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Outline

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2

CSc 466/566
Computer Security
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4

7 : Cryptography Public Key


Version: 2012/02/15 16:15:24

Department of Computer Science


University of Arizona

5
collberg@gmail.com
c 2012 Christian Collberg
Copyright

Christian Collberg

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History of Public Key Cryptography

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

Introduction

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Public-key Algorithms

Definition (Public-key Algorithms)


RSA Conference 2011-Opening-Giants Among Us:

Public-key cryptographic algorithms use different keys for


encryption and decryption.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvOsb9vNIWM&feature=related

Rivest, Shamir, Adleman - The RSA Algorithm Explained:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b57zGAkNKIc

Bobs public key: PB

Bruce Schneier - Who are Alice & Bob?:

Bobs secret key: SB

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuUSi_QvFLY&feature=related

Adventures of Alice & Bob - Alice Gets Lost:

EPB (M) = C

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nULAC_g22So http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJB7a79ahGM

DSB (C ) = M
DSB (EPB (M)) = M

Introduction

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Introduction

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Public Key Protocol

Public Key Encryption Protocol. . .

Key-management is the main problem with symmetric


algorithms Bob and Alice have to somehow agree on a key
to use.

Bob

Alice

In public key cryptosystems there are two keys, a public one


used for encryption and and private one for decryption.
plaintext

Alice and Bob agree on a public key cryptosystem.

Bob sends Alice his public key, or Alice gets it from a public
database.

Alice encrypts her plaintext using Bobs public key and sends
it to Bob.

Bob decrypts the message using his private key.

Introduction

PB

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Public Key Encryption: Key Distribution

Alice
SA , PA

PA , PC

PA , PB

PB , PC PA , PD

Carol
SC , PC

Eve

decrypt

plaintext

SB

Introduction

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In practice, public key cryptosystems are not used to encrypt


messages they are simply too slow.

Bob
SB , PB

Instead, public key cryptosystems are used to encrypt


keys for symmetric cryptosystems . These are called
session keys , and are discarded once the communication
session is over.

PB , PD
1

Bob sends Alice his public key.

Alice generates a session key K , encrypts it with Bobs public


key, and sends it to Bob.

Bob decrypts the message using his private key to get the
session key K .

Both Alice and Bob communicate by encrypting their


messages using K .

SD , PD

Advantages : n key pairs to communicate between n parties.


Disadvantages : Ciphers (RSA,. . . ) are slow; keys are large
Introduction

ciphertext

A Hybrid Protocol

Dave
PC , PD

encrypt

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Introduction

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Hybrid Encryption Protocol. . .

Outline
1
2

Bob

Alice

3
4

encrypt

EPB (K )

PB

decrypt

SB
5

encrypt
K

EK (M)

decrypt

K
6

Introduction

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RSA

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

RSA

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RSA: Algorithm

Bob (Key generation):


Generate two large random primes p and q.
Compute n = pq.
Select a small odd integer e relatively prime with (n).
4 Compute (n) = (p 1)(q 1).
5 Compute d = e 1 mod (n).
1
2
3

RSA is the best know public-key cryptosystem. Its security is


based on the (believed) difficulty of factoring large numbers.
Plaintexts and ciphertexts are large numbers (1000s of bits).

PB = (e, n) is Bobs RSA public key.


SB = (d, n) is Bob RSA private key.

Encryption and decryption is done using modular


exponentiation.

Alice (encrypt and send a message M to Bob):


1
2

Get Bobs public key PB = (e, n).


Compute C = M e mod n.

Bob (decrypt a message C received from Alice):


1

RSA

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RSA

Compute M = C d mod n.
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RSA: Algorithm Notes

RSA Example: Key Generations

How should we choose e?


It doesnt matter for security; everybody could use the same e.
It matters for performance: 3, 17, or 65537 are good choices.

n is referred to as the modulus , since its the n of mod n.

Select two primes: p = 47 and q = 71.

Compute n = pq = 3337.

Compute (n) = (p 1)(q 1) = 3220.

Select e = 79.

Compute

You can only encrypt messages M < n. Thus, to encrypt


larger messages you need to break them into pieces, each < n.

Throw away p, q, and (n) after the key generation stage.

= 791 mod 3220

Encrypting and decrypting requires a single modular


exponentiation.

= 1019

RSA

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RSA Example: Encryption


1
2

P = (79, 3337) is the RSA public key.

S = (1019, 3337) is the RSA private key.

RSA

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RSA Example: Decryption

Encrypt M = 6882326879666683.
Break up M into 3-digit blocks:
m = h688, 232, 687, 966, 668, 003i

= e 1 mod (n)

Note the padding at the end.


Encrypt each block:

Decrypt each block:


m1 = c1d mod n
= 15701019 mod 3337

c1 = m1e mod n

= 688

= 68879 mod 3337


= 1570
We get:
c = h1570, 2756, 2091, 2276, 2423, 158i

RSA

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RSA

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In-Class Exercise: Goodrich & Tamassia R-8.18

In-Class Exercise: Goodrich & Tamassia R-8.20

Alice is telling Bob that he should use a pair of the form


(3, n)
Show the result of encrypting M = 4 using the public key
(e, n) = (3, 77) in the RSA cryptosystem.

or
(16385, n)
as his RSA public key if he wants people to encrypt messages
for him from their cell phones.
As usual, n = pq, for two large primes, p and q.
What is the justification for Alices advice?

