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Module'1:

The'Story'of
Psychology

From'specula9on'to'science:
The$Birth$of$Modern$Psychology

Aristotle))(4th)century)BCE))asked
ques9ons)to)understand)the
rela9onship)between)body)and)psyche.
His)way)of)answering)those)ques9ons
was)to)observe)and)make'guesses.

Wilhelm)Wundt)(1832H1920))added
two)key)elements)to)help)make
psychology)a)science:
1.)carefully)measured)observa9ons
2.)experiments

Two'early'schools'of'psychology

Structuralism
)Func9onalism

Structuralism'(Edward'Titchener)
Structuralists)believed)that)the)task)of)psychology)is)to
iden9fy)basic)elements)of)consciousness)in)much)the)same
way)that)physicists)break)down)basic)par9cles)of)maPer.
Titchener,)like)his)teacher)Wilhelm)Wundt,)relied)on)selfH
report)data.)He)had)people)engage)in)introspec5on,
repor%ng(on(sensa%ons)and(other(elements(of(experience,)in
reac9on)to)s9muli)such)as)the)smell)or)feel)of)a)ower.
Titchener)tried)to)use)these)introspec9ve)reports)to)build)a
view)of)the)minds)structure.

Func9onalism'(William'James)
Func9onalists)believe)that)the)task)of)psychology)is)to
inves9gate)the)func9on,)or)purpose,)of)consciousness)rather
than)its)structure.
William)James)(1842)H)1910))developed)func9onalism.)He
studied)human)thoughts,)feelings,)and)behaviors,)and)asked:
What)func9on)might)they)serve?)How)might)they)have
helped)our)ancestors)survive?
James)was)highly)inuenced)by)Darwins)evolu9onary)theory
that)all)all)characteris9cs)of)a)species)must)serve)some
adap9ve)purpose.

Psychology'Pioneers

He)wrote)Principles(of
Psychology,(considered
the)rst)psychology
textbook
James)mentored)another
pioneer
William
James

Psychology'Pioneers
Mary)Whiton)Calkins
(1863H1930))became)a
memory)researcher)and
the)rst)female)president
of)the)APA.
She)studied)with)William
James)but)was)denied)a
Harvard)PhD.))Why?
Mary
Whiton
Calkins

Psychology'Pioneers

Margaret'Floy
Washburn,
PhD

Margaret)Floy)Washburn
(1871H1939))(First)female
Ph.D.!),)became)the
second)female)APA
president,)and)wrote)The
Animal)Mind.
She)studied)with)Edward
Titchener,)but)was)barred
from)his)experimental
psychology)organiza9on.
Guess)why.

ShiHing'deni9ons'of'psychology
Wilhelm
Wundt)and
Edward
Titchener,
around)1900:
The)science
of)mental)life.

John)B.
Watson)and
B.F.)Skinner,
behaviorists,
1920s:))The
scien9c)study
of)observable
behavior.

Now'we
combine'these
deni9ons:
The'science'of
behavior'and
mental
processes.

Cogni9ve
psychologists,
1960s,))studied
internal)mental
processes,
helped)by
neuroscience.

The'Big'Issue'in'Psychology:''NPN
The)NatureP
Nurture
Ques9on:

To)what)extent)are
our)traits)already
set)in)place)at
birth)(our
Nature)?
And)to)what)extent
do)our)traits
develop)in
response)to)our
environment/
experience)(our
Nurture)?

Nature vs. Nurture


Descartes:''Some
ideas)are)innate.

John'Locke:
The)mind)is)a)blank
slate)(blank
chalkboard)or
screen))wriPen
on)by)experience.

We'share'a
common
origin'that
Nature'
gives'us'an
inborn'human
nature'in
common.

We'have
dierences
Nurture
that'are
shaped'by'our
environment

Nurture$works$on$what$Nature$endows.

Biology'Plus'Environment..
are)part)of
psychologys)three
biopsychosocial
levels'of'analysis.

