbTHBHpaBaHHe» B paspaoorxe pa3HGrO poaa «HeomHAaHHOCTeH:», MomHO Bce-TaKH 3aMeTHTb eCTeCTBeHHYlO 3aKGHOMepHOCTb ABHmeHHH: BCHKaH 8 A H 3 H H xepea aexoropoe BpeMH 3anOAHHeTCH HAH ypaaaoaeumaaerca, BCHKae GTKAOHeHHe nyrn onpaaasraaercn aaxpenxeuaeer aa TGH: TO 'IKe onopsr, paaa AOCTHmeHHH KGTOpOH He06xOAHMO 6bIAO CAeAaTb «CKa'lOK» HAH CABHr B CTOPOHY, 'ITo6bI TeM HaCTOHTeAbHee AaTb nOqYBCTBOBaTb CAyXY HeH36emHOCTb BOCCTaHOBAeHHH paBHOBeCHH. BCHKHH: «nepe- 6er», «3aCKOK», nepefipocxa ABHmeHHH xepea ozsuaaeraoe 3ByKaCOOTHOllleHHe HAH -repea eCTeCTBeHHbIH: H nOCAeAOBaTeAbHbIH: AAH AaHHora KOMnAeKca 3BYKoaTHOllleHHH BbIBaA TaK HAH nnasre MGTHBHpyeTcH H cAymuT TOH: 2Ke geAH - 60Aee raepaouy saxpenAeHHlO na onopaoii MHToHagHH.

r x a s a IX

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124

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cpeACTBOM HaH60Aee npHBbl'lHblX, YCTOHBlllHXCH, «GCeBlllHX» B YCAaBHRX AaHHGH: 3BYKaClfCTeMbI !papMYA CanpH2KeHHH. OPMMHTHBHbIH npaxrep: ABH2KeHHe HanpaBAHeTCH H3 C-dur'Horo HHTGHagMoHHaro xosmxexca B gis-mcll'aaa srepea a-moll'HbIH: H E-dur'HbIH:, aaxpen.ll.HRCb B KamAGH: TOHaAbHOH CTatJ;HH C BbIHBAeHHeM ee aCHGBHbIX npH3HaKOB. 3TG 6YAeT He eAHHCTBeHHbIM, HO GAHHM H3 MHorHX nGCAeAaBaTeAbHbIX pagHGHaAbHbIX HanpaBAeHHH:. TOo 2Ke CaMGe ABHmeHHe MG2KeT, GAHaRG, nOHTH K TGH 2Ke geAH xepea pRA 8AH3HH: H GTKAOHeHHH H TG2Ke 6YAeT Ka3aTbCH eCTeCTBeHHbIM. Bce 3aBHCHT GT HHTGHagHGHHGrO GKpY2KeHHR, H nGTOMY Aa2Ke C TG'IKH 3peHHH CHCTeMbI TOHHKG-AaMHHaHTaBbIX CaGTHallleHHH: KaK HaH6GAee pagHGHaAbHblX C TGqKM 3peHHH «CTpGrGrG CTHAH» COO CBGH:CTBeHHbIM eMY 'IeTKHM «paspenreaaesr» Ka2KAGrG' AHCCOHaHca, ztaxetco He BCHxoe «G6XGAHGe» ABH2KeHHe RBAHeTCH HenGCAetJ;GBa'l'eAbHbIM, paspylllalOIJ!HM KaHGH, HppagHaHaAbHbIM (<<YCAGBHG HppagHoHaAbHbIM» AAR 6GAblllHHCTBa BGCnpHHHMalO~Hx AIOAeH:, noxa C Te'leHHeM apeMf'HH CAYX He aCCHMHAHpyeT 8TH paanpaaseana H noxa peqixexcer He CTaHYT npHBbI'IHbIMH, naa-re ronopa, noxa nCHXHKa He 3aOCTPHTCH AO CGCTOHHHH, AG KaKHX ona 3aGCTpHAaCb Y KOMn03HTopa, arrepaere sarpuxcapoaasurero 8TH appagaonaxeaere COOTHGllleHHR).

«HppagHoHaAbHae», «HenGCAeAaBaTeAbHGe» ABH2KeHHe My3blKH HMeeT 06'bHCHeHHe B cAeAYlOlJ!eM HBAeHHH. MY3bIKa .. - MGTapHae HCKYCCTBG. OHa nG3HaeTCH KaK ABH2KeHHe, HO ABH2KeHHe OTHIOAb He cnxours paancsrepnoe. Bepnee, eCAH 6bI GHO 6bIAG paanoxrepHbIM, - OHO BocnpHHHMaAGCb 6bl KaK MGHGTGHHOe, HH pHTMH'IeCKH, HH tJ;HHaMH'IeCKH He tJ;H!p!pepeHgHpGBaHHOe, a r xasnoe - 6e3pa3- AHqHOeB OTHOllleHHH MaTepHaAa. 3TO 3aMeTHO na Bne1JaTAeHHH, KOTOpGeOCTaBMIlOT ceKBeHgHH. EOAbllloe MX KOAHqeCTBO MAM HCYMepeHHoe naAb30BaHHe HMH tJ;AH AerKoro nepeMe~eHHH H3 OAHaH TOHaAbHaH crpeper B ztpyr-yro npHBOAHT, RaK 6bIAO OTMe1JeHO, K o~y~eHHlO H He p g H H, T. e. «tiecnpertsrrc-menaoro» (6e3 YCHAHH, 6es npeOAGAeHHH), T02KAeCTBeHHoro H pastroxrepaoro ,'I;BIf}KeHHH. B TaKOM ABH2KCHHH He 1JYBCTByeTcH aKTHBHoro Y'IaCTHR HanpaBARIO~eH MblCAH KOMn03HTopa, He 'IYBCTByeTcH !popMGBaHHH MaTepHaAa, HeT H3G6peTeHHH. Bepaee, H306peTaeTCH TGAbKa Ha'laAbHblH GTnpaBHGH KGMnAeKC. CtJ;BHHYTbIH C MeCTa, OH nGpG2KtJ;aeT aa CG6GlO genb nGBTGpHbIX BGCnpGH3BeAeHHH coaepzeargnxca B HeM 3BYKG~ CG'IeTaHHH . .llBH2KeHHe HanpaBAHeTCH GT tJ;aHHGrG TGA1JKa asepx HAH BHHS rro HaMe1JeHHbIM cryneasra H MG2KeT npG,'I;GA2KaTbCH B npnagHne tJ;G Tex nGp, nOKa He tJ;GH:AeT AG GTnpaBHGH TG'IKH 1Jepe3 GKTaBY, T. e. noxa tJ;aHHbIH KOMnACKC He nOBTOpI1TCH 12 paa, eCAM nepevergenae HtJ;eT no nOAYTOHaM, 6 paa, eCAM no TGHaM, 7 pas, eCAH no crynenaa AHaTGHHqCCKGH raMMbI, H 'T. A.

MHHaHT- IIAH YMeHbllleHllblx), T. e. aaxrena ABYX'IaCTllblX CO'leTaHIIH OAHO'IaCTHbIMII, Tom)J,eCTBeHHbIMH no nOCTpoeHHIO, 110 KOIITpaCTHblMH B TOHaAbHOM OTHomeHIIH. 8MIUleH 6YAeT BCHKIIH pe3KHH'MemAYToHa)\bHblH CKa'lOK.

Cospexeaasre nepenoasre KOMn03MTOpbI uenapou M36eralOT CeKBeHlJ,MH: HX xacroe ynorpeoxenae 06HapY2KMBaeT naCCMBHOCTb MbIllIAeHMJI. KaK TOAbKO nyigeaa B XOP;, «aaneaeaa» ceKBeHgMJI, P;BM- 2KeHMe CTaHOBMTCJI MeXaHMqeCKMM. 3TO OTHIOP;b He 3Ha'IMT, 'ITO ceKBeHgMJI aeesrpasurexaaa: .Ha060pOT, npa YMeAOM BKAlOqeHHH ee B TKaHb OHa Mo2KeT - oc06eHHO eCAM ee nOJlBAeHMe orrpaaaano 3aMbICAOM - 6bITb cpeP;CTBOM 9MogMoHaAbHoro B03P;eH:CTBHJI M xapaKTepHCTHKM. HanOMHIO, aarrpavep, 0 «cexaengaax TaTbJlHbI» B «EBreHMH OHerHHe» 4aH:KOBCKOro, 0 BarHepOBCKMX ceKBeHlJ,MJlX B «BaAbKHpHH», B «T pUCTaHe» etc. B ceKBeHgHJlX, oaaaxo, OTCYTcrayer pa3BMTMe HP;eH: M BMeCTe C TeM npMOCTaHaBAMBalOTCJI 2KM3- HeHHbIe IPYHKgHM MY3bIKaAbHOH TKaHM - B3aHMOp;eH:CTBMe rOAOCOB, nepexxroxeaae HX IPYHKgHH. )J,BH2KeHMe ec'rs, HO naxer-o He BCTpetiaIOrgee na nYTH. I1Haqe rOBOpJl, MY3bIKa p;BM2KeTCJI no AMHMM HaHMeHbllIero conpOTHBAeHHJI.

COBceM anoe aexo, eCAH IPYHKgHM 3BYKOTKaHM M3MeHJlIOTCJI C Kamp;bIM MOMeHTOM HHTOHMpOBaHMJI M eCAM P;AJI roro, qT06bI rrpoP;OA2KMTb p;BM2KeHMe ace p;aAbllIe M MHTeHCHBHee, TBoptJeCKMI, opr aHM3YIOrgaJl MaTepHaA MblCAb KOMn03HTopa CTpeMMTCJI K ero p;MHaMM- 3agMM M «p;MaAeKTM3agHl1». yh06peTeHHe CKa3bIBaeTCJI npH 9TOM BOBce He B opMrHHaAbHMtJaHbe H He B BbIqYPHOCTJlX, a cxopee B M3- 6eraHMM nporopenasrx ztopoasex M 06e3AMqeHHbIX IPOPMYA. HHTepecea KOMn03MTOp, OTbIcKMBalOrgMH: HOBbIe, HeMcnOAb30BaHHbIe 3BYKOCOqeTaHMJI, HO eige narepecnee TOT, KTO M3 npOCTeH:llIMX, xaaaxocs 6bl, BceM p;ocTynHblx 3BYKOKOMnAeKCOB C03p;aeT nopaacaiorgae CBOeH: caeasecrero M BbIpa3MTeAbHOCTblO COO THO III e H M JI.

B03bMeM npOCTeH:llIYIO cxesiy: TOAqOK - COCTOHHHe HeYCTOHqHsoro paBHOBeCHH - 3aMbIKaHHe, aarrpasrep: cl - h - cl• IlepBbIH: 3BYK cl M02KHO MbICAHTb KaK pe3YAbTaT npeaurecmyroigero p;BHmeUMH, CKa2K~M paatier'a OT HM2KHerO g ts. a, h, cl). CpeP;HHH CTap;HJI' MomeT !?bITb paanooopasno yaxnneaa (cl: dl : h : cl, MAM cl: f1 : : el : h : cl, MAM cl: fI : el : d' : h : cl, MAM cl: des' : ges' : fl : cl : : dis' : el : h: el : as : g : h: el H T. p;. H T. P;.), H ror-aa OKa2KeTCH, 'ITO BMeCTO uenocpeac'raeaaoro B03BpargeHMH B TOqKY onopsr roAOC «OTTJlrMBaeT» 9TO soaspargeaae M p;BM2KeTCH OKOAbHbIMM nyTJlMM. npOHCXOP;MT HeqTO noaofinoe TOMY, KaK npa pastiere, npa npbI2KKe - xopnyc He cpasy ynapaercx B MeCTO OCTaHOBKM, a noaaerca HeCKOAbKO arrepezt MAM 2Ke HeCKOAbKO paa OTKMp;bIBaeTCH srrepea MAM naaaa, npeasae qeM YCTOMTCJI. npH nozreexax MbI 3aHOCMM aory asmre, tJeM Heo6xoP;MMO, M nOTOM onycaaexr ee. npH p;AMTeAbHOM M CMAbHOM npo6ere HeMbICAMMO OCTaHOBHTbCH cpasy. npMMepOB M02KHO npMBeCTH MHoro, M He aaaxorna pana, M60 TYT p;eAO He B aaaxoraa, a B cxoac'rne no cyigecray (MOTOpHOCTb MY- 3blKM). Y me B npOCTeH:lIlHX npogeccax peqMTagMH, nOCAe p;AHTeAbnoro «tJTeHMJI» B TOH, rOAOC rrepezt OCTaHOBKOH MAM nepeP;blllIKOH: orrYCKaeTOI BHM3 MAM 9HeprMqHO rrop;bIMaeTCH aa HeKOTopbIH MOMeHT, nOCAe xero nonaaaer B YCTOH H 3ap;ep2KHBaeTCH.

12$

ECAH Ha6AIOp;aTb He aa O,ll;HHMM TOAbKO MOMeHTaMH ropaoaseaaa 'MAH 3aMbIKaHHH MY3bIKaAbHoro p;BH2KeHHJI, a npocxezsasare 60Aee .. HAH MeHee ,ll;AHTeAbHble craaaa scero rrpofiera, TO H TaM KMp;aeTCH p. rwaaa nOCTOHHCTBO CMeHbI, aa 06HapY2KeHHe KOTOPOH JI He pas CCbIAaACJI: p;BH2KeHHe CKaqKOM (He3anOAHeHHoe) CMeHHeTCH p;BHmeHHeM noc'rynemrsra, 3anOAHeHHbiM - BnAOTb p;o glissando. TaKHM 06pa30M, nOCAep;OBaTeAbHOCTb H «HppagHoHaAbHOCTb» cTaHoBAe~ HHH, cxpergeane 9BOAIOgHoHHoro npogecca H npogecca MYTagHH BbIpa2KaeTCH He TOAbKO B nenneonncaaaoa xepeaoaaaaa CAHTHOCTM [nocryneaaoc'm) 3BYKOCOnpJl2KeHIIH: C 9AH3MHMII npOMe2KYTOqHbIX 3BeHbeB, HO M B TOM, 'ITO 3BYKOCOOTHOllIeHHH nop;tJHHJlIOTCJI erge CMeHe p;BHmeHHH aanoxaeaaoro H p;BH2KeHHH CKaqKOM C rrpacyrgaxa nOCAep;HeMY BHP;Y CTaHOBAeHMJI MOTOPHblMH CBOHCTBaMM: 3aCKOK M ofiparnoe OTKAOHeHMe nepezt YCToeM MAM TO'IKOH onopsr, apargeaae MAM paCKatJMBaHMe aa TOqKe, npeamecrayrorgeii onopnosry rrYHKTY, M T. n, npaesrer, aaaxor-a-mere MYCKYAbHO-MOTqpHbIM npogeccax aanpJl2KeHMJI, YCMAHJI, KOHgeHTpagMM CMA M BHMMaHMJI M, nasoaeg, p;eH:CTBMH, T. e. HanpJl2KeHMJI M paspana. *

CIOP;a me He06xop;MMO rrpacoenaaara nepMOp;MqeCRYIO CMeHY aanpaBAeHIIH: nozrsesaa M HMcnap;aHMJI MHToHagMH (rrpoeagaoaao- 3pMTeAbHO aa aoronocge - 9TO p;BH2KeHHe rOAOCOB saepx M BHM3). CoeP;HHeHMe nepsonaxecxax CMeH 3anOAHeHHOCTH M He3anOAHeHHOCT11 nozrseaa M aacnaaaana, a TaKme rrOCAep;OBaTeAbHOCTM M HerrOCAep;OBaTeAbHOCTM B BbIllIeYRa3aHHOM CMbICAe - C03p;aeT KOMnxexc B3aMMHo-rrpOTMBOrrOA02KHbIX H B TO 2Ke BpeMJI eaaasroypasnoaemaaarorgax COrrpJl2KeHMH 3BYKOB, 06YCAOBAMBalOrgMx c06010 aenpepsraaocre COCTOJlHMJI HeYCTOHtJMBoro paBHOBeCMJI.

PMTM MY3blKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHJI rrpOJlBAJleTCJI B cxreaax KOHTpaCTHbIX JlBAeHMH. KOHTpaCTHOCTb npoaaaraer genb 3BYKo06pa- 30B. Ho HeAb3H 3a6bIBaTb, 'ITO KOHTpaCTHOCTb orgyrgaeTCJI AMllIb npn HaAMqMH 9AeMeHTOB T02Kp;eCTBeHHbIX M 'ITO 6e3 HHX 9TOT npaugMrr rrpOJlBAJlACJI 6bI aHapXMqeCKM. TO'IHO TaR me AMllIb B nOCTOJlHHOM COOTHOllIeHl-fH KOMnAeKca-Te3Mca M KOMnAeKca-aHTMTe3Mca Mbl n03HaeM p;eH:CTBYlOrgMe CHAbI HAM CTMMYAbI MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHM)!, see 9AeMeHTbI xoroporo IPYHKgMoHaAbHO 06YCAOBAeHbI. MY3bIKaAbHoe npoasaeneaae M02KHO paCCMaTpMBaTb KaK nosnaaae-

* OP;HHM H3 npoHBAeHHH: yxaaannsrx CBOH:CTB MOlKeT cAymHTb K a - P; e H y a B ee CHMtpOHHqeCKH pa3BHTOH: craaaa cTaHoBAeHHH, KaK, aanpaaep, B qioprenaasaox KOHi!epTe b-moll l.J:aH:KOBCKoro. KOCHYBlllHCb aroro I1p~>H3Be: p;eHHH 1I He Mory He ynoMHHyTb eIge npo OP;HO 3aMeQaTeAbHoe ero CBOHCTBO. npo ~aqaAbHblH: TOJ\qOK (corni: f I: des I, c I, b). B aTOM roxxae-aanaace CYMMHpOBaHa yase TOHaAbHOCTb b-moll (OCHOBHall TOHaJ\bHOCTb xongepra}, H CYMMHpOBaHa C TaKOH: y6e,1l;llTeAbHOCTblO (KaK 6YP;TO Kap;aHCY npeaurecrnoaaxa HeKaH b-moll'aan CTap;HH MY3blRH, RaK 6bI BbIHeceHHaJI aa CK06KH), qTO nOCAeP;YIOIgHH: (HaqaAbHblH) STan CTaHOIl"AeHIIH KOHyepTa npOBO,!HTCH He B b-rnoll, a B Des-dur. Bo06Ige nano CKa3aTb, qTO qYTKOCTb l.J:aHKoBcKoro K tpopMe KaK npojjeccy otpopMAeHIIH H KpHCTaAJ\HsaYHII, a He KaK K MeXaHHQeCKH 3anOAHlIeMOH 3BYKaMH cxesre, CKa3blBaeTCH B ero COqHHeHHlIX na Kamp;OM mary.

127

Moe B ,1I;BHmeHHH geAoe, B KOTOPOM ace .3HeHbH (nee CTa,1l;Hi1, nee MOMeHTbI) COOTHOCHTCH ,1I;Pyr C ,1I;pyroM p;HaAeKTlItleCKH, TaK, 'ITO Kam,1l;bIll MOMeHT CMeHbI reanca H aHTHTe.3HCa (,1I;aHHOrO .3ByKOKOM~ nxexca H 3BYKOKOMnAeKca, eMY npOTliBOnOCTaBAeHHoro) socnpmraMaeTCH CAyXOM ,1I;BO.llKO: B npogecce nepaoro ofinapyaseaax - KaK KOHTpaCT, HO TOT'IaC me BCAe,1l; aa TeM, KaK 9TH conOCTaBAeHHH BOCnpHHHTbI, - OHH rro OTHOllIeHJHO K nocxenyrorgeii CTa,1l;HH ,1I;BHmeHHH B CBOlO O'lepe,1l;b' CTaHOBHTCH e n H H C T B 0 M, T. e. CAomHbIM KOMrrAeKCOM-Te3HCOM K npOTHBorrOCTaBAHeMOMY HOBOMY KOMrrAeKCY, H T. ,11;. H T. ,11;. CAe,1l;OBaTeAbHO, KOMrrAeKC - Te3HC H aHTHTe3HC KaK CO'leTaHHH rrpOTHBonOAomHOCTell- B CBoeM paCKpbITHH (HHTOlmpo~ BaHHH) npenpaigarorcs ,1I;AH cxyxa B CHHTe3 BCAe,1l; aa HX oonapyaceHHeM. HOBoe (H, 3Ha'lHT, 60Aee ,1I;AHTeAbHoe) COOTHOllIeHHe aayxaHHll nopozsnaer HOBoe conocraaxenne H HOBbIll CHHTe3. TaK MbI rrO,1l;OIlIAH K caMOMY TPY,1l;HOMY B aHaAH3e rrpogecca MY3WKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHH.Il- K paCKpbITHlO COOTHOllIeHHll rrOCAe,1l;OBaTeAbHOCTH H O,1l;HOBpeMeHHOCTH B MY3bIKaAbHOM rrpOH3Bep;eHHH KaK CTaHOBAeHHH llHHaMH'IeCKH-rrop;BHmHOM, HaCbIIgeHHOM rrpOTHBOpe'lHHMH, H KaK ep;HHCTBe - peayxe'rare aroro CTaHOBAeHHH.*

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'1HBblll 9AeMeHT. Ho 9TO - npccreiinraii cAYQall. 4pyroll rrpHMepCOOTHOllIeHHe: (a + b) : (a + c) = d, B KOTOPOM nocxeanee 3BeHO (d) 6bIAO 6bl CHHTe30M HAH pe3YAbTaTHBHblM 06pa30BaHHeM H3 nepasrx P;BYX. 06bl'lHO AlO6aH H3 MOP;YAHgHOHHbIX TOHHKO-tJ;OMHHaHTOBbIX qJOpMYA, rp;e npOHCXOP;HT nop;MeHa TOHaAbHblX !PYHKgHll axxopna HAH crynena, aanpnuep I: V : I = IV : V : I, coaepaorr B ce6e Taxoro pozra HBAeHHe. f10 3BYQaHHlO b H d MoryT 6blTb roasnecrsenHbIMH, HO no CYIgeCTBY d BocnpHHHMaeTCH KaK HOBbIll, oticrargeaHbill 3BYKO,KOMnAeKC:

33

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AH3aguH.

** To ec r s genb aapaagnoansrx HAH BapHaHTHblX conOCTaBAeHHH HAH npeapargeaaii O,1lHOrO axexrerrra (a).

128

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T aKHM oopaSoM npocreiiuraa cfloflMa 3aNlhlKaHHH HAlt KaAaltC (IV: V : I) YCTaHaBAlmaeT CHHTe3 scex cryrreneii TOHaAbHOCTH. nOCAe,1l;OBaTeJl.bHOe aocnpnm-ae MY3blKaAbHoro npOH.3Be,1l;eHHH OT nepBOTOA'IKa ,11;0 nocxennero 3aMbIKalOIgero KOMrrJl.eKCa BKAlO'IaeT C03HaHHe B genb 3BYKOCoOTHollIeHHH. Kam,1l;oe nocxenyrorgee nsrcrynaer ,1I;AH, cxyxa B HeCKOAbKHX 3Ha'leHHHX: AH60 OHO KOHTpacrnpyer (nporaeonoxaraer cetis ) rrpemnec'rayrotgeuy, J\H60 OHO nO,1l;bITOmHBaeT, 06'be,1l;IiHHeT npenmecrayrorgae. Ho B TO me BpeMH

casro OHO ,1I;OJl.mHO 6blTb H ornpaaaoii TO'lKOll ,1I;Jl.H nOCJl.e,'(YlOIgHX KOMnAeKCOB, nOTOMY 'ITO BHYTPH npOH.3Be,1l;eHHR He MomeT 6blTb nOJl.HOrO 3aMbIKaHH.Il. ECJl.H 0603Ha'lHTb 6YKBOll i - aaxaxo, HMnyxsc, nepBOTOA'IOK, 6YKBOll '!r - HeKYlO CTa,1l;HlO ,1I;BHmeHHH Ii

B HeM PH,1I; COOTHOCHIgHXCH 9Ae~eHTOB (a: b : c ... ), a 6YKBOll t :»: 3aMb1KaHHe, npeaex ,1I;BHmeHHHj TO na OCHOBaHHH scero aenne cxasaaaoro MbI ,1I;OAlliHbl 6Y,1I;eM;It{)H3HaTb, 'ITO B CHCTeMe eaponeii-

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n Y AbC 0 M, onOCpe,1l;CTBYlOIgRM ,1I;BHmeHHe 6AHmaHllIIiX aa HHM I HHToHagHH xepea caoe KOH]CTHPOBaHHe npenurecrnyrotgaa, H / .3 a M bl K a to Ig H M 3 B e HOM terminus'oa) Tome no oTHollIeHH;6

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B. B. Acaqn.en

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MaTepHaM B 060HX cxyxaax HHTOItHPOBaHH1I rppa3bl - ee <pyItK!!HOaaxeaoe aaaxeaae pe3KO MeH1IeTC}1: B nepBOM cAyqae OHa - terminus, BO BTOpOM - initium, HMnyAbC. llpaxepsn

Moy;apT. KBapTeT N!! 7 (nepexon K paapariorxe}:

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etc

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TeMaTHllM J\nCTa.

130

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37 Mogapr. KBapTeT N!! 5. fAaBHa1l 'rexa Axxerpo:

J(OHey; 9Kcn0311Y;liH H HaqaAO pa3pa6oTKll:

38

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* Hanpaxep, llHTOHa!!lIiI nepexozra K rron-ropenaro sxcnoaagaa CTaHOBllTCiI TaKOBOH me rro o-rnomeaaro K paspaoorxe. B TO me BpeMH 3Ta IIHToHagllH HBAileTCH npexoaxenaea PYKOBOJ\Hl!!eH TeMbl - IIHj!gllaTIIBHOH lIHTOHaJ;!lleH ncero COHaTHoro axxerpo, Harrpmrep, KBapTeT faHJ\lIa Fvdur, op. 74 Ng 2 HaQIlHaeTCiI TaK:

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KaK 6bl anroaagaoaaoe «06paCTaHHe» Kalli.AOrO 113 :3AeMeHTOB, opranasyroigax H COCTaBAHIOIgllX ABHlli.eHlle.

KpoMe roro, BCJl.eACTBHe pa3J1.HqHOrO poaa nepetioea H :3 JI. H 3 H H II CJl.eAYIOIgero aa npOnYCKOM npOMelli.YTOqHbIX 3BeHbeB BbmpHMJl.eHHH llAH aanoxaeaas PHTMO-llHToHagHo.HHbIX OTKi\OHeHllH BO.3HHKalOT noaere OCJl.o.lli.HeHHH B CHCTeMe aaroaagaoaaoii CBH3H. He otinapyasennas BOBpeMH H3-3a KaKOrO-Jl.1l6o. OTKJl.OHeHllH nYTH' TOHHKa B03MeIgaeTCH qepe3 nexoropoe paCCTOHHHe HJl.H npofier ; BKJl.lOqeHHaH B MeJl.o.AHqeCKHH CTPOH KaKOH-Jl.H6o. IPpa3bl «XPo.Ma», aJl.bTepagllH H He rroxyxaauraa TyT lli.e «paapeureuas» rpeoyer B CBOIO osepeae AaJl.bHeH:IllerO BblBOAa 113 csoero nOHBJl.eHllR H TeM caMblM BOCCTaHOBJl.eHHR paBHOBeCHR; TaK Ha.3blBaeMblH Jl.Olli.HbIH KaAaHC OTTRrHBaeT B03BpaIgeHHe TOHHKH H «HHTeHCHIP"gHpyeT)) ABHlli.eHHe, HO BMeCTe C TeM on lli.e etge nacroilxaaee Bbl.3blBaeT TOHHKY KaK onopnyro TOqKY H T. A. B CBR3H C nOCTORHHblM nepeKJl.lOqeHHeM IPYHKgllH II nepexoaon HX B CBalO npOTHBOnOJl.omHo.CTb. see :3T~ BMeCTe B3RToe B03ABHraeT CJl.alli.HYIO cere B03AeHCTBYIOIgHX apyr aa Apyra aa pa3AllqHbiX paCCTORHHRX H C pa3AHqHOll CHJl.OH B 3 a II M 0. T R rOT e H H H llJl.ll CHCTeMY nepexpergaaaroigaxcs HHToHagllaHHblX apox,

Casto cofioro pa3YMeeTCR, xro B repaaae B 3 a HMO T H rOT e • H He .3 B Y K 0. :3 JI. e M e H T 0 B peunrrexsno HeT naxero a6CTpaKTHarpopsraxenor-o HJl.H cy6'beKTllBHara: B Mllpe HeT HH OAHOH CHCTeMbl 3BYKOOTHaIlleHHH (KaK peayxarara nOCTaJlHHO aaoxrogaoaapyroigero B MY3blKe npogecca orfiopa ifJI.H «CTllJl.H3agllll» aKYCTHqeCKllX RB~ Jl.eHHH KOJl.Jl.eKTllBHbIM qeJl.o.BeqeCKllM C03HaHHeM), B KOTOPOH He 6blJl.O 6bl 3aKOHo.MepHOriO pacnpenexenna CBR3H. II HHToHagHo.HHOp'HHaMHqeCKOH 3aBllCllMo.CTH Melli.AY BKJl.lOqeHHbIMH B CHCTeMY TO HaM H (0.6 :3TOM nponporinee - B ,li;o6aBAeHHH 2 «OCHOBbl MY~ 3blKaAbHo.H naroaagna»}. MY3blKa - onRTb nOBTo.PHIO - CllCTeMa opramraoaauaoro ABHlli.eHHH: He a Hap x II q e C K 0 e conocxeaoaaHHe 3BYKOKOMnJl.eKCOB, a ax crporo B3allMa06ycJl.OBJl.eHHOe 0. 6 H ap Y lli. e H H e B npogecce llHTOHHpaBaHHR. <DopMa C JI. Y III a eTC R,. Bocnp"HHMaeTCH KaK CTaHOBAeHHe H KpHCTaAJl.H3yeTcR B c03HaHHil KaK eAHHcTBO (llAll: MY3bIKa 3anOMllHaeTCR HIP"Kc"pyeTcR B C03HaHHII KaK peay Jl.bTaT otinapyasenaa naroaagaoaasrx npo'nraopesaii). *

CHCTeMa nepexpetgaaarorgaxca .HHToHaglloHHbIX apox (apxa ~ :3TO acero-aascero TOAbKO He06xOAHMaR onaca rexnaaa HJl.lI HJl.AIOCTpaTHBHaR aaaxor-na HJl.H 3pHTeJl.bHaR npo.eKgllJl MY3bIKaJl.bHbI,X I COOTHOIlleHHH, a o.THIOAb He OTalli.AeCTBAeHHe C apxarexrypnsnr TepMllHOM) n03BOJl.ReT nOHRTb aenueyxaaanaoe COOTHOIlleHHe i: m : t

* EJ\IIHCTBo-pellYAbTaT, oJ\lIaKO, COCTaBAileTCiI ns aseaeea-eanacra, KOTopsre Hallie C03HaHlle «CXBaTblBaeT» B rrOCAeJ\OBaTeAbHOCTII MYllblKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHlIiI, 1160, KaK 6blAO cxasaao, STO CTaHOBAeHlle oripasyer aenpepsraaoe conocraaxenae II aaaaxocaaaeraaaac aayxoxovnxexcoa. KamJ\oe corroc-raaxenae rrocxe caoero 06HapymellHH cranoaarca eAllHCTaOM 110 oraomenaro K noCJ\eJ\ylO~eMy.

J

KaK KQHCTPYKTlIBHbIH npIIHglIn A106o.H opraaasecxoii MY3bIKaJl.bHo.H KQMrrQ3IIgllll II KaK tJ;eHCTBeHHo.e llHTQHagIIQHHQe 3BeHQ KamtJ;QH CTatJ;1l1l MY3bIKaAbHQrO CTaHQBJl.eHIIH. chQ CQQTHQrueHlle tJ;QrrYCKaeT rrOCTOHHHQe rrepeMeIMeHlle CPYHKgIIH KamAOrO 113 COCTaBAHlOIMllX ee 'IAeHQB, TaK 'ITO., ecxn llATll QT MQMeHTa nepBQTQA'IKa llAli aaxaxa 3By'IaHllH npoasneneaas, TO. MQmHQ npeacraaare ce6e paaaep rsraaaae CTatJ;IlH etJ;IlHQrQ MY3bIKaJl.bHQrQ CTaHQBAeHIIH CJl.etJ;ylOIMllM 06· pa3QM (KoHe'lHQ, KaK ynpoigeanyro cxesry BKAlO'IeHllH): I: M : T = =i:m:t (=i): m.t (=i): tn-t (=i): m i t (==.i): m:tetc.,KaK CBQerQ PQtJ;a nenpepersnocre. Y Ka3bIBalO eIMe pa3, 'ITO. m (motus ) ecre CQBQKynHQCTb n'HQrO '111CAa 3BYKo.BbIX COQTHorueHllH, KamtJ;all IIaCTliga KQTQPbIX TQme MQmeT CTaTb CPYHKglleH i II t, II 'ITO., KPQMe TOrQ, KamtJ;blH 1I3 :MeMeHTQB CQQTHQIlleHllH (i sm , t) II CQCTaBAHlOIQIIX ero '1AeHo.B «1l3AY'IaeT» BQ3tJ;eHCTBlle na paCCTQlIHIIll. 3Ha'lIlT, lW3MQmHa TaKaH cxexia:

i : m( a + b + c + ... ) : t( = i) : m( d + e + f. . .): t( = i). . .

<PopMa COHaTHoro axxerpo oxaaaxace Hall6QAee IIHTeHCIIBHbIM BblpameHlIeM tJ;aHHQrO COQTHOIIIeHllH, a paspatiorxa KaK BamHeHillaH CTatJ;IlH CTaHQBAeHIIH 9To.H CPo.PMbI, nonxoigaa B ce6e MY3bIKaJl.bHQe paanarae, ofinapyzoraae'r OC06eHHo. nOKa3aTeJl.bHO Mo.TOPHYlO 11 tJ;lla· AeKTllKo-tJ;IlHaMll'lecKYIo npnpozty MY3bIKll. IlplIJl.omeHHe 1I3J1.o.meH· lIbIX 3AeCb Bo.33peHlIH na xapaxrep, npangnrrer H BlItJ;bI CTaHQBJl.e· HHH SKcn03HglllI H paspariorxa Co.HaTHo-cHMcpQHlI'IeCKQrO axxerpo K a.HaJl.H3Y KamtJ;oro OT tJ;eAbHoro qiaxra He rrpeac'raaxaer sarpy AlleHlIH. B xapaxrepe CTaHOBJl.eHHH orpazsaerca MblIllJl.eHHe I{OMnQ3Hropa Hero. 9nOXlI' B 9To.M CMbICJl.e rpopua COHaTHO-ClIMcpQHH'Ie· cxoro axxerpo KaK BIItJ; tJ;HaJl.eKTlI'IecKlI'-KQHTpaCTHoro orpopjrxeaaa (B rrporaaorroxoanrocr» Mo.HOTeMaTll3MY aapnagnii, xaaoaa II CPY~ rll) - nopoaenenae HOBQrO, KpHTll'leCKOrO MllPOB033peHHH IIIeAIIIero K nooeae xxacca. ,l{lIaAeKTH'IeCKH-Ko.HTpaCTHbIH BlltJ; orpopsrxeaas npo.HBMleTCH B Jl.1060H CTatJ;1l1l cona-nro-cmrqioaaxecrcoro CTaHOBAe·· HHH 11 aaer ce6H 3HaTb na Jl.1060M Ko.HKpeTHo.M npmaepe otinapymeHllH COOTH'o.IlleHllH i: m : t. B xaxec'rae raxoro npasrepa BQ3bMeM XOTH 6bI aaxaxo H OtJ;HH 1I3 MOMeHTQB paapaoorxa C-dUr'HQH COHaTbI BeTXQBeHa (QP. 2 N2 3): *

40

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* {JHTHPYIO ITO lI.3t(aHHIO peters'a. BbInHCblsa!Q il.flIUo qUllble neoQ,(04HMble ra!(Tbl, a OCTaA!>lil>le otioaaaxaro ~H!ppaMII,

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MbI HMeeM tJ;OBQJl.bHQ

npoaeaeaae

Jffl n I J J c xapaxrep-

HbIM tJ;AH nee pacxaxaaanaen. OHa HBJl.HeTCH eCTeCTBeHHblM TOJl.'1KQM BCerQ ABllmeHllH. Bxaroaapa ee npeotixaaaamo aece 9TQT cpparMeHT aocnpannxrae'rca B BHtJ;e CBH3HQriO KQMnJl.eKCa C TomtJ;eCTBeHHbIMII 9J1.eMeHTaMll. TaKllM 06pa30M nepaonxea CQQTHOIlleHllH i: m . t - initium (i) QKa3bIBaeTCH ro.CnotJ;cTBYlOIgllM. Kap;aHc (t) BJl.HBaeTCH HenQCpetJ;CTBeHHO B HOBQe 3BeHQ II CJl.ymllT tJ;Jl.H Hero. To.'IKQH orrrpaaxeana (t = i), 6AarQAapH '1eMy tJ;BllmeHlle He 3aMbiKaeTCH na TpllHatJ;gaToM ·TaKTe. IlplICYTCTBlle B llHTQHa!!HHX xpoMaT1I3MQB cis II [is He npQXQAHT 6eCCJl.etJ;HQ II B AaJl.bHeHIlleM rrOAY'IaeT CBQe orpazseaae B aaroaagnax Ho.BOH: TeMbl, nepeKJl.lO'IalOIgeH tJ;BHmeHHe B tJ;pyrylO TOHaJl.bHYlO crpepy (QT TaKTa 26 CQHaTbI). BQ3HllKaeT, CAetJ;OBaTeJl.bHO, cacreera CBH311 aa pacCTQHHllll.

