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You are on page 1of 58

good at taking large,

potentially huge search

spaces and navigating

them, looking for optimal

combinations of things,

solutions you might not

otherwise find in a

lifetime.

Salvatore Mangano

Computer Design, May 1995

Page 1

Genetic Algorithm

Every animal cell is a complex structure where many small

factories are working together

The center of this all is the cell nucleus

The nucleus contains the genetic information

Page 2

Genetic Algorithm

The genetic information is stored in the chromosomes

Each chromosome is build of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Chromosomes in humans form are pairs.

There are 23 pairs (in the human cell).

The chromosome is divided

into parts: genes.

Genes code for properties.

The posibilities of the genes for

one property is called: allele.

Every gene has an unique position

on the chromosome: locus.

Page 3

Genetic Algorithm

On the picture we can see a human cell with all metaphase chromosome ordered

by size and an other attribute

metaphase: the state of gen dividing when the chromosomes are situated in the plane of the equator of

cell.

Page 4

Genetic Algorithm

Reproduction of genetical information

Mitosis

Meiosis

genetic information to new

offspring: there is no

exchange of information

Mitosis is the normal way of

growing of multicell structures,

like organs.

Page 5

Genetic Algorithm

Meiosis is the basis of sexual

reproduction

After meiotic division 2 gametes

appear in the process

In reproduction two gametes

conjugate to a zygote wich

will become the new individual

Hence genetic information is

shared between the parents in

order to create new offspring

Page 6

Genetic Algorithm

During reproduction errors occur

Due to these errors genetic variation exists

Most important errors are:

Recombination (cross-over)

Mutation

Page 7

Genetic Algorithm

Biological Background

(natural secection)

variations and rejection of unfavourable variations.

There are more individuals born than can survive, so there

is a continuous struggle for life.

Individuals with an advantage have a greater chance for

survive: survival of the fittest.

Page 8

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algoritm

(in Technical Tasks)

mechanics of biological evolution.

Developed by John Holland, University of

Michigan (1970s)

Page 9

systems

To design artificial systems software that retains

the robustness of natural systems

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algoritm

(in Technical Tasks)

optimization and machine learning applications

Widely-used today in business, scientific and

engineering circles

Page 10

Genetic Algorithm

Search techniques

Calculus-based techniques

Direct methods

Finonacci

Indirect methods

Newton

Evolutionary algorithms

Evolutionary strategies

Centralized

Simulated annealing

Dynamic programming

Genetic algorithms

Parallel

Page 11

Enumerative techniques

Distributed

Sequential

Steady-state

Generational

Genetic Algorithm

A problem to solve, and ...

Encoding technique

(gene, chromosome)

Initialization procedure

(creation)

Evaluation function

(environment)

Selection of parents

(reproduction)

Genetic operators

(mutation, recombination)

Parameter settings

(practice and art)

Page 12

Genetic Algorithm

{

_initialize population;

_evaluate population;

while Termination_Criteria_Not_Satisfied

{

_perform recombination and mutation;

_evaluate population;

}

}

Page 13

Genetic Algorithm

reproduction

selected

parents

modified

children

parents

initialization

population

deleted

members

modification

evaluated

children

evaluation

discard

Page 14

Genetic Algorithm

initialization

population

Bit strings

Real numbers

Permutations of element

Lists of rules

Program elements

... any data structure ...

Page 15

(0110001011010011100)

(43.2, -33.1, ... 0.0, 89.2)

(E11, E3, E7, ... E1, E15)

(R1, R2, R3, ... R22, R23)

(genetic, programming)

Genetic Algorithm

parameters

chromosome (bit string)

a gen = 1 bit

range of integer number

linear decoding

parameter range

Page 16

x=26+13*(4/31) = 27.68

Genetic Algorithm

Page 17

Genetic Algorithm

x0

x1

Page 18

Genetic Algorithm

chromosome (permutation of elements)

a gen = an order number at a given position

representation by graph

Page 19

Genetic Algorithm

reproduction

selected

parents

parents

population

Parents are selected at random with selection

chances biased in relation to chromosome

evaluations (fitness function).