The)deep)level,
Biology:
genes,)brain,
neuroH
transmiPers,
survival,
reexes,
sensa9on

In)the)middle,
Psychology:
thoughts,
emo9ons,
moods,)choices,
behaviors,
traits,
mo9va9ons,
knowledge,
percep9ons

The)outer)level,
Environment:
social)Inuences,
culture,
educa9on,
rela9onships

There)are)many
perspec9ves)for
describing
psychological
phenomena:
Cogni9ve
perspec9ve
SocialPcultural
Behavioral
gene9cs

From$dierent$angles,$you$ask$dierent$ques5ons:
How)we)encode,)process,)store,)and)retrieve
informa9on;)How)we)think
How)behavior)and)thinking)vary)across)situa9ons
and)cultures

Neuroscience

How)our)genes)and)our)environment)inuence)our
individual)dierences
How)the)body)and)brain)enable)emo9ons,
memories,)and)sensory)experiences

Psychodynamic

How)behavior)springs)from)unconscious)drives)and
conicts

Behavioral
Evolu9onary

How)we)learn)observable)responses;)Why)we
behave)a)certain)way)(triggers)of)behaviors)
How)the)natural)selec9on)of)traits)has)promoted
the)survival)of)genes

There)are)many
perspec9ves)for
describing
psychological
phenomena:
Cogni9ve
perspec9ve
SocialPcultural
Behavioral
gene9cs
Neuroscience
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Evolu9onary

Example:$Anger
How)does)a)situa9on)aect)our)anger?)How)does
anger)aect)our)thinking?
How)does)expression)of)anger)vary)across
dierent)cultural)contexts?
How)does)heredity)and)experience)inuence)our
individual)dierences)in)temperament?
What)brain)circuits)cause)us)to)be)red)in)the)face
or)hot)under)the)collar?
Are)anger)outbursts)an)outlet)of)unconscious
hos9lity?
What)external)s9muli)trigger)anger)responses?
How)did)anger)facilitate)the)survival)of)our
ancestors)genes?

Matching
Game!
Example:$ObsessiveJCompulsive$Disorder$(OCD)
Cogni9ve
perspec9ve

OCD)is)a)problem)in)the)orbital)cortex.

SocialPcultural

OCD)is)a)sign)of)unresolved,
unconscious)childhood)issues.

Behavioral
gene9cs

OCD)is)an)inherited)condi9on.

Neuroscience
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Evolu9onary

OCD)comes)from)our)natural)ins9nct)to
control)our)environment,)which
beneted)ancestors)survival
OCD)is)a)maPer)of)mental)habits)and
errors)that)can)be)corrected.
OCD)thinking)and)behavior)is)a)reac9on)to)our
fastHpaced,)outHofHcontrol)lifestyles.
Compulsions)start)as)habits)and)are)rewarded)by
the)anxiety)relief)they)bring

Psychologys'Subelds'(Examples)
Basic)research
Biological
Developmental
Cogni9ve
Personality
Social

Studies links between brain & mind

Studies changing abilities as we age

Studies how we think

Studies our traits


Studies how we interact with each other

Psychologys'Subelds'(Examples)
Applied)Research
Clinical)Psychology
Counseling)Psychology
Community)Psychology

Assess & treat mental disorders


Help people cope with challenges/crises

Create healthy environments,


both social and/or physical

Module'3:''Research'Strategies:
How'Psychologists
Ask'and'Answer'Ques9ons

GePng$to$the$truth:

The'Scien9c'Method
The)scien9c)method)is)the)process)of
tes9ng)our)ideas)about)the)world)by:

If)the)data)dont)t)our)ideas,)then)we)modify)our
ideas,)and)test)again.

Theory:'the'big'picture
A)theory,)in)the
language)of
science,)is)a)set(of
principles,(built(on
observa%ons(and
other(veriable
facts,(that(explains
some(phenomenon
and(predicts(its
future(behavior.

Example)of)a)theory:
Low)selfHesteem
feeds)depression.

Hypotheses:''informed'predic9ons
A)hypothesis)is)a
testable(predic%on
consistent(with(our
theory.