Paccsrarpaaaa cooraomeaae HHTQHagllQHHblX KQMnJl.eKCQB BHyTpli nepBblX 12 TaKTOB, MbI BlltJ;IlM, 'ITO. TQ'IKa OTnpaSJl.eHllHaKKQPtJ; TQHHKll cpurypllpyeT, no.MHMQ nepsoro TaKTa, B '1eTB,epTQM, B TIHTQM, rueCTQM,CeAbMo.M, ,BQCbMo,M II T. A. raxrax, TO 3aHHMaH paC,CTQHHHe B 4 Ii 6 tJ;QJl.eH:, T.e. B QAlIH TaRT II no xropa TaKTa, TO.

I.S5

qmrypHpYH KaK xpaiiae HeYCTOH'IHBbIH KBapTCeKCTaKKO.p~ B MOMeHT OCTpOrO HepaBHOBeCHH B Ka~aHCe H YCHAHBaH THrOTeHHe K TOHHKe B ,'I,HHaMll'IeCKH HPKOM ee 06HapymeHllll (TaKT 13). T OHaAbHbIe <PYHKgHll Cvdur'nor-o axxopaa IiHr~e He MeHHIOTCH (na MOMeHT OHH KOAe6AIOTCH B TaKTe 11 H3-3a BBe~eHHH tis KaK onoper cerrraxxopaa aa IV crynenn, HO TOT'IaC BoccTaHaBAHBaIOTcH). j(OMH" HaHTOBaH c<pepa 3aHHMaeT HeCKOAbKO nO~'IHHeHHOe nOAomeHHe, H BO BceM rpparwenre axgerrrapyerca npeooxanaane TOHHKH. TOAbKO KOHTpaCTHoe tis (H OT'IaCTH cis) «aapnrsaer» aTO iocnO~CTBO H BHOCllT B My3bIKY aAeMeHT, YKa3blBaIOIgHH na ~aAbHeHuIHe 'B03- MomHOCTH npO~BHmeHHH.

ITepBblH 'IeTblpeXTaKT otinapyasnaaer O~HH H3 THnll'IHbIX ~AH KAaCCHKOB HHToHagHoHHblX KOMnAeKCOB - COOTHOllleHHe I: V: V: I, r ~e 1= i, V = m (MoMeHT caaar-a HAH COCTOHHHe HeycTOH'IHBOrO pasHOBecHH) H BTOpH'IHOe 1= t, 3aBepllleHHoe cauo no ce6e, aTO 3BeHO Tpe6yeT, O~HaKO, ~aAbHeHllIero ~BllmeHHH, H3-3a roro 'ITO BepTHKaAH HAH KOAOHHbl TOHHKH He caepasasaror 06pa30BaBllIerOCH Mem~y HHMH aaronagaoaaoro nanpazseaaa -(V [cryrrens] 3aHHMaeT ~J3a TaKTa C aAAHTepagHoHHblM cis BHYTpH); II aTO BbI3BaHO TeM,

'ITO OCHOBHaH pHTMH'IeCKaH <popMYAa

nOBTopHeTCH H CBOHM nOBTopeHHeM YCHAHBaeT HeYCTOH'IHBOCTb. EIge: paccnarpnaaa AHHHIO MeAoca, Mbl BH~HM xepenoaanae nocrynenaoro H ~ame CKOAb3HIgero ~BHmeHHH (uanpaaxeaaoro aaepx) CO CKa'IKaMH roxoca (xnapra B TaKTe 2 H cexcra B TaKTe 4). ITepBblH CKa'IOK aa KBapTY 3anOAHHeTCH MeAO~H'IeCKHM ~BHmeHHeM TpeTbero TaKTa. BTOPOH CKa'IOK OCTaeTCH He3anOAHeHHbIM. TaKHM 06pa30M, 'IeTblpeXTaKT, 3aMKHYTbIH, Ka3aAOCb 6bl, apXHTeKTOHH'IeCKH (I: V : V: I) 6Aaro~apH crporoii CHMMeTpHH,- na ~eAe, B mHBOM 3BY'IaHHH, B HHTOHHpOBaHHH, OKaSbIBaeTC.H ~aAeKO He 3aMKHYTbIM H Tpe6yIOIgHM ~aAbHeHllIero pa3BepTbIBaHHH H aaaepllIe,HHH.

3~eCb nepen HaMH O~HH H3 npOCTeHUIHX H HarAH~HeHllIHX npHMepOB pa3J\H'IHH Mem~y <popMaJ\bHbIM, a6CTpaKTHo-apXHTeKTOHH'IeCKHM B033peHHeM na MY3bIKaJ\bHYIO <P0PMY KaK na HeMYIO cxesry BHe aarouaguonaoro CTaHOBAeHH}l, SHe 3BY'IaHH}l, H Y'IeHHeM o <popMe KaK npogecce, ace apesra 0IgYTHMOM aa CAYX H CAYXOM npoaepaeaou. Ho nOH}lTHe <pOPMbI KaK OKpHCTaAAH30BaBllIerOC}l B C03HaHHH npogecca <popMoBaHH}l MY3bIKH TeM CC'lMbIM He OTMeaaerca, a BocnOJ\H}leTCJI H otiorargae-rca. I1ccAe~oBaHHe me B3aHMOoruomeami TOAbKO rrpoc'rpancraenaerx (B3aHMo~eHCTBHe CHMMeTPH'IHblX H aCHMMeTpH'IHblX KOHCTpYKTHBHblX aAeMeHTOB) 6e3 BOCnpHJlTHJI naronagaonaoro B3aHMOTJlrOTeHHJI, T. e. KaK pas caxoro axra <POpMHpOBaHHJI MY3bIKH, noaacaer B soaayxe B BH~e O'IeHb pC!3YMHblX 3pHTeAbHbIX npoeKgHH pHTMH'IeCKHX .qeAeHHH. Ho ycsoe-

136

I'

HHe HX pasaexaer <P0PMbl-cxeMbI OT My3bIKH H otipasyer nponacre Mem~y }ImBOH MY3bIKaAbHOH pexero H ee me <popMaMH. ITPOHCXO~HT TaK, KaK 6y ~TO ara mHBaJl MY3bIKaAbHaJl pe'Ib ~AJI 'IerO-TO Han 0 A H $I e T rOTOBbIe apXHTeKTOHH'IeCKH 6e3ynpe'IHble <popMbIcxesnsr, KaK aoaa H BHHO COCy~bI pa3AH'IHbIX paasrepoa H THnOB, rorza KaK caMa-TOMY3bIKa BeAHKOJ\enHO MomeT cytgecraoaarn 6e3 BCJlKHX cxex. O~HaKO MomHO 6bIJ\O TOAbKO 'ITO y6e~HTbCJI, 'ITO apXHTeKTOHH'IeCKH 3aMKHYTbIH H ypannonemeaasrii na rxaa KOMnAeKC (I : V-V: 1) rpefiyer pa3BHTHJI. BeTXoBeH B CJ\e~yIOIgHX ~ByX r'axrax «noaxsareraaer» He3anOAHeHHYIO ceKCTY, npaaaer eH 3Ha'IeHHe «MeCTHOH» TO'IKH OTnpaBAeHHH H CMbIKaeT COOTHOllleHHe I: V (ToHHKa: ~oMHHaHTa), npeapaigaa ero H3 ~ByxTaKTHoro (CM. TaKTbl 1 H 2, 3 H 4 rrpHBO,(l;HMOro rrpnxrepa ) B O~HOTaKTHoe rrocrpoeHHe (CM. TaKTbl 5 H 6) H TyT me ~Bam~bl nOBTOpJlJl aTO HOBoe casaroe npoaeneaae, CAYX orgyrgaeT 'Ipe3BbI'IaHHO HeYCTOH'IHBOe COOTHOllleHHe. OHO YCHAHBaeTCJI etge TeM, 'ITO cexcra OCTaeTOI He ~O KOHga MeJ\O~H'IeCKH 3anOAHeHHoH. 3anOAHeHHe OCYIgeCTBAJleTCJI B CAe~YIOIgeH CTa~HH ~BHmeHHJI (TaKTbl 7 H 8 HOTHoro npmrepa ) H paBHOBeCHe HeCKOAbKO BOCCTaHaBAHBaeTCJI Ka~aHCOM. T eneps Mbl KaJ< 6Y,(l;TO HMeeM 3aMKHYTblH BOCbMHTaKT I : V-V: 1=4 TaKTa HI: V-I: V-I: II-V: 1=4 TaKTa, T. e. rrocrpoenae aCHMMeTpH'IHOe (ToHHKa - BoceMb ~oAeH TaKTa, a ~OMHHaHTa - mecr»). Ho 3aTO MeAO,(l;H'IeCKaJl ztyr-a - nO,(l;'beM OT el K dl H aacnaaaaae K el- nOAY'IHAa noxaoe saaepnreaae." B aTOM BOCbMHTaKTe <PopMyAa i: m : t TaKme ocyigecraxeaa, rrpH'IeM i 3aHHMaeT rrepasrii

* HeOAHOBpeMeHHOCTb «aaaepnrenaii» oaaospeaeaao AeHcTBYIOIgHX lfJaKTOPOB anxnerca 06bl'lHO UOKa9aTe1l.eM HeycTOH'IHBOCTH CTaHOB1I.eHHH H C1I.Y2KHT AIIHaMH'IeCKH flPKHM CTHMY1I.0M UpOABH2KeHHfl MY3bIKH. Oc06eHHO Har1l.flAHO 1ITO flB1I.eHHe B U01l.H<f!OHH'IeCKOH rxamr, xor.aa OAHH roxoc, CKa2KeM, HHTOHHpyer KaAaHCOBYIO<f!0PMY1I.Y, a ApyroH eige He AocTHr ee. Y Eaxa MHoro IIpHMepOB KaK nOP;06Horo poaa, TaK H 601l.ee C1I.OlKHhiX 1I.HHeapHbiX HeCOBlIap;eHHH.

UepBblH 6paHAeH6yprcKHH KOHyepT (adagio, TaKT 9 H T. A.):

41

~::: :-:'dlJ I ::~tm )1; ,.:=:1.:::1'"

0'1' aecoanaaenan KaAaHcoBblX HHTOHa!!HH HAeT IIYTh K TOHa1l.bHbIM HeCOBlIa. p;eHHflM 1I.HHHH aa 601l.blllHX paccronnnax, a C1I.eAOBaTe1l.bHO, H K 1I01l.HTOHa1l.bHbIM KOMII1I.eKcaM.

137

aaaepmeunsrii '-IeTblpeXTaKT, t = q>0pMYAa nOAHOrO xaaaaca (nocxeaHHe ana TaKTa BOCbMHTaKTa), a m = nOBTOp.fl1OIgHHCR HeYCTOH'HfBblll ~BYTaKT (I: V-I: V).

,llBHmeHHe erge He OCTaHaBAHBaeTC.fI, H He TOAbKO no npH'-IHHe nORBAeHH.fI CB.fI3YIOIgeH nOAYTaKTHOH xpOMaTH'-IeCKOH: rppaaer (CM. TaKT 8 upaxepa}, a rAaBHblM 06pa30M H3-3a otipaaoaaameroca neperaergenaa TOHHKH na BTOpylO nOAOBHHY raxra (zsencsoe OKOH'-IaHHe), 6Aaro~ap.fl '-IeMY yrrop na TOHHKY OKa3blBaeTC.fI HHTOHal,!110HHO He~OCTaTO'-IHbIM. Tor lJ,a BeTxoBeH noarop aer nOCAelJ,HHH: xererpexTaKT, HO He 6YKBaAbHO, a B BHlJ,e B a P 11 a H T a C '-Ipe3BbI'-IaH:HO CYIgeCTBeHHbIMH HHTOHal,!110HHbIMH H pHTMI1'-IeCKI1MH ClJ,BHraMI1. 113 cpaanenaa BocnpHHHMalOIgHM CAYXOM «opar-aaaxa» C «BapHaHTOM» B03HHKaeT HOBbIH: HHTOHal,!HOHHbIH: «KOHq>AI1KT», nanpaasenao Tpe- 6YIOIgHH: paapenrenna HAH 3aMbIKaHHR. ::ho 3aMbIKaHHe a o6paaye-rca na TpaHap;I,!aTOM TaRTe: TOHaKa HHToHHpyeTc.fI ff C CHAbHOH lJ,O;JI.H TaKTa H BAaCTHO oaxaneaaer BHHMaHHeM. BblCTPO BbI3BaHHoe aanpaasemre CTOAb HHTeHCHBHO, '-ITO lJ,aAbHellUlee UleCTHTaKTHoe «CTO.flHHe» na TOHHKe B BUlJ,e apnelJ,mUpOBaHHoro npotiera naepx H BHH3 He BbI3bIBaeT OIgyIgeHH.fI HHepTHOCTH.

KaK xoncrpyapyercs paspatiorxa aroro me COHaTHoro aAAel)po?

PYKOBO~HIgaR 11 06'belJ,HHR1OzgaH pI1TMO-q>OpMYAa lJ,OArO He BbICTYnaer aa nepnsrji rrxaa. BeTXOBeH Ha'-IHHaeT paapafiorxy C «nonXBaTa» H pHlJ,a nOBTOpeHHH: KalJ,aHCOBOro nma q>pa3bl U3 3aKA1OqUTeAbHOH cTa~HH 3Kcn03HI,!HH:

He pa3 npHMeHReMbIM B OlTOH COHaTe npHeMOM pac C e H H H H qeTxoro MeAO~H'-IeCKOrO oripasa B BHPTY03HOM apnenacapoaanaox npo- 6ere, a TaKme nYTeM OlAH3HH: BeTxoBeH nepeveigaer My3blKy H3 6eMOAbHOH: TOHaAbHOH: crpepsr (Es-dur, HO 6e3 ooaapvaceans TOHHKH, c.moll - Tome 6e3 TOHlIKH, TOAbKO YMeHbUleHHbIH: cerrraxaopz I-rnoll - KBapTceKCTaKKOplJ, TOHliKH *) B lJ,He3HYIO pe3KHM «rrepeAOMOM»: H3 f-mol!' noro xaaprcexcraxxopaa B ~OMHHaHTcenTaKKOp;'l;, nOTOM KBapTceKCTaKKOp;'l; fis-moll, nOCAe '-Iero ('-Iepe3 KBHHTceKCTaKKOplJ, na cis) BbIlJ,BHraeT r AaBHYIO TeMY COHaTbI B Dvdur, T. e. B HaH60Aee TOHaAbHO pe3KOM conOCTaBAeHHI1 ee C OCHOBHOH TOHaAbHOCTblO scero axxerpo (C-dur). nOAyqHBUlHH:ClI pe3KHH ClJ,BlIr scxope 3 a n Q A H H eTC H. TeMa 3Ta npOBOlJ,HTCR nOCAe D-dur

* OT TaK'J:a 97 C naxaxa COHaTbl H!\M OT rasera 7 paapatiorxn.

138

B gomoll, nOTOM B c-rnoll, nOTOM B I-moll, 11, TaKHM 06pa30M, 6poUleHHbIH asnue KBapTceKCTaKKOplJ, OlTOH: TOHaAbHOCTH noxyxaer sasepureaae ao aaxaxa penpaser, T. e. lJ,0 nosoro B03BpaIgeHHH nepBOH TeMbI yase B OCHOBHOH TOHaAbHOCTli. Ee «nOKa3» B KOHTpaCTHOM D-dur ycnenaer 3a6blTbcR, TorllJ,a KaK KOHCTPYI1PYIOIgMI 3Ty TeMY 1I 06'be~lfHRIOIgaR ace ~BHmeHlIe axxerpo pHTMO-q>opMYAa

B cmaTOM BH~e:

f7r5' n He YXO~HAa H3 nOAR BocnpHRTHR,

06pa3YH nepexon K penpuse.

I'!\aBa X

QlOPMbI, BA3HPYIOQ!HECH HA flPHHfjHflE KOHTPACTA (2)

Tlpaseneauoe onacaaae npogecca paspaeorxa B O~HOH 1I3 toHaT «BeTXOBeHa eIge XVII I aexa» B xaxec'rae HAAIOCTpal,!llH KO BceMY BbirneCKa3aHHOMY 06 OlTOH craaaa CTaHOBAeHHR COHaTHOCHMq>oHH'-IeCKOIlO axxerpo B03BpaIgaeT Hac K llaAbHeH:UleMY aHaAH3Y aroro CTaHOBAeHlIR, H He TOAbKO B COHaTax H CHMq>OHH.fIX, HO H B ztpyr ax COOTBeTCTBeHHblX lIM npOH3BelJ,eHlIRX. 3KCn03HI,!lIR H paspa60TKa 06bl'-IHO paaeepremaio'r CAomHYIO «urpy» KOHTpaCTHblX 3BYKOCO'-IeTaHI1H H COCTaBARIOT csoero poaa «apaaaryprrrsecnoe nocrpoeuae» C 60PlOIgHMHCR TeH~eHI,!lIHMI1, H~eHMH - H xapaxrepaMH-06pa3aMH.

B nocxeanex OTHOUleHHH oc06eHHO noxaaarexsnsr y B e p T 10 P bl KaK onepmae, TaK II aaeonepmae, HO He aneumero KOHI,!epTHO-BHPTY03Horo CTHAR, a yaep nopsr, nacsngeaaere CHMq>OHHqeCKHM pa3- BliTHeM H npeapargarorgaeca B CmaTbIH: OlJ,HOqaCTHbIH: I,!llKA lJ,BHmeHHH:. B HHX TeMbI BbICTynalOT B nOAHOH Mepe KaK HOCHTeAH xapaxTepOB HAH H~eH: H «paspaoorxa» RBAHeTCR apenoii KOHq>AHKTOB II CTOAKHOBeHHll, npU'-IeM nOCAe.n;OBaTeAbHO-3BOAIOI,!HOHHoe CTaHOBxeaae My3bIKH saece aa Kam~OM mar-y nepexoznrr B KOHTpaCTHOKaTaCTpOq>HqeCKOe, nOCTeneHHOCTb BbIBO~OB II lIX nOlJ,rOTOBKa CMeHHIOTCR HHTOHal,!HOHHo-peBOAIOI,!HOHHbIMH ClJ,BHraMH H neoasaaaaHbIMH nepeMeIgeHHHMH H H3MeHeHlIHMH (MYTal,!HRMH). EeTXOBeHCKHe yaep-nopsr ziaro'r oc06eHHO 6AeCTRIgHe nparaepsr «IIHCTpYMeHTaAbHOH .n;paMaTyprIIH», npaxesc q>HHaAbl HAH 3aKAIOqlITeAbHbie CTalJ,HH nexoropsrx H3 HHX npe.n;CTaBA.fIIOT c06010 HCKAlOqHTeAbHO Bblpa3HTeAbHble H OpraHH'IeCKHe CHHTe3bl C06blTHH (TparH'-IeCKliH KOHel,! yaeprropsr «KopHOAaH», n06elJ,HaH CHMq>OHHH «3rMOHTa», 3KCTaTH'-IeCKaH paaocre B q>HHaAe «Aeonopei» N\! 3). YBepTlOpaM CBOllCTBeHHbI 60Aee AaKOHH'-lHble, '-IeM B ClIMq>OHlIHX, CTa~HH nepexo~qB H CB.fI3eH H 60Aee cacarere pa3pa60TKH.

B npOTHBOBec pe3KO ~paMaTH'-IeCKOMY CTaHOBAeHHIO asrcrynaror 're I1pOH3Be~eHH.fI (CHMq>OHHH, COHaTbl, yaeprtopsr, CHMq>oHHqeCKHe

139

tJ09fv1:bI), B KOTOpblX IIIHpOKO paasnraa AHpHqeCKan neCeHHaJI AliHHJI (He 06IgaH rewa, a AHHHH) 0606IgaeT li crxaasaaaer KOHCTPYKTliBnsre OT ~eAbI COHaTHO-CliM<pOHliqeCKOro axxerpo. BOAHo06pa3HbIe nO~'beMbI fI aacnaaannsr, ~flHaMflqeCKlie I(pa~agflH, «rrafiyxaaae» li pa3pHmeHfle TKaHfI - CAOBOM, npOHBAeHRH opraaaaecsoii mli3HfI B rasoro poaa «neceaaerx» COHaTax 6epYT sepx naa OpaTQPCKliM na<pOCOM, Ha~ sneaanaerxa KOHTpaCTaMli, Ha~ ~paMaTliqeCKliM ~flaAO!;,OM fI CTpeMliTeAbHbIM pacxperraea fI~eH:. nOAblIIaH B-dur'HaJl COHaTa Wy6epTa - xapaxrepnsni rrpmrep ~aHHoro aanpaaxenas. DHO .3aMeTHO B CflM<POHflHX npaMca, npYKHepa, a ratose y Maxepa. TeM He MeHee ~ame B caMbIX pa3Ali'lHbIX no xapaxrepy paspatiorxax MomHO ace me BbI~eAflTb rpa CMeHHIOIgfieCH craaaa: OTnpaBHOH:

MOMeHT (OTTaAKliBaime OT xaaaaca sxcnoaagua, c~Blir TOA'lOK snepea) fI no~rOTOBKa nO~'beMa; O~Ha flAli HecKoAbKO' c'Ta~liH: rrozrseua (pacKpbITfie fI~eH: 9KCn0.3ligfifi C pa.3AliqHbIX TOqeK .3peaaa, ax conocraaxeaae, ax cxpergaaaane, ax paanpotixenae ) a, naxoaeg, MOMeHT cotiapaaas, KOHgeHTpaglili - 06bIqHO opraHHbIH: nyHKT, na KOTOPOM :TPOliTCH nepexon K penpnse, K B03BpaIgenaro r AaBeHcTBYIOIgeli TeMbI. ECAfi B 9Kcn03f1glifl npoacxoztar YCTaHoBKa OCHOBHbIX noxozseaaii, B paapafiorxe - ax pasaarue fI ax 60Pb6a.ITo B perrpase - npaseaenae K e~liHCTBY. B caMOM ~eAe,

I no cnoejry noxozsenaro penpasa HBAHeTCH CliHTe.30M - TeM MOMeH\ TOM, r ~e li.3 conocraaxenaii 9KCn0.3ligfifi li pa3pa60TKfI ~OAmHO \ BO.3HliKHYTb HOBoe ~e~liHCTBO. B penpase ~OAmeH OCYIgeCTBAHTbCH I npogecc, no~06Hbm 06pa.30BaHlilO nosoro xasecraa. T eM caMbIM

i cxexa COHaTHO-CflM<pOHliqeCKOro axxerpo nepecraer 6bITb TOAbKO paccy ~OqHbIM nocrpoeaaea, neTXOBeH (erto nanpacao c6AlimalOT C KaHTOM, neTxOBeH - conpeaenaax r erexa B ropasno 60AbIlIeH:

I creneaa, qeM nocxenoaarexs KaHTa) xaoro H ~oAro 6liACH HaA , np06AeMOH: penpaasr. T PY~HOCTb .3aKAlOqaAaCb B TOM, 'ITO O~HO

Aflilib TOHaAbHoe 06'be~liHeHfle r AaBHOH: li n060qHOH: na PTliH: He OC Y_ IgeCTBAHJ\O cnnreaa KaK oTpligaHflH orpaganaa, He ~aBaAO «HOsoro xasecrua», a qaIge scero TOAbKO MeXaHliqeCKH .3aMbIKaAO CTaHOBAeHlie. 3aMbIKaAO npoxao. Ho opraaavecsoro BbIBo~a aso scex npenmecrayrorgnj; naroaagaoaasrx KOH<pAflKTOB rioxy-rare HeAb.3H

,6bIAO. 3HaqflT, liAli ace npenurecrayrorges paaaarne Hli K qeMY 'He npnaoanr, fI perrpnaa - TynHK, CTeHa, MeXaHliqeCKHH: TOPM03, liAli - penpnaa He ecre .3aBepililiTeAbHaH CTa~liH ~BHmeHliH a TOAbKO MOIgHblH: onopasrii nYHKT, eCTeCTBeHHO npOTliBonOCTaB~ AeHHbIH: paapaoorxe. ~B yaep nope «8rMoHT», (1810) 6bIA HaH:~eH BbIXO~, nO~CKa3aHHbm nporpasoroii. Ho HeCKOAbKO panerne yase neTxoBeH, paaaanran paMKH CHM<pOHHqeCKOrO axxerpo, nozt aano-

;POM nOTpe6HocTH B CTpeMHTeAbHOM H 6ypHOM pa.3BHTHH H~eH:-TeM, CTaA CHAbHO paCIIIHpHTb KO~y, T. e. MY.3bIKY nOCAe penpaasr. 8TO CKa.3aAOCb yase BO BTOpOH: CliM<POHHH (1802), B Tpereeii me (1804) ,noAyqHAO 60Abilioe pa.3BHTHe. T eM caMbIM CliM<pOHHqeCKOe CTaHOBAeHHe YCAomHHAOCb. OO-Bli~liMOMY, BMeCTO <popMaAbHO nocxeno-

!40

M1'eAbHO~ 1'pHaAh!: 9KCfi0.3i-!gtur - paspatio-nca - perrpnsa (TO.ll.'10K - pa3BHTHe - 3aMb1KaHHe, HAH Te3HC - aHTHTe3HC - CHHTe3, CTPO<Pa - aHTHCTpO<Pa - arroa) 06pa30BbIBaAaCb IlIHPOKOOXBaTHaH nepaonanecxaa CHCTeMa CO CAOmHOH: ~H<p<pepeHgliagfieH <PYHKgHH:

BHYTPH Kam~oro H3 3BeHbeB. ECAH paccuarpaaa'rn 9KCII03HgHlO T peTbeH: CHM<POHHH KaK TOAqOK KOAOCCaAbHOH: CHAbI, Bbl3bIBaIOIgHH:\ HHTeHCHBHeH:IlIee pa3BHTHe (pa3pa60TKY), TO penpasa CBOfiM TO-' HaAbHbIM e~liHCTBOM, KOHe'lHO, He ~aBaAa CHHTe3a, a CTaHOBH.II.aCb TOAbKO n A 0 T H H 0 H:, na nexoropoe BpeMH c~epmHBalOIgeH HeYCTOH:qHBOCTb H KOHgeHTpHpYIOIgeH: ~eH:CTBYIOIgHe caxer (am-arcHHCTbI). 113 nOCAe~OBaTe.ll.bHOrO npOBe~eHHH B penpH.3e MY3bIKlY

, sxcnoaagaa, MY3bIKH, yzse YCBoeHHOH: CAYXOM H TYT CXBaTbIBaeMot KaK onepaerii Tom~eCTBeHHbIH: npo-nro opraHH30BaHHbIH: MaTepHaA, B03HHKaAO OIgYl!!eHHe paBHOBeCHH, HO OpraHH'leCKOrO cmrreaa CTaHOBAeHHH He nOAY'laAOCb, H60 B pe.3YAbTaTe pa3BHTHH onHTb HHTOHHpOBa.ll.CH npOH:~eHHbIH: yase aran, a He nopoasaeaaaa BceM npe~IlIeCTBYIOIgHM CTaHOBAeHHeM H 060raIgeHHaH HM 3aK.II.lOqHTeAbHaH MY3bIKa. I1Haqe roaopn, 9AeMeHTbI, COCTaBAHIOIgHe pa.3pa60TKY, ~OAmHbI 6bIAH nepeiiru B CBOIO npOTHBonOAomHOCTb - B CH.II.bI, saMbIKalOIgHe ~BHmeHHe, a He C T H M Y .II. H P Y IO Ig H e ero. 8TO Mbl i. . i H Ha6AIO~aeM B 6eTXOBeHCKHX xoaax. 00 OTHOIlIeHHIO K penpase ~ OHH HBAHIOTCH KaK 6bl HOBbIM 9TanOM pa3BliTHH H HOBbIM BH~OM pa3pa60TKH, a no OTHOIlIeHHIO K npenmecrayroigeay penpH3e pasBI1THIO-pa.3pa60TKe ~eH:CTByIOIgHe B xoae CHAbl asrcrynaror KaK paaBHTfleM-pa.3pa60TKoH nopoasaeaasre, HO nanpaaxenasre He K 60Pb6e, '

He K BbIHBAeHlilO KOHTpaCTOB, a K YCTaHOBAeHlilO caaresa li KOHgeHT-

pagHH ~BHmeHHH Ha KOHeqHOH: OnOpHOH: CTa~HH. TaKHM 06pa.30M, ~BHmeHHe, He npexpaigaexoe penpasoii, a TO.ll.bKO TOHaAbHO peryxapyexoe, BbI.3blBaAO KO~Y KaK HOBoe yraepasaeaae OCHOBHbIX no.l\OmeHHH:. J\1060nbITHO, C KaKHM ynopcTBOM H C KaKOH: HaCTOHqHBOCTblO yraepasnaer ceria B xoae rAaBHaH TeMa «8POHKH». 81'0 yase ~aAeKO He «MexaHHqeCKliH: .3aTBOp»!

I1TaK, 9KCn0.3HgHH H paspaoorxa - nepaan nOAOBHHa CTaHOB.l\eHHH axxerpo ~ MOIgHoe paspac'raaae ~BHmeHHH. 8TOMY aaTHCKY npOTHBonOCTaBJl.HeTCH penpasa, B KOTOPOH: nOBTopeHHaH MYBbIKa 9KcnoBHgHH repaer <PYHKgHfi TO JI. 'I K a H npenpargaerca B MaCCHBHYIO onopy. WHPOKO pasnepnyraa Ko~a, OTqaCTH na 9.1\eMeHTax MY3bIKH paBpa60TKH, npHMbIKaeT K penpase H oepasyer BMeCTe C HeH: BTOpOH: rpOMa~HbIH: OT~eA axxerpo.

OPH 1'aKoM <popMOBaHHH neTXOBeHY nOHa~06HAOCb BKAlOqeRHe B paBBHTHe H~eM: etge O~HOH: aHTHTeTH'leCKOH: C<PePbI, KpOMe n060qHOH: napran, 'ITO OH H caexax, BBe~H B pa.3pa60TKY «8pOHKH» HOBYIO KOHTpaCTHYIO .l\lipHqeCKYIO resry. 8Ta rexra eCTeCTBeHHO BOBBpaIgaeTCH H B xoze, YC.I\omHHH CTaHOBAeHHe TpHa~bI H yraepas~aH ~e.l\eHHe a.l\AerpO Ha ~Ba 60.l\bIlIHX MaCCHBa C nepHo~HBagHeH:

BHYTPH: TeBHC (c<pepa r Jl.aBHOH: naprnn ) - nepBbIH: aHTHTe.3HC (c<pepa n060qHOH: naprna} - BTOpOH: aHTflTeBHC (npoaenenae HOBOH:

(

141

All{ll1qeCKOH: TeMbi B paarape bOPbbbI HtJ;eH: H Ap<iManftIeCKOt'O Itanpaasenaa) H OTBeTHoe CHHTe3HpOBaHHoro rana noaropaoe nposeaeaae My3bIKH 9Kcn03HgHH H OTQaCTH pa3pa60TKH B penpase H KOtJ;e. T paana ipopMaAbHa paspynrena pa3BHTaH KatJ;OH (noxyxarorcs qeTblpe CTatJ;HH: 8Kcn03HgHH, paapaoorxa, penpnaa, xona) H BKAlOqeHHeM HOBaH aHTHTe3bI, no He no, cyrgecrny CBaeMY - B qeM H CKa3bIBaeTCR notieaa fierxonencxoro TBOpqeCKOra HHTeAAeKTa HatJ; cxeMaH. Cyrgecrno me aexa MHe npencranxaerca cAetJ;YlOrgHM: ace axxerpo «3paHKH»- nenpepemaerii rrorox pa3BHTHH HtJ;eH B HX B3aHMonpoHHKHaBeHHH H cocyigecr-aoaaaan. Ho KOHipAHKTHbIM TeHtJ;eHgHHM nepaoro OTtJ;eAa (9Kcno3HgHH H paspaoorxa naxotJ;HTCH B COOTHOIIIeHHH Te3bI H aHTHTe3bI) npOTHBonOCTaBAeH CHHTeS, COBMeCTHO ocyrgecTBAHeMbIH penpasoii H KOtJ;OH, H60, KaK R yzse rOBopHA, oana penpasa, 6YtJ;yqH nOBTo~HbIM TOHaAbHO- 0606rgeHHbIM npoBetJ;eHHeM OCHOBHbIX HtJ;eH, He penraxa HH tJ;HHaMHqeCKH, HH nCHXOAOrHqeCKH npo6AeMbI COHaTHO-CHMipoHHqeCKOrO pa3BHTHR Hero CHHTe3a KaK oTpHgaHHH oTpHgaHHH, KaK HOB oro 06pa30BaHHH (KaqeCTBa) B nrore COIIOCTaBAeHHH reanca H aHTHreaaca, flo, cyigecrny TpHatJ;HOCTb OCTaeTCH Hepa3pYIIIeHHoH. Ho HHaH sonpoc: RBAHeTCH AH KOtJ;a «3POHKH» BnOAHe CHHTe3HpYlOrgHM ace CTaHOBAeHHe CHMipOHHQeCKorc::i axxerpo 3BYKOKOMIIAeKCOM? MHe .l\HqHO KameTCH, qTO TaKOBbIM CHHTe30M B gHKAHqeCKliX ipopMax Bce-TaKH HBAHeTCH nOCAetJ;HHH xacr» - ipHHaA, tJ;a H TO He seer tJ;a. CHHTe3bI OtJ;HOqaCTHbIX CTaHOBAeHHH - TeaTpaAH30BaHHble ipHHaAbI yaeprrop, narrpnnep «3rMOHTa» H «J\eOHOpbI», B tJ;aHHOM OTHOIIIeHHlf CTaHOBHTCR, HeCOMHeHHO, srrepezm. Maoroxparnoe (B napaCTaHHH CHAbI 3ByqHOCTH) noaropenae rAaBHOH TeMbI axxerpo -«3paHKH» BO ace 60Aee H 60Aee IIAOTHOM 3BYKOBOM oxpyaceaaa..