Page 20

Genetic Algorithm

Bit string chromosome

Page 21

value

Genetic Algorithm

chromosome (permutation of elements)

example is the distance

between the points

represented positions

Page 22

Genetic Algorithm

Cake of fitness functions

in a population

F[pv4]

F[pv5]

F[pv6]

F[pv3]

F[pv2

]

F[pv1]

F[pv7]

F[pv8]

area = fitness(x7,y7)

Page 23

Genetic Algorithm

the rank of chromosomes.

Each chromosome is ranked by its fitness value.

r1 is assigned to the worst; r2 to second worst;

and so on.

Higher fitness value has the higher ranking, which

means it will be chosen with higher probability.

Calculate the sum of ranks: result is Rsum.

Parent selection: Random number generating

between 0..Rsum

Page 24

Genetic Algorithm

selection in genetic algorithms which runs a

"tournament" among a few individuals chosen at

random from the population and selects the

winner (the one with the best fitness) for

crossover.

If the tournament size is higher, weak individuals

have a smaller chance to be selected.

A 1-way tournament selection is equivalent to

random selection.

Page 25

Genetic Algorithm

selected parents

modification

modified children

Operator types are:

Crossover (recombination) (probability of crossover)

Mutation (probability of mutation)

Page 26

Genetic Algorithm

Modification; Crossover

cut

P1

P2

(0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0)

(1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0)

(1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0)

(0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0)

Ch1

Ch2

It greatly accelerates search early in evolution of

a population

It leads to effective combination of schemata

(sub solutions on different chromosomes)

Page 27

Genetic Algorithm

Modification; Mutation

random selected positions

Before:

(1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0)

After:

(0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0)

Before:

After:

(local or global)

Restores lost information to the population

Page 28

Genetic Algorithm

evaluated

children

modified

children

evaluation

assigns it a fitness measure

The evaluator is the only link between a classical

GA and the problem it is solving

Page 29

Genetic Algorithm

population

discarded

members

discard

Generational GA:

entire populations (fully) replaced with each iteration

Steady-state GA:

a few members replaced each generation

Page 30

Genetic Algorithm

Cycle of Reproduction

Page 31

Genetic Algorithm

- Bill Gates, Business Week, June 27, 1994

Page 32

Genetic Algorithm

A Simple Example

The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP):

We search the summa of distance between the

towns with the next conditions:

we can visit every town only ones

we have to minimize the full distance

(summa distance between the towns in a

given sequence)

Page 33

Genetic Algorithm

Representation of TSP

Representation is an ordered list of city

numbers known as an order-based GA.

1) Oulu

3) Velence

2) Budapest 4) Singapur

CityList1

CityList2

Page 34

5) Peking

6) London

7) Tokio

8) New York

(3 5 7 2 1 6 4 8)

(2 5 7 6 8 1 3 4)

Genetic Algorithm

Crossover of TSP

Crossover combines inversion and recombination:

random selected positions

Parent2

*

*

(3 5 7 2 1 6 4 8)

(2 5 7 6 8 1 3 4)

Child

(5 8 7 2 1 6 3 4)

Parent1

Page 35

Genetic Algorithm

Mutation of TSP

Mutation involves reordering of the list:

random selected positions

Before:

*

*

(5 8 7 2 1 6 3 4)

After:

(5 8 6 2 1 7 3 4)

Page 36

Genetic Algorithm

Page 37

Genetic Algorithm

The problem:

We have N pieces of objects. Every object has a mass and a face value.

We have a rucksack (backpack) which has X kg weight-bearing capacity.

The task is selecting a suitable subset of the objects, where the face

value is maximal and the sum mass of objects are limited to X kg.

We solve the problem applying the genetic algoritm with bitstring

chromosome. The coding in the chromosome gives whether the object is

selected or not.

The upper matrix containing the parent chromosomes the lower the

crossovered and mutated chromosomes. The numbers beside the

matrixes are the sum of face values of selected objects with other words

the fitness function.