Testable)means)that)the
hypothesis)is)stated)in)a)way
that)we)could)make
observa9ons)to)nd)out)if)it
is)true.
What$would$be$a
predic5on$from$the
theory$Low$selfJesteem
feeds$depression?

One)hypothesis:)People)with)low)selfHesteem)will)score)higher
on)a)depression)scale.

Opera9onal'Deni9ons
A)statement)of)the
procedures)(opera9ons)
used)to)dene)research
variables.

Opera9onal'Deni9ons:
Impulsivity)=))#)of)9mes/hour
E.g.,)When)measuring
calling)out)without)raising
ADHD)symptoms,
hand.
researchers)might)want)to
Hyperac9vity)=))#)of)9mes/hour
measure)impulsivity,
out)of)seat
hyperac9vity,)and
InaPen9on)=))#)minutes
inaPen9on)in)their
con9nuously)on)task)before
becoming)distracted
subjects.

The'next/nal'step'in'the
scien9c'method:

replica5on

Replica9ng'research)means
trying)it)again)using)the
same)opera9onal)deni9ons
of)the)concepts)and
procedures.
Keeps'science'honest!

Research'Process:
the'depression
example

Descrip9ve'Research
Descrip9ve
research'is)a
systema%c,
objec%ve
observa%on
of(people.
The)goal)is)to
provide)a
clear,)accurate
picture)of
peoples
behaviors,
thoughts,)and
aPributes.

Strategies)for)gathering)this
informa9on:
Case'Studies
Naturalis9c'Observa9ons
Surveys'and'Interviews

Case'Study

Observing$and$gathering
informa5on$to$compile$an
inJdepth$study$of$one
individual
Benet:))Can)be)a)source)of
ideas)about)human)nature)in
general
Example:))Baby)cries
whenever)he)hears)a)Jus9n
Bieber)song
Danger:))Overgeneraliza9on
from)one)example)(Do)all
babies)dislike)Jus9n)Bieber?)

Naturalis9c'Observa9on
Observing'natural
behavior'means)just
watching((and(taking
notes),(and(not(trying
to(change(anything.
This)method)can)be
used)to)study)more
than)one)individual,
and)to)nd)truths
that)apply)to)a
broader)popula9on.

Surveys'and'Interviews
Deni9on:))A)method)of
gathering)informa9on
about)many)peoples
thoughts)or)behaviors
through)selfHreport)rather
than)observa9on.
Keys)to)geong)useful
informa9on:
Be)careful)about)the
wording)of)ques9ons
Only)ques9on
randomly'sampled
people

Wording'eects
the)results)you)get
from)a)survey)can)be
changed)by)your
word)selec9on.
Example:
Q:$Do$you$have
mo5va5on$to$study
hard$for$this$course?
Q:$Do$you$feel$a
desire$to$study$hard
for$this$course?

Why'take'a'sample?
If)you)want)to)nd)out
something)about
undergraduates,)you)cant
interview)every)single
undergraduate)on)Earth.
Sampling)saves)9me.))You)can
nd)the)ra9o)of)colors)in)this)jar
by)making)sure)they)are)well
mixed)(randomized))and)then
taking)a)sample.
Random'sampling'is)a
technique(for(making
sure(that(every
individual(in(a
popula%on(has(an(equal
chance(of(being(in(your
sample.

popula5on

sample

Random)means
that)your
selec9on)of
par9cipants)is
driven)only)by
chance,)not)by
any
characteris9c.

A'possible'result'of'many
descrip9ve'studies:
discovering$a$correla5on

Correla9on
General'Deni9on:'an(observa%on(that(two(traits(or
aBributes(are(related(to(each(other)(thus,)they)are)coH
related)
Scien9c'deni9on:'a$measure$of$how$closely$two
factors$vary$together,)or)how)well)you)can)predict)a
change)in)one)from)observing)a)change)in)the)other

[Fic9onal]'Nega9ve'Correla9on:
Facebook'and'Studying
These)are)two)factors)which
correlate;)they)vary
together.
This)is)a)nega9ve
correla9on;'as)one)number
goes)up,)the)other)number
goes)down.