-KOHeqHO, BbI3bIBaeT orgyrgeHHe AaBHa 3HaKOMOH HAeH, HO He xaxe-

-t:TBeHHa HOBOH crpepra, flpHqHHa TOMy HCHa: DeTxDBeH B CBOHX

CHMipoHHqeCKHX axxerpo rrxaaapoaax ztpaxrarypr-avecxne CTatJ;HH 60Pb6bI H rrofieay HAH rH6eAb HAeaAbHoH repOHqeCKOH AHQHDCTH, HecyrgeH csracree AlOtJ;HM-6paTbHM. B pa3BHTHH axxerpo BTOPOH H Tperseii CHMipOHHM:, nOCAe gelm KOHipAHKTOB, KOAa-CHHTe3 nOAY-raer aaaxeaae ropasecraa otioraigenaoii 60Pb6oH TeMbI-HAeH, rrpo- 13etJ;eHlIoH CKB03b AAHTeAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe. OHa 9Hepf'HQHa yrnepacaaer cefia B oxpyzsennn zrpyr-ax HtJ;eH, panee npoTHBoIIOcTaBAeHHbIX eM:, a TeIIepb corryrcrayiorgax H COIIOAqHHeHHblx. flo- 9TOMY r'a «MY3bIKa noaoro xauecraa», KOTopaH Bce me HHortJ;a 06- pasye rca B KOAax nepasrx sracreii 6eTxDBeHcKHx CHMipOHHH, HeHS- 6'emHD spargaerca B opfirrre rAaBHoH HtJ;eH, eio H3AYQaeTCH H K HeM: -Bo3BpargaeTCH. I1Hoe tJ;eAD B yseprropax KaK rpopxrax, rtJ;e CHMipO'HHqeCKDe CTaHOBAeHHe CBR3aHO nporpaMMOH H orpaaaseno AaHHhIM caMOtJ;OBAelOrgHM BHegHKAoBbIM 3atJ;aHHeM. ct>HHakCHHTe3 YBepTlOpbI «3rMOHT» BbITeKaeT H3 scero CTaHOBAeHHH TpareAHH: repoii rH6HeT, HO TopmecTByeT ero tJ;eAO - OTClOtJ;a MY3bIKa 3aKAlO'IHTeAbHDH CTa4HH ipopMHpyeTcR He KaK YTBepmAeHHe see ce6e

142

nOtJ;qHHHlOrgeM: PYKoBotJ;HrgeH TeMbI, He KaK erge DAHb paCKpblTHe H o60r!argeHHecipepbI rAaBHOM: IIapTHH, a KaK HOBDe KaqeCTBO, KaK HDBDD6pa30BaHHe. I1 eCAH B I qaCTH «3pOHKH» MbI HMeeM, B cyrgHDCTH AO KaHga 8BOAlOgHoHHoe CTaHOBAeHHe, TO, 3tJ;eCb, B ipHaaxe, 'CKaqOK, MyTagHH MY3bIKH, BocrrpHHuHMaeTCH KaK oprauaxHeM:IIIeH CHHTe3, KaK nopomAeHHaH 6DPb6DH KOHTpaCTHbIX TeHtJ;eH-

guM: rrD6etJ;DHDCHaH HtJ;eH.

Flocxe scero cxaaanaoro 0' CTaHOBAeHHH COHaTHD-cHMipoHHqe-

CKDrD axxerpo HeT HatJ;06HOCTH 60Aee nOAPo6HO OCTaHaBAHBaTbCH, na ipOpMHpDBaHHH yaeprrop, KaK 6eTXDBeHCKHX, TaK H tJ;pyrHx asTOpDB. CCblAalOCb na CtJ;eAaHHYlO MHDlO ITO ApyrDMY nD!DtJ;y norrbITKY aHaAH3a 9TOM: <pDpMbI H BCKPbITHH ee u 3HaqeHHH. Cqiepa «YBepTlOpHOCTH» HBAHeTCH csoero pona 60raTeHIIIHM DnbITHbIM noAeM IIpHAumeHHH Tex CTHMYAOB ipopMDD6pa3DBaHHH MY3bIKH, KDropsre MD)I{HD D6'betJ;HHHTb KaK rrpHHgHII KDHTpaCTa (6Dpb6a, KDHipAHKT, AHaAeKTHqeCKDe CTaHDBAeHHe HtJ;eM:, «HHCTpYMeHTaAbHaH

) C TDqKH 3peHHH BbIKDBbIBaHHH H HaKDITAeHHH tJ;paMaTyprHH» •

ynpyrnx, TDqHblX H AaKDHHqHbIX npHeMDB H cpetJ;CTB BblpameHHH

CDHaTHD-cHMipDHHqeCKOrD aA.I\erpD - KDMITD3HTDpCKaa pafio ra HatJ; YBepTlOpaMH npetJ;CTaBAHeTCH MHe KuaK TBDpqeCKaH Aa6DpaTDpHH, B KDTDPDM: ace BbltJ;alOrgHecH eBpDITeHCKHe MY3blKaHTbi ITpHHHMaAH

tJ;eHTeAbHeHIIIee yqaCTHe.

AHaAH3HpYH tJ;HHaMHqeCKDe CTaHDBAeHHe MY3bIKH nepsoro ax-

xerpo T peTbeH CHMipDHHH DeTXDBeHa, H YKa3bIBaA na BbIHBAeHHe TaM HerrpepblBHDCTH pa3BHTHH HAeM: xepes rrepHD-:H3agHlO tJ;BHmeHHH H na npeo aoxemre DeTxoBeHoM ipopMaAbHOH TpeXqaCTHDCTH C npetJ;onpetJ;eAeHHbIMH rpaHHMli tJ;AH KamtJ;oro OTtJ;eAa. Berge 60AbIIIeM: CTeneHH, qeM B T peTbeH CHMipOHHH, tJ;HHaMHqeCKDe ipOPMHPO~ BaHHe My3bIKH B 60Pb6e KOHTpaCTHbIX TeM-CTHMYAOB, BeAyrgeH K KDHeqHOMY YTBepmtJ;eHHlO OCHOBHOr'.o Te3Hca, AaeT ce6H 3HaTb B I qaCTH AeBHTaM: CHMip0HHH. 3Aecb tJ;BHmeHHe pa3BHBaeTcH B xererpex IIOCAetJ;OBaTeAbHbIX cTatJ;HHx-Ba,PHaHTax. H r~BoplOaapaaarax, ITOTOMY qTD KamtJ;aH H3 cTaAHH HMeeT 06rgHH TDAqOK HAH HCXOtJ;HbIM: CTHMY A H B pa3J\HqHbIX rpatJ;agHHx 3ByqHDCTH HHTOHHpyeMble PYKOBDtJ;HrgHe HtJ;eH. YeTblpe CTaAHH06pa3YlO:_ CTaHDBAeHHe I qaCTH: 9KcrrD3HgHH, ee pa3BHTHe, HAH nepnem sapHaHT; penpH3a, HAH BTOpOM: BapHaHT 9KcrrD3HgHH, H KOAa, HAH TpeTHH BapHaHT C 3aMbIKalOrgHM ABHmeHHe CHHTeTHqeCKHM napaCTaHHeM ** H KOHeqHbIM YTBepmtJ;eHHeM OCHOBHoro Te3Hca B BHtJ;e

o aKKaptJ;OB TOHHKH. B Kam-

MeAotJ;HqeCKOrO KatJ;aHca B3aMeH TDAbK . u

AOM: H3 CTaAHH npHHHMalOT yqaCTHe, KamtJ;bIll pas B npeodpasoaanHDM BHtJ;e, KaK 6bI 060rargaHcb OT KamtJ;oro DqepeAHOrD npoBetJ;eHHH

* 11 I' ° P b r 11 e 6 ° B. YBepTlOpa «Pycxan Ii J\1O!(Mlilla» rllliHKIi.-

«MY3blKallbHali AeTOllHCb», c6. II. ITI'_, 1923. . u

** 11Melo B BH!(Y napacraaae «rpaypusrx !paH(jJap» na xpOMaTHQeCKOH «rro1l3YIgeii» !pHrypagHH CTpYHHblX H !paI'OTOB, T. e. M}'3bIKY C TaKTa 513

I '{aCTH CHM!p0HHH.

143

ApaMaTyprlUI «A n n a C C 11 0 HaT bI»!) COqeTalOTCR Y Hero C He- 06Y3,lJ;aHHOll l1rpOll crpacreii B pOMaHTHqeCKl1X nsecax WHAAepa, 11 B cis-rnoll'noii CO nare (B STOll, no asrpaasemno B. B. CTaCOBa, «qy,lJ;HOll ,lJ;paMe, C A106oBblO, peBHOCTblO H rp03HbIM Y,lJ;apOM KHHmaAa B KOHge» 9) HeAb3R He nOqYBCTBOBaTb narpoca «KOBapCTBa Ii AI06Bl1» 11 «Pa360llHHKOB». B caMOM ,lJ;eAe, Be,lJ;b aTO ,lJ;Be pasn sre KYAbTypbI: TeaTp 11 oparopcxaa TpH6YHa - na O,lJ;HOll CTopOHe, H .IIHpHqeCKOe BOAHeHHe H nCHXOaHaA113 - na ,lJ;pyroll. O,lJ;HO HCKYCCTBO - ofinapyasenae aMogHll B ,lJ;paMaTyprl1H 11 PHTOpl1qeCKOll KOMn03HgHl1, 11 COBceM ztpyroe HCKYCCTBO - CTpeMAeHHe sapaanre CAyinarexeii He nponoaensro, He «nrpoii», He neiicraaev, a nenocpeaCTBeHHO AHqHbIM rrepeacaaaaaew, HCKpeHHHM BbICKa3bIBaHHeM, uarrpaaseaaev H pa3pR,lJ;OM aMogHoHaAbHoro TOKa (lIly6epToBCKaII COHaTa B aTOM CMbICAe MomeT 6bITb aHTHTe30ll 6eTXOBeHCKOll, KaK pOMaHTHqeCKaR - KAaCCHqeCKoll). 11 Ta me casraa anoxa BbI,lJ;BHHYAa TpeTHll THn - BHPTY03HOll, KOHgepTHoll H. caAOHHOll COHaTbI, oxens cAa60ll ,lJ;paMaTyprHqeCKH, HO HacbIrgeHHoll H3RrgHOll AHPHKOllAHPHKOll npHRTHOll fieceasr, a He AHPHKOH OT «He Morly MOAqaTb»,

---OT BOAHeHHR, BbI3BaHHoro CTpaCTHbIM qYBCTBOM rrpapoasr HAH AIO-

60BHbIM coaepgaaaeu. 113RrgHaR pexe BMeCTO npononeaaasecxofi nAaMeHHOH pHTOpHKH, KOKeTCTBO BMeCTO HCKpeHHeH AI06BH, arpa; 06pa3aMH BMeCTO pacraxmga H,lJ;ell H xapaxrepca. B !paKType TaKHX COHaT (H,lJ;yrgHX OT COHaTbI POKOKO XVIII B.) npeofixaztaro'r opHaMeHTaAbHOCTb, rgeroAbcTBO BHPTY03HOll CTOPOHOll, pacner na KOAOpHCTHqeCKHe a!p!peKTbI napaay C na!pOCOM rearpa pOMaHTHqeCKOll aaaarropsr H TO KPHKAHBOll, TO ceHTHMeHTaAbHOll MeAO,lJ;paMbI.

B MeAO,lJ;HKe - KOM!pOpT caxona HAH KOHgepTHbIll AOCK. J\.yqlIlee, 'ITO CKa3aHO a aroii 06AaCTH, npaaanxeasar COHaTaM Be6epa. B I!HX MaAO Be6epa «(f)pelllIlIOTga», HO ecre Bce-TaKH npnsrraere, CBemHe cTpaHHghl AH60 B xapaKTepe TeaTpaAbHOll pOMaHTHKH C na!pOCOM

_ yzsacaoro H He06bI,lJ;eHHOrO (c aenpexeaaem YMeHblIleHHbIM cerrraxKOP,lJ;OM), AH60 - KaK KOHTpaCT aTOMY narpocy - BO BKyce 6H,lJ;epMellepOBCKOH CKPOMHOll, «,lJ;OMalIlHell» YIOTHOCTH. TaKHM 06pa30M, cxexra COHaTbI - O,lJ;Ha H Ta me BCIO,lJ;y, HO CTaHOBAeHHe My3bIKH II ee xapax rep, a BMeCTe C TeM H npogecc orpopsrxenaa, BocnpHHHMaeMbIll B 3ByqaHHH, B HHTOHHpOBaHHH,- rAy60Ko pa3AHqHbI. Paspa- 60TKa B «K 0 H g e p THO r 0» rana CO HaT ax TepReT CBOIO nanpsmeHHOCTb H CBO,lJ;HTCR K a!p!peKTHO-BHelIlHHM conOCTaBAeHHRM.

Erge naaxe npORBARAH ce6R CBOHCTBa COHaTHO-CHM!pOHHqecxoro axxerpo B TaK Ha3bIBaeMOll nporpaMMHOll MY3bIKe (Eep.l\H03, J\.HCT). * B Hell KOHTpaCTHoe CTaHOBAeHHe KaK OCHOBHoe CBOllCTBO COHaTHOCTH npeAOMARAO CKB03b CBOH npHHgunbI orpopxxetraa npo-

* EepAl103 C llCKAlOqnTeAbHoil: nponngarexeaocrero yr aaax H pasaax TeaTpaAbHble npeanocmxxa cOHaTHo-cItMqJoHHqeCKOll qJOPMbI KaK IIItHaMltqecxoro gHKAa H c0311aA geHHellIIIlte o6pa3ghI «HHcTpYMeHTa-AbHOrO rearpa» HAH TeaTpaAH30BaHHoH CHMqJOHlIlt, a TaKlKe CIIMqJoHHn - poraanr asrecxoii HOBeAAbI, cHMqJoHnn - opa ropcxoii peqn II T. II.

146

rpa~MOH: HaaeRlHlbte HAM ,lJ;MKTyeMbIe cHTyanHM 06

AeMcTBHe H KapTHHHOCT (6 "" , paasr ~ H,lJ;eH.

) b H30 pa3HTe.l\bHbie aAeMeHTbl: neaaaas H

maHp 3aCTaBARIOT HMMaHeHTHoe pa"BHTHe My

'" 3blKH CBR3bIBaTb CO

CTHMYAaMH, H3BHe ,lJ;aHHbIMH. KaK !popMa npeHMyrgecTBeHHO ,lJ; a-

MaTYprHqeCKaR H B03HHKalOrgaR H3 CTaHOBAeHHcr K P

H,lJ; U flo OHTpaCTHblX

~H-:.eM, COH~THO-CHM!pOHHqeCKOe axxerpo OKa3aAOCb qpe3BbIqallHO

rH KOH cpeaoa, aCCHMHAHpYlOrgell caMble pa3Ho06pa3Hbie no COp;epmaHHIO rrporpaausr, 6AarO,lJ;apR qeMY CTaAO B03MomHbiM B3aHMHoe OnAO,lJ;OTBopeHHe H opranasecsoe B3aHMO,lJ;eHCTBHe MY3blKH H poa3HH, AHTepaTypbl, !PHAOCO!PHH H mHBonHCH (J\.HCT WTpayc

erep, MaAep). KOHeqHO, nOBTopRIO, TOAbKo l1tJ;eR TeM~Tl1qeCKOr~ pa3BHTHR, KaK OHa naurxa ce6e MeCTO B cOHaTHo-cHM!poHHqeCKOM cTaHoBAeHHH, 06ycAoBHAa B03MomHOCTb CTOAb

coioaa. nAO,lJ;OTBopHoro

r , ana XI

OBPA30BAHHE UHKAOB HA OCHOBE KOHTPACTA

40 CHX nop<, MbI HMeAH ,lJ;eAO C O,lJ;HOH H3 BblClIlHX !POPM My- 3bIKH, ,B KOTOPOH nameA CBOe r Ay6oKO cop;ep*aTeAbHoe sonxorgeHHe npHHgHn KOHTpaCTa KaK CTHMYAHPYlOrgHH ,lJ;BHmeHHe !paKTOp.

o conaTHO-CHM!pOHHqeCKOe axxerpo - He Bcer,lJ;a 3aMKHYToe geAoe a sacre COHaTbl HAH CHM!POHHH, xcropsre npetJ;CTaBARIOT c060~ gHKA «MY3bIKaAbHbIX ,lJ;BHmeHHH» pa3AHqHOH !paKTypbl H nocryna, feHe3HC H !paKTopbl HCTOpHqeCKOro rrpogecca B03HHKHOBeHHR H 06- pa30BaHHR HHCTpYMeHTaAbHblX gHK.I\OB, neporrrno, KopeHRTcR B My~KYAbHO-MOTOPHbIX CTH~YAax (conOCTaBAeHHe pa3AHqHbiX no PHTMY

xapax repy ,lJ;BH*eHHH - XO,lJ;b6bl H na TaHgeB: CIOHTHble KOMno- 3HgHH),u a raxase B CTHMYAax, nopOm,lJ;eHHblx 060rargaBlIleH:CR nCHXHqeCIWH mH3HbIO no Mepe pOCTa ,lJ;YXOBHOH KYAbTypbI. 8BOAlOgHR HHCTpYMeHTaAH3Ma O~HaqaeT oCB060*,lJ;eHHe MY3blKH H3-nO,lJ; nenocpeac raennor-o B03,lJ;eHCTBHR rearpa noaana H TaH

, ga H POCT ee

caMOCTORTeAbHOCTH (COHaTHble gHKAbl).

003B,?AIO ce6e C.,lJ;eAaTb. HeCKOAbKO CCbl.l\OK. Bo-nepBblX na HMelOrgHHcR B «Muslkgeschlchte in Beispielen» PHMaHa -'We-

pHHra npHMep ,lJ;OBOAbHopaHHero KOHTpacTHoro pHTMHqeCKOrO conOCTaBAeHHR B BIT,lJ;e nOCAe,lJ;OBaHHR naaaa sr (BeAHqaBbIii: H nAaBHblH TaHeg) H raAbRp,lJ;bl (nO,lJ;Bm~mOH: TaHeg C npblmKaMH).* KOHT aCT TeMnOB: largo H allegro glOcos~, no Onpe,lJ;eAeHHIO pe,lJ;aKTo~oB. KOHTpacTbl PHTMo-MeTpHqeCKHe' ritrno di tre battuto

u ( 11' - ,lJ;BYX,lJ;OAb-

HblH paasrep a a breve) Ii ritmo di quattro battuto

U M _ -Tpex-

,lJ;OAbHblH paaaep. eAO,lJ;HqeCKHH MaTepHaA TOm,lJ;_ e C T B e H H bl II

,

. * H II g,o R i e man n. Musikg hi ht . B'

spiel N 31 (S. 58). esc IC e In _ eispielen. Lpz., 1912. Bei-

147

no CQOTBeTCTBeHHO pHTMHtIeCKH np~06pa30BaHHbIM:. 9noxa: 1530 1'oA. choT me npHMep npHBoAHTCH HapHAY C ApyrHMH geHHbIMH AAH H3ytIeHHH npogeccon rpopraoaaaaa TaHgeBaAbHOH: MY3bIKH 06pa3- gaMH B paoore: F. B I u m e. Studien zur Vorgeschichte dE'~ Orchestersuite irn 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (Lpz., 1925). DaBaHa H raAbHpAa B XVI BCKe 06pa3ylOT eaaa AH He nepnoe npouaoe 3BeHO B HCTO,PHH ClOHTbI (H60 0 TaKOH: POAH Basses danses - XV B. npHXOAHTCJI noxa ronopare C OCTopomHOCTblO). 113 APyrli:x napasrx 06paSOBaHHH: BbIAeAJllOTCJI: Basse danse - H Tour dion, Pass'e mezzo - H Saltarello, Allemande - Saltarello. Bee 3TH conOCTaBAeHHJI B03HHKalOT H3 COCCACTBa B xopeonpaqiaveCKOH: npaKTHKC TaHga «IIIaroM», «nap'repaoro», CKO!l.bSJI!!!,croB 1JCTHOM pHTMC H TaHga C «npblmKaMH» - B HCtICTHOM pHTMC. K.aK TPCTHH: COtIACH rrpHCOCAHHJlACJI K napnoii rpyrme TaHcg Velte (HTaA. Piva). OpraHH3YlO!!!,HM CPOPMY rpaaropov JlBAJlCTCJI npezsae

npe06pa"OBaHHC MaTCpHa.ll.a. I1s ~ I I I 1

Bccro pHTMH1JCCKOC '" tI tI tI "

~ I rroAY1JHAH .. d

J I d

J I

H3 J n - i ,)l J (Blume,

S 117) H P BH!l.bHO 3aMCtIaCT b!l.lOMC, Aa!l.bHCH:IIICC pas-

• . 0, KaK n a

BHTHe ClOHTbI KaK MY3bIKaAbHO-3aKOHOMcpHoro npogecca gHK.l\H3agHH H MyTagHH MaTcpHaAa 6bIAO 06YC.I\OBACHO APyrHMH, 60ACC CY!!!,CCTBCHHbIMH npHtII1HaMH, tICM «Suitenbildung durch Reduk. tion», a B nepsyro OtICPCAb POCTOMAOMaIIIHcro H 06!!!,CCTBcHHoro MY3HgHpoBaHHJI yzse ne TOAbKO C npHKAa,1lHbIMH gCAJlMH, a pa,1lH HaCAamACHHJI MY3bIKOH:.

Dp06.1\cMa cnepaa SaKAlOtIaAaCb B CO'lCTaHHH ,1lByX npaaganoa cpopMOBaHHJI. C O,1lHOH: CTOpOHbI, coxpaaarn B Kam,1l0M H3 3BCHbCB ClOHTbI 3ACMCHTbI, Tom,1lCCTBCHHbIC C rrcpBbIM 3BCHOM (,1l0CTHraAocb BTO HC TOAbKO tIHCTO MCXaHHtICCKHM nCpCKAlOtICHHCM MCAO,1lHH HS O,1lHOrO MCTpa B ,1lpyroH:, HO BCC 60Aec H 60ACC rH6KHMH MCTaMopCP03aMH-BapHaHTaMH OCHOBHOH: MeAOAHtICCKOH: AHHHH), a C npyrOH: - aKgcHTHpoBaTb KOHTpaCTHbIC BACMCHTbI H TCM BbUIBHTb caMOCTOHTCAbHOCTb Kam,1l0rO HOB oro SBCHa (HanpHMCp, nYTCM

* Marepaax panaax CIOHT aeaer HerrOCpe,1l;CTBeH~O K HCTOKaM b enponeaCKOH HHCTPYlIIeHTaAbHOH MY3blKH - K rrOAH$OHHqeCKOH TaHgeBaAbHOH MY3bIKe cpeaaeaexoaan H Pcaeccaaca H K Ha6AlO,1I;eHHJlM aa POCTOM BapHaHTHO-BapHagHoHHoro $OpMOBaHHJI TKaHH: BTO Aa60paTOpHl'1 HHCTPYMe,lITaAbHOro ~eAoca. Blume oxene MeTKO onpezexaer HCKYCC!BO BaPHagH,H «als ewe fortschr~ltendc Verinnerlichung eines Gedankes, der immer neue Gestaltungen aus 51Ch gebier!" [«KaK nocrynarexeuoe yr Ay6AeHHe MbICAH, nopOlK,1I;alOI!!eH BCe HOBble H HOBble ofipaasr»] (HeM.). 11 Ha,1l;O CKa3aTb, qTO B BTOH ero paoore OC06eH'l0 HHTepecen MaTepuaA no BBOAlOguu HHcTpyMeHTaAbHblX BapuagHll H no HaKorrAeHHIO u POCTY TeXHHKH TOlK,1I;eCTBeHHblX (BapuaHTHbIX) oopasoaaanii B MY3blKe Peneccanca. CaMbllll paHHHM npasrepoa BapUa!!HII B opKeCTpOBOM TaHge Blume CqUTaeT aAAeMaH,1I;y «Lorraine» B C60pHIIKax Pierre Phalese 1571 u 1583 rr.

148

HOB oM: rapMOHH3agHH 06!!!,'ero MeAOAHtICCKOrO MaTepHaAa). TCHACHgHH raxoro ipona MOmHO npOCAC,1lHTb yzse B npHMHTHBHCH:UIHX ClOHTHbIX 06pa30BaHHHX 30-50-x rO,1l0B XVI aexa B C60pHHKax cppaHgY3cKO-HH,1lCpAaH,1lcKHX raages (AytIIllHe npmrepsr onHTb-TaKH B ynoMJlHYTOH: KHHrc Fr. Blume). Ho HaH60Aec JlPKHMH H AeH:CTBHTeAbHO BbICOKOXY,1l0meCTBeHHbIMH ,1l0CTHmCHHHMH XVI sexa - B HCTopHtJecKOH: nepcnexrrme ClOHTHbIX cpopMoo6pa30BaHHii: na OCHOBe BapHaHTHOCTH * KaK 06'be,1lHHJllO!!!,ero H BMeCTe C TeM pasnnaaroigero ABHmeHHe npHHgHna - JlBAHlOTCJI HHCTpYMCHTaAbHble nbeCbI H3 C60pHHKa Pierre Phalese 1583 no a Ha3BaHHeM Pass'e mezzo d'Italie (acxoaaas MeAO,1lHJI alla breve H tJeTblpe ee napaaara - modo, 3aTeM pcrrpHsa - represa - C ,1lByM5I BapHaHTaMH;

3

CIOAa npaxsmaer caxarapexxo B 4 C HeKoTopbIMH 06!!!,HMH HHTO-

HagHHMH, HO H3 Apyroro MeAO,1lHtIeCKOrO srarepaaxa C tJeTblpbM}l BapHagHJlMlf H penpasoii) H Pass'e mezzo moderno (HcxOAHaH MCAOAHJI alla breve H xererpe modo: secondo, terzo, quarto

e quinto, 3aTeM penpasa C TPCMJI modo, 3aTCM caAbTapCAAO ~ C ABYMJI BapHaHTaMH H pa3BHTOH: penpasoii ).

DpH M e p bI.

npeAAaralO HeCKOAbKO ofipasgos modo H3 ynousnyrsrxPass'e mezzo d'Italie (F r. B 1 u m e. Anhang. B. Musikbeispiele 25_a10) •

43

r, - I I -
-0) T r 1'- -I 'LJ:.!] I I I ~ r r
, )lJm n I J J J J J ..l ,..1
.Ii. r. I I 1 I I J
OJ " r r r r r I I I I" r r-- ~\ r r etc.
J J I L , I I J J ~ J J ~
:
r r I I I I I I * IlOAbllYIOCb BTIIM nOHJlTUeM, B OTAllqHe OT HHCTpYMeHTaAbHbIX opaasreaTaAbHblX BapHa!!HH. B aapaaarax Mbl HMeeM ,1I;eAO He C HeH3MeHHbIM KOCTJlKOM, aa KOTOPOM pacgseraer opaasrenr, a C rrpe06pa30BaHHJlMH (paCTHlKeHHJlMIt H CTHrHBaHlfJlMff, COKpaI!!eHHHMH) MeAO,1l;HqeCKOH AffHHH. BrrOCAe,1l;CTBHH, B XIX B., BapHa~HJI KaK BapHaHT CTaAa OKOHQaTeAbHO ,1I;OMHHHponaTb Hall: BapltagffeHopHaMeHTOM.

149

Secondo modo. 44

Secondo modo.

47

fI .... I I ....
eJ I I , [IJ I I I LLJ W i
.d ..! ..J , J ~ J ; J.
r ~ fI - ~
-1 I I D r l
etc.
- nJ J
-r 1 Ti

Quinto modo. 11
eJ U' r r
J I. I.
r L....J-..J etc.

4S

1\ ....-!I_.~
.r j I , lU r bJ'r '\ II I r---
~ .d 1 .)1 l/
• #-1'- 19- ~ J. j)
~r Saltarello. 46·

1

1\
iJ, " " T
etc.
J. J J.
T' r c. 1 .J....J 150

Quarto modo.

48

1

1\ - I ,...
eJ I I , r I P i r Dr i p-r ,
etc.
J 1 ., , J J. Jj"j J I ..!. m 1
.. r r 49

1\ I I ~
.J r Ir ~~ r: ~jT /i I II r . p '1
, lJj ..J J I J I I lJ ..J J J
r . 1 1 r r I KaK nOKa3bIBaeT MaTepHa.!\. 9THX paHHHX gHKAHqeCKHX <l>0PMO- 06pa30BaHHll:, MY3bIKaHTbI IUJ\H B csoeii HMIIpoBH3agHoHHOll: npaxTHKe nYTeM TIgaTeJ\bHoro YCBoeHHJI Kam,1l0ll: IIJI,1lH HHToHagHoHHbIX 3aBOeBaHHll:. TexHHKa npO,1lBHmeHHJI rOJ\OCOB OCHOBaHa na ynopnoii H nOCTOJlHHOll: genJ\JleMOCTH aa HCXO,1lHYlO MeJ\O,1lHQeCKYlO TOQKY (oaa me 06bIQHO finalis)- p06KHll: OTXO,1l OT nee H cell:Qac me B03BpaT, ,1lBa-TpH aapnaarnsrx ,1lBHmeHHJI H Ka,1laHC. npaB,1la, neaoropsre MeAO,1lHQeCKHe HHcTpYMeHTaJ\bHble o6pa30BaHHJI XV Bexa yzse coaepacar B ce6e ,1l0 IIJlTH-IUeCTH aapaarrrtrstx fioxee HAH MeHee caMOCTOJlTeJ\bHblX «rrorrenox» HJ\H QJ\eHeHHll:, ItO ace OHH«xoporxoro AbIxaHHJI», MaJ\oKoHTpacTHbI H, KaK TOAbKO QTO 6bIAO

151

CKa3aHO, «TOPOIUITCH» BepHYTbClI K HCXOll:HOH TO'lKe. O'leBHlI:HO, HHToHagHoHHaH YCTOH'IHBOCTb lI:OCTHraJ\aCb C TPY lI:OM. BocnpnaTHe TO'lHO TaK me, O'leBHlI:HO, Tpe60BaJ\0 nOCTOHHHoro OIgYIgeHHH Tomll:eCTBeHHOCTH H «OCH3aHHH» orropasrx nYHKTOB, He 6y lI:Y'IH HHa'ie B COCTOHHHH «3anOMHHaTb». ABHmeHHe 60J\ee lI:J\HTeJ\bHoe H na OTHOCHTeJ\bHO lI:aJ\eKHe paCCTOHHHH - rrpa He06xoll:HMOCTlI '1aCTOrO HHTOHHpOBaHHH OTnpaBHbIX MOMeHTOB - He lI:aBaJ\OCb lI:O Tex nop, noxa CJ\YX He CTaJ\ pa3J\H'IaTb OCHOBHble onopnste nYHKTbI C HX !f>YHKgHHMH H B3aHMOTHrOTeHHHMH: rorna Kam,1l;aH ,1I;OCTHrHYTaH HOBaR TO'lKa n03BOJ\HJ\a «ygemrreca» aa nee H OTCIO,1I;a npO,1l;BlIraTbCH aaxee. AHHHH Ha'laJ\H MaJ\o-nOMaJ\Y CTaHOBHTbCH 60J\ee pa3BHTbIMH H 60J\ee npOTHmeHHbIMH.

Bce-TaKH na 9TOM nYTII BapHaHTHaH paspatio'rxa He Mor J\a npO,1l;BHraTbCH ,1I;aJ\ee cpaBHHTeJ\bHO TeCHbIX npeaexon H OrpaHH'IeHnoro KOJ\H'IeCTBa npHeMOB H BapHagHoHHo-opHaMeHTaJ\bHble ofipa- 30BaHHH BocnpHHHMaJ\HCb xerxe, '1eM rrpoaaaasenae, KaK pH,1I; CTa,1l;HH pa3BHTHH H npe06pa30BaHHH ,1I;aHHOrO MeJ\O,1l;H'IeCKOrO MaTepaaxa, TaHgeBaJ\bHble nsecsr, CBH3aHHble nOCTORHCTBOM ofinapymeHHH PHTMO-!f>0PMY J\bl, BapbHpOBaJ\H O,1l;HO H TO me ,1I;BHmeHHe, U nOTOMY TpY,1I;HO 6bIJ\0 paCC'IHTbIBaTb aa rrporpecc B CMbICJ\e paclIIHpeHHH 06'beMa H np0,1l;OJ\mHTeJ\bHOCTH MY3bIKH. Taageaaxsnaa PUTMO-!f>0pMYJ\a ,1I;OnYCKaJ\a CKOJ\bKO yrO,1l;HO BapHaHTHbIX noaropeHHH B 0I1pe,1l;eJ\eHHbIX pasixax, HO ,1I;J\R ror-o '1T06bl H3MeHHTb H pacmapnre . KOHCTPYKgHIO, '1T06bI npOBO,1l;HTb pa3BHTHe gHKJ\OB B nOJ\HOH Mepe,- CJ\e,1l;OBa.l\O HaHTH ztpyr'yro, 60J\ee 6J\aronpHHTHYIO

f nO'lBY. TaKOBOH, eCTeCTBeHHO, OKa3aJ\aCb 06J\aCTb HHCTpYMeHTaJ\bI HOH: MY3bIKH, He 06YC-J\OBJ\eHHaR TaHgeM, oc06eHHO My3bIKa opran: HaH. He B,1I;aBaRCb B HCTOpH'IeCKOe paCCMOTpeHHe OT,1I;eJ\bHblX

!f>opM,-TaK KaK B ,1I;aHHOM cxyxae ,1I;J\H Hac BamHO He npocxeasnaaHHe npHHgHnoB gHKJ\H'IeCKoro BHeTaHgeBaJ\bHoro !f>opMo06pa30BaHHH BnJ\OTb -,11;0 ero HCTOKOB, a HX 60J\ee HJ\H MeHee OT'IeT J\HBoe npORBAeHHe,- C,1I;eJ\aeM J\HlIIb HeCKOJ\bKO YKa3aHHH: na oc06eHHO xapaxrepnere HBJ\eHHH, KaK, narrparsep, aa HHCTpYMeHTaJ\bHble KaHgOHbI, gepKoBHble H KaMepHble COHaTbI H T. n. npOH3Be,1l;eHHH XVI-XVII BeKOB, H3 KOTOPbIX nOCTeneHHO CJ\omHJ\HCb gHKJ\H'1eCKHe KOMn03HgHH KJ\acCH'IeCKOH: H pOMaHTH'IeCKOH: anOXH (XVIII-XIX BB.). Illecre xaagoa CDpecK06aJ\b,1l;H * (1583- 1644) npe,1l;CTaBAHIOT c06010 J\1060nblTHble 06pa3gbI gHKJ\H'IeCKHX nocTpoeHHll. Ilepsas '1eTbIpexrOJ\OCHaR KaHgoHa B G (,1I;OPHllCKHll J\a,1l; OT F) COCTOHT H3 nOCAe,1l;OBaHHH pasaoaepaoro cxoporo

4 - 3 (4) C

( 4 ), Me,1l;J\eHHoro ( 2) H 6blcTporo 4 ,1I;BHmeHHH. KpenJ\HIO-

19HM KOMn03HgHIO !f>aKTopoM cxyasar HMHTagHH. nepBoe cxopoe ,1I;BHmeHHe - rrocrenenaoe npopacranne TKaHH B !f>yro06pa3HoM

* G i r 0 I am 0 F res cob a I d i. Sei canzoni per I'organo 0 iI cembalo (<<I Classici della Musica Italiana», N 12, Milano) II Tpll 113 HIIX Y Torchi B «L'arte musicale in Italia» (T. III).

152

'1eTKOM npoaezenaa rOJ\OCOB: H3J\omeHHe TeMbI, ee HMHTagH$l B HHmHell oxraae, BCTynJ\eHHe rpereero - cpenaero - roxoca B KBHHTY, KaK cnYTHHKa, 3aTeM HMHTagHR ero B HHmHell OKTaBe (tiacoBblH: roxoc), rrocxe xero Ka,1l;aHC na ,1I;OMHHaHTe. AaJ\bHelllIIee HaCJ\oeHHe: Ha,1l; nepaoii TeMoll HHToHHpyeTcH HOBaH, TO'lHO TaK me HMHTHpyeMaR B oxraay cpe}.tHHM H 6acoBbIM rOJ\OCOM, H T. ,11;. H T. ,11;.- CJ\0BOM, npoofipas ,1I;BOH:HOll rpyr-a. Bropoe 3BeHO - Mep-

Hoe, CnOKOH:HOe ,1I;BHmeHHe (~), TO'lHO TaK me cxpenxaexoe HMHTHpyeMoH MeJ\O}.tHeH:; OHO 3aKaH'IHBaeTCR Ka,1l;eHgoll (HMnpOBH3agHOHHbIll, napyurarorgaii MepHOCTb 9nH30}.t) H 3aTeM nepexoaar B nocxeanee rpyrnpoaaaaoe axxerpo (cpa3Y npOBO}.tHTCR TeMa C npOTHBOCJ\omeHHeM). ::ho nepaoe npoaeaeane TaKme npepsrBaeTCR Ka,1l;eHgoll, OT'IaCTH cxoaceii C npe}.tbI,1I;ylgell • .3a Hell .cxenyer BapHaHT TeMbl, HO C HOBbIM npOTHBOCJ\omeHifeM, pa3BHBaeMbIll .C 60J\blIIHM pa3MaXOM ao apxoro nOJ\H03BY'lHH. 06IgHe MOTHBHble 9J\eMeHTbI npOHHKalOT BCIO TKaHb. nepe,1l; HaMH crporo orpopnxeaHaR, C npeorixaaaaaea 9J\eMeHTOB TOm,1l;eCTBa, g~KJ\H'IeCKaR nOJ\H!f>oHHaR KOMn03HgHH. BHepgHH npeO,1l;OJ\eBaeTCH rJ\aBHbiM 06pa30M sepes conOCTaBJ\eHHe ,1I;BHmeHHll pa3J\H'IHOll rrocrynn H, npn HaAH'1HH e,1l;HHOll MepbI BpeMeHH, xepes «nrpy» B CMeHY ,1I;J\HTeJ\bHOCTeH:

H aaeapeaae Ka,1l;eHg B MepHbIll CTPOH My3bIKH (HaH60J\ee KOHTpaCTHblll qiaxrop ).

