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1.

The figure below shows two masses A and B tied to the ends of a length of string. The
string passes over a pulley. The mass A is held at rest on the floor.
p u lle y

B
1 .5 0 k g

2 .8 0 m
A
1 .2 0 k g

f lo o r

The mass A is 1.20 kg and the mass B is 1.50 kg.

(a)

Calculate the weight of mass B.

weight = ...................................................... N
[1]

(b)

Mass B is initially at rest at a height of 2.80 m above the floor. Mass A is then
2
released. Mass B has a constant downward acceleration of 1.09 m s . Assume
that air resistance and the friction between the pulley and the string are
negligible.
(i)

In terms of forces, explain why the acceleration of the mass B is less than
the acceleration of free fall g.
................................................................................................................
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[1]

M. Manser

(ii)

Calculate the time taken for the mass B to fall 1.40 m.

time = ...................................................... s
[3]

(iii)

Calculate the velocity of mass B after falling 1.40 m.

velocity = ................................................ m s

[2]

(iv)

Mass B hits the floor at a speed of 2.47 m s . It rebounds with a speed of


1
2
1.50 m s . The time of contact with the floor is 3.0 10 s. Calculate the
magnitude of the average acceleration of mass B during its impact with the
floor.

acceleration = ................................................ m s

[2]
[Total 9 marks]

M. Manser

2.

A lift has a mass of 500 kg. It is designed to carry a maximum of 8 people of total mass
4
2
560 kg. The lift is supported by a steel cable of cross-sectional area 3.8 10 m .
When the lift is at ground floor level the cable is at its maximum length of 140 m, as
1
shown in the figure below. The mass per unit length of the cable is 3.0 kg m .

s te e l c a b le
140 m
lift s h a ft

g r o u n d flo o r

(a)

Show that the mass of the 140 m long steel cable is 420 kg.

[1]

M. Manser

(b)

(i)

The lift with its 8 passengers is stationary at the ground floor level. The
2
initial upward acceleration of the lift and the cable is 1.8 m s . Show that
4
the maximum tension in the cable at point P is 1.7 10 N.

[4]

(ii)

Calculate the maximum stress in the cable.

stress = .................................................... Pa
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

3.

The force against length graph for a spring is shown in Fig. 1.


6
fo rc e /N
5
4
3
2
1
0

10
le n g th /1 0

12
m

Fig. 1

M. Manser

(a)

Explain why the graph does not pass through the origin.
.........................................................................................................................
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[1]

(b)

State what feature of the graph shows that the spring obeys Hookes law.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

The gradient of the graph is equal to the force constant k of the spring. Determine
the force constant of the spring.

force constant = ............................................... N m

[2]

(d)

Calculate the work done on the spring when its length is increased from
2
2
2.0 10 m to 8.0 10 m.

work done = ...................................................... J


[2]

M. Manser

(e)

One end of the spring is fixed and a mass is hung vertically from the other end.
The mass is pulled down and then released. The mass oscillates up and down.
Fig. 2 shows the displacement s against time t graph for the mass.
0 .4
s /m
0 .2
0

2 .0

4 .0

-0 .2
-0 .4
Fig. 2
Explain how you can use Fig. 2 to determine the maximum speed of the mass.
You are not expected to do the calculations.
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[2]
[Total 8 marks]

4.

The figure below shows the path of water from a hose pipe.
h o s e p ip e
7 .0 m s -1
P
p a th o f
w a te r

1 .3 m

g ro u n d
3 .6 m

M. Manser

The end of the horizontal hose pipe is at a height of 1.3 m from the ground. The initial
1
horizontal velocity of the water is 7.0 m s . The horizontal distance from the end of the
hose pipe to the point where the water hits the ground is 3.6 m. You may assume that
air resistance has negligible effect on the motion of the water jet.
(a)

On the figure above, draw an arrow to show the direction of the acceleration of
the water at point P.
(Mark this arrow A).
[1]

(b)

Describe the energy conversion that takes place as the water travels from the
end of the hose pipe to the ground.
In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
.........................................................................................................................
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[2]

(c)

Explain why the horizontal component of the velocity remains constant at


1
7.0 m s .
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[1]

M. Manser

(d)

Show that the water takes about 0.5 s to travel from the end of the pipe to the
ground.