RSA

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In-Class Exercise: Stallings pp. 270-271

RSA

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RSA Correctness
We have
C

= M e mod n

M = C d mod n.
1

Generate an RSA key-pair using p = 17, q = 11, e = 7.

Encrypt M = 88.

Decrypt the result from 2.

To show correctness we have to show that decryption of the


ciphertext actually gets the plaintext back, i.e that, for all
M<n
C d mod n = (M e )d mod n
= M ed mod n
= M

RSA

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RSA

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RSA Correctness: Case 1

RSA Correctness: Case 1. . .

From the key generation step we have


d

= e 1 mod (n)

from which we can conclude that


M (n) mod n = 1 follows from Eulers theorem.

ed mod (n) = 1
ed

Theorem (Euler)

= k(n) + 1

Let x be any positive integer thats relatively prime to the integer


n > 0, then
x (n) mod n = 1

Case 1, M is relatively prime to n:


C d mod n = M ed mod n
= M k(n)+1 mod n
= M (M (n) )k mod n
= M 1k mod n
= M mod n
= M
RSA

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RSA Correctness: Case 2

RSA

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RSA Correctness: Case 2. . .


We have that
(n) = (pq) = (p)(q)
By Eulers theorem we have that

Assume that M is not relatively prime to n, i.e. M has some


factor in common with n, since M < n.
There are two cases:
1
2

M k(n) mod q = M k(p)(q) mod q


= (M k(p) )(q) mod q
= 1

M is relatively prime with q and M = ip, or


M is relatively prime with p and M = iq.

Thus, for some integer h

We consider only the first case, the second is similar.

M k(n) = 1 + hq
Multiply both sides by M
M M k(n) = M(1 + hq)
M k(n)+1 = M + Mhq

RSA

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RSA

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RSA Correctness: Case 2. . .

RSA Security

We can now prove Case 2, for M = ip:


d

C mod n = M
= M

ed

Summary:
Compute n = pq, p and q prime.
Select a small odd integer e relatively prime with (n).
Compute (n) = (p 1)(q 1).
4 Compute d = e 1 mod (n).
5 PB = (e, n) is Bobs RSA public key.
6 SB = (d, n) is Bob RSA private key.

mod n

k(n)+1

1
2
3

mod n

= (M + Mhq) mod n
= (M + (ip)hq) mod n
= (M + (ih)pq) mod n

Since Alice knows Bobs PB , she knows e and n.

= (M + (ih)n) mod n

If she can compute d from e and n, she has Bobs private key.

= (M mod n) + ((ih)n mod n)

If she knew (n) = (p 1)(q 1) she could compute


d = e 1 mod (n) using Euclids algorithm.

= M mod n
= M

RSA

If she could factor n, shed get p and q!

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Security of Cryptosystems by Failed Cryptanalysis

Propose a cryptographic scheme.

If an attack is found, patch the scheme. GOTO 2.

If enough time has passed The scheme is secure!

RSA

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RSA Security. . .

If we can factor n, we can find p and q and the scheme is


broken.
As far as we know, factoring is hard.

How long is enough?


1
2

RSA

We need n to be large enough, 2,048 bits.

It took 5 years to break the Merkle-Hellman cryptosystem.


It took 10 years to break the Chor-Rivest cryptosystem.

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RSA

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RSA Factoring Challenge

RSA Factoring Challenge. . .

Name :
RSA576
Digits :
174
188198812 92 0 60 7 96 3 83 8 69 7 23 9 46 1 65 0 43 9 8 07 1 63 5 63 3 79 4 17 3 82 7 00 7 63 3 56 4 22
988859715 23 4 66 5 48 5 31 9 06 0 60 6 50 4 74 3 04 5 3 17 3 88 0 11 3 03 3 96 7 16 1 99 6 92 3 21 2 05
7340318795 50 6 56 9 96 22 1 30 5 16 87 5 93 0 76 5 02 57 0 59

The factoring research team of F. Bahr, M. Boehm, J. Franke,


T. Kleinjung continued its productivity with a successful
factorization of the challenge number RSA-640, reported on
November 2, 2005.
The factors are:

On December 3, 2003, a team of researchers in Germany and


several other countries reported a successful factorization of
the challenge number RSA-576.
The factors are

1900871281 66 4 82 2 11 3 12 6 85 15 7 39 3 54 1 39 7 54 7 18 9 67 8 99 68
5154936666 38 5 39 0 88 0 27 10 3 80 2 10 4 49 8 95 7 19 1 26 14 6 55 7 1

47277214610 7 43 5 30 2 53 6 22 30 7 19 7 30 4 82 24 6 32 9 14 6 95
30209711645 9 85 2 17 11 3 05 2 07 11 2 56 3 63 5 90 39 7 52 7

RSA

RSA Factoring Challenge. . .