Bropaa KaHgoHa (in C)- Tome '1eTblpexroJ\ocHaH - coaepasar TaKme TpH 3BeHa - paaxasasrx mo npeo6J\a}.talOlgHM B KamAOM H3 HHX ,1I;J\HTeJ\bHOCTHM H xapaKTepYPYKoBO.n;HIgHX HMHTHpyeMblx MOTHBOB;.B nepaosr 3BeHe, pHTMH'IeCKH MepHoM (B OCHOBe ,1I;aKTFJ-

J\H'Ie'CKHH: TOJl.'10K.J n J. jJ etc.), onare HMHTaYHoHHoenpo}.tBH-

meHHe, KOTopoe, nocJ\e Toro KaK Bce rOJ\oca cKoHgeHTpHpoBaJ\Hcb B nOAHo3BY'IHOM aHCaM6.1\e, pacceaaaerca B xaaeagooepasaox Ka-

,llaHce. Bropoe 3BeHO (B~) npepsmaerca pacmapeaaoil Ka,1l;eHgOH:.

4

T peree (B 4) 3aK.I\lO'IaeT B ce6e ,llBa !f>yrupoBaHHblX npoaeneaaa

TeMbI - BapHaHT TeMbl nepsoro aaeaa (TOm,lleCTBO). B pHTMH'IeCKOM ornourenaa saece, KaK H B nepnoii KaHgoHe, ,llBYX}.tOJlbHble KpaHHHe 3BeHbH 06paMJ\HIOT cpenaee, rpexaoxuaoe. HHoro THna TpeTbH-

Tome '1eTblpeXrOJl.OCHaH - xaagoaa (G) *: nepsoe 3BeHO (1) CMeHHeTCH ,BbITeKaIOIgHM H3 TOll me nepaoji TeMbI-HMnYJ\bca U raxase

3

!f>yrupOBaHHbiM ,llBHmeHHeM B 4 • OHO npepsiaaerca KpaTKOH xaaea-

YO~-Ka,llaHCOM - nocxe xero aaer HOBaR TpaHc!f>opMagHH PYKOBO,llHrgeH TeMbJ C 60Jl.ee nO,llBHmHbIMH !f>HrypagHHMH. Eho .sBeHO nepexoaar

* Y TOPKII (<<L'ade musicale in Italia») alia - nepBA.II fill rpex, USne'IaTa.lIl1bIX.

153

onare B TpeX~OAbHOe ~BHmeHHe - rena KOTOpOrO (TOme npoBO~HMaH HMHTagHoHHO) otipasyercs raxace

nOCAe~Hee 3BeHO - eige HOBbIll BapHaHT

H3 nepaommyxsca.

PYKOBO~HIgell TeMbI

4 (4)'

C HOBbIM nporaaocxoasenaea - onarn H~eT B qeTHOM pHTMe

BOT aTH MeTaMop<P03bI ornpasnoii H~eH:

blAlle~ro vivace

\

r

II~

cl Allegro'. moderato

d) AdagIo

154

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etc

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I

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3HeprHqHaH no csoeii nocryna xeraep'rax KaHgoHa (in

4 6

COCTaBAeHa H3 60~poro ~BHmeHHH B 4., cnoxoiiaoro - B 4'

4 6

nreoopaanoro - 4, 3aMbIKaeMoro onHTb ~BHmeHHeM B 4

F)

Map·

KHM 3aKAlOqHTeAbHbIM Ka~aHcoBbIM 060POTOM B xer HOM pHTMe. I1MelOTcR 06IgHe MOTHBHbIe BapHaHTbI. nRTaH KaHgoHa (C) COCTOHT H3 nepHO~HqeCKOrO xepeaoaanaa Me~AeHHbIX, nxaaasrx H nO~BHmaerx-tiecnoxoiinsrx ~BHmeHHll'H MOTHBOB,- MomHO CKa3aTb, H3

~ (23 +

C TaHgeBaAbHoH

conocraaxeaaii cosepgarexenoii My3blKH

3 3 3

+ 4 + 2 + 4 - A1060nbiTHo aTO npeooxananae TpeX~OAbHOCTH).

113 ~aHHbIX CMeH 06pa3YlOTCH KaK 6bl KOHTpaCTbl HaCTpoeHHH. llIecTaH (C-dur'HaR) xaagona *- HCHaH, npoxao CKOHCTpYHPO-

n ~ 3

BaHHaH MY3bIKa. ,u,Ba KpaHHHx 3BeHa B 1 C nAaBHbIM ~BHmeHHeM

3

06paMAHlOT ana cpeanax B 2' - nocryns KOTOPblX TaHgeBaAbHMI

C «rrpen-arorgasra» pHTMaMH:

J.. jJ J

.rJJ

li

4

3BeHbH paaaexensr xaaancaaa: rpeaaysne Cvdur 4 KOH'laeT nep-

4 4

soe 3BeHO, Fvdur 4 - aropoe 3BeHO, Ccdur 4 - rperee H ser-

aep roe 3BeHbH. 3Ta KaHgoHa - 'leTKI:Ii'i qeTblpeXqaCTHblH glfl(A, npaaaa OqeHb AaKOHHqHbIll. I1cxo~H H3 coornourenail ~AHTeAbHO~ creii, MomHO onpenexrrre CKOPOCTb ~BHmeHHH KaHgoH, HO, KOHeqHO, OTHOCHTeAbHO, He B CMblCAc HamHX TeMnOBblX 0603Ha'leHHll, a no pHCyHKy H no cpaasemno npe~bl~yIgero C nocAe~ylOIgHM ~BHmeHHeM. TepMHHbl- cxopoe (HAH 6blCTpoe) H Me~AeHHoe ~BHmeHHe snpezn, 6y~y npHMeHHTb He B CMbICAe HamHX allegro H adagio,

* Y TOPKll OHa - rperex a, KaK II ABe rrpezuuecrnyrotgae, npaaezeua 6e3 xaxax 61>1 TO Hll 6bIAO rrpOll3BOAbHI>IX TeMrrOBbIX 0603Ha'leHllH-!jJaHTa3llii, KOTOPbIMll lJ!eApo cHa6AllA nee IIIeCTb KaHgoH B BbIIIIeyrrOMJ!HYTOM ll3AaHllll peaaxrop Ka3eAJ\a. (Onacaaae AaHHoii xaagoaer AaHO Acaqiseaeix rro T opxa, ITo TOMY me ll311aHlllO, Hllme, B npennocxenuesr 3BeHe T peTbeH xangoaer, YKa-

3, 6 49

3aH pasxrep 4 a He 4' KaK B rrpllMepe • !!llTHpyeMoM no H3AaHllIO Ka-

3eAAl>I,- PCII.)

lQ5

a cxopee B CMbICAe - 6o.l\ee nOABIUKHoe H MeHee nOABHiKHoe (COKpaIgeHHO - KaK 6. H M.) ABHiKeHHe. Bce urecrs KaligoH 4>0PMYIOTCJI TaK:

4 3 '4

1. 6. 4"+ M. 2 : 6·'4

4 3 4

11. 6. 4 : M. 2: 6. 4

4 3 4 3 4

II I. 6. 4 : 6. 4 +6. 4 : M. 4 : 6. 4

IV. 6·1:: .6. ~: 6·1 : 6. ~

~. 3'11. 3 3 . 3 3 3 I V. ~l. 2 +6. 4 : M. 2: 6. 2 : ~L 2: 6. 4 ~.';

3 3 3_L 3

VI. M. 1 +6. 2,6. 2 I M. 1

ITonbITaeMCJI rerreps HaMeTHTb OCHOBHble 4>aKTopbI (He penrarocn CKa3aTb - HOpMbI) <f!opMoBaHHH gHKAOB B nepnoii nOAOBHHe XVII sexa.

ct>aKTopbI, o6'beAHHHIOIgHe H BbI3bIBalOIgHe OIgYIgeHHe TOiKAeCTBeHHOCTH: 1) AaAOBoe eAHHCTBO C peAKHMH OTKAOHeHHHMH; 2) MOTHBHoe POACTBO (napaaarnocre «rroneaox»}: 3) nepHOAH'IHOCTb B B03BpaIgeHHH TO.lKAeCTBeHHblX MeTpOB H pHTMH'IeCKHX <f!OPMY A. Haor Aa nepHOAH'IHOCTb nepexoanr B cHMMeTpHIO MeTpoB, PHTMOB H BapHaHToB-MOTHBOB, T. e. npmreaeaae B nanaxe H KOHge TOiKAeCTBeHHoro MaTepHa.l\a; 4) MepHOCTb ABH.lKeHHH (YCTOM:'1HBOCTb e.ll:HHHgbI BpeMeHH H.I\H OCHOBHOM: AOAH, npa pa3AH'IHH B KaiKAOM H3 3BeHbeB A.I\HTeAbHOCTeM:); 5) HMHTagHoHHa1f <f!aKTypa.

ct>aKTopbl, npoTHBoAeHcTBYIOIgHe MOHOTOHHOCTH H HHepT-

HOCTH ABH.lKeHHH H Bbl3blBalOIgHe OIgYIgeHHe KOHTpaCTa: 1) BHeApeaae xpOMaTH3Ma - 'ITO BHOCHT B npo6er .l\HHHM: «HHToHagHllnepe'leHbH», H B3aHMoAeHcTBHe AHaTOHH'IeCKH-'1eTKHX MOTHBOB C MOTHBaMH «OKpaweHHbIMH»; 2) conOCTaBAeHHe pa3.1\H'IHbIX pHTMO-<f!OPMY A H nootirge pHTMH'IeCKH pasnoofipaaamx MOTHBOB (TeM) C ABH.lKeHHeM POBHblMH HOTaMH - <f!aKTOp '1pe3Bbl'laHHO cYIgeCTBeHHblH B MY3blKe He TO.l\bKO aroro nepnoaa: * 3) corrocraaAeHHe aerrexarorgero H3 HMHTagHoHHoro CTHAH aenpepsraaoro H MepHoro ABH.lKeHHJI (YCTOH'IHBOCTb eAHHHgbI BpeMeHH H PYKOBOAHIgeH pIiTMO-<f!OPMY Abl - «BO.lKAH» ) C ABH.lKeHHeM «npOH3BOAbHbIM», HMnpoBH3agHoHHbIM: 3TO - KaAeHgbl, «pacceaaaroigne» H rrpepsmarorgae MepHoe Te'leHHe MY3bIKH; 4) KOHTpaCT Me.lKAY pa3- pH.lKeHHOH H 3anoAHeHHoH TKaHblO (06bl'lHO Me.lKAY Ha'laAOM-

* TIOMHMO TaKoro poaa pa3AHQHII, naao eIge YKa3aTb, QTO «arpa ,!l.l\HTeAbHOCTeH» H Boo6Ige conOCTaBAeHHe «nAaBHOH» H «CKaQKOo6pa3HOH» Me.1\ o a H K H nrpaer 60AbIIIYlO POAb, oco6eHHO B KAaCCHQeCKHX C 10 H T a x (nanpHMep, CTOHT TOAbKO cpaaaare PHCYHOK aAAeMaH.llbI C KypaHToH H PHCYHOK HX. o6eHXC MlHroH). CTHMYA K TOMY - B nxaaasrx, CKOAb311IgHX H B «npnnpsrraaasorgax» na TaHj!eB (Basse danse II Spring-Tanz, KaK saltarello, gagliarda etc.), nOBAHlIBIIIHX oanoapexeano aa PHTMHKY H na I1J1TOHaU;HOHHoe cpopMoilaHHe MeAO,!lHU.

156'

nOCTeneHHbIM HaCAoeHHeM rOAOCOB - H HX nOAHbIM aHcaM6AeM), nO'lTH COBceM nOTepHBWHM: nOTOM csoe aaaxenae B rosrorpcaaorapMOHH'IeCKOM '1eTbIpexroAocHH, a B HMHTagHoHHOM CTHAeHeH36e.lKHbIH; 5) npOTHBonOCTaBAeHlle: AHHeHHoro ABll.lKeHHH - axKOPAOBOMY, ropaaorrraxsaoro - BepTHKaAbHOMY, a raxzse HMHTa:gHOHHOH <f!aKTypbI - <f!aKType rapMOHU'IeCKoH. 8TO OAHH H3 cYIgeCTBeHHblX <f!aKTopoB <f!opMo06pa30BaHHH eIge C XVI aexa (oco6eHHo B <f!aHTa3HHx, npeAIOAHHX, KanpH'I'IHO, TOKKaTax H T. A.) . .Pa3- AH'IHe paxepxapa H TOKKaTbI - B cnxoumoii nenpepsranoii HMHTa!,!HOHHOCTH nepsoro (<<6ecKOHe'lHOe ABH.lKeHHe» HAH genb BKAIO'IeHHbIX Apyr B Apyra 3BeHbeB-HMHTagllH) H KOHTpacTHoH CMeHe crrocofioa 3anOAHeHHH. «3BYKOBoro nOMI» B APyroH (aanpaaep, HMn03aHTHaH TOKKaTa In F ct>pecKo6aAbAU) •

.PaCCMOTpHM BKpaTge erge HeCKOAbKO gHKAH'IeCKHX nocrpoeHIIH My3bIKH ApyrHx KOMII03HTOPOB XVI I sexa KaK B BHAe napaagnonasrx 3BeHbeB (opHaMeHTaAbHblx H <f!HrypagHoHHbIX, 3aKAIO'1aIOIgHX B ce6e Me.l\OAH'IeCKOe pa3BHTHe), TaK H ~ BHAe KOHTpaCTHbI;X .HoBo06pa30BaHHH. B ynoMHHYTOH «Musikgeschichte in Beispielen, (coxpargenao M. G. in B.) .PHMaHa eCTb HeCKO.l\bKO geHllbIx npasrepon «CBH3aHHbIX» gHK.I\OB. TaK, N2 81 Sonata a 3 sopra l'Aria della R.omanesca (Chaconne) COAoM~Ha .POCCH (1613)- 'rexra C cexnsro BapHagHHMII aa basso ostinato. 8TO genb <f!HrypHpoBaHHblx BOCbMHTaKT.OB. ITpHH:gHn TO.lKAeCTBa AOMIIHHpyeT B HHX. ITHTHroAocHaH naayaaa H raAbHpAa (N2N282-83) B. ITperopnyca (1616) rrocrpoensr na o6IgeM MeAOAH'IeCKOM MaTepHaAe. Ka.lKAbIH TaHeg COCTOHT H3 Tpex OTAeAOB, H3 KOTOPblX ABa xpajiIIHX H B naayane H B raAbHPAe 06'beAHlIeHbI KaAaHcaMH (Tpe3BY'IHe Evdur ). TaKTOBaH CTpYKTypa aepasnoerepaa. B nanyane, npn

4 ~ 8

OCHOBHOM paaxrepe B 4, xpannae 'IaCTH HMelOT no TaKTOB, HO

3

C BKAIO'IeHHeM o.aaoro TaKTa B 2, cAeAOBaTeAbHO scero He 32,

a 34 TaKTOBbIe AOAH. B raxeapae Te .lKe OTAeAbI HMeIOT: rrepnsrii

8 u 16 u 3 C

TaKToB, a TpeTHH - I , Ka.lKAbIH no 4' peAHHe OTAeAbl-

4 3

B naayaae 9 TaKTOB B 4, B raAbHPAe -11 B 4. H MeAOAH'IeCKaH

If rapMOHH'IeCKaH TKaHb - eCAH cpaaaaaarj, 06a TaHga - He npOCTO nepesretgarorca, a 6e3YC.AOBHO pa3BHBalOTCH B Ka.lKAOM H3 napaxAeAbHbIX OTAeAOB. 8TO 60AblUOH war B cpaBHeHHH C YKa3aHHOH BbllUe napnoii rpyrmoji - naBaHOM: H raAbHpAoH 1530 roaa. Ho H TaM H TYT 06IgHH MaTepHaA AAH 060HX rangen AaeT npeofixanaHHe npHHgHny TO.lKAeCTBa. KOHTpaCT - B prrrxrax, TeMnax, B AHHHHX pa3AH'IHOH npOTH.lKeHHOCTH II B rapMOHH'IeCKOH TKaHH . .Pa3Hble xaaaacsr B cpeanax '1aCTHX (B naayaae Tpe3BY'IHe Gvdur, B raAbHPAe - Avdur ) TO.lKe Bbl3blBalOT OIgYIgeHlle KOHTpaCTHOCTH. N2 88, Canzon de sonar a 4 (1626) KOMII03HTopa BbHAiKbO MapHHH 113 B P e III H I.I npeACTaBAHeT C06010 COilOCTaBAeHHe 6blCTporo ABH-

157

meHHR B HMHTaQHOHHOM (<pyrnpoBaHHOM) cxxane C 3aMejl;J\eHHbIM (andantino), B KOTOPOM KpaCHBO conOCTaBMIIQTCR roxoca, nonapao B pa3J\HtIHbIX perncrpax 06pa3YH H3HrgHbIll KaHOH.N2 90. Canzon «La Pedrina» (1637). Chaconne- TapKBI1HHO Mepyxa: TeMa C lIIeCTbIQ <pHrypaQHOHHbIMH BapHaQHHMH na basso continuo, C lIIHpOKopa3BHTbIM «noCJ\eCJ\OBHeM» (Nachspiel). OTMeTHM tIaCTOe nOJ\b30BaHHe ceKBeHQHHMH, CTHMY J\ K KOTOPbIM jl;aeT TeMa. BCH KOMn03HQHH -QllKJ\ ll3 TOmjl;eCTBeHHbIX HHTOHaQllll. *

Xapas-repasrii TllnlltIeCKHll nparaep «QepKoBHoll COHaTbl» - Sonata a 4 (1644) MaccllMllJ\bHHa HepH, opraaac-ra aeaegaaacxoro cofiopa CB. Mapxa (M. G. in B. N2 98). COHaTa COCTOllT H3 nepaoaaxecxnx conocraaxeaaii 6bIcTporo II Mejl;J\eHHoro .n;BllmeHHll II C RBHbIM ynopoM B QeHTpe na MepHoe H nJ\aBI-IOe largo. B COBpeMeHHblX TeMnOBbIX H TaKTOBbIX 0603HatIeHllHX nOJ\ytIaeTCH raxoro

pona Qenb: allegro (1 H ~), adagio (C) - aaece B KOHTpaCT nozBllmHbIM J\HHHHM axxerpo asrcrynaror cexaengoofipaansre BepTH~aJ\bHbIe nOCJ\ep;OBaHHR, allegro (l), adagio (~) KaK nepexozt

K y;eHTpaJ\bHOMY largo (~), nOB TOp e H H e adagio H largo KBH'HTOll HHme (KpallHe J\1060IllbITHbIll opraHH3aQHoHHbIll npnexr Heo6xop;HMoro sp;eCb Tomp;eCTBeHHoro npOBe,lJ;eHHH) H onaru al-

legro (l) aa TOll me TeMe, KaK H npennrecrayroigee, HO 60J\ee paaBHToe H pacnmpenaoe. f10J\ytIa1OTCH p;Ba 60AblIIHX OT,lJ;eJ\a: nepnoe axxerpo KaK BBe,lJ;eHHe H OKallMJ\eHHbIll 6bICTPbIMH p;BHmeHHRMH YCTOlltIHBbIll QeHTp -largo.

THnHtIHOll ,lJ;J\R anOXH HBJ\HeTCH La Torriana, TPHO-COHaTa (1655) AerpeHQH (M. G. in B. N2 102) C ee nOCJ\ep;OBaTeJ\bHbIMH SBeHbHMH: rpyrapoaaanoe axxerpo (c.rnoll ) - BeJ\HtIaBOe adagio C rrpeofixaztaaaen BepTHKaJ\ell- xparxaii nepexoz; (Tome adagio,

3 3

HO B 4) H aaaigaoe, TaHQeBaJ\bHoro xapax'repa, allegretto (4)'

COHaTa 3aMbIKaeTCH cmaTbIM H3J\omeHHeM MaTepHaJ\a nepaoro axxerpo.

He C'fOJ\b IIJ\aCTHtIHa IIO MY3bIKe, HO 60raTO pa3BHTa KaK QHKJ\ g-moll'naa TPHO-COHaTa Hor. P03eHM1OJ\J\epa (M. G. in B.

N2 108): aa KOPOTKHM Me,lJ;J\eHHbIM BCTYIIJ\eHHeM (adagio ~ ) Hp;eT

2

axxerpo ( 4) rOM 0 <p 0 H H 0 r 0 rapMOHHtIeCKOrO cxxaaa C paspa-

60TKOll xoporxoro MOTHBa-TeMbI. Axxerpo CMeHHeT nxasaoe adagio. EMY B KOHTpaCT BbI,lJ;BHraeTCH rallp;HoBCKH IIop;BHmHoe presto

B B~dur (~) C Ka,lJ;aHCOM B g-rnoll ,lJ;J\H CBH3H C nocJ\e,lJ;y1OrgHM BTO-

* He npnxoznrrcn noaropar», 'ITO BO BceR ,1(aHHOR patiore MY3blKaJl.bHoe Tom,1(ecTBO MbICJl.HTCiI IIHaJl.eKTll'leCKll, T. e. He KaK MeXaHIl'leCKOe paBeHCTBO COnOCTaBJl.ileMbIX HHTOHalJ,HR.

158

I.

pbIM adagio (~). aTO adagio HeIIocpep;CTBeHHO nepexoaar B P;BU-

9

asenae xapaxrepa 2fmrH (8), xoropoe yaaxuo 3aMbIKaeT QHKJ\.

TpY,lJ;HO OCTaBHTb 6e3 BHHMaHHH B TOM me C60pHHKe (M. G. in B. N2 121) TPHO-COHaTY h-rnoll KopeJ\J\H. f1epBblll OT,lJ;eJ\ ee - KaK CTaHOBHTCH 06bltIHbIM B COHaTax - C,lJ;epmaI-IHOe nOJ\H03BytIHOe t\BHasenae, rouorpoaaoe no xapaxrepy, HeCMOTpH na «TeCHbIe» HMHTaQHH (:HO yase «rapMOHHtIeCKHHKoHTpanYHKT»). OHO CJ\ymHT «npOIIHJ\eHMH» K xapaKTepHOMY vivace (c): <paKTypa nOJ\H<poBHtIeCKaH, rrpoaeneuae ynpyroii TeMbI C npOTHBOCJ\omeHHeM. YeHT-

u d . (3)

paJ\bHblH OT,lJ;eJ\ - a agio 8 HemHO MeJ\aHXOJ\HtIeCKOrO xapax-

Tepa C «YCTyntIHBbIMH» ceKBeHQHHMH, yase 6J\H3Koe «CJ\a,lJ;OCTHbIM», H3bICKaHHbIM MeJ\O,lJ;HHM HTaJ\bRHQeB XVI I I aexa, 3aKJ\1OtIHTeJ\bHbIll OTjI;eJ\, presto non tanto (C) - npoaeaeaae HOBOll tIeTKOH TeM!>I. BCH COHaTa TOHaJ\bHO eaaaa, C nOJ\HOBeCHbIMH, y6e,lJ;HTeJ\bHo 3aMbIKa1OrgHMH t\BHmeHHe xaaaacaxn. ,l(BHmeHHe Kam,lJ;OrO OT t\eJ\a erge panaojaepnoe, «no HHepQHH», MeJ\OC «xoporxoro ,lJ;bIXaHHH», HO see me MY3bIKa rexer J\erKO H cB060P;HO: MbI aa nopore pacgaera rOMo<poHHOll COHaTbI, XOTH erge He CKa3aJ\ cnoero nocxezraero CJ\OBa HMHTaQHOHHbIll HHCTpYMeHTaJ\bHbIll CTHJ\b (pa3YMe1O rJ\aBHbIM 06- pa30M coaepureaneiimae opxec'rpoasre H KJ\aBHpHbIe QHKJ\bI 5axa).

«l!epKoBHble COHaTbI» AHTOHHO KaJ\bjl;apa: g-rnoll (M. G. in B.

N2 124) H h-rnoll (B «Beispielsammlung zur alteren Musik· geschichte> A. Einstein's N~ 16) - 06e npet\CTaBJ\H1OT c06010 nepHo.n;HtIeCKHe tIepet\OBaHHH grave - allegro - grave - allegro; Kamt\bIllQHKJ\-B Ot\HOll TOHaJ\bHOCTH; peIIIHTeJ\bHO npeofixaaaer roMo<pOHHoe flHCbMO; KOHTpaCTHbI PHTMbI, <pHrypaQHH H xapaxrep t\BHmeHHH, TO IIJ\aBHoro H CBH3Horo; TO t\p06Horo H uepannosrepnoro, B TOM me <Beispielsammlung> Einstein'a ecre J\1060nbITHaa Solosonate Iiir Violino und Basso Continuo Giovanni Battista Somis, y-rennxa Corelli. B Hell aa BCTYIIHTeJ\bHbIM adagio cxet\Y1OT t\Ba 6bICTPbIX t\BHmeHHH TaHQeBaJ\bHoro cxxaaa. f1epBoeaxxewaaaa C xapaxrepnsnr jl;J\H COHaTHoro axxerpo TOll anOXH aexeHHeM aa zma I10BTOPH1OrgHXCH oraexa: B nepsox - aKcn03HQHJ) TeMbI, BO BTOPOM - ee pa3BHTHe (B cyrgHOCTH, napaxxexsnoe nposeaenae) H penpaaa, BTopoe - THn paroaoaa (no MHeHH10 allHIIITellHa) - Tome cxenyer cxesre Tor ztarnnero COHaTHoro axxerpo. 4,AH aroro npOH3Bet\eHHH xapaxrepao: nOCJ\etlOBaHHe ,lJ;ByX nsec 6bICTporo t\BHmeHHH nocxe adagio; rrepexxroaeane TaHQeBaJ\bHoH <PaKTypbI B COHaTHY1O (aJ\J\eMaHP;a nOJ\ytIHJ\a B aTOM OTHOlIIeHHH ocooennoe nOJ\OlKeHHe B C10HTHbIX QHKJ\ax XVI I I aexa, 3aHHB B HHX MeCTO COHaTHO-CHM<pOHHtIeCKOrO axxerpo ) H TeM caMbIM c6J\HmeHHe QepKoBHoll H KaMepHoll COHaT.

4T06bI He neperpyasare H3J\omeHHe, H OrpaHHQYCb 9THM cpasHHTeJ\bHO He60J\bIIIHM tIHCJ\OM npaxepoa, 60J\ee HJ\H MeHee t\ocTynIIbIX tlAH 03HaKOMJ\eHHH, XOTH, KOlletIHO, HX t\aJ\eKO He t\OCTaTOtIHO.

159

B AaAbHeHmeM cMp;yeT OOpaTlfTbCH K «(ClnbITHOii AaoopaTopIUI>, concerti grossi H COAbHOH: KaMepHOH: COHaThI.

KOHeqHO, H B gHKAHqeCKHX !popMax BHHMaHHe KOMn03HTopOB cocpeP;OTOqHBaAOCb Ha COHaTHOM aAAerpo. CYP;H no MHOrOqHCAeHHblM KAaBHpHblM nsecaa 40MeHHKO CKapAaTTH (1685-1757), Kamp;oe B KaKOM-AH60 OTHomeHHH HOBoe H OCTpOYMHoe peurenne COHaTHoro orpopaxenas KaK B3aHMOp;eH:CTBHH roasnecrna H KOHTpaCTa mAO no AHHHH npH6AHmeHHJI K p;HaAeKTHqeCKoMy CTaHOBAeHHIO KAa£CHqeCKOH: COHaTbI C TopmecTBylOIgHM B HeH TeMan:!qeCKHM pasBHTHeM. Be3YCAOBHO, TOAbKO B BHp;e xpeCTOMaTHH aa HOTHblX rrpaMepax MomHO 6bIAO 6bI BnOAHe HarAJIp;HO H3AomHTb araner B03HHKHOBeHHJI BapHaQ,HOHHbIX H TaHgeBaAbHblX, COHaTHbIX H COHaTHOCIOHTHblX gHKAOB H pa3BHTHJI B HHX !pOpMbl COHaTHoro axxerpo:

OT «HaCKB03b» npOHHKHYTbIX HMHTagHoHHoCTblO P;BHiKeHHH P;O rrsec rovotpoaaoro cxxaaa C KpHCTaAAH3YIOIglIMHCJI TOHaAbHblMll COOTHomeHHHMlI H HaMeqalOIgHMHCJI rpaHJIMH 3Kcn031IglIH, paspa- 60TKH. (nOKa eIge napaAAeAbHoro npOBep;eHHJI OP;HOH TeMW) H penpaasr. Y 4. CKapAaTTH nananaer BbIP;E':AJITbCH BTOpaJI KOHrpaCTHaJI TeMa H MeAOP;HqeCKHH. C~HTe3HpYlOIgHH p;BHmeHHe xaaaac (BIIOCAep;CTBHH 3aKAlOqHTeAbHaH naprna). l1or.-Ce6. Bax B CBOHX HHCTpYMeHTaAbHbIX KOHgepTax CTOHT na rpaaa COHaTHo-p;HaAeKTHqeCKOrO MbImAeHHJI H BOT-BOT rOTOB BblH:TH aa npeaexsr MOHOTeMaTH3Ma HAH nCHXOAOrHqeCKH Hep;H!p!pepeHgHpoBaHHoro nOAHTeMaTH.3Ma (npOEep;eHHe H qepep;OnaHHe Hp;eH BHe KOH!PAHKTHO-TeMaTHqeCKOrO HX pa3BHTHJI, T. e. KaK «ofiaapyaseaae» «3HeprHH>', a He xapaarepoa)." He 3TOT mar MorAa cnexare TOAbKO snoxa, BbIp;BHHYBmaJI K mH3HH HOBbIH xxacc C ero KYAbTOM CB060P;HO «KOHKypHpYlOrgeH» AHqHOt TH. Flocxeaoaanae MOTHBOB aoxro He CTaHOBHAOCb pa3BHTHeM TeM. KOHTpaCTHOCTb npOHBAJIAaCb B PlITMHKe, arornxe H p;HHaMHKe (KOHeqHO, He B 3MogHoHaAbHOH p;lmaMHKe HanpJImeHHH H paspxaa, a B KOAHqeCTBeHHOM HaCAoeHHH

* He06xot\HMO Y'IeCTb STY 'pallHhgy MelKt\y nOAHTeMaTH3MOM t\06aXOBCKHM H 6aXOBCKHM H rrOAUTeMaTHl!MOM 6eTXOBeHCKHM H rrOCAet\YIO'!!HM. B nepBOM CAY'Iae rrOAHTeMaTH3M, B CY'!!HOCTH, paaanoasenaaa oaua resta HAH n-HbIH pRA TeM-rrpOTHBOCAOlKeHHH, BO BTOPOM - t\HaAeKTH'IeCKOe CTaHOBAeHHe 60plOII.JHXCR Ht\eU. 3t(eCb nepez HaMH BOllHHKaeT aa nepBbIH B3r AltA napaaoxcaxsHblH XOt\ 3BOAIO!!HH HHCTpYMeHTaAbHoro MbllllAeHIUI -- 'ITO KOMrr03HTopbl npnlllJlH xepea KYAbTHBHpOBaHHe «MHorOTeMHOCTH» B paae OlIblTOB !flopMo06pa30- BaHlBI [paxepxapsr, xaagonsr, !flaHTa3HH H T. A.) K KOHTpacTY A B Y X TeM (a cnepaa K KOHTpaCTY ABYX TOHaAbHblX crpep ). C OAHOH CTOPOHbl, AaBHo, e,!!e B HMHTa!!HH HaHAeHHoe KBHHToBo-KBapToBoe COOTHOllleHHe TO lK A e - C T B e H H 0 r 0 MaTepHaAa nano 6blAO pa3BHTb· B raxoe lKe COOTHOlIleHHe aa pac C TOR H H H, H rrpHTOM pa3AH'IHbIX MOTH BOB. I1Ha'le roaop a, OKpHCTaAAH- 1I0BaBlIIYIOCil !fl0PMYAY C!!ellAeHHR BOlKA}!-cnYTHHKa pacurapnr» AO TOHHKO-AOMHHaHTOBOH «nOARpHOCTH» (H60 TOt aa AAR cxyxa aTO 6blAH KOHTpaCTHble TOHaAbHble C!flepbI, a AaJleKO He CTOAb npHBbI'IHOe, npocroe H eCTeCTBeHHoe ll.AJI Hac Terrepb COOTHOlIleHHe). C ll.pyroH CTOPOHbI, AHaAeKTH'IeCKOe CTaHOB}\eHHe TeMaTH'IeCKOrO xarepaaxa, rrO-BHAHMOMY, He Mor AO 06pal!OBaTbCJI pansme, '1eM MY3blKa cr axa 3epKaAOM P!l3BHBlIIeHCR '1eAOBe'leClWH nCHXHKlI.

160

-

rO~?COB - 6e3 H3MeHeHHH HHTeHCHBHOCTH 11 .3ByqaHHJI, BHe rpanagHH CHAbI 3ByqHOCTH). DocBHrgeHHbIH HHCTpYMeHTaAbHOH MY3bIKe XVI~ aexa .ce.l\bMOH TOM C06paHHJI J\YHP;mH TOPKH «L'arte musicale In Italia> coaepacnr MHororrOY'lHTeAbHoro B p;aHHOM oruoureHHH xacarexsno np06AeMbI !POpMHpoBaHHH gHKAOB. Dpemp;e scero KHp;aeTCH B rAa3a H3MeHqHBOCTb qepeP;OBaHHH CKopocTeH:

Mep;AeHHoe - 6blcTpoe - Mep;AeHHoe ,lI;BHmeHHe 6bIcTpoe - Mep;AeHHoe - 6bIcTpoe p;BHmeHHe.

HCTOPHKH MY3bIKH nepeaxo 3AoyrroTpe6AJIAH KaK cxexrofi yrnepacp;eHHeM, qTO !ppaHgY3cKaH yaeprropa XVII aexa 6bIAa CBJI3HbIM gHKAOM: Mep;AeHHoe - 6bIcTpoe - Mep;AeHHoe p;BHmeHHe, a HTaAbJIHCKaJI - Ha060poT. DepBoe YTBepmp;eHHe p;ame B OTHomeHHIf yaeprrop J\lOAAH He Bb!p;epmHBaeT KpHTHKH. B HHX BamHO qTO? To, KaKOBa TaM !p 0 p M Y A aCT a HOB A e H H H M Y 3 bI K a A l> _ H 0 r 0 ,lI; B II m e H H H (a He TpeXqaCTHOCTb KaK cxeraa ). 3Ta qiopMYAa 06bI'IHO TpeXqAeHHa: a+b+c. Crrepaa cAep;yeT Mep;AeHHoe, BeAHqaBOe no caoeii nocrynn p;BHmeHHe My3bIKH, H3 xo roporo KOHrpacrrro BbITeKaeT 6bIcTpoe p;BHmeHHe, a B nrore - KaK 3 a M hI - K a H H e aroro conOCTaBAeHHH, a He KaK MeXaHHqeCKOe noaropenne nepBoro p;BHmeHHH - YCTpeMAJIeTCJI K HCXOP;HOH TOHaAbHOH TOqKC aa HOBOM MaTepHaAe CTeneHHaH HBeAHqaBaH HAH aaeprn-raaa, nop;BHmHaH MY3bIKa TpCThero or.aexa.