[1]

(e)

Show that the speed of the water when it hits the ground is 8.6 m s .

[3]
[Total 8 marks]

5.

The figure below shows a graph of velocity against time for an object travelling in a
straight line.
v e lo c it y
v

0
0

M. Manser

tim e

The object has a constant acceleration a. In a time t its velocity increases from u to v.
(a)

Describe how the graph of the figure above can be used to determine
(i)

the acceleration a of the object


In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled
correctly.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

the displacement s of the object.


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

Use the graph of the figure above to show that the displacement s of the object is
given by the equation:

1
2
s = ut + 2 at

[2]

M. Manser

(c)

In order to estimate the acceleration g of free fall, a student drops a large stone
from a tall building. The height of the building is known to be 32 m. Using a
stopwatch, the time taken for the stone to fall to the ground is 2.8 s.
(i)

Use this information to determine the acceleration of free fall.

acceleration = .................................................m s

[2]

(ii)

One possible reason why your answer to (c)(i) is smaller than the accepted
2
value of 9.81 m s is the reaction time of the student. State another reason
2
why the answer is smaller than 9.81 m s .
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

6.

A skydiver jumps from a stationary hot-air balloon several kilometres above the ground.
(a)

In terms of acceleration and forces, explain the motion of the skydiver


immediately after jumping ...............................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
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M. Manser

10

at a time before terminal velocity is reached ...................................................


.........................................................................................................................
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at terminal velocity. ..........................................................................................


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[6]

(b)

In the final stage of the fall, the skydiver is falling through air at a constant speed.
The skydivers kinetic energy does not change even though there is a decrease
in the gravitational potential energy. State what happens to this loss of
gravitational potential energy.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

M. Manser

11

(c)

The figure below shows a sketch graph of the variation of the velocity v of the
skydiver with time t.
v / m s -1

50

25

0
0

10

20

30

t / s

Suggest the changes to the graph of the figure above, if any, for a more massive
(heavier) skydiver of the same shape.
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[2]
[Total 9 marks]

7.

In February 1999 NASA launched its Stardust spacecraft on a mission to collect dust
12
particles from the comet Tempel 1. After a journey of 5.0 10 m that took 6.9 years,
Stardust returned to Earth with samples of the dust particles embedded in a special
low-density gel. When a dust particle hits the gel, it buries itself in the gel creating a
cone-shaped track as shown in the figure below. The length of the track is typically 200
times the diameter of the dust particle.

n o t to s c a le
c o n e -s h a p e d tra c k

gel

M. Manser

12

(a)

Calculate the average speed in m s

of Stardust during its voyage.

speed = .................................................m s

[2]

(b)

Calculate the average stopping force produced by the gel for a dust particle of
6
diameter 0.70 mm and mass 4.0 10 kg travelling at a velocity of
3
1
6.1 10 m s relative to Stardust.

force = .......................................................N
[3]
[Total 5 marks]

8.

(a)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

M. Manser

13

(b)

An aircraft of total mass 1.5 10 kg accelerates, at maximum thrust from the


engines, from rest along a runway for 25 s reaching the required take-off speed
1
of 65 m s .
Assume that the acceleration of the aircraft is constant. Calculate
(i)

the net force acting on the aircraft to produce this acceleration

force = ..................................... N
[3]

(ii)

the distance travelled by the aircraft in this time.

distance = ................................. m
[2]

(c)

At a particular airport, the length of the runway for the same take-off speed is less
than your answer in (b)(iii). State and explain what change could be made to the
aircraft to enable it to reach the required take-off speed on this shorter runway.
.........................................................................................................................
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[2]
[Total 8 marks]

M. Manser

14

9.

(a)

State Hookes law.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

The diagram below shows the variation of the applied force F with the extension
x for a particular spring.

12

10
fo rc e / N

20

40

60

80

100

e x te n s io n /
x (x 1 0 3 m )

(i)

Use the diagram to determine the force constant of the spring.

force constant = ..................................N m

[2]

M. Manser

15

(ii)

Determine the elastic potential energy stored in the spring when a force of
20 N is applied.

energy stored = ......................................... J


[2]

(iii)

State one assumption made in your calculation of the energy in (ii).