RSA

Name :
RSA1536
Digits :
463
184769970 32 1 17 4 14 7 43 0 68 3 56 2 0 20 0 16 4 40 3 01 8 54 9 33 8 66 3 4 1 0 1 71 4 71 7 85 7 74 9 10 6 5 1
696711161 24 9 85 9 33 7 68 4 30 5 43 5 7 44 5 85 6 16 0 61 5 44 5 71 7 94 0 5 2 2 2 97 1 77 3 25 2 46 6 09 6 0 6
469460712 49 6 23 7 20 4 42 0 22 2 69 7 5 67 5 66 8 73 7 84 2 75 6 23 8 95 0 8 7 6 4 67 8 44 0 93 3 28 5 15 7 4 9
657884341 50 8 84 7 55 2 82 9 81 8 67 2 6 45 1 33 9 86 3 36 4 93 1 90 8 08 4 6 7 1 9 90 4 31 8 74 3 81 2 83 3 6 3
502795470 28 2 65 3 29 7 80 2 93 4 91 6 1 55 8 11 8 81 0 49 8 44 9 08 3 19 5 4 5 0 0 98 4 83 9 37 7 52 2 72 5 7 0
525785919 44 9 93 8 70 0 73 6 95 7 55 6 8 84 3 69 3 38 1 27 7 96 1 30 8 92 3 0 3 9 2 56 9 69 5 25 3 26 1 62 0 8 2
3676490316 03 6 55 1 37 14 4 79 1 39 3 23 47 1 69 5 66 9 88 06 9

Name :
RSA768
Digits :
232
123018668 45 3 01 1 77 5 51 3 04 9 49 5 8 38 4 96 2 72 0 77 2 85 3 56 9 59 5 33 4 7 92 1 97 3 22 4 52 1 51 7 2
640050726 36 5 75 1 87 4 52 0 21 9 97 8 6 46 9 38 9 95 6 47 4 94 2 77 4 06 3 84 5 9 25 1 92 5 57 3 26 3 03 4 5
373154826 85 0 79 1 70 2 61 2 21 4 29 1 3 46 1 67 0 42 9 21 4 31 1 60 2 22 1 2 4 0 4 79 2 74 7 37 7 94 0 80 6 6 5
351419597459 85 69 0 21 43 41 3

Name :
RSA2048
Digits :
617
251959084 75 6 57 8 93 4 94 0 27 1 83 2 4 00 4 83 9 85 7 14 2 92 8 21 2 62 0 4 0 3 2 02 7 77 7 13 7 83 6 04 3 6 6
202070759 55 5 62 6 40 1 85 2 58 8 07 8 4 40 6 91 8 29 0 64 1 24 9 51 5 08 2 1 8 9 2 98 5 59 1 49 1 76 1 84 5 0 2
808489120 07 2 84 4 99 2 68 7 39 2 80 7 2 87 7 76 7 35 9 71 4 18 3 47 2 70 2 6 1 8 9 63 7 50 1 49 7 18 2 46 9 1 1
650776133 79 8 59 0 95 7 00 0 97 3 30 4 5 97 4 88 0 84 2 84 0 17 9 74 2 91 0 0 6 4 2 45 8 69 1 81 7 19 5 11 8 7 4
612151517 26 5 46 3 22 8 22 1 68 6 99 8 7 54 9 18 2 42 2 43 3 63 7 25 9 08 5 1 4 1 8 65 4 62 0 43 5 76 7 98 4 2 3
387184774 44 7 92 0 73 9 93 4 23 6 58 4 8 23 8 24 2 81 1 98 1 63 8 15 0 10 6 7 4 8 1 04 5 16 6 03 7 73 0 60 5 6 2
016196762 56 1 33 8 44 1 43 6 03 8 33 9 0 44 1 49 5 26 3 44 3 21 9 01 1 46 5 7 5 4 4 45 4 17 8 42 4 02 0 92 4 6 1
651572335 07 7 87 0 77 4 98 1 71 2 57 7 2 46 7 96 2 92 6 38 6 35 6 37 3 28 9 9 1 2 1 54 8 31 4 38 1 67 8 99 8 8 5
0404453640 2 35 2 73 8 19 5 13 7 86 3 65 6 43 9 12 1 20 1 03 9 71 2 28 2 21 2 0 7 2 03 5 7