B YBepTlOpe d-moll K «POAaHP;y»· J\IOAAH (1685) aa Mep;AeH- 2

HbIM (B 2) p;BHmeHHeM C Kap;aHCOM aa Tpe3ByqHH Dvdur cxeayer

3

6bICTpoe p;BHmeHHe B 4, cMbIKalOIgeecH qepe3 'rpeaayxne Dvdur

2

C 3aKAlOqHTeAbHbIM p;BHmeHHeM OnJITb B 2, rrpHBop;JIrgHM K nOA-

HOMY YTBepmp;eHHlo d-rnoll (M. G. in B. N!! 110). T pexxac-ruan cxexra OKa3bIBaeTCJI p;HHaMll'leCKH HerrpepbIBHbIM CTaHOBAeHHeMep;HHCTBOM. 4eAo He B rrOCAep;OBaHHH qaCTeH H He B TOM, qTO !\'leAAeHHaJI xacre anepean, a B TOM, qTO 6bICTpoe P; B H m e H H e HeOTp;eAHMO OT Mep;AeHHoro, H3 xo'roporo OHO B bI P bI B a eTC JI, RaJ{ HeOTP;e}HMa CTPYH HHTeHCHBHO 6blOrgero HCTOqHHKa OT CKaAbI. C 3uTOH TOqKH 3peHHH, pa3AHqHe Memp;y !ppaHgY.3CKOH H HTaAbJIHCKOH YBepTlOpaMH (H p;pyrHMH !popMaMIt) ecre pasxasrae p;HHaMHqeCKOrO nopxaxa, H, KaK BHP;HO, CYTh TYT He BO <DpaHgHH HAIl I1TaAHH (H60 HMelOTCJI HTaAbJIHCKHe Hi'IcTPYMeHTaAbHbIe neecsr, HaqHHalOIglleCJI Me,ll;AeHHO), a B npo6AeMe gHKAHqeCKOrO !popMOBaHHJI: O,ll;HH BHP; - 3TO naxonxenae ::'lByqHOCTH B Mep;AeHHOM, CTeneHHOM p;BHme~HH, orxyaa CTpeMHTeAhHO BbITeKaeT 6bICTpa5I MY3bIKa; ztpyron BHP; - nenocpeacraeano p;aHHoe cxopoe p;BHmeHHe, qepe,ll;YIOIgeeCH B CBoeM pa3BHTHH C Mep;AeHHbIM H ncxepnaroigee B HeM, KaK B rrperrHTCTBHHX, HOBbIe CHAb! HAH nOCTeneHHO oCAa6eBalOrgee. HaKoHeg, COBceM naoe p;eAO, xor-zta Mep;AeHHoe ,lI;BllmeHHe CTOHT ~rrepeP;H 060c06AeHHO H 6bICTpoe p;BHmeHHc HaqHHaeTcH KaK HOBWH oTp;eA BlloAHe caMOCTOHTeAbHO (3TO AerKO

11

B. B. Acaqn.en

161

no KOHeqHOMY xanaacy Me,ll;AeHHoro ABHm.eHHfI, as-

qYBCTByeTcfI _

. no OTHOIlleHHlO K HeMY aaxaxo 6bICTporo ,ll;BHm.eHHfI TO

AfleTCfI AH

HHKOH: ero «pa3peIllaIOIgei1», HAH HeT).

Pa~CMaTpHBafl HMelOIgHHCfI Y T OpKH MaTepHaA pa3AHqHbIX I HKAOB MbI BH,ll;HM, 'ITO npOCTeHIllHe, Ka3aAOCb 6bI, cxeMbI: Me,1l;;eHHO '(M.) - 6bICTPO (6.) - Me,ll;AeHHO HAH Ha060poT: 6bICTPO (6 ) _ MeAAeHHO (M.) - 6bICTPO cOAepm.aT B ce6e MHom.eCTBO !popMy'IOIgHX cTa,ll;HH. Bo-nepBbIx, crporo cHMMeTpHqHOe nocrpoenac ~._ 6.- M. HAH 6.- M.- 6. peaxo BbI,ll;epm.HBaeTcfI H nepeXO,ll;HT

He' M-6-M-6. HAH 6.-M.

B nepHO,1l;HqeCKOe CTaHOBAeH . . .' • .

6.- M. H T. n. Kpoae-roro, CHMMeTpHfI 6bIAa He acer aa M .• 6 .• M.,

HAH 6.: M. : 6.,* T. e. cnxours CBfl3aHHbIM ,ll;BHm.eHHeM, HAH n' + +6 + M CKOAbKO M. : 6.+6.: M. HAH Aam.e M. : 6.+6. H T. n. PH= TOM' ace '~aKoro pozra !POPMYAbI CTaHOBAeHHfI YCAOm.HflAHCb CMeHOH

a3MepOB _ qeTHOrO na HeqeTHbIH: H 06paTHO. CMeHa pasaepos ~PHBOAHAa K HeH36em.HbIM KOHTpaCTaM ABHm.eHHfI. HanpHMej' ecxn

axxerpo B 1(C) nepeXO,ll;HT 6e3 rrepeMeHbI TeMrra B paaxep 2' B KOTOPOM rrpe06AaAalOT KaK OCHOBHafl Mepa rroAoBHHHbIe HOTbI, TO CAYX BocrrpHHHMaeT 3TY CMeHY KaK HOBoe ABHm.eHHe (MeAAeHHoe B OTHO-

~eHHH rrpeAIlleCTBYIOIgero axxerpo ). ~VII xaxoro ~i~~i~M:!i~iI

CTaHOBAeHHfI BCTpeqalOTCfI B COHaTax . .BeK~ Y b U 11'! Giov .Battista Fontana, Giov.-Battlsta· Vitali, Marco cce mi

H ,1l;p~rHX KOMrr03HTOpOB (0603HaqeHHe C 3aMeHHIO Be3Ae AAfI Ha-

. 4).

r AflAHOCTH qepe3 4'

M. ~ (s * >f.) : 6. ! : 6. ~ (s) : M. ! (Marini)

M. ! : 6. ! + 6. -1 + 6. ~ : 6. 1 = 'rpl1 sacra (Marini) M. ! : 6. ! (s) +M. r : 6. ! (s) (Marini)

6. 1 (s) : 6. ~ (S1) : 6. ~ (1) : 6. ~ (S1) : 6. 1 (s) (Fontana)

M. 1 + 6. ! : 6. ~ : M. 1 (Vitali)

M. ! : 6. ! + M. ! : 6. ! + M. ~ (Vitali)

M. ! + M. ~ : 6. ! (Vitali. Sinfonia a sei) M. ! : 6. ! + M. ~ + 6. ~ (Bassani)

162

4 4 4 3 6 .

M. 4 : 6. 4 + M. 4: 2 + 6. 4 (Bassani)

6 <1.+ 4 _1_ 6 12 ( ) 4 L 4 . 4 M. 4, . 8 }Kl1ra + M. 4 -I 6. 4

M. ! : 6. ! : 6. ~ + 6. ! (Uccellini)

bis ~

6. !(~) : M. ! : 6. ~ (s) : M. H~) : 6. ~ (s *)

M. H!) : 6. ! : M. ~ : 6.: (Nikolaus a Kernpis 113 M.G. in B.)

4 4 3 4 .

6. 4 (s) + M. 4'+ 6. 4 + 6. 4 (5) (113 M. G. m B. conara Jlerpeaun)

M. ~ + 6. ! + M. ~ : 6. ! (Corelli 113 M. G. in B.)

(Bassani)

CaMO c06010 pa3YMeeTCfI, 'ITO TYT HHKaKHX CTaTHCTHqeCKHX rrOACqeTOB AeAaTb HeAb3f1. R npascacy 3TH COOTHOIlleHHfI TOAbKO ,1l;AH Toro, qT06bI YKa3aTb, KaN. BapbHpOBaAHCb cxeMbI gHKAHqecxoro ,1l;BHm.eHHH. Ho HeAb3f1 He 06paTHTb BHHMaHHfI na npeofixaAaHHe MeAAeHHbIx ABHm.eHHH B nasaxe KaK onopnoii crpeper, ECAH npnnare BO BHHMaHHe, 'ITO MeAO,!l;HqeCKHH MaTepHaA coaepzcrrr B ce6e, HeCMOTpfl aa Kam.YIgYIOCfI "lJeCTpOTY, qpe3BbIqaHHO MHoro CXOm.HX «noneaox» (06bIqHO KOPOTKHX rparyp}, TO MOm.HO npeztrroAOm.HTb, 'ITO npogecc !popMOBaHHfI B TY arroxy COCTOHA B pa3Ho06- pa3HH rrepeCTaHOBOK cxoasero H 60AbIlleH qaCTblO TOHaAbHO 06'beAHaenaoro MaTepHaAa H B corrOCTaBAeHHH pa3AHqHbIX CKopOCTeH, noxvsasurexcs KaK BCAeAcTBHe KOHTpaCTa TeMIIOB, TaK H - rxasHbIM 06pa30M - BCAeAcTBHe rrponopgaoaaxnasrx H3MeHeHHH ,ll;AHTeAbHoc'reH HOT npn paBHOMepHOM ,ll;BHm.eHHH. ::ha paBHOMepHOCTb .lI:BHm.eHHH, eaaa AH He conditio sine qua non ** HMHTagHoHHOI"O CTHAH, TaK BKopeHHAaCb B MY3bIKY, 'ITO cAym.HAa TorAa CYIgeGTBeHHbIM !paKTopOM orpopsrxeaaa, H KOHTpaCTHbIe COOTHomeHHfI, IWTOpete B03HHKaAH npa csrenax pasraepoa H HOTHbIX KOAHqeCTB, HBAfIAHCb KpaHHe CYIgeCTBeHHbIM cpe~CTBOM AAfI npeoaoxenaa HHepTHOCTH ,1l;BHm.eHHfI, rroA06HO TOMY KaK B Harne BpeMfI nocpeacr aoa YCHAeHHoro IIpHMeHeHHH CHHKOIIHpOBaHHbIX PHTMOB CTpeMHTCil oCAa6HTb MOHOTOHHOCTb TaKTOBOH MeTpHKH H BOCCTaHOBHTb «Hrpy» PHTMOB B YCAOBHflX MepHOCTH nocryrnr.

B XVII aexe, TaKHM 06pa30M, Bam.HbIM CTHMYAOM cpopMOBaHHH 6bIAO conporaaxeaae paanoraepnoro CKaHAHfJOBaHHfI MY3bIKH «CBO- 60AllOH arpe PHTMOB»; - B name apexta He MeHee Bam.HbIM CTHMYAOM HBAfleTCfI KOH!PAHKT TaKTa C CHHKonOH H CTPeMAeHHe H36aBHTbCfI OT sxoperrennoro pOMaHTHKOH rubato, a CAeAOBaTeAbHO, H OT nocroannoro «nepaaoro» KOAe6aHHfI MePbI (eAHHHgbI) MY3bIKaAbHOI"O BpeMeHH.

* ::ho COHaTa Neri U3 BbIlllerrpHBell;eHHblX npnaepos H3 M. O. in B. ;:* aenpexennoe YCAOBue (AaT.).

11*

r.u a a XII

CIGHT A H CHMC!>OHHH

MHOrOtIHCAeHHble ClOHTHble gHKAbl XVIII sexa, oc06eHHO B KAaBHpHoH MY3bIKe, npeacraaxaror C06010 caxtere paaxnxasre KOM6HHagHH raageaaxnaerx H xapaxrepnsrx neec. oOAbllle acer-o pa3Ho06pa3HfI B t\aHHOM OTHOllleHHH t\alOT ordres !tJpaHgY3CKHX

/KAaBecHHHcTOB C HX nonerrxaun BKAlOtIHTb BaTH cepna H rrCHXOAOrHtIeCKHe «3apHCOBKH» (rropTpeTbl, 3BYKonHCb HaCTpoeHHH) H maHpoasre H neiiaaaonsre (rrp06ymt\alOIgeeCH tIYBCTBO npnpoaer) MO~ THBb!. BMeCTe C TeM B ClOHTax ynopno mHByT KaK tIeTblpeXtIaCTHbIH

crepasens con~CTaBAeHHfI H3 aAAeMaHt\bl (1), xypatrret (~), capa- 6aHt\bl HAH MeHyaTa H mHfH C t\06aBAemfHMH H BapHaHTaMH [npeAWt\HfI KaK BCTynHTeAbHaii:- xacr», apna - BHyTpH ClOHTbl - KaK ·lIpOTHBOnOAomeHHe cosepgarexenoii -MY3bIKH TaHgeBaAbHbIM t\BHmeHHflM, H KaKOH-AH60 TaHeg erge). J\ytIllIe scero corrOCTaBAeHHfI, AemaIgHe B OCHOBe ClOHTHblX gHKAOB, BCKPOlOTCH H3 0603peHHa TaKOBbIX y oaxa. CpaBHHM ero !tJpaHgY3CKHe H aHrAHHCKHe KAa-

* .

napasre H tIeTblpe oprcecrpoaere ClOHTb!.

<DpaHgY3CKHe ClOHTbl

ITepBaH (d): aAAeMaHt\a (1), xypaara (~), capatianna (~),

MeHyaT I (n H II (n, mHra (~).

BTopaH (c): axxeuaaaa (C), xypanra (~), capaeaaaa (~),

apna (~), xrerryar (~), mHra (~) . 6

T p e r b H (h): axxesranaa (C), xypaa-ra (4)' capatiaana (~) , MeHyaT I H II (TpHO) (~), anglaise (C, vivace), mHfa(~) 4eTBepTaH (Es): aAAeMaHt\a (C), xypatrra (~), capaoaaaa

(~), raBOT (~), MeHyaT 0), apas (C), mHra (~) .

ITHTafl (G): axxewauaa (C), xypaura (~), caparianna (t),

raBOT (~), 6yppe (~), xyp (~, moderato), asnra (l~).

l.Il e c r a a (E): aAAeMaHAa (C), xypairra (~), capariaaaa (~),

raBOT (~), nOAOHe3 (~), 6yppe (~), MeHyaT (~), mHra (~).

T ouaxeaoe eAHHCTBO 06'be,lJ;HHHeT ace 3BeHbH. ITepHOAHtIHOCTh corrOCTaBAeHHfI MeHee H 60Aee nOt\BHmHoro t\BHmeHHH II POBOt\HTCH acroay, HO eCAH B3HTb KamAYIO ClOHTY B geAoM OT nepsoro aaeua

* ]JI1T. no 113AaHI11O I1eTepca.

164

K nocxenaevy, TO MOmHO CKa3aTb, tITO 0IgyIgaeTCH nOCTeneHHaH rpat\agHH TeMrra, H mnra 3BytIHT, KaK CaMOe 6bICTpoe H crpewaTeAbHOe t\BHmeHHe. ITepeAoM me OIgyIgaeTCH B geHTpe - 06bItIHO aa capafiaaae. * 4epet\OBaHHe tIeTHoro H HetIeTHOrO pasjaepoa npnHajJ,.ll.emHT TaKme K tIHCAY xapaKTepHblX CBOHCTB ClOHTbI, HO AOnYCKaeTCfI rrocxeaoaanae 3BeHbeB oaaoro H roro me paasrepa (Ha. npavep, xypairra H capatian aa ) C pa3AHtIHbiM TeMnOM H xapaxrePOM MY3bIKH.

AHrAHHCKHe ClOHTbI

ITepBafi (A): npextozi (allegro, 1~), aAJI.eMaHAa (C), KYparrra I H II (06e ~) C t\ByMH doubles (BapHaHTHo-BapnagnoHHbIe nposenenaa) , capafianaa 0), 6yppe (~) HIl (a-moll ,~) ,

mHra (~).

B TOp a H (a): rrpexroz; ( allegro con brio ~) , axxevaaaa (C), xyparrra (~ ), capaoanaa (~) C opHaMeHTaAbHbIM BapHaHToM.

6yppe I (~) H 11 (A-dur ~), mHra (~).

TpeTbH (g): npexroa (allegro,~), aA,!I.eMaHt\a (C). xypaara (~), capafiaaaa (~) C opHaMeHTaAbHbIM BapHaHTOM, raBoTI (~) H II (HAn MlO3eT G-dur, ~), mHra C~).

4eTBepTaH (F): rrpexroa (allegro, C), aAAeMaHAa (C), xypaura (~), capatiaana (~), MeHyaT I (~) H II (d-moll,~) ,

mHra C~).

IT H T a fI (e): npexroa (allegro, ~), aAAeMaHt\a (C), xypanra

(~), capatianaa (~), passe-pied r ('~) H II (E-dur, ~), mHra (~) .

ill e C T a H (d): npexroa (lento, adagio, allegro, ~), aAAeMaHAa (C), KYpaHTa (~), capaoaaaa (~) Ii double (opHaMeHTaAbHbIH naPHaHT, ~), raBOT I (~) H II (HAH MlO3eT D-dur, ~), mHra U~). ITPH scex Tex me CBOHCTBax H npnagjrnax o!tJopMAeHHH, KaK BO !tJpaHgY3CKHX ClOHTax,- B anr AHHCKHX nOHBAHlOTCH TOHaAbHble KOHTpaCTbI (IIpaBAa, OtIeHb p06KHe - B COIIOCTaBAeHHHX MamopaMHHopa HAH 06paTHo) - B coceanux sapaaarax MeHyaToB HAH raBOTOB. Ho canoe 60Abllloe sanoeaaane arrr AHHCKHX ClOHT - aTO pa3BHToH npexroa, npeautecrayrotgnii aAAeMaHAe, KaK IIPOTHBOIIOAomeHne «caodoaaoro» t\BHmeHHH t\BHmeHHlO, cxcaarrnoxry pHTMO'

16$

<P0PMYAOH: TaHI,!a KaK nbIIIlHaH 3aCTaBKa H KaK HMnpoBH3agHH. FlpeAID~ B CHAbHOH: CTeneHH ~HHaMH3HpyeT CIDHTy. OH BMeCTe C axAeMaH~OH: H KypaHTOH: oopasye-r nepayro, TeMaTH'1eCKH 60raTYID H KOHTpaCTHYID CTa~HID CIDHTbI. Capatiaana paanexser KaK caoero poaa gC3ypa 9Ty CHM<P0HH3HpOBaHHYID CTa~HID OT fioxee nO~BHmHOH: nOCJl.C~HeH: CTa~HH, B KOTOPOH: TKaHb pa3pHmaCTCH H MY3blKa nOAY'1aCT B KOHge CTpCMHTeAbHYID rrocryrte. AHr Jl.HHCKHC CIDHTbI- 06pa3I,!OBble I,!HKAbI C TO'1KH 3peHHH rpa~agHH H pacnpeaexenaa CHA, opraHH3YIDI,gHX MY3bIKaAbHOC CTaHOBJl.CHHC MOTopHoro THna.

4CTblpe OPKCCTPOBblC CIDHTbI

n C p BaH' (C) ,'l;AH 2 r060eB, <parOTa, I H II CKpHnOK, axura, 6aca H '1eM6aAo: yseprtopa (grave, C, vivace, t rpyra. grave, C),

xy pairra ( ~), raBOT I (~) Ii I I (~), <popAaHa - BeHeI,!HaHCKHH: TaHeg (~), MeHY9T In II, 6yppe I (~)H II . (c-moll, ~), passe-

pied I (n H II n)·

B TOp a R (h) ,'l;AR <pAeIi:Tbl, 2 CKpHnOK, aAbTa H continuo: yseprropa (grave, C, allegro qiyrapoaaanoe, lento, ~), pOH~O (n,

capaoaaaa (~), 6yppe I (~) H II (n, nOAOHe3 (~) c double, MeHy9T (~), badinerie (allegro, ~).

T p e r b H (D) ,'l;AR 2 r060eB, 3 rpyti, AHTaBp, 2 CKpHnOK, axsra H continuo: yaeprropa (grave, C, vivace rpyrnpoaaaaoe, grave, C),

apna (C) - TOAbKO CTpYHHble H continuo, raBOT I (~) H.JI (~),

6yppe (~), mHra (~).

4 e T Be p r a H (D) - ,'l;AH 3 rofioen, QJarOTa, 3 Tpy6, AHTaBp, 2 CKpHnOK, axura H continuo: yaep-nopa (grave, C, <pyrHpoBaHHoe

aAAerpo [vivace],~, grave, C,), 6yppe I (~) H II (h-moll, ~), raBOT @), MeHY9T (~) C TPHO, Pejouissance ( allegro, ~).

J1 rpaKTypa, H KOHCTPYKgHH, H ~HHaMHKa CTaHOBAeHHH 9THX CIDHT OTAH'1alDTCH OT KAaBHpHbIX. Bo scex '1eTKO npOTHBonOCTaBAHeTCH MOHYMCHTaAbHOMY CTHAID H BeAH'1eCTBeHHOll nocryna MacCHBHbIX yneprrop - cpaBHHTeAbHO necrperii «KJl.y60K» TaHgeB, He CTOAbKO, '1T06bI ~aTb HOBYJO CTa.n;HJO pa3BHTHH, CKOAbKO '1T06bl ypaaaoaecare nepBbIH: OT,'l;eJl. MY3blKH H pa3pHJJ;HTbC03,'l;aBilleCCH nanpnasenne. B aTOM CMbICAe opxecrpoasre CJOHTbI npH6AHmaJOTOf K aHrAHH:CKHM, HO B rex Bce-TaKH nepaere CTa,'l;HH He ~OCTHraJOT .TatWH MOIgHOCTH, KaK yseprroper, 3aTO B nOCAep,HHX CTa,'l;HHX TaM Ha6AJO,'l;aIDTCH 60Ace llAaHOMepHbIe revnoasre H ~HHaMfl'1eC'Oie rpa-

l66

~agHH: mHra acer.aa BbI3bIaaeT CBOeH: KOHgeHTpaI,!HCH: H CTpeMHTeAbHOCTblD ,'l;BHmeHHH 0IgYIgeHHH rpHHaAa (H 3ieCb T perux CJOHTa C apHeH: B geHTpe H mHrou B KOHge HBJl.HeTCH HaH60Jl.ee ypannoaemeaaoii ). *

ECAH reneps cpaana r» aTH I,!HKAbI C KAaCCH'1eCKOH nOCAe~OBaTeAbHOCTbJO '1aCTeU COHaT H CHMrpOHHl1, TO l!£eHl\1:Yl!!.~<:,TBO COHaTHOC~MrpOHll'1eCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHJI YCTaHaBAllBaeTCJI cpa.3y~---rrpCHMY:I¥~CTBO B CMbIcAe ~HHaMH'leCKOll 'leTKOCTH H HCHOCTH rpa~agHH:. L_~.~~_IJ,!!.~~a- COHaTHO-CHMrpOHW·l.eCKOe axxerpo - B cpaBHeHHH c ax . .I\.CMaH~OH (BKOTOpOll HaAHgo npc~nOCbIAKH COHaTHO-CHMrpOHH'1eCKOrO CTaHOBAeHHR, HO CKOBaHHbIe, CTHCHYTble H HCpaC'1AeHCHHble) ofipaayer ~HaAeKTH'1eCKH KOH'tpaCTHoe pa3BHTHe H~CH, HX 60Pb6y H CHHTe3. MCJJ;AeHHaH (II) xacrs - ropaaao cocpenorosea~e~, '1eM capadanaa HJl.H apna, ~blpamaeT KOHTpaCT cosepgaaaa ~CHCTBHID: CHMrpOHH'leCKOe adagio KOHgeHTpHpyeT B CBOCM CTaHOBAeHHH C r Jl.y6HHOH: H CHJl.OH BblpameHHH Jl.HpH'leCKII.e COCTOHHH5I B HX pasnootipaaaeiinrax CTa~HHX H OTTeHKax. III 'laCTb CHMrpOHH'leCKOrO gHKJl.a COXpaHHJl.a aJl.eMeHTbl CJOHTbI, HO nO~BHmHbIe, lte~ peBeHCKH aaaopnere MCHyaTbI faHAHa CMeHHJl.HCb OCTPOYMHbIMH c~{Jl!0 EeTxoBeHa. J1Ha'le roaopa, MeCTO TaHI,!a 3aHHJl.a «nrpa». HaKoHeg, rpHHaJl. CHMrpOHHH no OTHOllleHIUO K cxepgo HBJl.HCTCR TeM, '1eM mHra B CIDHTe 6bIJl.a no OTHOIIleHHID K npeAIIleCTBYIDIgHM TaHgaM-HrpaM, CJl.e~OBaBIIlHM aa capaoaanoii, C O~HOH: CTOPOHbI, <pHHaJl. BMeCTe co cKepgo COCTaBJl.HeT KOHTpaCT MCAAeHHOH: '1aCTH C ~pyroH: - HaXO~HTCR B CJl.OmHOM COOTHOIIleHHH C r '1aCTblD. COOT~ HOIIleHHe aTO 'laIge acero BblpamaeTCR KaK conOCTaBJl.CHHe apaxaTH3Ma H KOH<pJl.HKTHOCTH COHaTHO-CHMrpOHH'leCKOrO axxerpo C ero nO~'1epKHyTbIMH TeMaTH'leCKJiMH KOHTpaCTaMH - e~HHCTBY aaCTpoeHHH HAH rocnoncrny C~rIHoro COCTOHHHH (<<MaCCOBOH: o~epmHMOCTH») B rpHHaAe. AY'lille acero aTO nepenaror rpOPMbl pOH~O C rAaBeHCTBYJOIgHM B HHX peqipeaou, :nO~'1HHHIDI,gHM ee6e ~pyrHc TeMbl. He MeHce y~a'1HO BbIHBMlJOT rpHHaAbHOCTb KaK CTpeMHTCAbnyro eMeHY «oTpameHHM» OAHOH 3aBJl.a~eBIIleH: MbICAblD H~CH HAH HHTeHCHBHoro 'lYBCTBa - B a p H a I,! H H (QJHHaA «3POHKH» EeTxoBCHa B epaBHeHHH C I 'laCTbJO eHMrpOHHH BbISbIBaeT 0I,gYIgeHHC noxaoro paCTBopeHHH AH'lHOrO 6opJOIgerocH aaxaxa B C~HHOM BO scex CBOHX npeJl.OMAeHHHX nOTOKe 'lYBcTBoBaHHH H TeM caMblM c6AHmaeTCH C rpHHaJl.OM i{eBRTOH: CHMrpOHHH). ECAH npooxeaa rpHaaxa CHM!POHHH, B CYIgHOCTH, ecrs rrpofixesra nepezraxn eaanoro AYIIleBHoro eOCTOHHHH B pa3AH'lHbIX ero moaacax, TO TYT MOl' AO

o * HCTOPIUI B03B!;,KHOBeHiUl H pa3BUTHR JiiHnI HaqHHaR OT UHCTpYMeHTaAbHOIi npaKTIiKII anr AHIiCKHX KOMeP;IIailToB Ii ee rrpouaeraaaa C MOMeHTa nneapeBRR ee BO tppaH!!Y3CKYI9 AWTHeBYw H xxasnpnyro MY3blKY (OK. 1635) ncxepnblBawrge oCBergeHa B patio-re We r n e r 0 a n eke r t' a «Geschichte der Gigue» 0 (LP:., 1924). TaoM me BbUIBA:Hbl CTIiAHCTliqeCKile pa3AIIQliR mHril anrAHIiCKOH, tppaHl!Y3CKOIi, IiTaAbJlBCKOil Ii ReMe!!KOH (mlira 6apoKKO _ panHero, asrcoxoro II anOXH paC!!BeTa, mlira BeHCKIiX KAaCCHKOB) H npaaczeaer OTAHQHO nonoopaaaue HOTHble npmreper - 06pa3!!bl mUf.

167

6bITb ~Ba OCHOBHbIX YKAOHa: HAI1 pa~OCTHOe H cB060l:lHOe CAHHHHe AHqHOCTH C KOCMOCOM H qeAOBeqeCTBOM (5eTXOBeH), HAH 3a6BeHHe ~yrneBHoH 60AH H O.n;HHOqeCTBa B TOAlIe, HAH rpar-axecxoe YHHqTOmeHHe (YaHKoBCKHH). H He ~OAmeH 6bIA 6bI B KHHre 0 ¢opMe xacareca IICHXOAOrHqeCKOH CTOPOHbI rrp06AeMbI rpaaaxa, HO H p.eAaIO <ITO TOAbKO C geAbIO BblHBHTb ztaa HalIpaBAeHHH B KOHeqHbIX CTa~HHX CHM¢OHHqeCKOrO gHKAa: HAH <ITO pa3AHqHOrO poaa 0606IgeCTBAeHHble CO C T 0 H H H H, HAH PIIHTb axgear na KOH¢AHKTe, na .n;paMaTHqeCKOM CTaHOBAeHHH, T. e. YCHAeHHe KOHTpaCTOB qYBCTBOBaHHH, HBAeHHblX B I qaCTH. Mem~y STHMH KpaHHHMH TO'IKaMu BapbHpYIOTCH MHoro06pa3Hble ¢HHa.lI.bHble KOHgelIgHH (KaK Mem~y ¢HHaAoM illeCToH CHM¢OHHH YaHKoBcKoro H 4eBHToH CHM¢oHHeH 5eTxoBeHa). OTcIO.n;a H MHoro06pa3He H HeycTOHqHBOCTb ¢OpM CHM¢OHHqeCKHX ¢HHaAoB: OT HBHO BblpameHHbIX pOH~O -.n;o POH.n;O, CMernaHHblX C rrpHHgHrraMH cOHaTHo-cHM¢OHHqeCKOrO axxerpo, H ao COHaTHO-CHM¢OHHqeCKHX axxerpo KaK TaKOBblX. Ho Bce-TaKH, rrpn BceM STOM pa3Ho06pa3HH, B ¢HHaAax 06blqHO ofiaapyzsnaae'r cetin PYKOBo.n;HIgaH, KOHgeHTpHpYIOIgaH BHHMaHHe H~eH, H OT nee H soxpyr nee H.n;YT HapaCTaIOIgHe BOAHbI rrO~'beMa. 4HHaMHqeCKH npaaaxsnee scero, MHe KameTCH, 6y~eT asrpaaare CMbICA H POCT CTaHOBAeHHH ¢HHaAa KaK BOAHo06pa3Hoe aapacraaae e.n;HHoro qYBCTBa, KaK socxoasaenae, B rrpOTHBOIIOAomHOCTb ~paMaTHqeCKOMY CTaHOBAeHHIO I 'IaCTH CHM¢OHHH B 60Pb6e, B npeoaoxeaaa nporuBOpeqHH. B ¢HHaAax TpeTbeH H 4eBHTOH: CHM¢OHHH KOHgelIgH.lI aocxczsneans rro.n;TBepm.n;aeTC.lI BCeH: ¢aKTYP0H:, B qianaxax BTOPOH H Ce.n;bMoH CHM¢OHHH STa me KOHgerrgHH OCYIgeCTBAHeTC.lI r AaBHbIM 06pa30M qepe3 KOHgeHTpagHIO .n;BHmeHH.lI soxpyr r AaBHblX TeM, cpaay BcrrbIXHBaIOIgHX H B IIepBOM me CBoeM npoaeneaaa 06- aapyacanarotgnx C IIOAHOH asrpaaarexsnocrero cnoe BAHHHHe, CBOH xpyr .n;eH:CTBHH, TaK 'ITO ~aAbHeHrnee H3AomeHHe He CTOAbKO pasBHTHe, CKOAbKO pH.n; B03BpaIgeHHH K geHTpaAH3YIOIgeH TeMe KaT( I1CXO~HOMy TOA'IKY H geHTpy.

BOAHo06pa3HOCTb HapaCTaHHH:, rpa.n;agH.lI Bocxom~eHHH o'rpamaeTC.lI .n;ame B CTpoeHHH TeM ¢HHaAOB. DOKa3aTeAeH C STOH TOqKH speaarr ¢HHaA DHTOH: 6eTxoBeHcKoH CHM¢OHHH KaK B geAoM CBoeM paapacraana, TaK H B «xpyre .n;eH:CTBHH» OT.n;eAbHbIX 9AeMeHTOB. TeMa ~BHmeTCH B -repenoaaaaa CKaqKOB H «B3AeTOB» C aanoxaeHHeM HX, rrpHqeM Kam~bIH STall 3aKpeIIA.lIeTCH nyrexr rrOBTopeHHH:

51 a) Allegro

_I C

P' I

..----.. ~. I

ale rrrn

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~ 11M r 1 FEr t I fl r r r jl ~j e r t 1 r tel

168

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I

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rtf I

if if if if

Err r t£Ej Lrm rm IljD nail

TaK me .n;BHmeTCH CAe.n;yIOIgHH TeMaTH'IeCKHH KOMIIAeKC (OT b).,.

H TOAbKO «BOAHa» HapaCTaHHH 'pacrrpe.n;eA~eTcH M~m.n;y ¢aH¢apOl! AYXOBbIX H .n;yro06pa3HoH ¢HrypagHeH celli H bassi C xoarparparoTOM. Ho CKpHIIKH 6epYT BHOBb ImHgHaTHBY na ce6~ H onare B MeAo.n;n'IeCKOH: rpa.n;agHH .n;OCTuraIOT, KaK aepnmasr, d . T perex BOAua - HOB!JIH TeMaTH'IeCKI1H ROMIIAeKC:

,C) V-nl .

. Wit

If a

~'~jIJ~ED~J ~~~~I~i ~ etc.

I UJ r

B rpa.n;agHI1 yTBepm.n;aeTCH 11 CAe.n;YIOIgI1H MOTHB:

,d)

J

Bee BpeMH - e.n;HHaH AHHHH HapaCTaHH.lI, B KOTOPOH: c¢epbI r AaBHoH H II060qHOH IIapTHH 0606IgecTBMIIOTC.lI. Pa3pa60TKa IIpO~OAmaeT

169

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171

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Hapany C npOTIIBOpelJIIRMH, paCKpbIBalOtgIlMHCJI B nOCAe,l\OBaHIIII, MY3bIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe ofiaapyasnnaer npOTHBOpelJIIR B ozHOBpeMeHHOCTH HAH nepexo,l\ !PYHKgHH ,l\aHHOH: I1HToHagIlH B CBOIO npOTHBonOAom.HOCTb, 0 lJeM nOCTORHHO II1Aa pelJb B 9TOH: pafio re, Ka,l\aHC rrpeapargaerca B TOAlJOK, COlJeTaHIIe, B O,l\HOM oxpyaceana aocnpnnaaaameeca KaK KOHCOHaHTHoe, KaK YCTOH:, CTaHOBHTCH B apyrnx YCAOBHRX CTHMYAOM npO,l\BHm.eHHH, gHK.I\ CTRrHBaeTCJI

* Y Barnepa COllIAIOCb XOTH 6bl na BCTynAeHHe K «MeHcTep3HHrepaM», r ac CYIgeCTBeHHble 9AeMeHTbi COHaTHO-CHM!pOHHqeCKOrO axxerpo nercrynaror ot\HOBpeMeHHO H KaK CTat\HH gHKAa B et\HHOll AHHHH pa3BHTHH. TaK, aasraxo BCTynAeHHH - KaK nepasiii 9Tan COHaTHO-CHM!pOHHqeCKOrO aAAerpo - CMeHHeTC5I AHpHqeCKOH MeAot\Heil: Bax e repa (n060qHaH nap-rna) - csoero poaa andante CHM!POHHH. 4aAee, paspatio-nce C ee rpOTeCKOBblM npoaeneaaesr rAaBHOll TeMbl npacyig xapax rep cxepno, MOIgHblll opranmaii nyHKT neaer K CHHTeTHqeCKOMY npOBet\eHHIO r AaBHOll H n060qHOll naprnii, :::ha CTat\H5I no CBoeMY pa3BHTHIO H t\HHaMHKe BocnpHHHMaeTCH KaK C!lM!poHHqeCKHll !pHHaA. ITpeBpal!!eHHe I!HKAa B ot\HOqaCTHOe nocrpoeane y AHcTa H Barnepa aaao cqHTaTb Ot\HHM H:l 06HaPYlKeHHIT t\HaAeKTHKH MY3blKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHHH - O,1HHM H3 BHt\OB nepexozra !PYHKgHH CHCTeMbl B CBOIO npOTHBonOAOlKHOCTb,

172

B He,ll,eAHMoe cnaaunoe npoaaseneaae, H 06paTHo - B cBH3Hbtli. CTa,l\HRX aexo roperx !POpM HaAHlJeCTBYIOT TeH,l\eHgHH K gHKAH3agHH (KaHgoHbI). OT,l\eAbHbIe TOHbI, paaxar aernue ,l\HaToHHKY xaaa (axsTepagHH), BHe,l\pRIOTcR B Hero H opraHH3YIOT HOBoe, 060ratgeHHoe Jla,l\OBOe e,l\HHCTBO - RBJleHl1e, I1MeBillee MeCTO yace B rpyre, r,l\f.' Bom,l\b H cnyTHHK B CBoeM «KBI1HTOBOM» p0,l\CTBe - ,l\ame ecxn lJeTKO 06HapymIlBaAHCb rrpIl3HaKI1 ,l\OMI1HaHTbI KaK TOHaAbHOCTHsee me OCTaliaAIICb e,l\I1HbIM conp_RmeHl1eM B CIIAY TOm,l\eCTBeHHOCTH MaTepl1aAa H KOHCTPYKgHH II B CIIAY HenOCpe,l\CTBeHHOCTH conOCTaBAeHHR.

aTO fior-a'roe BbIpa3I1TeAbHbIMH B03MomHOCTRMII ,l\HHaMHlJeCKOe

H ,l\HaAeKTl1lJeCKOe MY3bIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe HalJaAO pacxpsrBaTbCH BO BceH CBOeH: nOAHOTe TOAbKO B CBR3H C o6pa30BaHHeM !pOpMbl cOHaTHo-cIIM!pOHHlJeCKOrO axxerpo H no Mepe Toro KaK 3aKpenARAO! cOHaTHO-CI1M!poHl1lJeCKHH: gl1KA KaK apena 06HapymeHIIR scex ,l\eikTBYIOIgI1X CHA II 9AeMeHTOB yxasaaaoro CTaHOBAeHHR B 11K B3aI1MOo6YCAOBAeHHOCTH. OO,l\lJepKHBaIO erge pas, lJTO pOCT COHaTHO-CHM!pOHHlJeCKOH: !pOpMbI cosrraaaer C pOCTOM~ cogIlaAbHbIX npoTI1BOpelJIIH: II 60Pb60H: H,l\eH:, BbI3BaBIIIHX BeAI1KHH nepesopor, H lJTO BepIIlIlHbI caoero pa3BHTHR CHM!POHIIJI ,l\OCTHraeT B TBOplJeCTBe EeTXOBeHa, COBpeMeHHI1Ka I'erexa. 4YMaeTCR, lJTO ~ ,l\aHHOM CAYlJa_;; neoea HaMH HelJTO 60AbIIIee, lJeM HCTOpHlJeCKl111 napaAAeAH3M. B 'caMOM ,l\eAe, eCAI1 l1tJ,eR pa3BI1TIiH, CAom.IiBIIIaHCH y CbIHa 3BOHapH Ii IIIKOAbHoro YlJUTe.ll.R - I'epzepa (1744-1803), BMeCTe C npeK.II.OHeHUeM nepezt Hapop;HbIM TBOplJeCTBOM HaUIAa csoe napaxxexe-

* ilpaB n09TOMY 4aHt<epT, xor-aa B KOHge caoeii BblllIey~a3aHHoil: pado rsr «Geschichte der Gigue» rOBopHT: «Der Iundamentale Unterschied des barocken und des Klassischen Stils in Bezug auf die Gestaltung der glghena~tJgen Schlupsatze erschopft sich selbst verstii~dli~h keineswegs ,in den ar:ge~uhrten formalen und inhaltlichen Momenten. Wichtiger als alle diese Details ist d.as zentrale iibergeordnete Punktionepritizip der Klassiker: die Gestaltungswelse des frcien autonomen Menschen, der sich endgiiltig von der vorklassischen

Gebundheit Iosgesagt hat. . " .