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(iv)

The energy stored in the spring is used to propel a metal ball of mass m
horizontally. There is 100% transfer of energy from the spring to the ball.
Show how the speed v of the metal ball is proportional to the extension x of
the spring. Find the constant of proportionality.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

M. Manser

16

10.

(a)

State two conditions that are necessary for an object to be in equilibrium.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

The diagram below shows a computer resting on a tabletop that is hinged at


point A.
0 .8 0 m
c o m p u te r

ta b le to p
A

B
F
0 .2 5 m
200 N

The tabletop has a mass of 5.0 kg and its centre of gravity is 0.40 m from the axis
of the hinge A. The computer has a weight of 200 N acting through a point 0.25
m from the hinge A. The tabletop is supported to maintain it in a horizontal
position by a force F acting vertically at B. The distance AB is 0.80 m.

Calculate the force F applied at B that is required to maintain the tabletop in


equilibrium.

force F = .................................................. N
[3]

M. Manser

17

(c)

Explain why the force F and the 200 N force shown in the figure above cannot be
a couple.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

11.

The figure below shows the path of a ball thrown from A and passing through positions
B, C and D.

The ball is thrown from A with a velocity v. A vector arrow on the figure. represents the
magnitude and direction of the velocity of the ball at A.
(a)

On the figure draw arrows to represent the horizontal and vertical components of
the velocity of the ball at A.
[1]

(b)

State how the components of the velocity of the ball at B, C and D compare with
the components at A. Assume air resistance is negligible.
(i)

The vertical component at B

............................................................

The horizontal component at B

.........................................................
[1]

(ii)

The vertical component at C

...............................................................

The horizontal component at C

.........................................................
[1]

(iii)

The vertical component at D


The horizontal component at D

............................................................
.........................................................
[1]

M. Manser

18

(c)

Explain the answers you have given for the components of the velocity of the ball
at positions B, C and D.
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[4]
[Total 8 marks]

M. Manser

19

12.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
Below is a graph of the displacement against time for the motion of a radio-controlled
model car.

30
d is p la c e m e n t
/m
20

10

10

15

20
tim e /s

Use the graph to describe and explain, without calculation

M. Manser

20

(a)

how the velocity changes from time t = 0 to time t = 20 s


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[5]

M. Manser

21

(b)

how the acceleration changes from time t = 0 to time t = 20 s.


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[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 11 marks]

M. Manser

22

13.

The web site www.britishwindenergy.co.uk gives the following information for wind
turbines.
rotor diameters
useable wind speeds
maximum power output occurs at
rate of turning of rotor
1
maximum theoretical efficiency at wind speed 15 m s
average power output

30 m 65 m
1
1
4 m s 25 m s
1
15 m s wind speed
15 50 revolutions per minute
60%
30% of theoretical maximum

data sourced from British Wind Energy Association, www.bwea.com

In this question about wind turbines you will need to use some of this information.
(a)

Consider the mass of the cylinder of air which travels past the blades of a turbine
1
in one second. Take the wind speed to be 15 m s and the diameter of the rotor
to be 40 m. See the figure below.
3

The density of air is 1.3 kg m .

40 m

15 m

Calculate
(i)

the volume of the cylinder of air passing the rotor in one second

volume = ................................................... m

[2]

M. Manser

23

(ii)

the mass of air passing the rotor in one second

mass = ..................................................... kg
[1]

(iii)

the kinetic energy of this mass of air

kinetic energy = ...................................................... J


[2]

(iv)

the maximum theoretical power output.

power = ..................................................... W
[2]

(b)

(i)

Calculate the average power output from the wind turbine in (a).

average power output = ..................................................... W


[1]

M. Manser

24

(ii)

How many of these turbines would be required to replace one 1000 MW


conventional power station?

number = .........................................................
[1]

(c)

(i)

Wind power is often said to be free. Give another reason why wind power is
desirable.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Explain why wind power cannot be relied upon.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(d)

Suggest reasons why


(i)

maximum useable wind speed does not produce maximum power


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

M. Manser

25

(ii)

turbines have to be stopped when the wind speed is too high


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

government policy is to aim for only 10% of national electrical supply to be


provided by wind power.
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...............................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 18 marks]

M. Manser

26

14.