Name :
RSA896
Digits :
270
412023436 98 6 65 9 54 3 85 5 53 1 36 5 3 32 5 75 9 48 1 79 8 11 6 99 8 44 3 2 7 9 8 28 4 54 5 56 2 64 3 38 7 6 4
455652484 26 1 98 0 98 8 70 4 23 1 61 8 4 18 7 92 6 14 2 02 4 71 8 88 6 94 9 2 5 6 0 93 1 77 6 37 5 03 3 42 1 1 3
098239748 51 5 09 4 49 0 91 0 69 1 02 6 9 86 1 03 1 86 2 70 4 11 4 88 0 86 6 9 7 0 5 64 9 02 9 03 6 53 6 58 8 6 7
4337317208 1 31 0 41 0 51 9 08 6 4 25 4 79 3 28 2 60 1 39 1 25 7 62 4 03 3 94 6 37 3 26 9 39 1
Name :
RSA1024
Digits :
309
135066410 86 5 99 5 22 3 34 9 60 3 21 6 2 78 8 05 9 69 9 38 8 81 4 75 6 05 6 6 7 0 2 75 2 44 8 51 4 38 5 15 2 6 5
106048595 33 8 33 9 40 2 87 1 50 5 71 9 0 94 4 17 9 82 0 72 8 21 6 44 7 15 5 1 3 7 3 68 0 41 9 70 3 96 4 19 1 7 4
304649658 92 7 42 5 62 3 93 4 10 2 08 6 4 38 3 20 2 11 0 37 2 95 8 72 5 76 2 3 5 8 5 09 6 43 1 10 5 64 0 73 5 0 1
508187510 67 6 59 4 62 9 20 5 56 3 68 5 5 29 4 75 2 13 5 00 8 52 8 79 4 16 3 7 7 3 2 85 3 39 0 61 0 97 5 05 4 4 3
34999811150 05 69 7 72 36 8 90 92 75 6 3

RSA

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RSA Factoring Challenge. . .

Name :
RSA704
Digits :
212
740375634 79 5 61 7 12 8 28 0 46 7 96 0 97 4 29 5 7 31 4 25 9 31 8 88 8 92 3 12 8 90 8 49 3 62 3 2 63 8 97
276503402 82 6 62 7 68 9 19 9 64 1 96 2 51 1 78 4 3 99 5 89 4 33 0 50 2 12 7 58 5 37 0 11 8 96 8 0 98 2 86
733173273 10 8 93 0 90 0 5 52 5 05 1 16 8 77 0 6 32 9 90 7 23 9 63 8 07 8 6 71 0 08 6 09 6 96 2 5 37 9 34 6 50 5 63 7 96 3 5 9

The effort took approximately 30 2.2GHz-Opteron-CPU years


according to the submitters, over five months of calendar time.
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1634733645 80 9 25 3 84 8 44 3 13 3 88 3 86 50 9 08 5 98 4 17 8 36 7 00 3 30
9231218111 08 5 23 8 93 3 31 00 1 04 5 08 1 51 2 12 11 8 16 7 51 1 57 9

39807508642 4 06 4 93 7 39 7 12 55 0 05 5 03 8 64 91 1 99 0 64 3 62
34252670840 6 38 5 18 95 7 59 4 63 88 9 57 2 61 7 68 58 3 31 7

Name :
RSA640
Digits :
193
310741824 04 9 00 4 37 2 13 5 07 5 00 3 58 8 85 6 79 3 0 03 7 34 6 02 2 84 2 72 7 54 5 72 0 16 1 94 8 82
320644051 80 8 15 0 45 5 63 4 68 2 96 7 17 2 32 8 67 8 2 43 7 91 6 27 2 83 8 03 3 41 5 47 1 07 3 10 8 50
1919548529 0 07 3 37 7 2 48 2 27 8 35 2 57 4 23 8 64 5 40 1 46 9 17 3 66 0 24 7 76 5 23 4 66 0 9

http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2093

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RSA

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RSA Security: How to use RSA

Outline
1
2

Two plaintexts M1 and M2 are encrypted into ciphertexts C1


and C2 .

But, RSA is deterministic!

If C1 = C2 then we know that M1 = M2 !


Also, side-channel attacks are possible against RSA, for
example by measuring the time taken to encrypt.
5

6
RSA

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Software GPG

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

GPG

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Key generation: Bob


> gpg --gen-key

gpg is a public domain implementation of pgp.

Please select what kind of key you want:


(1) RSA and RSA (default)
(2) DSA and Elgamal
(3) DSA (sign only)
(4) RSA (sign only)
Your selection? 1
What keysize do you want? (2048)
Key is valid for? (0)
Key does not expire at all
Real name: Bobby
Email address: bobby@gmail.com
Comment: recipient
You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
Enter passphrase: Bob rocks
Repeat passphrase: Bob rocks

Supported algorithms:
Pubkey: RSA, RSA-E, RSA-S, ELG-E, DSA
Cipher: 3DES, CAST5, BLOWFISH, AES, AES192,
AES256, TWOFISH, CAMELLIA128,
CAMELLIA192, CAMELLIA256
Hash: MD5, SHA1, RIPEMD160, SHA256, SHA384,
SHA512, SHA224
Compression: Uncompressed, ZIP, ZLIB, BZIP2
http://www.gnupg.org

GPG

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GPG

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Key generation: Alice

Exporting the Key

> gpg --gen-key


Please select what kind of key you want:
(1) RSA and RSA (default)
(2) DSA and Elgamal
(3) DSA (sign only)
(4) RSA (sign only)
Your selection? 1
What keysize do you want? (2048)
Key is valid for? (0)
Key does not expire at all
Real name: Alice
Email address: alice@gmail.com
Comment: sender
You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
Enter passphrase: Alice is cute
Repeat passphrase: Alice is cute
GPG