Die Schlupsatz e Haydns und Moz arts enthalten die letzten stilistischen Spuren des Barockgiga. In Beethowens Fmale_nwlrd man bereits verg~blich nach der artigen Reminiscenzen suchen. Veremzelte Versuche von" Melstern des 19, Jahrhunderts den alten Tanztypus wieder aufzu.n,eh~er:, kor:nen als relativ unwichtige Experimente auf dem Gebiete der Stil2mltahon hier wohl ubergangen-werden» (S. 145). [«OcHoBHoe paaxa-mc CTHAeH 6ap~KKo H KMCCHqeCKOrO B 06pa30BaHHH 3aKAIOqHTeAbHbiX TeM lKHrH, caMO C060H pa3YMeeTCH, HHKOHM 06pa30M He acscpnsmaercs npHBet\eHHbIMH ooco6eHHOCTHMU 0 CPOPMbl H COt\eplKaHHH. EOAee BalKHblM lIBAlieTCH geHTpaAbHblH opraHH3YIOIgU~ol H nOJ\qHHlilOIgHll ce6e ifJl1H1CJjuOHa/lbHbIU nounuur: KAaCCHKOB, BblpalKalOIgHH O'IgHOCTb cB060J\Horo -rexonexa, OKOHqaTeAbHO OTKa3aBllIerOCH OT CB1I3bIBaBllIHX ero ys J\OKAaCCHqeCKOrO nepno aa.

3aKAIOqHTeAbHble qaCTH gHKAHqeCKHx !jJOpM faHJ\Ha H Mogapra coaepzsa'r 1I0CAeJ\HHe CTHAH~THqeCKHe cxcaer lKurH snOXH 6apOKKO, B 6eTXOBeHCKHX !PH" HaAaX nanpacno 6blAO 6bl HCKaTb nOt\o6Hble Pt;,MHHHcgeHgHH. OTJ\eAbHble oTIOTIblTKH MaCTepOB XIX nexa B03POJ\UTb CTapblH THn Tallga MOlKHO 060HTH MONlaHHeM KaK OTHOCHTeAbHO He3HaqHTeAbHbie axcnepauenrer B 06AaCTH CTH-

AH3aguH» 1 (HeM.).

173

Hoe BblpameHHe yme B TBop'tJeCTBe csma xapernoro MaCTepa _. T aiI,~Ha (1732-1809), TO B 6eTXOBeHCKHX xnaprerax H CHM!POHH:HX, CTOJl.b G6YCJl.OBJl.eHHbIX raHP;HOBCKHMH H BMeCTe C TeM CTOJl.b OT HHX GT Jl.HqHbIX, BGT 9TO HX «OT Jl.HqHe» - TO, 'ITO 3HaMeHyeT pe3KHH «CKaqGK» B 9BOJl.IOY;HH CHM!POHHH,- BbI3BaHO p;aJl.bHeHllilfM npeJl.GMJl.eHHeM y 6eTXOBeHa raHp;HGBCKOrO pa3BHTHH B p;HaJl.eKTHqeCKGe CTaHOBJl.eHHe Hp;eH. 0 TOM,KaK pa3BHBaeT faHp;H, Igep;pbIH na pexseqmere MeJl.Op;HH-TeMbI, My3bIKY CBOHX axxerpo, MGmeT p;aTb npeacraaxeaae ero Es-dur'HbIH KBapTeT op, 33 NQ 2, B KGTOpGM HaqaJl.bHaH TeMa, TO' GTKpblBaH, TO 3aMbIKaH C060H paaxaxasre CTaP;HH p;BHmeHHH, setcrynae-r B xasecrae «BGmp;H» sceii pa3pa60TKHOKa3bIBaeTCH «nepsoannrarexea» p;aHHGrO CTaHOBJl.eHHH H CBGeH aaepraeii ero 06YCJl.OBJl.HBaeT. Y faHP;Ha n09TGMY nepeaxo n06GqHaH nap-rna - TGJl.bKG «cnyTHHK». OHa GrpaHHqHBaeTCH Jl.aKGHHqHbIM «npotieroer». B nee nper aopaerca (<<eIO npHTBopHeTCH») rxasHaH TeMa, Bo06Ige sceraa CKJl.OHHaH Y faHP;Ha K paaaoro poaa «nepeoaenaaaaa». KpeqMap B CBoeM «Fiihrer'e»!' OCTpOyMHO rGBOpHT o nG60qHOH naprnn OP;HOH H3 raH:AHOBCKHX CHM!POHHH:, 'ITO B cpaBHeHHH C nepsoii TeMOH: OHa KameTCH «nur pro forma da zu sein», * KOHeqHO, 9TG He «nporpopaa», a Jl.HIIIb CJl.eACTBHe HeGCG3HaHHH AHaJl.eKTHqeCKOrO 3HaqeHHH BTOpGll TeMbI KaK «aHTHTeTllqeCKOH: CTaAHH» CTaHOBJl.eHHH H ace etge CHJl.bHOe BJl.HHHHe !pyrH na BbIBeAeHHe BCeH: MY3bIKH CHM!pOHHqeCKGrO axxerpo H3 OCHOBHOH: rGCnGACTBYIOIgen MbICJl.H. B TOM me Es-dur'HOM xaaprere, B !PHHaJl.bHOM POHAO, MomHO Ha6J1.IOAaTb KaK paa npaxep THnHqHO raH,~HOBCKGrG CTaHGBJl.eHHH My3bIKH H3 OAHOH: npeAnOCbIJl.KH:

::ha TeMa - H TOJl.qGK, H pa3BMBaIOIgaHcH HAeH, H MeJl.GAHqeCKaH KOHY;0BKa (eIO PP KOHqaeTCH KBapTeT ).**

BCJl.eA aa AaHHbIM npnsrepoja HaAJl.emHT ceiisac me. 06paTHTbcH K 0AHOMY H3 fierxcaencxnx KBapTeTGB, XOTH 6bI K axxerpo xnaprera Fvdur op. 59 NQ 1. TorAa CYIgHOCTb 6eTXGBeHCKOro MbIIIIJl.eHHH TOTqaC me CTaHeT nOH5ITHOH:. I' anAHoBcKoe GCTpOYMHoe p a c » n p e a e JI. e H H e MaTepHaJl.a nOKameTC5I KapTOqHbIM AOMHKOM, 3a6aBHOH: HrpOH: B cpaBHeHHH C 6eTXGBeHCKHM 06 Hap Y m e H HeM

* HaXO.1lHlgeHclI 3.11eCb J\HIIIb paaa nporpopsn-r (HeM.).

** B rroCJ\e.1lHeH CTa.1lHII aroro xnapre-ra raHAH OCTPOYMHO Ao611BaeTClI anenarxeuaa <pHHaJ\bHOCTH, 3aBepweHHOCTH .1IBmKeHHlI He 06blqHbIM nyress .1111- HaMllqeCKOrO HapaCTaHIIH H CTpeMHTeJ\bHOCTblO, a Hao60pOT: OH HeOlKHAaHHo BKJ\IIHlIeT B presto xopo rxoe adagio, OKpYlKaeT ero cpepMaTaMH, 3aTeM BHOBb noaapargaercx K presto II r J\aBHOH rexe, HO paaae.a ner rrHTb ee rrpoaeacaaii BbUKIIAaTeJ\bHbIMH, HacTopalflHBalOrgHMH BHIIMaHHe rr a Y 3 a M H.

174

HAeH. I1HGH: MaCIIITa6, HHOH: passrax, HHOH: TOHYC pexn - H na KamAGM mar-y BbI5IBJl.eHHe TGrG HJl.H HHOrG nOJl.OmeHH5I xepea npGTHBOnOCTaBJl.eH~e, xepes KOHTpaCT, xepea nporaaopeuae. faH:k HGBCKHn HrpYIIIeqHbIH: MeXaHH3M C XGpGIIIO npHJl.ameHHbIMH p;pyr K Apyry KOJl.eCHKaMH H r zte ace na CBoeM MeCTe H BOBpeMH 3BY'IlfT,- 9TO HHOH: MHp PHAOM C 6eTXGBeHCKHMH GpraHH3MaMH C HX CJl.GmHbIM !PYHKY;HOHaJl.bHbIM CTaHOBJl.eHHeM. B HHX BCIOAY orgyIgaeTCH neanae cypoaoro, HcnbITYIOIgero ysra, B3BeIIIlfBaIOIgero Bblpa3HTeJl.bHYIO y;eHHGCTb KamAoro MHra ABHmeHHH, If - GAHOBpeMeHHG - 6HeHIIe -ry-ncor-o H r-xyfioxo qYBcTBYIOIgero cepaua (6eTxoBeHcKHe adagio).

POMaHTHKH KOHeqHO 060raTHJl.H !POPMY Cl'M!POHHH B nCHXOJl.OrHqeCKGM GTHOIIIeHHH.* OHH HaIIIJl.H MHoro HOBbIX HpKHX npaeMOB H cpeacrn aerpaaseaaa, paCIIIHpHJl.H xpyr Hp;eH: H CIOmeTOB, Bblpa6oTaJl.H B nporpaMMHO-CHM!POHHqCCKOH: MY3bIKe COOTBeT'CTBYIOIgHe «ceMaHTH'leCKHe HHTOHaY;HH», qCM 06AerqaJl.OCb Y3HaBaHHe coaepzsaaax, naxonej; pa3ABHHY Jl.H paMKH H npenexsr CHM!POHHq~cxoro Y;IlKAa, '!:IO ace 9TO 6bIAO Jl.HIIIb pa3BHTHeM rex B0'3MomnO'CTeH, 'ITO 6bIJl.H o6HapymeHbI 6eTXOBeHOM, ace 9TG 6bIJl.0 paCKpbITHeM 6eTXOBeHCKOH: AHaJl.eKTHKH, KOTGpaH B paBHOH: Mepe GnJl.Op;OTBOpaxa MY3bIKaJl.bHOe C03HaHHe, 06paIgaJl.OCb Jl.H OHO K BOOJl.OIgeHHIO qYBCTB H HAeH qeJl.GBe'leCTBa HJl.H OrpaHHqHBaJl.OCb c03epy;aHHeM 9MOY;HOHaJl.bHOH: mJi3HH KOMn03HTopa H B033peHHeM aa CHM!POHHxecrcoe cT'aHO'BAeHHe KaK aa orpaasenae «BHYTpeHHero 'I e A 0'-. aexa» - TeHAeH!!H5I CTOJl.b xapax-reptta» AA5I Jl.HpHqeCKHX CHM!pOHH~ BTOpOH: nOJl.OBHHbI XIX aexa, 4paMaTHqeCKHH: KOH!PJl.HKT KaK CTHMYJI. CTaHOBJl.eHIIH I qaCTH CHM!POHHH H KaK BblpameHHe CTOJl.b xapaKTepHoro AJl.H pOMaHTH3Ma pa3ABoeHHH AHqHOCTH H KOHTpaCTa 'lYBCTBOB8.HHH: HaxOAHT B pazte CHM!pOHHH: OT WYMaHa ,1.\0' YaHj(oBCKoro H OT 6pYKHepa AO ~aJl.epa CBoe 51pKoe H rJl.y6oKoe oroopaaseaae. HG npofixejaa !pHHaJl.a KaK BO'nAOIgeHH5I' MaCCO'Boro, KOJl.AeKTHBHoro C()3HaHHH He rrepemxa - 'ITO' BnOJl.He eCTeCTBeHHOaa AocnirHYToe 6eTXOBeHOM etge B !pHHaJl.e nHTOH: CHM!POHHH aa pacranne eAHHOH: 06'beAHHHIOIgen 9MOY;HH H aa ocyrgecrnxeaHoe HM B f H M H ePa A 0 C T H 4eBHTOH: - rpaHAHG3HOe no pasMaxy H 00 HanpHmeHHoCTH CTaHOBJl.eHHe BeJl.HKOH: HAeH, BeAHKoH

* B AaHHOM OTHoweHIIH xapaxrepea J\HCTOBCKIIH «CD a Y C T». CTaHoBJ\emllC 9TOH CHMcpOHHII OCHOBbIBaeTClI aa .1IlIaJ\eKTuqeCKOM npOTHBonOCTaBJ\eIlHII I H III qacTeii, KaK MbICJ\H HrgyrgeH, TBOpqeCKOH, U MbICAU paaxar arotgeii, MbICJ\II-lIrpbl. B geHTpe CTOUT «He TPOHYTblii» M:CPHCToqleJ\eM 06pa3 Mapraparm - qTO onar» xapaxrepao .1IJ\lI pOMaHTHqeCKOIl CHMcpOHUH C ee KYJ\bTOM SpOTIIKII (3Aecb 9pOTllqeCKall CTHXHH B311Ta B c03epgaTeJ\bHO-CTaTHQeCKOM npe· J\Oll!!\eHIIH).- AHTHnO!l, Map rap H T e AHcTa C a J\ 0 MeR PHX. Il.lrpayca. KOHeg «CDaycTa» - 6J\arOQeCTHBbIH xop - AocaAHblH HeOpraHllqHblH CHHTe3, 3aTO n pOT H BOp e q II e HJ\H 0 T P H g a H H e B oopase MecpllcTocpeJ\H (III xacr») lIBJ\lIeTCa OCTpoYMHeHweH norrblTKOH YTBepAHTb r pOT e C K' C K e P !! 0 KaK cpHHaJ\bHYIO aHTHTe3Y. TaKoB war aa 30 J\eT, npOTeKWIIX OT <pIIHaJ\a 4eBHToH CHMcpOHHH .110 aroro 3aMbICJ\a!

175

MeqTbl O· 6paTCTBe AlO,II;eH. MY.3bIKa KaK 06paIgeHlIe K qeAOBeqeCTBY, a He K TOAIIe, K OpraHH.30BaHHOMY 06IgeCTBY, a He K caoeBOAbHOMY H He06Y.3,11;aHHOMY aHapXHqeCKOMY 60AbIlIHHCTBY - TaR BOCIIpHHHMalOTCR KOHgeIIgHH EeTXOBeHa, H TaKOB, B CYIgHOCTH, aecs 6eTXOBeHCKHH CHMCPOHH.3M, O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO r Ay60KO 3MOgHOHaAbHblH H MOIgHO KOHCTPYKTHBHbIH, BOIIAOIgalOIgHH AO.3YHr «caofiozta BOAH» - B CO.3HaHHH He06xo,ll;HMOCTH H B ,ll;HcgHIIAHHe (,II;MI EeTXOBeHa 3TOH ,ll;HCgHIIAHHOH 6blA 3TOC - He IIpOIIHCHaR cpHAHCTepCKaR MopaAb, a r a BblCOTa II cnxa ,ll;yxa, 6.1\arq,ll;apR KOTOPblM r AYXOH MY3blKaHT MYlli.eCTBeHHO CIIpaBH.I\CR co CBOHM necxacreea II y6elli.,II;eHHO BepHA B TO, 'ITO AlO,II;H - 6paTbR).

TaKIlM HeBOAbHblM Allpll'leCKIlM OTCTYIIAeHlleM R 3aKaH'IllBaIO CBOlO patiory • .H ,ll;aAeKO He acsepnax TeMbl. EoraTblH IIpOaHaAll.311- pOBaHHblH MaTepHaA Tpe6yeT 60Aee acsepneraarotgero H CHCTeMaTH'IeCKOrO H.3.1\Olli.eHIUI. BeIgH, IIO,ll;06Hble KAaBHpHblM ClOllTaM 4. CKapAaTTH, concerti grossi Fenaexa, HHBeHgllJ!M, TOKKaTaM H EpaH,II;eH6yprcKHM KOHgepTaM Eaxa, KaK IIpe,ll;IIOCbIAKIl COHaTHO,ll;llaAeKTll'leCKOrO MblIlIAeHllJI rpefiyror ,ll;alli.e He OT ,ll;eAbHblX 3TlO,II;OB HAH r xan, a OT ,ll;e.l\bHblX HCCAe,li;OBaHIIH. T O'IHO TaK lli.e ,ll;AHTeAbHOH OCTaHOBKH Tpe60BaAH 6bl COIIOCTaBAeHHR 6eTXOBeHCKOU H I1Iy6epTOBCKOll COHaTHOCTH, 6pYKHepOBCKoro H 6paMCOBCKoro CHMCPOHH.3Ma, .3aTeM aHaAH.3 pyccxoro CHMcpOHH.3Ma H T. ,11;. 4a H B 06AaCTH KaMepHOH MY.3bIKaAbHOU KY.I\bTYPbl XIX sexa ecre «crozce'rer» (IIoCAe,ll;HHe xaaprerer Eerxosena, 9TlO,ll;bl II npexrozna Il.loneaa, COHaTbl II npexroasr 4e6lOccH, CTpYHHble aHCaM6.1\HC. Taneeaa), xcropsre IIpe,ll;CTaBARlOT r Ay60KIIH mrrepec C TO'lKII .3peHIIR ,ll;IIHaMII'IeCKOrO yseaaa 0 MY.3bIKaAbHoH cpopMe KaK CTaHOBAeHHH (,II;BHlli.eHlle H cpopMOBaHHe KpHCTaAAH.3YlOIgllXCR B CO.3HaHHH HHTOHagHU). BblIIaAa H.3 xroero H.3AOlli.eHHJI 06AaCTb rOpO,ll;CKOU «caxo,ll;eRTe.l\bHOll» H nporpeccnonaxsnoii HHcTpYMeHTa.l\bHOU My.3bIK11 crapoii fepMaHHH * - crpeper, rropo.aasmeii MY.3bIKaHTOB-peMeCAeHHHKOB EaxoB,- C ee KOJ\occaAbHOll xnreparypoii OT «6aIlIeHHbIX COHaT» ,11;0 MogapToBcKIIX cepeaaa, a TaKlli.e KOHTp;'l;aHCOB, HeMegKIIX raagea H T. ,11;., u60 HeT MeAKHX CPOpM, a ecre ,ll;AHTeAbHoe IIAH xparaoe 06 Hap Y lli. e H H e MY.3bIKH, ee CTaHOBAeHIIe. 4AHTeAbHOCTb II KpaTKOCTb .3aBHCRT OT Tpe6oBaHHH, H,II;YIgHX OT cogHaAbnero aaxasa, II Tpe60BaHIUl 3TII, KOHe'lI-lO, 06YCJ\OBJ\eI-lbl IIPOll3- BO,ll;CTBeHHbIMII OTHOIlIeI-lHRMH.

OT MiTepaTYPbI «npOCTbIX H IIpOCTeHIIIllX COIIOCTaBJ\eHHU H COOTHOIlIeHllH» BOCXO,ll;IfT pR;J; CTa,ll;llH cpopMo06pa30BaHHR K BbICI1IllM npOJIBAeHllJ!M MY3blKaJ\bHoro MbIIlIJ\eHllJ!. He 06J!3aHa J\ll TeMa cp"I-laJ\a «4eBJlTOH» B KOHe'lHOM rrrore CBOHM CKAa,ll;OM If CBOIfM B03- HllKHOBeI-lIIeM ,ll;AHTeAbHbIM OIIblTaM MHOrO'lHCJ\eHHblX nOKOJ\eHHU Be,ll;OMbIX HaM, MaJ\O Be,ll;OMbIX II BOBce HeBe,ll;OMbIX MY.3bIKaHTOB-

* B aTOM OTHOIlleHHH anrepecaefiureii 06AaCTblO, KOHe'lHO, ilSAileTCH aaPilAY C opraanoii H KAaBHpHoH - xror aena a MY3bIKa.

176

,ll;llJ\eTaHTOB II IIpocpeCCllOHaAOB, - IfCKaBIIIllX II B HeIIocpe,ll;CTBeHHbIX yrexax MY3b1KOH, ll' B 3aHJ!TllJlX ero KaK cnegaaxenocrero - asrpalli.eHHR CBOHX 'IYBCTB If MbICJ\eH, a IIOTOMy - BCJ\e,ll; aa yCJ\Olli.HRBI1IeHCR IICHXIfKOll - HeH.36elli.HO o60raIgaBIIIHX CPOpMbl ofinapyzceHliR MY.3bIKH. BOT J\106onblTJIblll rrpmrep ropasecrneaaoii «II06e,ll;HOll» My.3bIKll, CO'lHHeHHOll B AeHngHre B 1631 rony Marcus Dietrich'ov (<<Victoria sveco-saxonica fur 5 Stimmen auf 3 Chore so verteilt, dass bald die 5 Stimmen des ersten, bald die des zweiten, bald beide zusammen und iiberein singen, Instruments, besonders B laser, sind hinzudenken»}. B Hei1 YlKe «6bITYlOT» llHToHagllH, npeaaaparoigae co6ou MapIlIe06pa3HYlO nocryns 11 AHKOBaHHJ! cpllHaJ\a nRTOll 6eTxoBeHcKoll cliMcpomUl. *

J n ~ nIJn J J n.

.. TIpHMep B3HT 113 «Musikgeschichte Leipzigs, Erster Band: bis zur Mitte

des 17. Jahrhunderts» von R u dol f W u still ann. . Lpz., 1908

(SS. 179-180).

12

B. B. Acarp sen

177

11 TaKHX npnvepon MHOLl{eCTBO.

::ho B3anMOJJ;eHCTBHe «BbICIlIHX» H «HH3IlIHX» (npnKAaJJ;HbIX, HenOCpeJJ;CTBeHHO 6bITOM JJ;nKTyeMbIX) nHToHagnH CBnJJ;eTeAbcTByeT o TOM, 'ITO npogecc OcpOpMAeHHH B MY3bIKe He TOAbKO JJ;OAmeH 6bITb paCCMOTpeH B «ropH30HTaAH»- B nOCAeJJ;OBaTeAbHOH aBOAlOgHH KpnCTaAAH3YlOrgHXCH B C03HaHHH CPOpM, HO H B KamJJ;bIIT JJ;aHHbIH HCTOpHqeCKHH MOMeHT - BO B3anMHOH npOCAOHKe csepxy BHn3 n CHn3Y snepx, BeAHKne KOMn03HTopbI-KAaCCHKH acer aa orpaasaxa B CBoeM TBOpqeCTBe, B KOAoccaAbHOM OXBaTe, corrpaaaaxeasatgyro HX srtoxe My3bIKy. 11 npezsne, qeM MHorHe H3 HHTOHagHIT Eaxa, faH,lI;Ha, EeTXOBeHa CTaAH «YHHBepcaAbHbIMH», OHn «6bITOBaAn» B nopOJJ;HBIIIeH HX MeAKOH 61OprepCKOH cpeae, KOMno- 3HTOpbI, nHToMgbI aroii cpeasr, nper sopaxa C JJ;eTcTBa BocnpIlHHTbIH MaTepHaA B TKaHb CBOHX npoII3BeJJ;eHHH. BOT orxyna nonyxapHOCTb - B caMOM xopoIIIeM CMblCAe CAOBa - KAaCCHqeCKOH MY3bIKH. He B npOCTOTe ee CPOpM ,lI;eAO - CPOPMbI JJ;aAeKO He npOCTbl,a B IlIHPOKOH pacnpocrpaaeaaocr a nepBH'IHbIX H 60Aee cxoasasrx HHCTpYMeHTaAbHblX HHToHagIIH, xoropsre 06YCAOBAIlBaAH . aTY My3bIKy. Broprepcxaa KyAbTypa C03,l1;aAa HX H, CTaB 6ypmya3HoH KYAbTYPOH, BbIHeCAa HX na mapoxyro o6rgecTBeHHYlO apeay,

He 3aTpOHYA H B CBoeH pafiore HH orreper, HIl Lied, HH ,lI;pyrHx npoHBAeHHH noxaxeaoro CTHAH. 11 CJJ;eAaA aTO C03HaTeAbHO. Tor-aa IIPHIlIAOCb 6bl 06paTHTbcH K IlCCAe,ll;OBaHHlO MY3bIKaAbHoH C e M a H - T H K H (npeJJ;nO'IHTalO aTO 3aHMCTBOBaHlIOe II3 H3bIK03HaHliH nona-rae IIOHHTlilO «MY3bIKaAbHaH CHMBoAHKa») - K H3Y'IeHHlO r eaeaaca II KpHCTaAAII3agHH 3BYKOKOMnAeKCOB, CBH3aHHblX C nOaTIIqeCKliMli ofipaaaxnr H HJJ;eHMII, H IIX BAHHHHH na MY3bIKaAbHoe CTaHOBAeHHe. * BHe aroro HeMblCAliMO aHaAH3IIpOBaTb cpOpMbI BOKaAbHOll My3bIKH, II60 HeAb3H aocrpar-apoaara H3 HHX «qHCTYlO» My3bIKy H ee cxeMbl, KaK HeAb3H II3yqaTb B HapOJJ;HOll necae MOTHB 6e3 TeKCTa IIAII TeKCT 6e3 MOTliBa HAIl nOHHTb CyrgHOCTb IIHO-

* BocnpHHTHe MY3blKH - !!enb cxoasxeihuax peqixexcos. Y ase O.n;HO HBJ\eHHe oanoapexenaocra cpaBHHBaHHH npeasrnytgero H rrocxeayrorgcro MOMeHTa 3ByqaHHH H 06~e.n;HHeHHH npoTHBonocTaBJ\eHHhlx .n;pyr .n;pyry HHTOHa!!HM B e.n;HHcTBO, COqeTaHHe eMiHCTB H HX KpucTaJ\J\H3a!!HH B CTPOMHbIX, npHBblqHblX C03HaHHIO otipaaax H rpopstax - yase O.n;HO 9TO HBAeHHe CTaBHT accxeaoBaTeJ\H nepea TpY,1lHeUlIIHMH nCHxocpH3HoJ\orHqeCKHMH np06AeMaMH Y3HaBaHHH cxoacrna H pa3AHQHH B «HaKonAeHHH» HHTOHa!!HH.

178

CTpaHHOH oneper, He nOHliMaH IIHToHaglill H3b1Ka, na OCHOBe KOTOperx ara onepa nerpocxa. no TOll me npn=mne - H3-3a HeB03MomHOCTU IIo,ll;po6Hee KOCHYTbCH IIp06AeMbl MY3bIKaAbHOll ceMaHTHKHH AHIlIb eaaa-enaa 3aTpOHYA 06AaCTb IIporpaMMHOll MY3bIKII.

nOBTOpHlO, r AaBHbIM CTpeMAeHueM MOHM 6bIAO CCPOPMY AHpOnara B caersrx 06rgHX neprax IIpe,ll;nOCbIAKIl ,lI;IIaAeKTHKIl MY3bIKaAbHoro CTaHOBAeHIIH, KaK OHH BbITeKalOT H3 ,lI;l:IHaMH'IeCKOro Y'IeHIlH 0 MY3bIKaAbHOH cpopMe,- Y'IeHIIH, oTpIIgaIOrgero casro,lI;OBAelOrgylO anoxrogmo «HeMbIX» CPOpM-cxeM H paCCMaTpliBalOrgero CPOPMY KaK HHToHagIloHHbIH rrpogecc ocpopMAeHHH, a 3HaqHT((ax cpeacrao l:I BH,lI; cogHaAbHoro o6HapymeHHH MY3bIKH.

.-

J{o6aBAeHlte 1

OB06Q!EHHH H BbIBOllbI, CHCTEMA THBHPYIOQ!HE MOH HASJ\IO.l\EHHH HA.l\ npOQECCAMH MY3hIKAJ\hHOrO CTAHOBJ\EHHH

H KPI1CTAAAH3AQHH <l>OPM MY3hIKI1

B QEAOBEqECKOM C03HAHHH

TEOPETHQECIH1E nOAOlllEHHH

1. cPopMa RaK CTaHOBAeHlIe - B nxane All TBOpqeCKOM, HCnOAHHTeAbCKOM (BOCnpOll.3Be,l\eHlIe), HAH B rrpogecce BOCnpHJlTH5InOCTHraeTC5I HallIHM CO.3HaHHeM B cOCYIgeCTBOBaHHlI rrpOTHBOrrOAOmrrocreir: B OKpliCTaAAH.30BaBIlIHXC5I npansrsasrx CPOPMY xax H KOHCTPYKTHBHbIX CXeMaX H B rrpe06pa30BbIBa1OIgnX ax nAli BO BHOBb H306peTaeMhIX COOTHOllIeHH5IX (MOMeHT HMnf>OB1I3aglloHHbIH). OpOcreiiuree rroxe ,l\A5I Ha6AIO,I\eHlIH - Ha1l60Aee nponao OKpHCTaAAH- 30BaBllilIeC5I B eBpOneHCKOH TOHaAbHOH CUCTeMe CPOPMY AhI xaaanCOB: HX «pacnyxanne» 1I3HYTPU (PUX. Il1Tpayc, M. Perep) II UX «nepexxroaeaae» II3 qJaKTOpOB TOPM035IIgUX II 3aMbIKa1OIgUX ,l\BlImeHUe B qJaKTOpbl npoaaar-arorgae. Cazasre, Ka.3aAOCb 6bl, oxaveaexsre .3BYKOCOOTHOllIeHH5I rrpe,l\CTaBA5IIOT C06010 xpaiiue H3MeHqUBY1O cpezty. OpliMepOM MomeT cAymHTb ,l\naAeKTHKa xananca Y BarHepa H j{e6IOCCU, KaK BO MHorux OTHOllIeHU5IX aHTUnO,l\OB. 11HTepecHa npotixeua cpOpMbl Y j{e6IOCCU erge C TOqKU SpeHlI5I rrpoTHBo~eHCTBU5I KOHCTPYKTHBHCTCKO-KAaCCnqeOKOrO HAU pagnoHaAbHo-peaAUCTUqeCKOrO rnrra MblIlIAeHH5I TeH,I\eHgU5IM HMrrpeCCUOHH.3Ma (<<.3apHCOBKa snexar AeHuH»). He,l\apoM CaM j{e- 610CCH qYBCTBOBaA KaKYIO-TO HeYB5I.3KY CBOHX CTpeMAeHHH C nOHHMaHHeM HMrrpeCCHOHH.3Ma B rOCrrO,l\CTBOBaBIlIHX Tor,l\a xpyrax. 00 noaoay caonx «Images» OH nncax j{lOpaHY: «j'essaie de faire «autre chose»- en quelque sorte, des rea lites - ce que les imbeciles appellent «irnpressionisme», terrne aussi mal employe que possible, surtout par les critiques d'art qui n'hesitent pas en affubler Turner, le plus beau createur de rnystere que soit ~n art». *

-I: «rI nsrratocs C03.l1aTb HeQTO «zipyroe» -.lIO nanec-moii crenenn peaa»Hoe, TO, 'ITO HeBem.llbI Ha3bIBalOT «llMrrpeCCIIOHH3MOM» - onpenexenae oc06eHHO IIAOXO IIplIMeHileMoe KpHTIIKaMII IICKYCCTBa, xo ropere He nocrecnaro rc a HaBiI-

180

2. WopMa B OTHOllIeHHH MaTepnaAa MY.3hIKU KaK aKycTHqeCKOH jJ;aHHOCTU aercrynaer B xaxecrae crrocofia (OpY,I\H5I) 06pa60TKH MaTepuaAa B geA5IX ero npacnocooxeaas K rroTpe6HOCT5IM xexosexa KaK LKHBOTHoro 06IgecTBeHHoro. CO.3HaHHe - KaK OTHOllIeHHe "IeAOBeKa K cpezte - ynpanxaer xepea cpOpMy MHomeCTBOM pa.3- Ho06pa3HeHllIHx CAYXOBbIX paanpazseaaii. T ax B03HHKa1OT pa.3AH"IHhle rrpneMhl 06pa60TKu MaTep"aAa, rrOCTeneHHO CKAaAbIBalOIgHeCH B CHCTeMY. CKameM: CeH"IaC ,l\A5I Hac B YCAOBHJlX npHBbI"IHOH TeMnepagna 60AbllIa5I H MaAa5I Tepgull - OKp"CTaAA".30BaBIlI"eCR CHCTeMbl, ,l\onYCKaIOIgHe «ro-moe» COAbcpe,l\mHpOBaHHe H CTaBIliHe 6a.30H rapaonaa. He TaK 6hlAO B aHTllqHOCTH, He TaK 6blAO B cpeaHHe sexa, He TaK H B name BpeM5I B «MY.3hIKaAbHhIX ,l\HaAeKTax», He .3HaIOIgHX eBponeHCIWH reunepagaa. 11TaK, Mem,l\y OTHOCHTeAbHO OKOH"IaTeAbHOH KpHCTaAAH.3agHeH TepgHH KaK CllCTeMbI H HX OCO- 3HaHHeM r ,l\e-TO na sape «npllMHTHBOB MY.3bIKH» AemliT ,l\J\llTeAbHa5I CTa,l\H5I UX aCCHMHAHpOBaHH5I KaK «csrporo» MaTep"aAa. .H xoxy CKa.3aTb, "ITO ,l\ame casrere YCTOH"IHBhle, Ka.3aAOCb 6bl, 9J\eMeHTbl My.3bIKH, nanpaxep .3BYKOP5I,I\bl, npezsae "IeM CTaTb OpraHH.30BaHHblM MaTepHaAOM, MaTepHaAOM rOTOBbIM, KOTOPblM Mbl nOAb.3yeMC5I B 9TOH ero «BTOPU"IHOH CTa,l\HU» (H60 O,l\HO ,l\eAO ,l\OCKa, KOTOPYIO «na r Aa3» nAOTHHK BH,l\HT Beige He cPy6AeHHoM ziepeae, U ,l\pyroe "_ ztocxa nsrcrpyr-anaan, H.3 KOTOPOH "nOAY"lHTC5I CTOA HAH "IaCTb CTOAa), npezsae "IeM npeBpaTUTbC5I B roroaeie cxeMbI, npourxn rryrn ,l\OArHX TpaHccpopMagHH. OTCIO,I\a pasaaga Memp;y KaROHAH60 Onpe,l\eA5IIOIgeH Aa,l\ noneaxoii, Mem,l\Y .3BYKOP5I,I\OM KaE( HHToHagHoHHoH qJ0PMYAOH xaaa H Mem,l\y KaKOH-AH60 raMMOH, B.3J1TOH B xaxecrne 9AeMeHTa B KaKOM-Au60 npoasneneaaa. PacCT05IHHe OT aKYCTH"IeCKoro MaTepHaAa My.3bIKH ,1\0 ocpopMAeHHblX 9AeMeHTQB aroro MaTepllaAa B xa=recrae yase roroaoro MaTepHaAa, HO AuqJqJepeHgHpyeMoro B geJ\HX KOMnO.3Hgnn,- He06xop;HMO npnHUMaTb B pacxer npa ogeuxe H aHaA1I3e MY3bIKaJ\bHhIX RBAeHllH. KOHCOHaHC H ,l\HCCOHaHc - MomHO cnopare, JlBA5IIOTC5I AH oua aKYCTHqeCKB 06'beKTHBHbIMH ,l\aHHbIMH, - HO B TO me BpeM5I KaK MaTepHaA «BTOpllqHOrO nOp5I,I\Ka» KOHCOHaHCbI H ,l\UCCOHaHCbI BbICTYrraror B 3BOA1OgliH My.3blKH H KaK H3MeH"IHBble cpaKTopbI (,I\eHCTBylOIgHe CliAbl) MY.3blKaAbHoro cpopMOBaHlI5I, H KaK OKpliCTaAAH.30- aaaiuneca cpOpMbl - COCTaBHble 9AeMeHTbl 60Aee xpyrrasrx cpOpM.

