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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 2.1:-Surface texture of the concrete sample exposed to elevated temperatures...........6


Fig. 2.2:-Pore pressure prediction for different values of initial permeability...................10
Fig. 2.3:-Modulus of elasticity for different concretes at elevated temperatures..............10
Fig. 2.4(a):- Variation of compressive strength with temperature for normal strength
concrete..............................................................................................................................12
Fig. 2.4(b):- Variation of compressive strength with temperature for high strength
concrete..............................................................................................................................12
Fig. 2.5:- Variation of residual compressive strength with temperature for concrete........13
Fig. 2.6:- Tests for computing the various strain components...........................................15
Fig. 2.7:- Mathematical model for stress strain-relationships of concrete under
compression at elevated temperature as per Eurocode2....................................................17
Fig. 2.8:- Coefficient kc,t () for decreasing tensile strength of concrete at elevated
temperature as per Eurocode2............................................................................................18
Fig. 2.9:- Stress-strain relationship for confined concrete (Scott et al.)............................19
Fig. 2.10:- Confined and unconfined concrete stress-strain plot.......................................22
Fig 2.11:- Comparison of constitutive models (Youssef et al. and Eurocode2).................24
Fig. 3.1:- Specific heat as a function of temperature at 3 different moisture contents, as
per Eurocode (EN1992-1-2:2004).....................................................................................28
Fig. 3.2:- Variation of thermal conductivity of different types of concrete as predicted by
various constitutive models................................................................................................28
Fig. 3.3:- Variation of specific heat of different types of concrete as predicted by various
constitutive models............................................................................................................29
Fig. 3.4(a):- Variation of thermal conductivity with temperature for rebar.......................30
Fig. 3.4(b):- Variation of specific heat with temperature for rebar....................................30
Fig. 3.5:- Elevation and sectional details of columns (TNC1, THC4 & THC8)...............33
Fig 3.6:- Sectional details of beams (B1, B2 & B4).........................................................34
Fig. 3.7:- Time temperature curve for ASTM E119 fire scenario...................................35
Fig. 3.8:- Time temperature curve for short severe design fire exposure (SF)...............35
Fig 3.9(a): - Discretized column........................................................................................36
Fig. 3.9(b):- Discretized beam...........................................................................................37

Fig. 3.10:-The effect of boundary condition on column TNC1 results (only heating phase)
............................................................................................................................................42
Fig;-3.11 Input fire curve for COL-A................................................................................43
Fig. 3.12:-The effect of boundary condition on COL-A results.........................................44
Fig. 3.13:- Thermal profiles for column section using different thermal properties.........45
Fig. 3.14 (a):- Comparison of column TNC1 results for thermal property SET1..............46
Fig. 3.14 (b):- Comparison of column TNC1 results for thermal property SET2.............47
Fig. 3.14 (c):- Comparison of column TNC1 results for thermal property SET3..............47
Fig. 3.15 (a):- Comparison of column THC4 results for thermal property SET1..............48
Fig. 3.15 (b):- Comparison of column THC4 results for thermal property SET2.............49
Fig. 3.15 (c):- Comparison of column THC4 results for thermal property SET5..............49
Fig. 3.16 (a):- Comparison of column THC8 results for thermal property SET1..............50
Fig. 3.16 (b):- Comparison of column THC8 results for thermal property SET2.............51
Fig. 3.16 (c):- Comparison of column THC8 results for thermal property SET6..............51
Fig. 3.17:-The effect of moisture content on column THC8 results (only heating phase) 52
Fig. 3.18:- Thermal profiles for beam section exposed to ASTM E119 fire using different
thermal properties..............................................................................................................53
Fig. 3.19:- Comparison of beam B1 results for different thermal property.......................54
Fig. 3.20 (a):- Comparison of beam B2 results for different thermal property..................55
Fig. 3.20(b):- Comparison of beam B2 results for different thermal property..................55
Fig. 3.21(a):- Comparison of beam B4 results for different thermal property...................56
Fig. 3.21(b):- Comparison of beam B4 results for different thermal property..................57
Fig. 4.1:-Commonly used element families in ABAQUS..................................................61
Fig. 4.2:-First and second order continuum element.........................................................61
Fig. 4.3(a):-Uniaxial tension behaviour of concrete..........................................................64
Fig. 4.3(b):-Uniaxial compression behaviour of concrete.................................................65
Fig. 4.4:-Loading for testing of beams...............................................................................70
Fig. 4.5:- Meshed view of the beam..................................................................................71
Fig. 4.6:- Sample window for defining a predefined temperature field.............................72
Fig. 4.7:- Stress strain curve for concrete..........................................................................73
Fig. 4.8:- Variation of Youngs Modulus with temperature (Beam B1).............................74
Fig. 4.9(a):-Stress strain relation for concrete in compression at elevated temperature....75
Fig. 4.9(b):-Stress strain relation for concrete in tension at elevated temperature............75

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Fig. 4.10:- Mathematical model for stress-strain relationships of reinforcing steel at


elevated temperatures.........................................................................................................76
Fig. 4.11:- Stress-strain curves of reinforcing steel at elevated temperatures...................78
Fig. 4.12:- Comparison of beam B1 results.......................................................................79
Fig. 4.13:- Un-deformed and deformed shape of beam B1...............................................79
Fig.4.14:-Mid section under tension and compression at failure (Beam B1)....................80
Fig. 4.15:- Reduced strength of concrete as a function of temperature.............................81
Fig. 416:- Variation of Youngs Modulus with temperature (Beam B3)............................82
Fig. 4.17:- Comparison of beam B3 results.......................................................................83
Fig. 4.18:- Un-deformed and deformed shape of beam B3...............................................84
Fig.4.19:-Stress contour for beam B3................................................................................84
Fig. 4.20:- Comparison of beam B4 results.......................................................................87
Fig. 4.21:- Un-deformed and deformed shape of beam B4...............................................87
Fig. 4.22:- Clamped centrically loaded reinforced concrete column in fire......................88
Fig. 4.23:-Experimental and simulated results of column THC4......................................90
Fig. 4.24:-Temperature v/s compressive strength for column TNC1................................91
Fig. 4.25:-Temperature v/s Youngs modulus for unloaded and preloaded concrete.........92
Fig. 4.26:-Various stress strain relationship for concrete at 200 0C and 600 0C (TNC1)...92
Fig. 4.27:-Experimental and simulated results of column TNC1......................................93
Fig. 4.28:-Results of column TNC1 under increased load level........................................94

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