> gpg --armor --export Bobby


-----BEGIN GPG PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (Darwin)
mQENBE83U28BCADTVOkHpNjWzk7yEzMhiNJcmOtmUYfn4hzgYTDsP2otI0UhfJ4q
EZCuPoxECIZ479k3YpBvZM2JC48Ht9j1kVnDPLCrongyRdSko0AwG7OYAyHWa7/U
SeGwjZ+0MUuM3SwqHdo1/0XS3P8LABTQNXtrQf9kF8UNLIaHr1IvBcae1K44MPL6
................................................................
EBHmAM7iiWgWI6/6qEmN46ZQEmoR86vWhQL3LQ6p/FUaBA==
=FZ78
-----END GPG PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

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Encryption

GPG

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Decryption

We can encrypt a message using Bobbys key:


> cat message
Attack at dawn
> gpg --recipient bobby --armor --encrypt message
> cat message.asc
-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (Darwin)

Bobby can now decrypt the message using his private key:
> gpg --decrypt message.asc
You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
user: "Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>"
2048-bit RSA key, ID D95291EF, created 2012-02-12
(main key ID 9974031B)

hQEMA97v9lbZUpHvAQf/a9QklXMiMzBWy5yyZBtNrg7FcrIqx+gXVVUXNN86tZtE
RF42elwU6QwamDzfcOHqp+3zeor4Y5xN+/pL91xti6uwFOhgGrCGJq//AfUKgQyk
MH2e4gR8Y1BuPm9b1c7uzXxRMMOUBBt75KquYGOBLybsP29ttD9iL/ZJl1zSPjSj
El7O0Gp7PqEBotStVOtuknYW/fX0zXndU8XNllKnsnZn21Xm0rMQcFMu8Do/tF5I
lRfTEcL4S9tV4vshgXhNSpTg9sZs1UZynvU2cJqyYkCtgT7TdtrK3fTa8UN+CYQv
U2QRnaNtFhYwBMonFqhefNzDqeZb+P0RqOuoDllYuNJRAViJ3CLjT7kwgBgRtNfY
RkGArQQmgrknW2jq/Y2GZTE8CC7pNXY8U3KYMl9hRA6U5fMp08ndFp8vowBbB2sw
zjxjSY7ZeIR2uwxdLYydtW4m
=B+JA
-----END PGP MESSAGE----GPG

Enter passphrase: Bob rocks


gpg: encrypted with 2048-bit RSA key, ID D95291EF, created 2012-02-12
"Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>"
Attack at dawn

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GPG

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The keyring

The keyring. . .

> gpg --list-keys


/Users/collberg/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
---------------------------------pub
2048R/9974031B 2012-02-12
uid
Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>
sub
2048R/D95291EF 2012-02-12

> gpg --list-secret-keys


/Users/collberg/.gnupg/secring.gpg
---------------------------------sec
2048R/9974031B 2012-02-12
uid
Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>
ssb
2048R/D95291EF 2012-02-12

pub
uid
sub

sec
uid
ssb

2048R/4EC8A0CB 2012-02-12
Alice (sender) <alice@gmail.com>
2048R/B901E082 2012-02-12

GPG

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Sign and Encrypt

2048R/4EC8A0CB 2012-02-12
Alice (sender) <alice@gmail.com>
2048R/B901E082 2012-02-12

GPG

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Check Signature and Decrypt

Bob can sign his message before sending it to Alice:

Alice can now decrypt the message and check the signature:

> gpg -se --recipient alice --armor message


> gpg --decrypt message.asc
You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
user: "Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>"
2048-bit RSA key, ID 9974031B, created 2012-02-12

You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for


user: "Alice (sender) <alice@gmail.com>"
2048-bit RSA key, ID B901E082,
created 2012-02-12 (main key ID 4EC8A0CB)

Enter passphrase: Bob rocks

Enter passphrase: Alice is cute

> cat message.asc


-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (Darwin)

GPG

hQEMA7osp1S5AeCCAQgAsSqSs+Urf0f3KHTtP7cqTwugpcJ9oUAGkw/KQ0DHIE0v
................................................................
8XEAaCwZ8aZK1lXhqBSd/9hCm9Mup2NECihO8crVyff7NTWFyaTBeGAm10q3y46o
QpIgPbcdYZqIt8e/8wPU6xlMZUStzxBKLB+Rj/Zg35ZVioYL
=oiv8
-----END PGP MESSAGE-----

gpg: encrypted with 2048-bit RSA key, ID B901E082, created 2012-02-12


"Alice (sender) <alice@gmail.com>"
Attack at dawn
gpg: Signature made Sat Feb 11 23:10:59 2012 MST
using RSA key ID 9974031B
gpg: Good signature from "Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>"
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GPG

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Symmetric Encryption Only

Deleting Keys

> gpg --cipher-algo=AES --armor --symmetric message


Enter passphrase: sultana
Repeat passphrase: sultana
> cat message.asc
-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (Darwin)