The figure below shows a vacuum cleaner of weight W being pushed with a force P.
The force P acts at 30 to the horizontal.

dust
c o lle c t o r

P = 2 4 .0 N

30
flo o r
W = 6 5 .0 N
The weight W is 65.0 N and the magnitude of force P is 24.0 N.
(a)

(i)

Calculate

the horizontal component of the force P

horizontal component = ................................N


2

the vertical component of the force P.

vertical component = ................................N


[3]

(ii)

Show that the total downward vertical force is 77.0 N.


[1]

(iii)

Hence determine the magnitude of the resultant of the forces W and P.

resultant force = ................................N


[2]

M. Manser

27

(iv)

The vacuum cleaner is not switched on and is pushed in such a way that it
travels at a constant velocity to the left. There are other forces acting on the
vacuum cleaner. State and explain the magnitude of the resultant of these
other forces.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

(i)

The total area of the vacuum cleaner in contact with the floor is
3
2
4.2 10 m . Calculate the pressure exerted on the floor by the
total downward vertical force.

pressure = ................................Pa
[2]

(ii)

State and explain what happens to this pressure if the handle is lifted so
that its angle with the horizontal direction is more than 30. The force P
and the total area in contact with the floor remain constant.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 11 marks]

M. Manser

28

15.

The figure below shows the path of a tennis ball after passing over the net.
te n n is
b a ll

1 .2 0 m

net

lin e
11 .9 m
As the ball passes over the net it is travelling horizontally at a height of 1.20 m. The ball
strikes the ground on a line 11.9 m from the net.
(a)

Assume that there is no air resistance acting on the ball.

(i)

Show that the time taken for the ball to reach the line after passing over the
net is 0.495s.

[3]

(ii)

At the instant the ball strikes the line calculate


1

the horizontal component of its velocity

horizontal component = ................................m s

[2]

the vertical component of its velocity.

vertical component = ................................m s

[2]

M. Manser

29

(b)

The mass of the tennis ball is 6.00 10 kg. Calculate the loss in gravitational
potential energy of the ball from the time it passes over the net until it hits the
line.
loss in potential energy = ................................ J
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

16.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
A skydiver jumps from an aircraft that is flying horizontally at a height of 5000 m with a
constant speed.
(a)

Describe and explain the motion of the skydiver as she descends towards the
ground from the moment she jumps until she opens her parachute. In your
description of her motion use the terms speed, acceleration and force.
.........................................................................................................................
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[6]

M. Manser

30

(b)

In some competitions the skydiver attempts to travel at the highest possible


speed over a vertical distance of 1000 m. Discuss and explain the different
methods that could be used by the skydiver to achieve the highest possible
speed.
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[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 12 marks]

17.

The diagram below shows a simple model to demonstrate the forces exerted by back
muscles for a person bending over at an angle of 30 to the horizontal.

head

back
X
F

30
W

p iv o t

The back muscles may be considered to act as a single force F through a point on the
back situated 25 cm from the pivot and making a constant angle of 15 with the back.
The weight W of the upper body acts through a point X, situated a distance of 40 cm
from the pivot.

M. Manser

31

(a)

Calculate for an upper body weight W of 450 N, the size of the force F needed by
the back muscles to keep the back at an angle of
(i)

30 to the horizontal

F = ..................................................... N
[4]

(ii)

70 to the horizontal.

F = ..................................................... N
[1]

(b)

Explain including reference to your answers to (a), the body position which
should be adopted when lifting heavy loads from the ground.
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[4]
[Total 9 marks]

M. Manser

32

18.

During a bungee jump, the jumper falls a distance of 150 m before stopping for the first
time. The jumpers mass is 80 kg.
(a)

Assuming that frictional losses are negligible, complete the following table to
show the energy changes between the top and the bottom of the fall. One value
has been given.
energy at the top / J

energy at the bottom / J

gravitational potential energy


of jumper

kinetic energy of jumper

elastic potential energy of


elastic rope
[3]

(b)

The elastic rope being used has an unstretched length of 50 m and spring
1
constant of 24 N m . Calculate the tension in the rope when the jumper stops at
the bottom.

tension = .................................................... N
[1]

M. Manser

33

(c)

For a rope obeying Hookes law show that the elastic potential energy stored in
the rope is given by

1
2
E = 2 kx
where k is the elastic spring constant and x is the extension.