Correla9on'Coecient
The)correla9on)coecient)is)a)number)represen9ng)the)strength
and)direc9on)of)correla9on.
The'strength)of)the)rela9onship)refers)to)how)close)the)dots)are)to
a)straight)line,)which)means)one)variable)changes)exactly)as)the
other)one)does;)this)number)varies)from)H1.00)to)+1.00.
The'direc9on)of)the)correla9on)can)be)posi9ve)(both)variables
increase)together))or)nega9ve)(as)one)goes)up,)the)other)goes
down).
No
Perfect
Perfect
rela9onship,
nega9ve
posi9ve
no)correla9on
correla9on
correla9on

))))+)1.00)))))))))))))))))))))))H)1.00))))))))))))))))))))))))0.00

If)we)nd)a)correla9on,
what)conclusions)can
we)draw)from)it?

People)with)bigger
feet)tend)to)be
taller.

Does)that)mean
having)bigger)feet
causes)greater
height?

Correla9on'does'not'imply'Causa9on!
E.g.,$SelfJesteem$and$depression$are$correlated:

So'how'do'we'nd'out'about
causa9on?'''By'experimenta9on!

Experimenta9on:
manipula9ng)one
factor)in)a)situa9on
to)determine)its
eect

Example:''Students
who)ate)more)apples
tended)to)get)sick)less
osen)than)students
who)did)not)eat)as
many)apples)in)their
diet.
How)would)you
design)an)experiment
to)determine)if
consump9on)of
apples)(and
specically)apples)
was)responsible)for
bePer)health?

The'Experiment
Dependent variable
(What you measure)

Independent variable
(What you manipulate)

Group
Experimental
Control

Manipula9on

Measure
#)doctor)visits
Apples)in)diet
over)3)months
#)doctor)visits
Oranges)in)diet
over)3)months

Placebo'eect
How)do)we)make)sure)that)the
experimental)group)doesnt
experience)an)eect)because)they
expect)to)experience)it?
Example:))An)experimental)group)gets
a)new)drug)while)the)control)group
gets)nothing,)yet)both)groups
improve.

Placebo'eect:
experimental(eects
that(are(caused(by
expecta%ons(about
the(interven%on

Working'with'the'placebo
eect:
Control)groups)may)be
given)a)placebo))an
inac%ve(substance(or(other
fake(treatment(in(place(of
the(experimental
treatment.
Both)control)and
experimental)groups
ideally)blind)to)whether
they)are)geong)real)or)fake
treatment.
Many)studies)are)doubleP
blind))neither)par9cipants
nor)research)sta)knows
which)par9cipants)are)in
the)experimental)or)control
groups.

From'data'to'insight:''sta9s9cs

Weve)done)our)research)and)gathered)data.
)Now$what?
We)can)use)sta9s9cs,(which(are(tools(for
organizing,(presen%ng,(analyzing,(and
interpre%ng(data.

Measures'of'central'tendency
1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5

Are$you$looking$for$just$ONE$NUMBER$to$describe
a$popula5ons$income,$height,$or$age?
$$Op5ons:

Mode
the)most
common
level/number/
score
1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5

Mean

Median

(arithme9c
average)

(middle)persons
score,)or)50th
percen9le)

the)sum)of)the
scores,)divided)by
the)number)of
scores

the)number/level
that)half)of
people)scored
above)and)half)of
them)below

1+2+2+2+2+3+3+3+4+4+5
11

1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5

Measures'of'central'tendency
Here)is)the)mode,)median,)and)mean)of)a
family)income)distribu9on.)Note)that)this)is
a)skewed)distribu9on;)a)few)families)greatly
raise)the)mean)score.

Why)does)this)seesaw)balance?
No9ce)these)gaps?

Measures'of'varia9on:

how$spread$out$are$the$scores?
Standard'devia9on:))a)calcula9on)of)the)average
distance)of)scores)from)the)mean

Small'standard'devia9on
(subjects'are'more'similar)
Large'standard'devia9on
(subjects'are'more'dissimilar)

Mean