> gpg --delete-secret-keys bobby


sec 2048R/9974031B 2012-02-12 Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>
Delete this key from the keyring? (y/N) y
This is a secret key! - really delete? (y/N) y

jA0EBwMCgZ3PBfSZxJlg0ksBBooTMLEVQ2q9HkTR5y9FIoX9nbsyohrOXeQLFlcf
wtWcg+dZvlMS6D7OE3wZCeW2LX50kYcU17MUc8wnJLDAzAdRqPAgDma+sP4=
=UtI4
-----END PGP MESSAGE-----

> gpg --delete-keys bobby


pub 2048R/9974031B 2012-02-12 Bobby (recipient) <bobby@gmail.com>

> gpg message.asc


gpg: AES encrypted data
Enter passphrase: sultana
gpg: encrypted with 1 passphrase

Delete this key from the keyring? (y/N) y

> cat message


Attack at dawn
GPG

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Generating Primes

GPG

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Generating Random Numbers

Generate a prime number of the given number of bits:


Generate 100 (base64 encoded) random bytes:

> gpg --gen-prime 1 16


C4B7
> gpg --gen-prime 1 1024
D34D4347ED013242EE06811BC561C6587D75ADE33D1BEC954D648E22
9D88B5E0AF1394459FB48B135B99C8BA8C50E5331C6226CBF6D70031
4A8CC84C7B363BE7DD7BBBB29E545D199339263F5FB2E9F1B84BA9D5
05B5B79858FC6149CF09E6C56D9730C3BD1E62B378C8DFAF4233B8DC
BA999A21EC9C4BF8C60AACDCBC607AC5

GPG

> gpg --armour --gen-random 0 100


e0zAVl6jbe/Dma9VF20lMgZxE1RA4S8TwNwu6KP8+o1kjdtBm2
AjKFSVsj/d3zG/9KqmNj7j6symEUZ3e0fWZaWqLBxzJuSur5sK
C8omfPus2QtYJJNOgVbpJ7X9L4t1iNJtnw==

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GPG

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Print Message Digests

Goal: Read a message encrypted with gpg

> gpg --print-mds message


MD5
= 36 D1 A5 12 17 CD 34 FC 04 F5 6C C4 91 39 C7 59
SHA1
= 6DA4 473A 00CE 7AB6 7B6F 884D 1E75 6633 C21A 56DB
RMD160 = D1DE 4194 C0CD 3AED 30F3 38CD 68F3 800F CCF0 3B87
SHA224 = B4E94780 1AA1A9C3 418F72D8 651BA995 83284003
EBEE183A 589702EE
SHA256 = B83EF405 07696578 9D4BBDA7 D7932700 5F2AE6CB
A2696FDE 69694D12 AFE70E4A
SHA384 = 7AC39A0C 945844F1 1316BB46 C9FC7EEA E892A178
2D20E4CA E7BE686C 1A091C8C F1BBDFD1 3D42BEA2
88AF5A4F E3705474
SHA512 = 9CA1EB88 F064CB0D 536254B2 5755919F 45564276
96CA27A0 389E4817 53F81DC2 3222488D 7D11F3DD
C066B9E8 027F3870 395A2561 157DDC38 BD679D37
C2E361CC

GPG

Decrypt the message itself (OR)

Determine symmetric key used to encrypt the message by


other means (OR)

Get recipient to help decrypt message (OR)

Obtain private key of recipient.

http://www.schneier.com/paper-attacktrees-fig7.html

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Goal: Read a message encrypted with gpg. . .

GPG

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Goal: Read a message encrypted with gpg. . .


Determine symmetric key by other means:
1 Fool sender into encrypting message using public key whose
private key is known (OR)

Decrypt the message itself:


1 Break asymmetric encryption (OR)
1
2

Convince sender that fake key (with known private key) is the
key of the intended recipient
2 Convince sender to encrypt with more than one keythe real
key of the recipient and a key whose private key is known.
3 Have the message encrypted with a different public key in the
background, unbeknownst to the sender.
1

Brute force break asymmetric encryption (OR)


Mathematically break asymmetric encryption (OR)
1 Break RSA (OR)
2 Factor RSA modulus/calculate Elgamal discrete log

Cryptanalyze asymmetric encryption (OR)


1 General cryptanalysis of RSA/Elgamal (OR)
2 Exploit weakness in RSA/Elgamal (OR)
3 Timing attack on RSA/Elgamal

2
3
4

Break symmetric-key encryption

Brute force break symmetric-key encryption


2 Cryptanalysis of symmetric-key encryption
1

Determine state of randseed during encryption (OR)


Implant virus that alters the state of randseed. (OR)
3 Implant software that affects the choice of symmetric key.
1
2
6

GPG

Have the recipient sign the encrypted publc key (OR)


Monitor the senders computer memory (OR)
Monitor the receivers computer memory (OR)
Determine key from pseudo-random number generator (OR)

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GPG

Implant virus that that exposes public key.


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Goal: Read a message encrypted with gpg. . .

Goal: Read a message encrypted with gpg. . .

Get recipient to help decrypt message:

GPG

Obtain private key of recipient:

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Goal: Read a message encrypted with PGP

GPG

Goal: Read a message encrypted with PGP. . .