[2]

(d)

(i)

Another jumper has a mass of 100 kg. For this bungee jump a rope of
1
unstretched length 45 m and a spring constant 26.7 N m is used. Show
that this data is valid for the same 150 m fall before stopping for the first
time.

[2]

(ii)

In fact, the rope used by the second jumper is a shorter length of the rope
used by the first jumper. Explain why the spring constant for the shorter
rope is larger.
...............................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 9 marks]

M. Manser

34

19.

The figure below illustrates a conveyor belt for transporting young children up a snowcovered bank so that they can ski back down.

A child of mass 20 kg travels up the conveyor belt at a constant speed. The distance
travelled up the slope is 24 m and the time taken is 55 s. The vertical height climbed in
this time is 4.0 m.
(a)

For the child on the conveyor belt, calculate


(i)

her speed
speed = ............................ m s

[2]

(ii)

her kinetic energy


kinetic energy = ............................ J
[2]

(iii)

the increase in her potential energy for the complete journey up the slope.
potential energy = ............................ J
[2]

(b)

(i)

The conveyor belt is designed to take a maximum of 15 children at any one


time. Calculate the power needed to lift 15 children of average mass 20 kg
through a height of 4.0 m in 55 s.
power = ............................ W
[2]

M. Manser

35

(ii)

The belt is driven by an electric motor. State two reasons why the motor
needs a greater output power than that calculated in (b)(i).
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[2]
[Total 10 marks]

20.

The figure below shows three ropes attached to a ring R. Three cylinders x, y and z,
are supported by these ropes from two pulleys.
p u lle y
p u lle y

X
Z = 360N
90
x

37

z
53

Y = 450N

360N

M. Manser

36

(a)

(i)

The cylinder z has a weight of 360N and a volume of 4.7 10 m .


Calculate
1

the mass of the cylinder z


mass = ............................ kg
[1]

the density of the cylinder z.


density = ............................ unit ........
[3]

(ii)

The ring R is in equilibrium. Use a labelled vector triangle to determine the


tension X.

tension X = ............................ N
[4]

(b)

(i)

Explain why the sum of the magnitudes of the tensions in any two ropes
does not equal the tension in the other rope.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Show that the sum of the vertical components of the tensions X and Z is
equal to the tension Y.

[2]
[Total 12 marks]

M. Manser

37

21.

Below is a stress-strain graph up to the point of fracture for a rod of cast iron.
200
s tre s s / 1 0

fra c tu re
p o in t

Pa
160

120

80

40

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2
s tr a in / 1 0

(a)

1 .4
3

The rod of cast iron has a cross-sectional area of 1.5 10 m .


Calculate

(i)

the force applied to the rod at the point of fracture

force = ............................ N
[2]

(ii)

the Young modulus of cast iron.

Young modulus ............................. = N m

[3]

M. Manser

38

(b)

Use the graph or otherwise to describe the stress-strain behaviour of cast iron up
to and including the fracture point.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
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.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 8 marks]

22.

The figure below shows a gannet hovering above a water surface.


gannet

30m

w a te r

6 .0 m
f is h

The gannet is 30 m above the water. It folds in its wings and falls vertically in order to
catch a fish that is 6.0 m below the surface.
Ignore air resistance.
(a)

M. Manser

Calculate

39

(i)

the speed that the bird enters the water


Speed = .............................. m s

[2]

(ii)

the time taken for the bird to fall to the water surface.
time = ........................................ s
[2]

(b)

The bird does not continue to travel at the acceleration of free fall when it enters
the water. State and explain the effect of the forces acting on the bird as it falls
(i)

through the air


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

through the water.


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

M. Manser

40

23.