Ho OT nOH5ITlI5I MaTepnaAa B TOAbKO 'ITO YKa3aHHbIX CMbICJ\ax He06xotJ;UMO OT AlI"IaTb noaarne MaTepllaJl.bHOH cpeasr, 06HapymHBalOIgeH 9TOT MaTepuaA (,I\epeBO, MeTaAA, xoasa}. 11HToHagHH yaapnerx HHCTpYMeHTOB Onpe,l\eA5IJ\H B CI1AbHOH Mepe npogecc ocpopMAeHlI5I My3bIKlI nepaofierrnerx HapO,l\OB. 11 He TOAbKO. B XVIII sexe aaeapeane lIHCTpYMeHTOB ({5IHbI"IapCKOH MY.3bIKH»

aare ero .lIame Tepnepy, caMOMY 3aMeQaTeJ\bHOMY rnopgy, rrOCTHrIlleMY TanHbI IICKYCCTBa!» (If!paHY.)- Lettres de C I au d e Deb u s s y it son editeur (Paris, [927, p" 58).

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B eBpOrreMCKIIe OpKeCTpbI, cnepaa KaK 6bI B BIfAe 9K30TIfqeCKOM HrpYWKH, rrOBAIfJlAO na orpopsrxeaae onepn erx If CHMcpOHHqeCKllX nap'nrryp II OtlHOBpeMeHHO nponnrc.ao B npaxxaarryro rrOBCeMeCTHO 6bITyroIgYro «BOeHHYro» MY3bIKY (KCTaTH, 06IgeCTBeHHbIe KOHgepTbI BOeHHbIX OpKeCTpOB CTaAH 6bITOBbIM lIBAeHHeM B EBporre OKOAO 1780, oc06eHHO B J\oHtlOHe II B BeHe). KpaHHe rronyxapaerra OTrOAOCKOM nponaaoaeuaa 9AeMeHTOB «JlHbIqapCKOH MY3bIKH» B KaMepHbIH CTllAb JlBAJleTCJI orpopxrxeaae Mogaprov cxeMbi cpHHaAbnoro POHtlO B ero cpopTenHaHHoH COHaTe A-dur nocpetlCTBOM CH!-

AH3agHli Y tlapOB If APo6H 6apa6aHa H HH~oHagHH cpAeHT. * u

o TOM, KaK cpOpMbi HHCTpYMeHTaAbHOH MeAOtlIfH, AAHTeAbHOIf H rrpOTJlmeHHOH, CBJl3aHbI C 9BoArogIfeH CTpOIfTeAbCTBa cxparrxa, He npnxcarrrca roaoparu, KaK H 0 3aBHCHMOCTIf cpOpM BOKaA~HbIX OT nporpecca sexoaesecxoro rreHHJI, 06YCAOBAeHH.?ro MaHepOH AblxaHHJI, MaHepOH rro aasn H onopsr 3BYKa II cpeaon, 9TOT 3BYK «oxpanmaarorgeii». EhH rrp06AeMbI see etge MaAO H3yqeHbl, a MemtlY TeM HeCOMHeHHO, qTO TOAbKO HaCTOJlTeAbHaJl He06xotlHMOCTb B nsrpaaseHHll 9MOgHH «ocnotiozaaatorgeiica» AHqHOCTH KaK cxe.acruae KY AbTYPbI PeHeccaHca npnaexa K 6AeCTJlIgeM anoxe BOKaA~I-IOrO aapTV03Horo CTllAJI H xero «npeacraaarexnaoii» cpopMe ana da capo. C·TOAb paaanraa II 60raTaJl B03MOmHOCTJlMH cpopMa, conepzsaarnaa B ce6e npeanocerxxa cOHaTHoH, ** KOHeqHO, Mor Aa CTaTb OTBeTOM na cogHaAbHbIH 3aKa3 9nOXH TOAbKO norcxy, q,!,o re me rrponsnoncr aeaasre o'rnourenn a, xoropere BbI3BaAH II «VIta Nuevas (4aHTe), H no-aoaoxry socnpnaaaarorgero Mllp qeAOBeKa, npllBeAH H K yrropHOH patiore HaA MaTepllaAbHOM cpeaoii «BoKaAbHocTH», qT06bI caeAaTb rOAOC rll6KllM H OT3bIBqllBbIM llHCTpYMeHToM, KaK napaxxexnHO WAa noaotiaas me paoora HaA ycoBepweHcTBoBaHHeM CTPYHHbIX llHCTpYMeHToB KaK llHcTpYMeHToB «60Abworo tlbIXaHllJl» (CMoIqOK II ero urrpax). ***

* ITo nOBOi'\Y BAII51HlUI «MaTepllaAbllOll cpezrer» aa ocpopMAemle MY3blKH BeAftKOAenHbIll, II npOCTO XOPOWlill MaTepllaA, II !J,eHHble tpaKTbI.' II. «HaMeTKY', i'(aWT: nepBblH TOM «Sammelbande fiir vergle1chende MUSlk~vlssens~haft» (Miinchen, 1922), C TaKIIMII CTaTblIMlI, KaK «--C:0nsystem und MUSlk der Siarnesen» ill T Y M n {jl a II «Ton system und MusJi, der Japane,r» A 6,P a x a M a n X 0 P H 6 0 C TeA 5I, 1I Bbli'\alOIJ!a51Cll o atio-ra Cur t Sac h s a Geist und Werden der Musikinstrumente (Berlin, 1929); ecr» TaKl£~ noxeanere i'\aHf!ble B YKa- 3aHHOM OTHoweHlIH B C60pHIIKe «Chinesische MUSlk:>. (PI'. a Main, 1~2?) II B nonYA51pHoJ:I KHHlKKe M. B r e net. La musique militaire (Les musiciens celebres. Paris).

** Apaa C npei'\WecTBYIOIJ!IiM pe'll1TaTHBOM C corrposoaenenaca KaK i'\paMaTII'IeCKOU npei'\nOCbIAKOU 3aKAIO'IaJ\a B ce6e ::>Kcn0311!JHlO, pa3BHTHe H penpnay (da capo). KaK rpopwa AlIpn'leCI{a51, KaK «CTaHOBJ\eHne» 'IYBCTBOBaHHJI HJ\H aqxpexre B B 0 K a J\ b H 0 Ii: MeJ\O,llIlH OHa He Mor x a pa3BIITbClI i'\0 i'\lIaAeKTIIKII, nplICYIJ!ell COHaTHOCTII, flO CYIJ!eCTBeHHbIe rrpezmocraxxa COHaTHoro axxerpo, BepOlITHO, 1I3 HBJ\eHliH «KOHTpaCTOB 'IYBCTBOBaIIIIll» B apua da capo yase HaMe'laAIICb. 8TO y6ei'\IITeAbHo BIli'\BO XOT 51 6bI B3. nplIMepoB B :ynOMlIHYTOll YLKe crart,c V lad i m i r' a He 1 fer t' a «Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sonatenform».- «Archiv fur Musikwissenschafb, april, 1925.

*** C,lIeAaHHa51 n. 6eKKepoM - nonsrrxa cnaaare ocnoansre BIli'\!>I II xapax-

182

3. ECJ\ll HeT CPOpMbl BHe 3ByqaHHJI, a ecru TOAbKO mrroaagna (ocpopMAeHHoe aayxoconpaaseaae, B 3ByqaHllH o6HapymHBaeMoe), TO TeM 60Aee naao llMeTb B BlltlY, qTO HeAb3J1 MbICAllTb nonarne «MY3bIKaAbHbIH pHTM» KaK cpaKTOp cJlOpMbI BHe aaroaagna. 3Aecb He MeCTO paccyasaare 0 TOM, nOCKOJ\bKY pllTM ecrn rrOHJlTHe 6ll0AOrnsecsoe H nOCKOAbKY - cognoxor aaecxoe. MHe AllqHO KameTCR, qTO B MY3bIKaAbHOM orpopxrxeaaa pHTM KaK cognoxor-a-recxnii cpaKTOp arpaer OqeHb 60AbWYro POAb, H B oco6eHHOCTH xepea CBJl3b C me C TOM, B llIHpOKOM CMbICJ\e aroro rrOHJlTHJI, ll60 KOAoccaAbHo~. KOAUqecTBoMY.3bIKH JIMee'f. CBOJIKO.eH~ He TOAbKO B C H r H a A H 3 a ~ g n rr, B 06IgeHllll aa paCCT051HllH, fio'"fi B 06IgeHHll xepea C A bI W II - M bI n OAHOBpeMeHHO BCeM!I. yqaCTHHKaMH pa60TbI llAH nrpet a K: ~ e H.T·v( Te3HC, YAap, 60Aee rrpOTJlmHbIH B MOMeHT Han60Abwem yCllAHJI ~BY~). Broxep B CBoeH 3HaMeHHToH pafio're coaepurearro yrrYCKaeT ll3 BllAY HHToHagllro, H nOToMY B rrpllHgllrre 6eccnopHaJl CBJl3b llHToHagllH, pllTMyeMbIx pa60TOH, C xapaxrepou aTOH patioTbI H, 06paTHo, HaAllqlle llHToHagllJlMll pUTMyeMoH pa60TbI (MapIIIHpOBKa, Aro6aJl arpa nOA MY3bIKY) OCTaeTCJI neaoxaayeuoii y Hero BCAeACTBlle orpsma pllTMa OT MeAoca. BeAb n s OtlHOrO cpaKTa parMOBaHHoro MYCKYAbHoro ycaxna He BbIBeCTll Hll MY3bIKaAbHoro TOHa, Hll COOTHOIIIeHllH BbICOTHOCTeH, T. e. MeAOAllH. Ho neofixomrMOCTb 06'beAllHeHllJl MYCKY AbHbIX YCHAllH BbI3bIBaeT norperinocrn B 3BYKe -B KpHKe, B KAllqe, CAOBOM B C A bI tn a n II II m e C T a - BOT ace, qTO MomHO ceiisac B 9TOM nxaae CKa3aTb. HCHo, qTO OTcrena eIge ouene AaAeKo AO penrenas cAomHoH rrpo6AeMbI MY3blKa,AbHoro parxra.

y CJ\OBllJl B03HllKHoBeHllf! MeH3ypaAbHoH HOTagllll cunnerexsCTByroT 0 TOM, qTO C pasaarrreer rroxaqioana II C oCB060mAeHlleM

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rep MY:;IblKaAbHoro MbIIllJ\eHII51 II BbipameHII51 H OCHOBHble paaaexsr CTIIJ\JI (n 0 A II cp 0 H II JI II rap M 0 H IIlI) C MaTepllaJ\bHOH: 6a30H: B CMblCAe C p e ,lI bi 3BYKBocnpOIl3BOi'\HlgeH: (roxoc II IIHcTPYMeHT) OCIIOBaHa aa CMeIlleHIIH nOB))TlIll: MaTepll51 II srarcpaaxsaoe, C O.llHOU CTOPOHbI, MaTepllaA MY3bIKII - C ,lIPY rOH:, II MaTepllaAbHa51 cpeaa B TOAbKO 'iTO YKa3aHHOM CMbICJ\e - C TpeTbeH, Pa3YMeIO ero 6pOWIOPY «Materiale Grundlagen der Musik» (Wien, 6e3 YKa3. rO,lla). B HeH TeM He MeHee ,lIaHbI aepnsre rrpennocstxxa K n03HaHllIO c!JOPMbl, a IIMeHHO, 'ITO «Die Kunstbetrachtung fast aller asthetisch produktiven Zeiten und Menschen drangt zur Aufstellung von Anthitesern [«pa3MbIWAeBlle 06 IICKyccTBe nO'lTII scex aCTeTll'leCKII np0,llYKTIIBBbIX npesren II J\lOl\eH CTpeMIITCH K rrocrpoenmo aBTIITe3» III 'ITO Hc06xo,llIlMaH «Voraussetzung jeglicher Musikbetrachtung immer nur die klingende Musik nehmen. Musik ist nur m6glich, indem sie klingt oder doch als klingend vorgestellt wird» [<<npe,llnOCbIJ\Ka BClIKOTO paCCMOTpeHII51 MY3bIKH - ::>TO nocnpaarne TOAb!W 38g~aw,eu MY3bIKII. MY3bIKa CTaHOBIITC51 peaxsaocraro TO.l\bKO ror.aa, sor na OHa 3BY'IIIT 1IJ\1l npe aCTaBAJleTC51 3BY'IaIJ!eH:» J. ITPOTIIBHIIKII COBpeMeHHOH: MY3bIKaAbHOll aCTeTIIKII npaMeH5IlOT K Hell nOH51Tlle «!popMaAII3Ma», nOAb3Y51Cb «die Bezeichnung «formalislisch» irn altern Sinne als tadelnde Herabsetzung, als Gegensatz zur Gehaltsasthetik» [«0603Ha'leHlleM «!popMaJ\lIcTII'IeClmH» B ero npeasaexr CMbICJ\e - KaI( nopll!JallllH H CHIIlKeHH51 XY,lIOlKeCTBeHHoro lIBACHllH, npOTIIBonOCTaBJ\lIeMoro nOH51THIO aCTeTII'IeCKOrO COi'\eplKaHII51>} 1 (ceHcyaJ\HcToB.- E. A.) (HeM.), TOI',lIa KaK 3a,lla'leU COBpeMeHHOll MY3blKaAbHOll 3CTeTHKII JlBJ\HeTCll YCTaHOBKa aa COBceM nnoe - i'\H3AeKTIIKO-i'\HHaMII'IeCKOe CTaHOBAeBlle !pOPMb"

183

OT nmnUqeCKOH PUTMUKU U MeTpUKU MY3bIKaAbHbIH pUTM, U3MepJle-' MbIH .D;AUTeAbHOCTJlMU TOHOB B HX BCe 60Aee U 60J\ee CJ\OmHbIX B3aUMOOTHOIUeHUJlX, CTaHOBUTCJI easa AU He OCHOBHOH np06J\eMOM 3nOXH. C TOqKH 3peHHH MY3bIKaAbHoro <popMOBaHHH Y"IeHHe

o MeH:'lYpe 06YCJ\OBAHBaAO B03MomHOCTb ,lI;aJ\bHeHurero nAO,ll;OTBOP' nero B3aHMO,ll;eHCTBIHI npogeccon llHToHagHoHHbIX C rrpogeccasra 9KOHoMH3agHH paCXO,ll;a 9HeprUH HHTOHupOBaHHH ("ITO CTaAO OCO· 6eHHO He06xo,ll;UMbIM C paaaarnen He TOAbKO BOKaAbHOH nOJ\u<poHHH, no II COBMeCTHOH HHCTPYMeHTaAbHOH llrpbI). lloaropeaae paBHbIX ,lI;J\UTeAbHOCTeH xepea onpenexennsre npOMemYTKU BpeMeHU, CHMMeTpHH ,lI;J\HTeJ\bHOCTeH, npOTHBonOCTaBAeHHe MeAKllX ,lI;eAeHHH: xpynHbIM, "IeTHOCTb II He"leTHOCTb ,lI;eJ\eHHU ,lI;AHTeJ\bHOCTeu - see 9TH «nacrmae CAY"Iau» 06be,ll;UHHAHCb B e,ll;HHOM CTpeMAeHHH YCTaHOBllTb npo=mete «CIICTeMbI» H3MepeHHH ,lI;AUTeJ\bHOCTeu uHToHagHH. ECJ\ll o pHTMe B urliPOKOM CMbICAe MomHO ronoprrm B npllMeHeHHll, KO BCJlKOMY rrporropgaonaxntrowy xepeaoaaaarc 9J\eMeHTOB MY3bIKlI (pIITM axsopnon, Ka,ll;aHCOB, TOHaAbHoCTeu, TeM6poB, noar opeunii Tom,ll;eCTBeHHoro MaTeplla~a H T. ,lI;.), TO B pliTMe KaK <paKTope <pop· MbI B TeCHOM CMbICJ\e HeJ\b3J1, MHe ,lI;YMaeTCJI, BH,lI;eTb TOJ\bKO KOJ\H' "IeCTBeHHbIU <paKTOP, H3MepIITeJ\b ,lI;J\llTeAbHOCTeH, eCJ\H He aficrparnpona're ero OT 3BY"IaHHJI, OT 06'beKTa u3MepeHIIJl. v13MepIITeJ\ll-' 9TO MeTp II TaKT, a pllTM - U 3 M e p 51 e Moe, TO, "ITO B MeTpe H TaKTe npOHBAHeT ce6H KaK KOJ\H"IeCTBO, T. e. «aaxoaoerepaoe ,lI;BHmeHlle MaTepHH, nOBTopHO coaepmarotgeecs C O,ll;HHa~OBbIMli rrpoMemYTKaMll Mem,ll;Y oT,lI;eJ\bHbIMli aKTaMll ,lI;BHmeHHJI». O,ll;HllM H3 BbIpameHllH 9TOH «o,ll;UHaKOBocTll» B MY3bIKe CTaHOBHTCH T a K T, HO TOJ\bKO KaK nexa, rpynnapyrotgaa .,lI;AUTeJ\bHocTH, a OTHIO,lI;b He KaK e,ll;UHCTBeHHhlH nOKa3aTeJ\b pa3Ho06pa3UH npOHBJ\eHHH PUTMllqeCKOH rrpapoasr MY3bIKaJ\bHoro CTaHOBJ\eHHJI. CYMMa TaKTOB ziae'r TOAbKO KOJ\HqeCTBO O,ll;UHaKOBbIX ,lI;J\llTeAbHOCTeH B UX nOCJ\et\OBanan, HO He onpeztexaer B3allMO,ll;eHCTBHH AJ\HTeJ\bHOCTeH HJ\H «npoH3BeAeHUJI» AJ\llTeJ\bHOCTeH B c.I\OmHOM geJ\OM, KaKHM HBAHeTCH MY3bIKaJ\bHaJi nseca, cocromgaa He ll3 npOCTbIX "Iepet\OBaHllH pasHbIX MeTpOB. TOAbKO yxetnre 0 <PYHKgHHX ,lI;AllTeJ\bHocTeH, noaotiHoe HHToHaglloHHbIM Y"IeHllHM 0 <PYHKgllJlX aKKOp,ll;OB, TOHOB J\a,ll;a H T. rr., BCKpbIBaeT nepea HaMll nOAJ\HHHYIO poxs pllTMa B MY3blKaAbHOM CTaHOBJ\eHHH.

OpHMep npOCTOH: TpeX,lI;OJ\bHbIH TaKT KaK a6CTpaKTHoe nOHHTue - e n H H,. HO KaK pHTMH"IeCKaH ¢YHKgHH (a PUTM B MY3bIKe- 9TO Tenepb naao ,lI;06aBHTb - 06HapymHBaeTCH BO B3aHMOAeHCTBllH ,lI;J\HTeJ\bHOCTeH aKgeHTHpyeMblx H ueaxgearnpyewstx, H B cocytgeCTBOBaHHH rpax-ropon, MexaHll3HpYIOrgHX ,lI;BHmeHHe - aBTOMaTH"IHOCTH H nOBTopHOCTH, - C ¢aKTopaMH, HX pa36HBaIOrgHMH H B TO me BpeMH Bce-TaKH nO,ll;TBepm,ll;aIOrgHMll p H T M KaK 3aKOHOMepHoe ,lI;BH-

* L!HTHPYlO 9TO onpenexeaae H3 CTaTbH O. E P M a H e K 0 r 0 «TIp06AeMbl rpyaoaoro pUTMa». - «BeeTHHK CoguaAHcTH'IeCKOi'i aKaAeMHU», 1923, N2 2, CTp. 103.

184

meHlle H saxonoaepaocr-e ,lI;BHmeHllH, narrpunep: C II H K 0 n a) - OH pa3J\ll'IeH B Ma3ypKe H B naxece, B xypanre H B capafianzte, B-OblCTPOM H Me,ll;J\eHHOM TeMne H T. ,lI;.

4. 0'1' cxasaaaoro - eCTeCTBeHHbIH nepexoa K OC03HaHUIO pHTMOKOHCTpYKTUBHbIX ¢aKTopOB MY3bIKaJ\bHoro CTaHOBAeHHH (nonropeHHe, nepUO,ll;U3aguH, cUMMeTpuH) B ax ,lI;UHaMUqeCKOH cyrgHOCTH. Bee npHBbPIHble onpeaexeaaa pUTMa crpaaaror TeM, "ITO OHU CTaTU"IHbl, "ITO OHU, BbI,lI;BHraH na nepaerii nxaa O,ll;UHaKOBOCTb U noBTOPHOCTb, - YTBepmAaIOT He PUTM, a HHepgHIO pHTMa. Ha caMOM me ,lI;eJ\e B MY3bIKe HeT O,ll;UHaKOBOCTU 6e3 aepaaencraa, HeT CHMMeTpHU 6e3 aCHMMeTPHll, paBHOMepHOCTll axgerrron HAll ,lI;OJ\eH 6e3 CllH.xon, "IeTHOCTU 6e3 HeqeTHOCTH H T. u. PllTM cyigecrayer TOJ\bKO BO B3allMHOH 06YCJ\OBAeHHOCTll npOTHBOpe"lUH. OTCIO,lI;a ace nonsrrxn 6bIAoro MY3bIKaAbHoro <popMaJ\ll3Ma CBeCTU BCIO MY3bIKY nenpeMeHHO K 6AarO,ll;yurHOMY paBHOBeCHIO scex 9J\eMeHTOB KaK K H,lI;eaAy acer-aa II BCIO,lI;y pa36HBaJ\HCb 0 peaxsrrocre MY3bIKH KaK COCTOHHHlI HeYCTOH"IllBoro paBHOBeCBJI. ct>opMa KaI~ CTaHOBJ\eHHe BKAIO"IaeT B ce6H PHTMO-KOHCTPYKTHBHble 9J\eMeHTbl B conOCTaBJ\eHHH llX npornaopesaii. TaKHM 06pa30M, Hll nepnoaer, HU ¢pa3bI, HU MOTHl3bI H T. n. ,lI;eJ\eHllJl He HMeIOT naxaxoro 3Ha"leHHH caMH no ce6e KaK nexae lI,lI;eaJ\bHble cxesrsr, K KOTOPbIM nO,ll;rOHHeTCH MY3bIKa. Ha060- pOT, OHB aceraa - CAe,ll;CTBHe, pesy J\bTaT, BbIBe,ll;eHHbIe U3 CTaHOBAeHUH MY3bIKU, a B 9TOM CTaHOBAeHlIlI PHTMO-KOHCTPYKTllBHble rpaxTOPbI 06HapymuBaIOT cetis He 060c06J\eHHO, a ¢YHKglIoHaJ\bHo, BO B3alIMo06YCAOBJ\eHHOCTH H B npornaopesna. n09TOMY creasare, aanpauep, "ITO Mapur - 9TO rrecennax qiopxra, coc roargaa U3 rpex "IaCTeH (a + b + a), KamAaJl H3 KOTOPbIX Tome MomeT COCTOJlTb 1I3 'rpex rrepnoaos, nplI"IeM TpeTlIH HBJ\HeTCH nOB1'OpeHlIeM nepsoro ; "ITO TpeTbH "IaCTb Mapura nOBTOpJleT nepBYIO, a nropaa Ha3bIBaeTCH T P H 0, - 3Ha"lHT HlI"IerO He CKa3aTb 0 Mapure KaK KOHKpeTHOH ¢opMe, eCJ\lI He YKa3aTb na cneglI¢lI"IeCKYIO PIITMUKY Mapura II ocotierrHblH xapas rep lIHToHagHH. A 3TO yzse carao C060H 3aCTaSAJleT AHa~ AeKTU"IeCKlI npOTHBOIIOCTaBUTb MapureBbIe lIHToHaglIu H plITM ~PYrlIM BH,lI;aM CTaHOBJ\eHlIH My2bIKlI. Tor,ll;a OKameTCH, "ITO «Mapur C TpHO» - J\lIurb O,ll;llH ns 3TanOB B 9BOJ\IOglIlI aroro Bll,ll;a II "ITO AeJ\O He B 16-TaKTHbIX nepaoaax H T. n.*

* OllIH60qHOCTb YCTaHoBKfI aa HAeaAbHble cxeMbl BHe H3yqeHHR HHTOHa' !,lHOHHoro npogecca H YCBoeHHR npnngnnon CTaHOBAeUHH H cj:>YHK!,lHH 8AeMeHTOB BHAHa H3 neaar-ornsecxoii npaKTHKH 06YQeHHJl cj:>opMaM «c rOTOBblX 06pa3' !,lOB», nOAo6Ho 06YQeHHlO nenaro «C roxoca» ne.aaror a, C ero AHQHOll MaHepbl neHHH. ITpenOl\aBaTeAb yxaauaaer aa HAeaAbHYlO KOMno3HglilO, HO ecxn Y'IeHHK ee B TOQnOCTH CblMHTUPYCT B KOHCTPYKTHBHOM nxaae (KaK He TaK ym AaBHO B 6. TIcTep6yprcKoH xoacepaaropan O,'lHO BpeMR 6blAa MOAa -lIucaTh aA'Aerpo cona-rer no TIepBoll con a-re fAa3YHOBa), OH HH'IeMY He HaYQaeTCfI. A Ka3aAOCb 6bl, B noapaasanan HAeaAbHblM cxesran, eCAH 6bl OHH AellcTBHTeAbHO 6blAH cj:>opMaMH,- Bee aexo «nporpecca», OAHaKO, noxa Y'IeHHK HP' ocoaaae-r AHHaMHKH Ocj:>opMAeHHR, noxa He nOll MeT CPYHK!!HOHa:AbHOll 06YCAOBAeHHOCTlI, noxa He «npnaencr B ABumeHHe» Bee 9AeMeHTbl, - OH He OBAaAceT ¢OPMOH H 6YAeT aero lKli3Hb nHcaTli «C roxoca» Y'IHTeAH Hero MaHepbl.

185

yiTaK, pIfTM, nOHJlTbIH ~HaJ\eKTJi'IeCKIf, YKa3bIBaeT npaBHJ\bHbIH nyre K n03HaHIflO KOHCTpYKTIfBHblX tpaKTOpOB KaK BbICmIfX «06bep;IfHeHIfH 9J\eMeHTOB 3aKOHOMepHOrO 3BYKO~BIfmeHHR» BO B3aIfMO~eHCTBlUl 06pa3YlOIgHX nx npOTHBOnOJ\OmHbIX TeH~eHgHH. «KBak paTHbIU» nepao a - COBepmeHHbIH nepnon B CIfJ\Y CBOeH CHMMeTpHIf U T. n. CBOHCTB. cho BepHO. Ho B3J1TOe BHe My3bIKIf KaK peaxsnoCTU, B KOTOPOH ~aHHbIU KBa~paTHbIH nepaoa UMeeT csoe npeaaa- 3Ha lJeHHe TOJ\bKO KaK !PYHKgHJI B TaKUX-TO If TaKIfX-TO YCJ\OBUJlX IfJ\U CTa~IfJlX CTaHOBJ\eHIfJl, - nOCJ\e~OBaHue KBa~paTHbIX nepnoaoa casrax no ce6e, paztn If X KOHCTPYKTIfBHOU 3aBepmeHHOCTU, He ser- 30BeT HUlJerO, KpOMe anenar J\eHUJI MOHOTOHHOCTIf. MY3blKGl He MOmeT 6blTb xopoureii TOJ\bKO nOTOMY, lJTO U3 nee MomHO «BblmaTb» KpaCUBYlO, CUMMeTpUlJHYlO cxeuy, 11, naooopor, HeJ\b"3H KpaCUBOH cxeMOH «Bb13BaTb xopotnyto MY3bIKY». C TOlJKU3peHUH !POPMbI KaK CTaHOBJ\eHIfH, aCHMMeTpUlJHble KOHCTpYKgl1H MorYT CTaTb 3aKOHOMepHblMH B TaKOH me Mepe, KaK CUMMeTpH1JHble.

5. T ax me 06CTOUT ~eJ\o M C HHToHagIfoHHbIMIf rpaxropaaa !PopMbl.MeJ\oc, rapMOHHH, TeM6p, BOKaJ\bHbIH UJ\If HHcTpYMeHTaJ\bHbIH' BUP; 3BYKOBonJ\OIgemUI - ace OHIf onpeaexmor !POPMY Ka:K CTaHOBxenne BO B3aHMHOH HX ooyc xonxearrocra. B paaxnsaere arroxa TOT MJ\H IfHOH H3 HMX BbI~BHraJ\C5I na nepBbIH nxaa, nOTOM CHOBa CTaHOBHJ\CH nO~lJllHeHHbIM. Ho He 6bIJ\0 srrox, xor.aa !popMOBaHHe MY~ 3bIKIf He 3aBHceJ\O 6bl OT. CBOHCTB MaTepuaJ\bHoH cpeaer 3BYKOBonJ\0IgeHIfH.

6. l_ho TeMn TaKme HBJ\HeTCH !paKTopOM !POPMbI, BHAHO H3 roro, lJTO npn pe3KOM ll3MeHeHUIf TeMna neecsr, paCC1JUTaHHOH na TaKueTO rpap;agHI1 B OTHomeHUU CKOPOCTI1, MY3bIKa naxnaaer Ka3aTbCH J\u6o 6oJ\ee pacTHHYTOH, J\H6o naofiopo'r. Hanpasrep, npeapaigeaae

4 2

"aJ\J\erpo 4 B axxerpo 2 Y ~J\HHHeT nsecy, nOToMY lJTO napynreno

COOTHOIIIeHHe AAIfTeJ\bHoCTeH: cxyx aocrrpanaaaer c6J\llmeHHbIMH paccroaana Mem~y MOMeHTaMH, lJym~blMll p;pyr ~pyry. 06pa3YlOTCH csoero poaa nycro'rsr, a BCHKaH q>YHKgHoHaAbHaH He3anOAHeHHOCTb B MY3bIKe Bbl3blBaeT anexar xeaue OTPbIB01JHOCTU 11 BbIKJ\lOuaer aocnpnarxe 113 MY3bIKaJ\bHoro CTaHOBJ\eHHH. OTClO~a ztocannoe ow,yw,eHHe HK06bl P;J\HHHOT.

B TOM, lJTO COHaTHoe axxerpo 06bllJHO ecre axxerpo, a He MeA- ~ xennoe ~BHmeHHe, npOHBJ\HeTCH OpraHHlJeCKaH CBH3b p;aHHoro BHp;a <popMOBaHHH C TeMnOM: BbI3bIBaeMble COHaTHOCTblO KOHTpaCTHOTeMaTHlJeCKHe co.OTHomeHHH BocnpHHHMalOTCH KaK TaKOBbIe B rpaHHgax onpeztexennerx CKopOCTeH. I1HalJe OHIf pacnsixarorca.

7. KaTeropHII !POpM II BU~bI CTaHOBJ\eHUH My3bIKII 06ycJ\oBJ\eHbI erge geJ\bIM pH~OM rpaxropoa, na xoropsre ,'1,0 CuX nop 6bIJ\0 MaJ\O otipatgeao BHUMaHHe. Eho - YCTaHOBKa aa <<upOCTpaHCTBO» U na cpeny cxyma'rexeji. Coaepmenao OlJeBU~HO, 1JTO MY3bIKa, HanOJ\HHH 3BYKaMH TO HJ\ll aaoe npOCTpaHCTBO, B03AeHcTByeT He TOJ\bKO CIIJ\OH 3BYlJaHMH H npOH3HTeJ\bHOCTblO TeM6pOB, HO H COOTBeTCTBYlO-

186

,

IgHMH pa3M~paMH H HHTeHCHBHOCTblO CTaHOBJ\eHHH. IIoxa MY3HgHpOBaHHe He rrepeurxo B 60J\bmlIe KOHgepTHbIe nOMeIgeHHH - CIIM!POHIIH TlIna 6eTXOBeHCKOH: 6bIJ\a 6bI HeMbICJ\IfMa. MomH0 CKa3aTb, lJTO rpaHIfgbI CIfM!POHUIf paspacraxacs C YBeJ\IflJeHIfeM apXIfTeKTYPHbIX npOCTpaHCTB, ero oxaa'reraaexrerx. Ho, nanpmrep, npofixewa- ~J\IfTeAbHOH: nJ\eH3pHOH: MaCCOBOU CIfMq>OHIfU OCTaJ\aCb nepemeanoii, HeCMOTpa aa rrorrerrxy EepJ\If03a. 113 aroro MomHO caexare He oxerre ym napanoxcaxeuerii BblEOA, 1JTO eBpOneH:CKMI CIfM¢OHIfH ecr e aeTHw,e 3aMKHYToro npocrpaacrna, T. e. nponcxoaar OT pacurapeaas H pasna raa KaMepHblx q>OpM MY3HgHpoBaHuH.

Ornonrenae MemAY MY3bIKOH H «3aHIfMaeMbIM» eio npocrpaaCTBOM - 3TO He TOJ\bKO 1JHCTO aKYCTHlJeCKOrO nopaaxa RBJ\eHue. Y J\Hga, nxoigaa», ropoacxoii can nJ\If 6y J\bBap - ace 3TO OC06bdi BIf~, ocofiaa «cnegnqimca» !POpM. KOHe1JHO; 60H:KYlO ~epeBeHcKylO lJacTyIIIKy MomHO crrere If B KOHgepTHoM aaxe, HO ee ¢opMa seeTaKU orrpeztexena ~epeBeHCKOH: y J\IfgeH:. BOeHHblH: Mapm MomHO arparu na ¢opTennaHO B xsap'rape, HO rroaxmmaa ero c¢epaBoeHHbIH opxecrp rra rrxorgann, na yJ\uge IfJ\If B caay, 3HaMeHUTbIH: rroxopoaaeni Mapm focceKa C TaM TaM OM (Marche lugubre, anepaere IfcrrOJ\HeHHblH: 26 CeHT.lI6pH 1790 r. na O~HOH: If3 rroxoponnerx gepeMoHIfH B flapIfme), KaK n nee rrOlJTH C01JHHeHHH KOMrr03IfTopOB arroxn BeJ\liKOH: peBOJ\lO!!IfH, Mor B03HHKHYTb TOJ\bKO B noncxax uHToHagHH:, xoropere «OXBaTbIBaJ\If» 6bl C06010 IIIIfpOKIfe rrpocrpaaCTB3 rrJ\OIga~eH If «B036ymAaJ\If» 6bI MaCCbI cxyurarexeii. *

Harrpornn, arroxa C03AaBaHIfR H nOTOM pacnpocrpaaeaax B EBporte necea Il.lyoepra - 3TO CTHrHBaHHe MY3bIKU B TeCHbIe npoCTpaHCTBa, B ¢OPMbI neceaaoii J\UpUKIf, paCClJUTaHHOH na He60J\bllIOH APymecKIfH xpyaco« U na zrynreaaoe cocpenoroaeaae, He noTOMY necnn Wy6epTa pacnpocrpaaaxac» Mep;J\eHHO, 1JTO BeHgbt 6bIJ\H CJ\umKOM J\erKOMbICJ\eHHbI, a nOTOMY, 1JTO npHBbI1JHbIe Tor~allIHeli BeHe ¢OpMbI MY3HgupoBaHHH (apI1CTOKpaTUlJeCKHH caJ\OH, TeaTp, KOHgepTHoe 3aAO, can, nJ\OIgaAb) He COOTBeTCTBOBaJ\I1 CKPOM-

* «L'irnpresslon produite par la Marche lugubre fut enorme. Les harmonies dechirantes, coupees de silences et scandees par les tam-tams voiles glacerent veritablement le public et «repandirent dans l'ame une terreur religieuse». Ainsi s'exprimait «Le Moniteur». Et «Les Revolutions de Paris», rencherissant, ecrivent: «Ses notes, detachees I'une de I'autre, briserent le coeur, arracherent les entrailles» [«BrreqaTAeHHe, xoropoe rrpOH3BeA lloxopoHflbzu JfW otu , 6bIAO orpOMHbIM. Pe3KHe rapMOHHH, rrpeprsuaeuete nayaaxrn H conpoaoasaaeuere CKaH.'lHpoBaHHbIMH rrpnr AYllleHHbIMH Y.'lapaMH TaMTaMOB, B 6YKBaAbHoM CMblCAe npHBO.'lHAJI cAYlllaTeAeH: B ogenenenae H «BceAHAH B ayiny peAurH03HbIH: vzsac». TaR BblCKa3blBaACH «Le Moniteur». A «Les Revolutions de Paris» nncaxn elJ!e CHAbHee: «Ero OTPblBllcTble HOTbl 6YKBaAbHo pa36uBaAu cepage, pa3.'lllpa.~u BHYTpeHHocTII»l (t:/JpaflJ.j.). (L 0 u i s D u f ran c. Gossec, sa vie, sesoeuvres. Paris. 1927, p. 121). 11 9TO ,!I;aAeKO He eAllHCTBeHHblH: !jJal(T. LfaCTH'IHoe oaspemeane rrpo6ACMbI «nxenapnoii» MaCCOBOH MY3bIKH, 06Aa.'lalOrgeH MOI!\HblM opaTOpCRHM B03AeHCTBHeM, - r.xaaaoe AOCTlilKeHue MY3bIKU npaaaaecrn BeAHKOH penoxrouxx. Pe3YAbTaTbi OTpameHHO CKa3aAHCb na !jJopMax II na cpeacraax BorrJ\0lJ!CHHlI My3blKI1 OepAH03a.