What immediately becomes apparent from the attack


tree is that breaking the RSA or IDEA encryption
algorithms are not the most profitable attacks against
PGP. There are many ways to read someones
PGP-encrypted messages without breaking the
cryptography. You can capture their screen when they
decrypt and read the messages (using a Trojan horse like
Back Orifice, a TEMPEST receiver, or a secret camera),
grab their private key after they enter a passphrase (Back
Orifice again, or a dedicated computer virus), recover
their passphrase (a keyboard sniffer, TEMPEST receiver,
or Back Orifice), or simply try to brute force their
passphrase (I can assure you that it will have much less
entropy than the 128-bit IDEA keys that it generates).
GPG

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In the scheme of things, the choice of algorithm and the


key length is probably the least important thing that
affects PGPs overall security. PGP not only has to be
secure, but it has to be used in an environment that
leverages that security without creating any new
insecurities.
http://www.schneier.com/paper-attacktrees-fig7.html

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GPG

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Outline
1
2

3
4

Elgamal

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

The Elgamal cryptosystem relies on the inherent difficulty of


calculating discrete logarithms.
It is a probabilistic scheme:
a particular plaintext can be encrypted into multiple different
ciphertexts;
ciphertexts become twice the length of the plaintext.

Elgamal

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Elgamal: Algorithm

Elgamal

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Elgamal: Algorithm Notes

Bob (Key generation):


Pick a prime p.
Find a generator g for Zp .
3 Pick a random number x between 1 and p 2.
4 Compute y = g x mod p.
PB = (p, g , y ) is Bobs RSA public key.
SB = x is Bob RSA private key.
1
2

Alice must choose a different random number k for every


message, or shell leak information.
Bob doesnt need to know the random value k to decrypt.
Each message has p 1 possible different encryptions.

Alice (encrypt and send a message M to Bob):

The division in the decryption can be avoided by use of


Lagranges theorem :

Get Bobs public key PB = (p, g , y ).


2 Pick a random number k between 1 and p 2.
3 Compute the ciphertext C = (a, b):
1

a
b

=
=

M = b (ax )1 mod p

g k mod p
My k mod p

= b ap1x mod p

Bob (decrypt a message C = (a, b) received from Alice):


1
Elgamal

Compute M = b(ax )1 mod p.


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Elgamal

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Elgamal: Finding the generator

Elgamal Example: Key generation

Computing the generator is, in general, hard.

Pick a prime p = 13.

We can make it easier by choosing a prime number with the


property that we can factor p 1.

Find a generator g = 2 for Z13 (see next slide).

Pick a random number x = 7.

Then we can test that, for each prime factor pi of p 1:

Compute
y = g x mod p = 27 mod 13 = 11.

g (p1)/pi mod p 6= 1
If g is not a generator, then one of these powers will 6= 1.

Elgamal

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Powers of Integers, Modulo 13

Elgamal

a2
1
4
9
3
12
10
10
12
3
9
4
1

a3
1
8
1
12
8
8
5
5
1
12
5
12

a4
1
3
3
9
1
9
9
1
9
3
3
1

a5
1
6
9
10
5
2
11
8
3
4
7
12

a6
1
12
1
1
12
12
12
12
1
1
12
1

a7
1
11
3
4
8
7
6
5
9
10
2
12

PB = (p, g , y ) = (13, 2, 11) is Bobs public key.

SB = x = 7 is Bob private key.

Elgamal

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Elgamal Example: Encryption

2 is a primitive root modulo 13 because for each integer


i Z13 = {1, 2, 3, . . . , 12} theres an integer k, such that
i = 2k mod 13:
a1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

a8
1
9
9
3
1
3
3
1
3
9
9
1

a9
1
5
1
12
5
5
8
8
1
12
8
12

a10
1
10
3
9
12
4
4
12
9
3
10
1

a11
1
7
9
10
8
11
2
5
3
4
6
12

Encrypt the plaintext message M = 3.


Alice gets Bobs public key PB = (p, g , y ) = (13, 2, 11).
To encrypt:

a12
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
2

Pick a random number k = 5:


Compute:
a
b

=
=

g k mod p = 25 mod 13 = 6
My k mod p = 3 115 mod 13 = 8

The ciphertext C = (a, b) = (6, 8).

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Elgamal

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Elgamal Example: Decryption

In-Class Exercise

Bobs private key is SB = x = 7.

Pick the prime p = 13.

Bob receives the ciphertext C = (a, b) = (6, 8) from Alice.

Find the generator g = 2 for Z13 .

Bob computes the plaintext M:

Pick a random number x = 9.


Compute

M = b (ax )1 mod p

y = g x mod p = 29 mod 13 = 5

= b ap1x mod p

PB = (p, g , y ) = (13, 2, 5) is Bobs public key.

= 8 61317 mod 13

SB = x = 9 is Bob private key.

= 8 65 mod 13
= 3

Elgamal

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Elgamal Correctness

Encrypt the message M = 11 using the random number


k = 10.

Decrypt the ciphertext from 1.