The figure below shows the path of a ball that has been thrown by a girl towards a
vertical wall.
w a ll
p a th o f b a ll

3 .3 m
10m s

53

4 .9 m
2

The girl throws the ball, of mass 5.0 10 kg, with a velocity of 10 m s
horizontal. In this question, ignore air resistance.
(a)

(i)

Show that the horizontal component of the velocity is 6.0 m s

at 53 to the

.
[1]

(ii)

In moving to the wall, the ball travels 4.9 m horizontally and 3.3 m vertically.
Calculate the time taken for the ball to travel from the girls hand to the wall.

time = ........................................ s
[2]

(iii)

Calculate the gain in potential energy of the ball from leaving the girls hand
to when it hits the wall.
Gain in potential energy = ........................................ J
[3]

M. Manser

41

(b)

The ball is moving horizontally at 6.0 m s when it hits the wall. The ball is in
1
contact with the wall for 0.16 s and rebounds horizontally at 4.0 m s .
Calculate, for the time that the ball is in contact with the wall
(i)

the change in velocity of the ball


change in velocity = ..........................m s

[1]

(ii)

the horizontal acceleration of the ball (assumed to be constant)


acceleration = ................... unit...........
[2]

(iii)

the horizontal force acting on the ball

magnitude of the force = ...................................N


direction of the force .....................................
[3]

(iv)

the loss in kinetic energy of the ball when rebounding from the wall.

loss in kinetic energy = ................................. J


[3]
[Total 15 marks]

M. Manser

42

24.

The figure below shows two forces, each of magnitude 1200 N, acting on the edge of a
disc of radius 0.20 m.
1200 N

0 .2 0 m

r o ta t in g d is c
1200 N

(a)

(i)

Define the torque of a couple.


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Calculate the torque produced by these forces.

torque = ............................N m
[2]

M. Manser

43

(b)

This torque is needed to overcome friction and keep the disc rotating at a
constant rate.
(i)

Show that the work done by the two forces when the disc rotates one
complete revolution is about 3000 J.

[2]

(ii)

Calculate the power required to keep the disc rotating at 40 revolutions


per second.

power = ............................... W
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

25.

Fig. 1 shows part of the force-extension graph for a spring. The spring obeys Hookes
law for forces up to 5.0 N.
3 .0
fo rc e / N
2 .0

1 .0

10

15
e x te n s io n / m m

20

Fig. 1
(a)

Calculate the extension produced by a force of 5.0 N.

extension = ............................. mm
[2]

M. Manser

44

(b)

Fig. 2 shows a second identical spring that has been put in parallel with the first
spring. A force of 5.0 N is applied to this combination of springs.
fix e d s u p p o r t

5 .0 N

F ig . 2
For the arrangement shown in Fig. 2, calculate

(i)

the extension of each spring

extension = ............................. mm
[2]

(ii)

the total strain energy stored in the springs.

strain energy = ................................. J


[2]

(c)

11

The Young modulus of the wire used in the springs is 2.0 10 Pa. Each
spring is made from a straight wire of length 0.40 m and cross-sectional
7
2
area 2.0 10 m . Calculate the extension produced when a force of 5.0 N is
applied to this straight wire.

extension = ................................m
[3]

M. Manser

45

(d)

Describe and explain, without further calculations, the difference in the strain
energies stored in the straight wire and in the spring when a 5.0 N force is
applied to each.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 11 marks]

26.

(a)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

M. Manser

46

(b)

The following figure shows the velocity v of a ball against time t as it falls
vertically from rest to when it hits the ground at A.

v /m s

6 .0

5 .0
4 .0
3 .0
2 .0
1 .0
0

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

t/s

1 .0
2 .0
3 .0
4 .0
5 .0
6 .0

Use the figure to show the distance that the ball falls is approximately 1.6m.
[2]

M. Manser

47

(c)

The ball is in contact with the ground for 20 ms and then rebounds vertically with
1
an initial upwards velocity of 5.1m s .
(i)

Calculate the acceleration of the ball as it rebounds while in contact with


the ground.
acceleration = ............................ m s

[3]

(ii)

Sketch on the figure above the velocity against time graph for the ball after
it has bounced off the ground until it reaches its maximum height.
[3]

(d)

The ball has a mass of 0.025 kg and rebounds to a height of 1.3 m.


(i)

Calculate the loss in the potential energy of the ball from the initial point of
release at 1.6 m to when it reaches 1.3 m.
loss in potential energy ............................ unit .................
[3]

(ii)

Explain the loss in the potential energy.


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 13 marks]

M. Manser

48

27.

The four sketch graphs below, plotted against time, show changes which occur in a
small fraction of a second and which result in almost vertical lines on the graphs. Three
of these sketch graphs are possible for ordinary objects and one of them is impossible.
d is p la c e m e n t

v e lo c ity

tim e

a c c e le r a t io n

(a)

tim e

r e s u lta n t
fo rc e

tim e

tim e

Identify the impossible graph, giving a reason for your selection.