187

HbIM MaCIIlTa6aM IIHTIIMHOH J\IIPIIKII. Cpeaa, ee BbI3BaBIIIMI, He 6bIJ\a eige HaCTOJ\bKO IIIIIPOKOH II CIIJ\bHOH, qT06bI CTaTb 3aKOHO,ll;aTeJ\bHIIj!eH nxyca, KaK aTO CJ\yqlIJ\OCb ,lI;eCHTKOM J\eT II03,l1;Hee, IIOCJ\e CMepTII lliy6epTa. [loHBJ\eHlIe IIepBbIX rerpaaeii «[1 e C e H 6 e 3 C J\ 0 B» MeH,lI;eJ\bCOHa B na-raxe 30-x roaos XIX sexa - aTO yase onpeaexeaaas peaKj!IIH BKyCOB B CTOPOHY OT conepasarexenoii IIIY- 6epToBcKOH J\lIpmm K MIIMOJ\eTHbIM, qYTb BOJ\HYIOIgIIM aMoglIHM; aTO MY3bIKa ,lI;J\H aonoro TI1IIa caxona - 3aJ\bI HJ\11 rOCTI1HOH B 6ypasyaanoii YIOTHOH xaap rape, a He BO ,lI;Bopge.

yiTaK, MY3bIKa KOHgepTHO-CIIM<pOHlPleCKaH H KaMepHaH, MY3bIKa caJ\OHHaH II ,lI;OMaIIIHHH, II.I\eHapHaH asaapoaaa MY3bIKa YJ\lIg, rrxoIga,ll;eH, canon, 6y J\bBapOB, xarpe, MY3bIKa IIbIIIIHbIX IIpa3,l1;HeCTB, BeJ\l1qaBbIX IIpOj!eCCIIH 11 T. ,lI;. - see aTO rpefiyer pa3J\HqHbIX BI1,l1;OB o<p0pMJ\eHI1H, TaK KaK paaxnxrre B pasvepax 11 CBoHcTBax 3aIIO./\naesroro 3BYKaMI1 npocrpaact aa (3aMKHYToe noxretgerrae HJ\II IIJ\eHap) BJ\IIHeT He TOJ\bKO na CIIoc06bI 3BYKOII3BJ\eqeHIIH, HO II na 3 BYKOCooTHollieHIIH.

8. BamHeHIIIlIe BII,lI;bI CTaHOBJ\eHHH, oKplIcTaJ\J\H30BaBI1I1IeCH B pa3BIITHII eaponeiicxoii My3bIKII, HMelOT B CBoeH OCHOBe J\H60 gHK" J\lIqeCKl1e, J\1I60 3aMKHYTble B ce6e IIOCTpoeHHH.

1) u'IIKJ\lIqeCKlIe IIOCTpoeHIIH

a) ClOlITbI - COIIOCTaBJ\eHl1e KOHTpaCTHbIX TaHgeBaJ\bHbIX nsec C BOCIIOJ\HeHlIeM IIX rmecasnr cosepgarexeao-xnpnvecxor-o (apl1l1), onacarexenoro (xapaKTeplICTI1KII, nop-rpersr, 3BYKOIIIICb nacrpoeHIIH) 11J\1I IIHTeJ\J\eKTyaJ\bHO-CIIM<pOHlIqeCKOrO IIJ\aHa (HaIIpIIMep, IIpeJ\lO,lI;lIlI B arrr J\I1HCImX CIOIITax Eaxa);

6) COHaTbI II CIIM<POHIII1 (KoHgepTbl 11 T. ,lI;.) - COIIOCTaBJ\eHlIe KOHTpaCTHblX «,lI;BlImeHIIH», * Kam,ll;Oe 113 KOTOPbIX, HBJ\HHCb 3aMKHyTblM IIOCTpoeHlIeM (COHaTHO~CIIM<pOHII'leCKOe axxerpo, a,ll;aml10 l1J\ll aH,'I;aHTe, 11J\1I eIge 60J\ee IIOIlBlImHoe IIO TeMIIY ,'I;BlImeHlle, cxepgo 1IJ\11 TaHej! B 6blCTPOM HJ\H YMepeHHOM TeMIIe H POH,'I;O 06bI'lHOrO HAil COHaTHO-CIIM<pOHHqeCKoro THIIa), OAHOBpeMeHHO cxyasnr BbI" HBJ\eHIIIO H,lI;el1 COHaTbI 11J\1I CHM<POHIIH KaK e z; H H C T B a, 'ITO Hepeaxo IIO,ll;'lepKHBaeTCH eige 06IgHOCTblO TeMaTHqeCIWrO MaTepHaJ\a Y acex sracreii HJ\11 IIpOBe,'l;eHHeM KaKorO"J\H60 J\eHTMOTHBa -repes nee 'laCTH (LJeTBepTaH H nHTaH CHM<POHHII LJaHKoBCKoro);

B) BaplIagl1H - OT IIpOCTeHIIIHX qepeAOBaHHH aIIH30,'l;OB paaxnsHO opnanearapyevoii TeMbl AO CJ\omHblX IIpeBpaIgeHHH TeMbl, C BtllAeAeHHeM H3 nee KOHTpaCTHblX HOBo06pa30BaHIIH H snenpenaev IIpHeMOB CHM<pOHH'leCKOrO pa3BHTHH;

r-) MHoro06pa3Hble gHKJ\HqeCKlIe IIOCTpoeHHH, 06YCJ\OBJ\eHHble onepaenr J\H6peTTO, pa3J\HqHOrO poaa IIporpaMMOH HJ\H IKe BOIIJ\O" IgalOIgHe IIOaTHqeCKHH TeKCT.

* rI 3aTpYAIlJUOCb AaTb 'IaCTJlM CIlMcjJOHUH 0603HaQellHe aaoe, qeM "ABHmeHlIe» (B CMblC.I\e cjJpaH!!Y3cKoro mouvernent ). 3THM TepMHHoM OTTeHlI!;TCR HX He3aBHCHMOCTb OT npeanocsrxox rrpmcxaaaoro xapaxrepa,

~,

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Bce aTII BHAbl CTaHOBJ\eHIIH CBH3bIBalOTCH BHYTPII ce6a xepea B3aHMO,ll;eHCTBl1e IIpHHj!HIIOB KOHTpaCTa 11 TOm,ll;eCTBa. OT IIpe06J1.ap;aHHH nocxezuero rrpl1Hgl1rra I1CXO,ll;HT BapHaglIH 11 pa3BI1BalOTCH B IIOCTOHHHOM IIpI16J\HmeHHH K MaKCIIMYMY KOHTpaCTa Mem,ll;Y TOqKOH OTIIpaBJ\eHHH H TOqKOH IIPH6blTHH (3aMbIKaHIIH).

Ha IIpe06J\a,ll;aHI1H ,lI;paMaTyprl1qeCKOrO IIpI1Hj!I1IIa KOHTpaCTHOCTH 6a311pYIOTCJI COHaTHO"CHM<pOHI1'leCKl1e j!HKJ\bl, HO Kam,ll;blH 113 HHX CTpeMI1TCa B nrore csoero CTaHOBJ\eHHH CTaTb e,ll;I1HCTBOM - netpasar» OCHOBHYIO CBoaCTBeHHYIO eMY H,lI;em. CIOHTHble j!HKJl.bl saHHMalOT B ,lI;aHHOM OTHOIIIeHHH Cpe,ll;HIOIO rr03HgHIO.

2) 3 a M K H Y T bI e II 0 C T poe H H H

BaMKHYTble nOCTpoeHUH C 1.J.eTKUMU n04pa.'J/fe/leHUHMU na OT 4e" /lbI (<<pa3peBaMu»):

a) onaosacrnere roasnecraeaasre IIOBTopeHHH roasnecmeuaoro KOMIIJ\eKca (THrrHqHble <P0PMbI: KYIIJ\eT, crpoqiavecxaa IIeCHa 6e3 perppenoa H naarpsrmeii}:

6) ,lI;BYXqaCTHbIe - COIIOCTaBAeHHH ,lI;BYX KOMIIJ\eKCOB, B 60J\bIIIeH HJ\H MeHbIIIeH crenena KOHTpaCTHbIX (IIeCHH C IIOBTOPHIOIgHMCH peqipenoxr, naarpenuea HJ\H oTbIrpbIIIIeM);

~) TpeXqaCTHbIe - <;,aMbIH YIIoTpe6JlTeJ\bHeHIIIHH H MHoro06pa3- lIbIH THrr COrrOCTaBJ\eHHH rro <POPMY xe a + b + a. Kam,ll;bIH H3 OT ,'I;eJ\OB ,lI;OIIycKaeT paCIIIHpeHHe B TY HJ\H I1HYIO crenene CBH3H. Harrpmrep, B nexoropsrx MeHyaTax r aH,lI;Ha H Mogapra 11 B cxepgo EeTxoBeHa nepasrii OT,lI;eJ\ (a) 06bIqHO npencr aaxaer C06010 ,lI;BYX" qaCTHbIll KOMIIJ\eKC, nepnas qaCTb xoroporo - naxozseaae TeMbI, a aropaa - ee pa3BIITI1e B pa3J\II'lHbIX TOHaAbHblX OTKAOHeHHHX C YCTOllqHBbIM Ka,ll;aHCOBbIM KOMrrJ\eKCOM B KOHge, YCTaHaBJ\HBaIOIgHM OCHOBHOH crpoii. Cpe aaaa 'laCTb - TpeXqaCTHOe TPHO' c irroBTopeHlIeM nepnoii qaCTH. T pere a qaCTb - rroaropeane nepnoii. Y EeTxoBeHa K aTOMY «rtop aztxy» rrpacoeanaaerca xoaa KaK CHH" Te3 H3 i3J\eMeHTOB TpHO H OCHOBHbIX (,lI,eBHTaH CHM<pOHHH). * TorAa B03HIIKaeT HOBaH <popMYJ\a CTaHOBJ\eHHH: a+b+a+b, npe,ll;CTaBJ\HIOIgaH C06010 genb nepIIO,'l;HqeCKHX xepeaonanaii H, B CYIgHOCTH, HBAHIOIgaHCR pa3BHTIIeM ,lI;BYXqaCTHOro rrocrpoeana.

BaMKHYTble nocrpoenust C8H3H01.O Tuna, HO C 1.J.aC~U'iHbIM coxpaHeJ-LUeM paspesoe:

r ) rrepHOAHqeCKOH geIIblO -repeaoaanaii HJ\H conOCTaBJ\eHI1H KOMnJ\eKCOB MomHO CqlITaTb <POPMbI p 0 H ,'I; 0 - OT npOCTeHIIIIIX npe06paWBaHHH XOPOBO,ll;HO-KyrrJ\eTHOH «KPyroBOH» necan AO POH,lI;O COHaTHoro THna, rae MeJ\O,ll;HqeCKHH perppea, aoxpyr xoroporo rpyrr-

* KOlla nOJlB.I\lIeTCJI B CKep!!O T peTbell CHMtPOHHH KaK pacumpenasrir na b<1sS0 ostiriato KaAaHC; B flJlTOll CHMtPOHHH CKep!!O rrepexojnrr B tPHHa.l\ H nepenxe rae-rcn C HHM; B lllecToll- neoexoaar B 3BYKonHCb (conoCTaB.I\eHHe MHPHOH lKaHpoBoll C!!!:Hbl 11 6YPH); B CeAbMoll- KpaTKaH KOlla CKep!!O snyqHT RaK 9XO OCHOBH011 MblC.I\H ns Tp110; B CKep!!O 4eBlITOH - aaatioxee CHW Tel nqHaa KOAa.

189

napyerca H K KOTOPOMY B03BpaIgaeTCR .II,BllmeHlle, CTaHOBllTCH T e MOll. Bxaroaaps 9TOMY geHTpaJ\bHblll ll3 Mem.ll,ypeq>peHHblX srmaoaos POH.II,O rrpeapargaerca B «aperry» ieMaTll'IeCKOrO paaam-na. B .II,BllmeHllll rnna POH.II,O geHHa II.II,eH K P Y r a - xpyrosoro «B03BpaTHoro» nposenenas eAIIHOll MbICJ\ll. Pa3Hllga MemAY POHAO npOCTbIM II PPH.II,O-COHaToH B TOM, 'ITO B nepaosr cxyxae OCHOBHaH MeJ\O.ll,IIH (perppea ) He nO.ll,'IHHReT ce6e 9n1:l30.ll,OB T e MaT H 'I e C K H. Bce .II,BIImeHlle HOCIIT 60J\ee MeJ\oAII'IeCKIIll II J\IIpIIIW-9nH'IeCKHH xapaxrep C peUlHTeJ\bHbIM npeotixanaaaea conOCTaBJ\eHHH aoxpyr petppeaa Hap; TeMaTll'IeCKIIM conpaacenaesr H Hap; npOTHBonOCTaBJ\eHIIRMll TeMbl H 9nll30p;OB, KaK 9TO npOHCXOP;HT B POHP;O COHaTnoro Tllna. POHP;O xynxernoro Tl:Ina 3aTO pacnJ\bJB'IaTee, 'IeM POHP;O C TeMaTll'IeCKllM pa3BHTHeM. ECAll cpaaarrrs pOHp;o-npHMHTHBbl[xopoasre neCHII) cpeaaesexoaua C CHMq>OHH'IeCKllMll POHP;O BeHCKllX KJ\aCCHKOB II POHP;O n03p;HellUIHX CHMq>OHHll, TO B rrepaerx acegexo rocnoncrayer peqipen KaK OCHOBHOH crepzseae: nanea P06KO-p06KO OTXOP;HT B CTOPOHY H npHHHMaeT p;pyroe nanpaaxeHHe, HO scxope me B03BpaIgaeTCH K nepBOHCTOKY.

ECTeCTBeHHO, 'ITO q>OpMbJ POH.II,O .II,OJl.mHbI 6bIAH npHHTH B CBoell 9BOJ\lOgHH K TeMaTH'IeCKOMY pa3BHTHlO: MeJ\0p;HH-9nH30.ll,bl, YBeJ\H'IHBaRCb B 'IHCJ\e H He 6YP;Y'IH CBR3aHbi TeMaTH'IeCKH C peqipeaoxr, nor AOIgaAH 6bI ero, H POHP;O rrpeapargaxocs 6bl B necrpyro genb corrocraaxeaaii C nepHOp;H'IeCKHM B03BpargeHHeM peq>peHa.06'bep;HHRlOrgHH npHHgHn 'raxoro poza He p;aeT asrxoaa H3 xpyra HaHBHbIX «BbICKa3bIBaHHll», npaaaa TOHaAbHO crpynnapoaaansrx soxpyr PYKOBOP;HIgell MeJ\op;Hll.

tlT06bI YCBOHTb CTaHOBAeHHe pOHP;O Hero nOCTOHHHble KOAe- 6aHHR Memp;y pa3p;eAbHblMl:I conOCTaBAeHHHMH perppena H 9nH30- P;OB C 'IeTKHMH Kap;aHCOBbIMH «paspeaaxrn» H Memp;y CBR3HblMH conOCTaBAeHHRMH C nepexoaox B TeMaTII'IeCKOe pa3BIITlIe, AOCTaTO'IHO cpaaaars XOTR 6bl p;Ba pOHP;O MogapTa I-i3 ero rpoprenaaaHblX COHaT B-dur. HanOMHlO, 'ITO 'resra nepsoro POHP;O:

58 Allegro grazroso '

4ft (1 r rl rr'c J l I frB ff a I fiU r1f I r3ijtr

• p

a aroporo:

59 Allegro ' -

~ fP gj-;ugr IPj tr r r I fr a (1 a 10 etc,-

B 06eHX nsecax HCHO pa3AH'IllMbl: nepaerii 9Kcn03llgHoHHblH OT .'I,eJl, nponenemre HOBblX 9nH30p;H'IeCKllX MeAop;HH II nonropenae nepsoro or aexa, nepexo aargee B KOP;y.

llepBblH OT.II,eA nepaoro POH.II,O npencraaxaer C060lO CBH3HbIll

190

TpeX'IaCTHbIH KOMnJ\eKC [perppen, _npHMblKalOrgaH K HeMY MeJl.Op;HH B TOHe p,OMI-maHTbl, peqipen ) C nepexoaojr B geHTpaJ\bHoe nponezteHHe. BTOT geHTp B nepnoxr pOHP;O COCTOHT H3 COnOCTaBAeHHR P;ByX HOBbIX MeJ\OP;HH B g-rnoll H Es.dur H rrepexona-soaapargeana K perppeny nOCpe-ACTBOM paaa KpaTKHX MOP,YJl.HYHM na OAHOM H3 MeJl.Op;II'IeCKHX 9J\eMeHTOB petppena me.

Bo BTOPOM POHP;O nepnerii OT p;eJ\ TaKme cfipasyer CBH3HbIH

TpeX'IaCTHbIH KOMnJ\eKC C HenOcpep;CTBeHHbIM nepexonoxr B yeHTpaxsnyro craamo. Ho 3p,eCb pa3J\H'IHe npn cxoncme B TOHa.ll.bHbIX rpyrmnposxax. G-moll'HbIH 9nH30p; - He KopOTKaH MeJ\op;HH, a OTrpaHH'IeHHbIll ,!!;BYX'IaCTHbIM KOMnJ\eKC C nOBTopeHHRMH Kamp,OM 'IaCTH. 1l0cAe arcro KopOTKaH MO.ll,yMlyHR B03BpaIgaeT P e q> P e H. I13AomeHHe petppeaa CMeHReTCR nponezenaen HOBOH MeAop;IIH B Es-dur, nepexoamgeii nocpeacr sca MOPS J\RgHll onare B peppen.

Penpasa [peqipea C conpOBomp;alOrgeij ero, HO reneps TOHaJ\bHO eMY nOp,'IHHeHHOH Me.ll.O.ll,Heii) B - nepscu pOHAO 60.ll.ee pa3BHTa B cpaBHeHHH C 9Kcn03HYHell, a BO BTOpOM POHP;O, Ha060pOT, casara. B nepsosr POH.II,O rperua 'IaCTb perrpaser, T. e. rroaropenae perppena, nepexomrr B ero pa3BHTHe, npepsiaaenoe BHPTY03HOH Ka.ll,eHYHeH, nOCAe KOTOPOH perppea casaro HHToHHpyeTcH eige pas H see .II,BHmeHHe aasepuraercs MeJ\op;H'IeCKHM xanancosr C OTKJ\OHeHHeM B Es-dur. Bo BTOPOM pOHP;O perrpaaa Ha'IHHaeTCH co BTOPOH 'IaCTH - C nOBTopeHHH conpoaoasnaioigeii peqipea MeAOAlI1I (a MeAO,!!;HR perppena CJ\ymHT K HeH nepexoaox: opranaerii nYHKT aa ,!!;OMIIHaHTe) . .3aTo BCAe,!!; aa aTOH MeJ\O,!!;HeH perppea HHTOHHpyercs He czsaro, KaK B nepsoxr POH.II,O, a nOAHOCTblO II 3aMbI-

, KaeTCR KpaTKHM KaAaHCOM._

TaKHM 06pa30M, B 060HX POH,!!;O nepea HaMH - nAaCTII'IHOe H ypaaaosemeaaoe (casaroe npoaenenae B OAHOH CTap;HH socnoxHHeTCH 60Aee nO.ll,p06HbiM B apyroii) Me J\ 0 .II. H 'I e C K 0 e CTaHOBJ\eHHec rrpeotixanaaaexr TOm.ll,eCTBeHHoro 9J\eMeHTa (peqipea}. BH.II,HMOe CXOP;CTBO C COHaTHO-CHMq>OHH'IeCKIIM axxerpo (9Kcn03HyHH, yeHTp, perrpasa: CBR3aHHOCTb H3AomeHHH; aexoropoe TeMaTH'IeCKOe pa3BHTHe) He .II,OAmHO 06MaHbIBaTb. B 9Kcn03HgHH POH.II,O HeT BTOPOll TeMbl (napTHH) KaK KOHTpaCTHOll crpeper: conponoasp;alOrgaR peqi pen MeJ\op;HR, TeCHO C HIIM cnaanaas, He HBJ\ReTCR TeMOH KaK caMOCTOHTe.ll.bHO p;eHCTBYlOrgeH CHJl.OM. UeHTp POH.II,e)He paspatiorxa, He apena 60Pb6bI HJ\H scecroponaero 06HapymeHIIH KOHTpaCTHbIX H,lI;eH, a npoaeaearre HOBbIX MeAO,ll;HH, onRTb-TaKH rpyrrrmpyrorgaxca 0KOAO perppeaa KaK crepasna, HaMeKH na TeMaTH'IeCKOe pa3BHTHe - 9TO nepexo aaete CTatJ;l:IlI B POH,lI;O, roraa KaK B COHaTe H CHMq>OHHH HMeHHO «nepexoaaocra» (T. e. re MOMeHTbI CTaHOBJ\eHHH, B KOTOPblX r J\aBHYlO POAb nrparor He CTaTH'IeCKH-nOCAe.ll,OBaTe.ll.bHble 06HapymeHHH MeAOAHH, a KOHTpaCTHble npOTHBonOCTaBJ\eHHR TeMaTH'IeCKHX 9J\eMeHTOB) CTaHOBHTCH geHTPOM, p;HHaMH'IeCKOll CyrgHOCTblO p;BHmeHlIH. ,l(BHmeHHe npespargaeTcH B pa3BHTHe. 06'beKTlIBHbIH noxas MeJ\OP;HH: - B ~paMaTH-,'

·1

191

qeCKOe CTaHOBAeHUe. MogapToBcKUe CTpOHHbIe, ypaanoaeuremrere pOH~O CTORT Ha nepeAOMe. OeTXOBeH ~paMaTll3upyeT CBOll pOH~O ,11 aacsngaer ax CllMcpOHUqeCKOll paspadoraoii. Ha060poT, 0 Il.Iyoepre MomHO CKa3aTb, 'lTO OH 11 CBOl:! COHaTHO-CllMcpOHU'leCKUe axxerpo B CllAY rrecemroro xapaxrepa ax CTaHOBAeHIHI np1I6AllmaeT K pOH~O;

~) 0 COHaTHO-CliMcpOHllqeCKOM axxerpo KaK 0 3aMKHYTOM Tllne nOCTpoeHlIR C coxpaaeaaeu ('laCTll'lHbIM) paspeaa - rrosropeaae aKcrro311g111I II 'leTKOe o-rrpauaxenae ee OT pa3pa60TKll - snecs ronopm-s yzse He npaxcaarca.

3aMKHYTble nOCTpoeHUR C nO/!HOU C/iUTHOCTblO OT4e/iOB U 60/lbweu l{aCTblO C HenpepblBHo-paBHOMepHblM 4BUJICeHueM:

a) cpOpMbI na OCHOBe eantus iirmus'a - cpOpMbI, CBR3aHHbIe OCTIIHaTHbIM 6aCOM (naccaxaxen, qaKOHbI) - CAOBOM, na Tom~~CTBeHHOll OCHOBe (Ha 06'be~lIH5HOIgeM ~BlImeHlle crepasae}:

6) rpopuer, 06ycAoBAeHHbIe nepe~BllmeHlIeM 11 npopacraaaesr roasnecrneaaoro (ocraaaraoro ) MaTeplIaAa: IIMIITagllR, KaHOH, rpyr-a, *

Mezsny aTIIMll BII~aMli pacnoxararorcs MHoro06pa3HbIe IIuX «aapaanrer» (HanpIIMep, pnaepxaper, nesoropere Bll~bI npexroaaa, pa3pa60TKII xopaxos 11 T. n.}:

B) cpOpMbI cxm-aoro MOHOTeMaTII'leCKOrO ~BIImeHII5I, npenct-aa.ll.RlOIgIIe C06010 pa3BIITbIe O~HO'laCTHbIe nOCTpoeHIIR ~llHaMll'l:cxoro xapaxrepa: TOQKa OTnpaBAeHIIR -IlHToHaglloHHblH qeTKllII, KaK Bom~b cpyrH, 3ByKoKoMnAeKC - cAymllT B HllX TOA'lKOM llAll paatierox TaKOll CllAbI, 'lTO onpeaexaer C06010 ace CTaHOBAeHlle. OHO c.aeztyer' 113 aroro TOA'lKa - CB5I3HOe (nee aAeMeHTbI cgenAeHbI ~pyr C APyroM, KaK KOAeCIIKII xacoaoro MexaHII3Ma), paBHOMepHoe II AOrII'leCKII c-rpoiinoe.

AyqllIlle o6pa3gbI ~aHHoro BII~a CTaHOBAeHIl5l, ~O KOTOPbIM ero II cxeayer 1I3Y'laTb, 9TO 60AbllIaR nacr» npeA~~lIli ns «W ohltern periertes Klavier» oaxa, KaK-TO li3 nepnoa -racrn: 5=-dur c.moll (~BlimeHlie, nerrpepsraaoe 11 paaaoxrepnoe, B csoea npe~eAbHoll CTa~liII «y ~apReTC5I» 0 BepTllKaAb 11 nexoropoe BpeM5I «pacnxernaerca» B Ka~eHge, nOCAe xero acxope TOPM03~TCR- 9TO ~OBOAbHO qaCTbIll npaev nOCTpOeH1I5I KOAbI y, o~xa), Cis-dur, cis-moll, D.dur (rrpaeu cperaa, KaK li Be-moll HOff npexroaaa}, d.rnoll, es-rnol l (ocranarnsrii PliTM-CPOH, na KOTOPOM II3BlIBaeTC5I Kanp1I3HaR MeAO~lI'leCKa51 AIiHlIR), Evdur (nAaBHa51 BOAHo06pa3- Ha51 MeAO~1I5I KaK CTliMyA HenpepbIBHoro pa3BepTbIBaHlIR), Fvdur,

* 06pargalO BHHMaHlle, 'ITO OAHO H3 CYI!leCTBeHHbIX OTAH'IHH CTaHOBAeHH51 cpyrH OT COHaTHoro axxerpo 3aKAIO'IaeTC51 B TOM, 'ITO ace MOMeHTbI CB513YIOI!lero H nepexoznroro xaparcrepa (HHTepAIOAHH B rpyr ax, paapafio'rtca H TaK lla3bIBaeMble XOAbI HAll CB513YIOI!llle nap-run B COHaTax H CHMCPOHoHHX) B HMHraJ.lHOHllO-KaHOHH'IeCKOM CTaHOBAeHHH HMelOT xap axrep naCCHBHblH: ABHlKeHHe, 06bI'IHO ceKBeHJ.lH51MH, «YCTyn'laToe»,- Tor Aa KaK B COHaTHo-cHMljJoHH'IeCKOM cTaHOBAeHHH (KaK 9TO 6bIJ\0 YKa3aHO B OTHOIlleHHH POHAO H KaK 9TO erne 60Aee nOKa3aTeAbHO 3AeCb) nee TaKHe MOMeHTbI CTaAH np~o6peTaTb Co pa3BHTHeM COHaTbI H CHM!jJOHHH JIPKO l3blpalKeHHbIH AHHaMH'IeCKHH aKTyaAbHblH xaoaxrep.

192

I ! I

J

G_dur, g.rnoll, As.dur (O~HOTaKTHbIti KoMrrAeKC KaK CBOerO po aa ostinato lIAH motto acero ~BlimeHlIR), TO me B npexionaa a-moll. B npexrcaan Bvdur nplleM «CPbIBa» crpewarexenoro 6era My3bIKlI «y ~apOM» 0 neprnxaxr, nOBTOp5leTCR HeCKOAbKO pas BO BTOPOll CTa-

. ~HH ,ll;BllmeHllR: nOAY'laeTCR CMeHa YClI.II.llll (~BHmeHHe B0306HOBA5IeTcR) II HOBbIX npenarcranii, KpoMe roro, B aTOll me npeAlO~llli 6er rapMOHlI'leCKIiX cplirypaglill qepeAye'tCR CO CTpeMHTeAbHbIMH .ll.llHIUIMII MeAO~ll'leCKIiX cpllrypaglill. B-molI'HaR npeAlO~II51- npeAlO,ll;IIR BOAHo06pa3HbIX aapacraaaa: 1I3, Ka3aAOCb 6bI, M03all'lHbIX

qaCTlig [noaropnere IIHToHagIlHTI1ITa n n Ji Inn )1 )

opraaasyerca {(genKoe» CB5I3aHHOe e~HHCTBO. B KOHge onsrre rrpaex cpsraa HapaCTaHII5I 0 eepraxaxe.

He npnaoasy npnaepoa H3 BTOPOll qaCTH«Wohltemperiertes Klavier», HO, KpOMe npeAlO~llll oaxa, BeAHKOAenHbIe 06pa3gbI «,ltHHaMHqeCKIiX oanosacrnocrefi» IIMelOTC5I cpe.aa 24 npeAlO~lIll Il.loneaa, HaqlIHa51 C nepaoii. Ho ~aAbllIe, no Mepe Taro KaK npe.ll.1O~ TepR.II. CBOH ~HHaMHqeCKlie CBOllCTBa, rrpeapargaacs B «MO~y.ll.51glloHHoe npexroaapoaanae», OH CTaHOBllACR ace 60Aee pbIX.II.bIM. * «3sYKonHCb nacrpoenaii», «3apHCOBKa aMoglIoHaAbHbIX acrrennex» CTHMYAHpOBaAll 'lpe3BbI'lallHO «BKYCHbIe» C03BY'lHR, HO' aa cxer ~HHaMHKH KOMn03HgHH. TaKOBhI MHorHe npexroaer CKpR6HHa . Haooopor, I1MnpeCCHOHHCTCKlie npeAIO~HH 4e6lOCCli 06MaHbIBalOT csoeii «HA.II.1030PHOCTblO» II li3bICKaHHOCTblO MY3bIKII: HX KOCT5IK npOqHhIll, KOHgengIIR 06'be~HHReTCR 06blqHO CTepmHeBOll nonesKOH (HAH IWMnAeKCOM TeM), HO MY3blKa cxopee «nepexanaercs», OCAem1TeAbHa51 HAll H3HemeHHa5l, 'leM pacrer H BOAHyeTCR. aTO TBOpqeCTBO liHTeAAeKTyaAbHo CHAbHoro KOMn03HTopa 6oraTeHllIeH,

HO YCTaAOH KY.II.bTypbI; .

r ) q,OPMbI CAHTHoro noxa-reuarnuecxoro ,ll;BHmeHHR, HO npeaCTaBA5IIOIglie C06010 CT5IHYTble, cacarere, cxorrgenrpaponaansre COHaTHo-cHMq)QHH'leCKHe gHKAbl C 60Aee HAll MeHee Bbl~eAeHHbIMH

. OT ~eAaMII-CTa~HRMIi. TaKoBo BCTynAeHHe K «MeHCTep3HHrepaM» Baraepa. MHorHe CHMcpOHHqeCKlie noaMbl (AIiCTa. PHX. WTpayca, YaHKOBCKoro II ,ll;p.), aexo ropere 1I3 O,ll;HO'laCTHbIX COHaT (KaK COHaTa AHcTa) npe~cTaBARlOTc0601O cpOpMbl cxarnoro ~BHmeH1I5I. Ho He ace - cxongem-papoaaansra gHKAbl, nOTOMY qTO He seer Aa orcyrcraae nepepersoa Mem~y qaCTRMII gHKAa npespargaer ero B MHororpaHHoe e~HHCTBO, rroaofinoe ynoMRHYTOMY BCTynAeHHlO K «MeHCTep3HHrepaM» HAH Co nare AHCTa. Hepenxo ~ame CBe~eH-

* 3aMe'laTeAbHbIH VorspieI K «.l\o9HrpHHY» Baraep», HeCMOTpJI na rap MOHH'IeCKHH CKAa.n; MbIIllAeHHJI KOMI103HTopa,- xnaeapnaa KOMII03HJ.lHR, HMelO rgaR rJ\y60KHe KOPHH B AaBHeM repjaaacxoa opraHHOM llCKYCCTBe npexroaapoDaHlil! na H H3 OCHOBHOH AHHaMH'IeCKOH IIpeAIIocbIJ\KH. Bo0'6rge lKe II p e x 10. Jl H JI KaK «AeMOHCTpaJ.lHJI» eAHHCTBa na OCHOBe AHaAeKTH'IeCKOrO npeodpaao BaHHl! nepBH'IHOrO HMIIyAbca JIBAJIeTCJI OAHHM H3 TpYAHeHIllHX BHJlOB cpOPMH" pOBaH!!JI MY3bIKli H3 I1pHHJ.lHIIa TOlKAecTBa.

13 B. B. Acadisea

193

nsre B HenpepbJBHbIlJ pR,rJ; OTAeAbI COHaTbl H ClIMCPOHJ.UI oC1'alOTC$I OTAeAaMlI, a He CAIfTHbIMH CTaAHHMIf ,rJ;aHHoro e,rJ;HHCTBa. DOAee lIAH MeHee Y,rJ;aqHOe paapemenae np06AeMbJ CPOPMbI «CAHTHoro !!IfKA~» 3aBIfCHT 01' MHOfIix npasaa: 01' OpraHHqeCKHX rpancrpopMa!,!lIIf OCTI:lHaTHbIX If All CTepmHeBbIX 9AeMeHTOB (pllTMlIqeCKlIe, MeAO,rJ;IfqeCKlIe, rapMOHlIqeCKHe Tom,rJ;eCTBeHIlble KOMnAeKCbJ)B nepBYIO ouepeae. Ho raxae TpaHccpopMa!,!HH TPY,rJ;HbI, 1I aaor Aa ,rJ;ame . y AHCTa - MaCTepa TeMaTHtIeCKHX MeTaMopcp03 - BH,rJ;HO, 'ITO resra Ha,rJ;eBaeT qym,rJ;ylO ell MaCKY, a He nepesonxoigaercs.

YaCTblO K tJ;aHHOMY OT,rJ;eAY, xacrero K npezurecr-nyroigeny (3aMKHYTbJe nOCTpoeHHR CBR3Horo rana, HO C coxpaneanen p a 3 p e _ 30 B) HaAO OTHeCTlI CPOpMbJ BOKaAbHOH apnn da capo.

BnOAHe CIOAa OTHOCRTCH TOKKaTbJ If see BHAbI COHaTHO-CUMCPOHlItIeCKOrO axxerpo (yaeprropu H T. A.), B KOTOPbIX CTaHOBAeHHe AocTlIraeT 6e3YCAOBHOH CAHTHOCTlI, HO npOHBAHeTCH B MHOr03HaqHbIX (TeMaTlItIeCKHX) npOTHBonOCTaBAeHIfRX.

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197

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