Elgamal

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Elgamal Security

Show that M = b (ax )1 mod p decrypts.


We have that
a = g k mod p
b = My k mod p
y

= g x mod p

The security of the scheme depends on the hardness of solving


the discrete logarithm problem.

We get

Generally believed to be hard.

b (ax )1 mod p = (My k ) ((g k )x )1 mod p


= (My k ) (g kx )1 mod p
= (M((g x )k ) (g kx )1 mod p
= Mg kx (g kx )1 mod p
= Mg kx g kx mod p
= M mod p
Elgamal

= M

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Elgamal

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Outline
1
2

3
4

Key Exchange

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

A key exchange protocol (or key agreement protocol ) is a


way for parties to share a secret (such as a symmetric key)
over an insecure channel.
With an active adversary (who can modify messages) we
cant reliably share a secret.
With a passive adversary (who can only eavesdrop on
messages) we can share a secret.
A passive adversary is said to be honest but curious .

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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Diffie-Hellman: Algorithm
1

All parties (set-up):


1
2

Pick a random x Zp , x > 0.


Compute
X = g x mod p.

Send X to Bob.

Based on modular exponentiation .


The secret K1 = K2 shared by Alice and Bob at the end of the
protocol would typically be a shared symmetric key.

4
5
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Pick p, a prime number.


Pick g , a generator for Zp .

Alice :
1

A classic key exchange protocol.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Bob :
1
2

Pick a random y Zp , x > 0.


Compute
Y = g y mod p.

Send Y to Alice

Alice computes the secret: K1 = Y x mod p.


Bob computes the secret: K2 = X y mod p.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Example

In-Class Exercise

Pick p = 13, a prime number.

Pick g = 2, a generator for Z13 .


Alice :

Let p = 19.
Let g = 10.

Pick a random x = 3.
2 Compute X = g x mod p = 23 mod 13 = 8.
1
4

Let Bobs secret y = 15.

Bob :
1
2

Let Alices secret x = 7.

Pick a random y = 7.
Compute Y = g y mod p = 27 mod 13 = 11.

Alice computes: K1 =

Bob computes: K2 =

K1 = K2 = 5.

Yx

Xy

mod p =
mod p =

113

87

mod 13 = 5.

Compute K1 .

Compute K2 .

mod 13 = 5.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman Correctness

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman Correctness. . .
Alice has

Alice has computed

K1 = Y x mod p
X

= (g y )x mod p

= g x mod p

= (g x )y mod p

K1 = Y x mod p.

= X y mod p

Bob has computed


Y

Bob has

= g y mod p

K2 = X y mod p

K2 = X y mod p.

= (g x )y mod p
= X y mod p
K1 = K2 .

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman Security

Diffie-Hellman: Man-In-The-Middle attack

The security of the scheme depends on the hardness of solving


the discrete logarithm problem.

Alice :
1

Eve :
Intercept X = g x mod p from Alice.
Pick a number t in Zp .
3 Send T = g t mod p to Bob.

Generally believed to be hard.


Diffie-Hellman Property :

1
2

Given
p, X = g x , Y = g y

Bob :
1

computing

K = g xy mod p

Send Y = g y mod p to Alice

Eve :
Intercept Y = g y mod p from Bob.
Pick a number s in Zp .
3 Send S = g s mod p to Alice.
1
2

is thought to be hard.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Send X = g X mod p to Bob.

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Diffie-Hellman: Man-In-The-Middle attack. . .

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman: Man-In-The-Middle attack. . .

7
8

Alice : Send C = EK1 (M) to Bob


Eve :
Intercept C .
Decrypt:M = DK1 (C )
Re-encrypt:C = EK2 (M)
4 Send C to Bob
1

Alice and Eve :


1

2
3

Compute K1 = g xS mod p

Bob and Eve :


1

Compute K2 = g yT mod p

9
10

Bob : Send C = EK2 (M) to Alice


Eve :
Intercept C .
Decrypt:M = DK2 (C )
3 Re-encrypt:C = EK1 (M)
4 Send C to Alice.
1
2

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

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Outline
1
2

3
4

Readings and References

Introduction
RSA
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
GPG
Elgamal
Algorithm
Example
Correctness
Security
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Example
Correctness
Security
Summary

Summary

Chapter 8.1.1-8.1.5 in Introduction to Computer Security, by


Goodrich and Tamassia.

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Acknowledgments
Additional material and exercises have also been collected from
these sources:

Summary

Igor Crk and Scott Baker, 620Fall 2003Basic


Cryptography.

Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography.

Pfleeger and Pfleeger, Security in Computing.

William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security.

Bruce Schneier, Attack Trees, Dr. Dobbs Journal December


1999, http://www.schneier.com/paper-attacktrees-ddj-ft.html .

Barthe, Gregoire, Beguelin, Hedin, Heraud, Olmedo, Verifiable


Security of Cryptographic Schemes,
http://www.irisa.fr/celtique/blazy/seminar/20110204.pdf .

http://homes.cerias.purdue.edu/~crisn/courses/cs355_Fall_2008/lect18.pdf
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Summary

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