Impossible graph is ..............................
[1]

Reason why it is impossible ...........................................................................


........................................................................................................................
[1]

M. Manser

49

(b)

Describe three everyday situations, one for each, which illustrate how the
remaining graphs can arise. State to which graph each description refers.
graph letter ...............
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

graph letter ...............


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

M. Manser

50

graph letter ...............


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 11 marks]

28.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
The figure below shows the path of a ball after it is thrown from T. The ball reaches a
maximum height at point P and then returns to the ground at G.
P

M. Manser

51

(a)

Assuming no air resistance, describe and explain how the vertical and horizontal
components of the velocity of the ball change as it travels from T to G.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[5]

(b)

Assuming no air resistance, describe the changes in the kinetic and potential
energies of the ball as it travels from T to G.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[4]

M. Manser

52

(c)

Describe how the motion of the ball is affected when air resistance is taken into
consideration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 14 marks]

29.

A girl travels down a pulley-rope system that is set up in an adventure playground. Fig.
1 shows the girl at a point on her run where she has come to rest.

Fig. 1

M. Manser

53

The girl exerts a vertical force of 500 N on the pulley wheel. All the forces acting on the
pulley wheel are shown in Fig. 2.
fo rc e o f ro p e
on wheel
T2

fo rc e o f ro p e
on wheel
T

30

10

h o r iz o n ta l

fo r c e o f g ir l
on wheel
500 N
Fig. 2

(a)

Explain why the vector sum of the three forces must be zero.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

(i)

Sketch a labelled vector triangle of the forces acting on the pulley wheel.
[3]

(ii)

Determine by scale diagram or calculation the forces T1 and T2 the rope


exerts on the pulley wheel.
[3]
[Total 7 marks]

M. Manser

54

30.

The figure below shows a stationary oil drum floating in water.

c r o s s - s e c tio n a l
a re a 0 .2 5 m 2

0 .7 5 m
w a te r

The oil drum is 0.75 m long and has a cross-sectional area of 0.25 m . The air pressure
5
above the oil drum is 1.0 10 Pa.

(a)

Calculate the force acting on the top surface of the oil drum due to the external
air pressure.
force = ............................ N
[2]

(b)

The average density of the oil drum and contents is 800 kg m . Calculate the
total weight of the oil drum and contents.
weight = ............................ N
[3]

(c)

Calculate the force acting upwards on the base of the drum.


force = ............................ N
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

M. Manser

55

31.

The figure below shows a crate resting on the flat bed of a moving lorry.

c ra te

d ir e c tio n o f tr a v e l
fla t b e d

(a)

The lorry brakes and decelerates to rest.

(i)

Describe and explain what happens to the crate if the flat bed of the lorry is
smooth.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

A rough flat bed allows the crate to stay in the same position on the lorry
when the lorry brakes. Show on the figure above (with an arrow labelled F)
the direction of the force that must act on the crate to allow this.
[1]

M. Manser

56

(b)

Using your answers to (a) or otherwise explain how seat belts worn by rear seat
passengers can reduce injuries when a car is involved in a head-on crash.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 6 marks]

32.

Fig. 1 shows a spring that is fixed at one end and is hanging vertically.
fix e d e n d o f s p r in g

m ass M

Fig. 1
A mass M has been placed on the free end of the spring and this has produced an
extension of 250 mm. The weight of the mass M is 2.00 N.

M. Manser

57

Fig. 2 shows how the force F applied to the spring varies with extension up to an
extension of = 250 mm.
4 .0

3 .0

F / N

2 .0

1 .0

100

200

300

x / m m

400

Fig. 2

(a)

(i)

Calculate the spring constant of the spring.


spring constant = ............................ unit ................
[3]

(ii)

Calculate the strain energy in the spring when the extension is 250 mm.
strain energy = ............................ J
[2]

M. Manser

58

(b)

The mass M is pulled down a further 150 mm by a force F additional to its weight.
(i)

Determine the force F.


F = ............................ N
[1]

(ii)

State any assumption made.