Page 38

Genetic Algorithm

Page 39

Genetic Algorithm

Finding the maximum value of a function

(MVFN):

We finding the maximal value of an explicit function,

(the global maximum):

for the search

Page 40

Genetic Algorithm

Representation of MVFN

The chromosome is coded with a vector of real

numbers.

x = { -20.0, +12.0 }

y = { -30.0, +100.0 }

range of search x

range of search y

c(2) = [ 10.12, -3.9234 ]

chromosome(1)

chromosome(2)

Page 41

Genetic Algorithm

Crossover of MVFN

Parent(1)= [x(1), y(1)];

Child(1) = [ a*x(1) +

a*y(1) +

Child(2) = [ {1-a}*x(1)

{1-a}*y(1)

Page 42

{1-a}*x(2),

{1-a}*y(2) ]

+ a*x(2),

+ a*y(2) ]

/ type!!! /

/ ranges!!! /

/ ranges!!! /

Genetic Algorithm

Mutation of MVFN

The mutation a randomly selected element value

changing randomly:

a,b = random numbers with range {0..1} / type!!! /

c = constant { for example = 0.25 }

Before: [ x1, y1 ]

After: [ x1 + (x1max - x1min)*c*a,

y1 + (y1max - y1min)*c*a ]

Page 43

/ ranges!!! /

/ ranges!!! /

Genetic Algorithm

Uniform Distribution

f ( x ) = (b a )

0

Page 44

if a x b

otherwise

Genetic Algorithm

Exponential Distribution

e x

f (x) =

0

Page 45

for 0 x

otherwise

Genetic Algorithm

Normal Distribution

y

f ( x ) =

e

2

( x ) 2

y=

2 2

Page 46

Genetic Algorithm

Triangular Distribution

checkpoint = ( usual -minimum ) /

( maximum - minimum );

checkpoint )?

sqrt ( random * ( maximum - minimum

) * (usual - minimum) )+minimum :

maximum - sqrt ((1random)*(minimummaximum)*(usual-maximum)) ;

Page 47

Genetic Algorithm

The function:

f(x, y) = 20 - (x1 - x0)^2 + (y1 - y0)^2

where x0 and y0 are constants

value, in this case we

maximazing the - f(x,y) function.

Page 48

Genetic Algorithm

2

f ( x ) = 20 x[ i ] 5.0

i =1

Page 49

Genetic Algorithm

f ( x ) = 20 ( x[ i ] x[ i0 ] )

N

i =1

Page 50

Genetic Algorithm

We have big number of measuring data where the

input parameter(s) is(are) known to the measured

data.

For example the measuring data is the area of a circle

and the input parameter the radius of the circle.

We want to find a suitable structure of function

is giving the connection between the input parameter

and measured data.

Page 51

Genetic Algorithm

Page 52

Genetic Algorithm

representation of information

population size, mutation rate, ...

selection, deletion policies

crossover, mutation operators

Termination Criteria

Performance, scalability

Solution is only as good as the evaluation

function (often hardest part)

Page 53

Genetic Algorithm

Modular, separate from application

Supports multi-objective optimization

Good for noisy environments

Always have an answer; answer became

better and better with time

Inherently parallel; easily distributed

Page 54

Genetic Algorithm

Many ways to speed up and improve a GAbased application as knowledge about problem

domain is gained.

Easy to exploit previous or alternate solutions.

Flexible building blocks for hybrid applications.

Substantial history and range of use.

Page 55

Genetic Algorithm

When to Use a GA

complicated

Need an exploratory tool to examine new

approaches

Problem is similar to one that has already been

successfully solved by using a GA

Want to hybridize with an existing solution

Benefits of the GA technology meet key problem

requirements

Page 56

Genetic Algorithm

Domain

Application Type

Control

Design

Scheduling

configuration, communication networks

manufacturing, facility scheduling, resource allocation

Robotics

trajectory planning

Machine Learning

Signal Processing

algorithms, classifier systems

filter design

Game Playing

Combinatorical

Optimization

graph coloring and partitioning

Page 57

Genetic Algorithm

Questions?

Page 58

Genetic Algorithm

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