................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

The mass M is now released and it oscillates up and down. Fig. 3 shows the
displacement s against time t for these oscillations.
200

s / m m
100

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

1 .4

1 .6

t/s

1 .8

100

200

Fig. 3

(i)

Mark on Fig. 3 a time when the mass M has maximum downward


velocity.Label this position V.

2.

Use the graph to determine this maximum downward velocity of the


mass.
maximum velocity = ............................ m s

[3]

M. Manser

59

(ii)

1.

Mark on Fig. 3 a time when the mass M has maximum resultant force
acting on it. Label this position with an X.

2.

Explain your choice of position for X.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 12 marks]

33.

A child sits on a swing and is pulled by a horizontal force P so that the chains make an
angle with the vertical of 35. The diagram below shows the forces acting in this
position.

35

c h a in
t e n s io n in c h a in s

h o r iz o n ta l fo r c e P

v e r t ic a l

s w in g s e a t
w e ig h t
The combined mass of the child and swing seat is 28 kg.

M. Manser

60

(a)

Calculate the combined weight of the child and swing seat.

weight = ............................ N
[2]

(b)

Use a labelled vector triangle to determine the force P required to hold the swing
stationary in the position shown in the diagram above.

force = ............................ N
[4]

M. Manser

61

(c)

State and explain what happens to the tension in the chains if the swing is pulled
so that the chains make a larger angle with the vertical. A numerical answer is not
required.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

34.

(a)

A stone is projected horizontally from a cliff. The diagram below shows the stone
at a position A on its path.

h o r iz o n t a l c o m p o n e n t
30

c liff
v e r tic a l
com ponent

25 m s

s o ft s a n d
The velocity of the stone at position A is 25 m s

(i)

M. Manser

at 30 to the horizontal.

Show that the horizontal component of the velocity of the stone at A is


1
22 m s .

62

(ii)

Calculate the vertical component of the velocity of the stone at A.

vertical component ....................... m s

[3]

(b)

Sketch graphs on the axes below to show the horizontal and vertical
displacements of the stone from the point of horizontal projection to
the point of impact.
Ignore air resistance. Numerical values are not required.
(i)

horizontal displacement dh
against time t
d

(ii)

vertical displacement fallen dv


against time t
d

t
[3]

M. Manser

63

(c)

A second stone is released from rest from the top of the cliff. It falls vertically.
Sketch graphs on the axes below to show the velocity v and acceleration a of the
stone from the time of release to the time when the stone comes to rest in the
sand below. Ignore air resistance. Numerical values are not required.
(i)

velocity v against time t

tim e o f
r e le a s e

(ii)

im p a c t
w ith s a n d

s to n e
at
re s t

acceleration a against time t

tim e o f
r e le a s e

im p a c t
w it h s a n d

s to n e
at
re s t

[5]
[Total 11 marks]

M. Manser

64

35.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
The diagram below shows stress-strain graphs up to the point of fracture for three
different materials.
s tre s s

s tre s s

s tre s s
copper

c a s t ir o n
p o ly t h e n e

s t r a in

s t r a in

s t r a in

Use the terms plastic, elastic, brittle, and ductile, where appropriate, to describe the
behaviour of the materials represented by the graphs.
cast iron ...................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

M. Manser

65

copper ......................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

polythene .................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[8]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 10 marks]

M. Manser

66

36.

Fig. 1 shows a helicopter that has a cable hanging from it to the sea below.

c a b le

sea
Fig. 1
A girl of mass 55 kg is rescued by a man of mass 75 kg. The two are attached to the
cable and are lifted from the sea to the helicopter. The lifting process consists of an
initial acceleration followed by a period of constant velocity and completed by a final
deceleration.

(a)

Name the two main forces acting on the two people being lifted.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

Calculate the combined weight of the man and girl.

weight = ............................ N
[1]

M. Manser

67

(c)

Calculate the tension in the cable during


(i)

the initial acceleration of 0.55 m s

tension = ............................ N
[2]

(ii)

the period of constant velocity.

tension = ............................ N
[2]

(d)

Calculate the final deceleration if the tension in the cable is 1240 N.

deceleration = ....................... m s

[2]

M. Manser

68

(e)

Sketch on Fig. 2 a graph of velocity v against time t for the complete lifting
process.
Numerical values are not required.

Fig. 2
[3]
[Total 12 marks]

M. Manser

69