You are on page 1of 10

1

SOCIAL PROBLEM: UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENT AND JOB MISMATCH


By: GROUP C, SLU-SOH

I.) THE NATURE OF EMPLOYMENT AS A SOCIAL NEED


Employment- it is a condition when a person of recommended age to labor who has 1.)willingness to work and 2.)ability to
work, is currently engaged whether in an occupation (blue-collar jobs), a profession (white-collar job), or in a business in order to
sustain basic needs for daily survival. (ILO, 2014) In contrary, NON-EMPLOYMENT is a condition in which a well-rounded person has
no capacity yet to perform work or labor as demanded by the society. Non-employment can be observed among young population of
the country (0-15 years old) and those who are members of the population suffering from severe illness.
Situations:
Mr. Cipag, a 27-year old polio-victim finished his BS Business Administration degree at University of Pilapil. However, because of
prolonged ailment, he could not able to be hired for an office job; hence, he established his own convenient store. With this
business, he can earn at least Php 45,000 monthly. Do you think Mr. Chua is employed or not?
Mr. Sadot, a 22-year old cum laude graduate of Sayo Lang Umiibig University with a degree of BA Communication wanted to be
hired as VP for Communication of Bomba Radyo. After his graduation, he immediately applied for the desired position but the
Bomba Radyo Management only gave him a secretarial position for NEWS and Information since Mr. Sadot is only a fresh
graduate. Mr. Sadot refused the offer and he decided to look for another job for he believed that he has the ability to perform the
desired position well. Considering the academic achievements of Mr. Sadot, do you think he was already employed?
Ms. Napampangit, a 21-year old visually-challenged woman is very willing to work even as only a dishwasher in her aunts
restaurant. Do you think Ms. Napampangit will be employed by her aunt?
Labor is a human capital needed for all socio-economic activities of a particular society for the attainment of progress whether
macro-scaled development (local and national level) or micro-scaled development (individual level). There are at least three broad
classification of labor:
A.) Non-skilled labor (Informal Labor)- a labor that does not necessarily require formal training through the intervention of
educational institution and other government-sponsored skills training institutions such as TESDA, etc.
E.g. Fortune tellers (manghuhula), Quack doctor (albularyo)
B.) Skilled labor (FORMAL LABOR)- a type of labor that requires formal training unlike the non-skilled labor. Furthermore, Skilled
Labor can be divided into three sub-types;
B.1.) Blue-Collar Job (60% physical skills; 40% intelligence)- includes construction workers, PUV drivers, baker, security
officers (guard), embalmer, sales person, janitor (sanitation crew), garbage collector, hotel receptionists, fast food crews, call-center
agents
B.2) White-Collar Job (60% intelligence; 40% physical skills)- these type of labor is highly regulated by the Regulation Body
of a certain Country e.g. PRC (Philippines). This includes teachers, lawyers, news anchors, radio announcers, engineers, nurses,
accountants, civil servants, radio satellite operators, etc.
**Pink-Collar Job- jobs that are exclusive for feminine population. E.g. Caregiver, Kasambahay (Househelper);
feminist reaction to equalize job opportunities between man and women.

B.3) Entrepreneurial Job (50% intelligence, 50% physical skills)- this labor is usually profit-oriented in nature; hence, this
includes business person not limited to sari-sari store owners, farmers, networkers (networking business). This also includes your
favorite television artists (though not licensed by any regulation body, they are not also bounded in blue-collar labor)
Furthermore, the international definition of employment adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labor Statisticians
(ICLS) is formulated in terms of the labor force framework that is with respect to a short reference period. This includes the two broad
categories of employment:
A.) Paid Employment- includes all employees including members of the armed forces either long-term duration or short-term
duration
B.) Self-Employment- includes all employers (who manage their employees) and own-account workers including producers of
goods for final consumption (entrepreneurs).
BUT: In Philippines, the Supreme Court contemplates 4 kinds of employment as enumerated in the case of LEYTE
GEOTHERMAL POWER PROGRESSIVE EMPLOYEES UNION VS. PNOC-Energy Development Corporation (2011)
1.) REGULAR EMPLOYEE- who have been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual

business or trade of the employer (E.g. Company Lawyer (YOU)===> Boss Manny (Employer))
2.) PROJECT EMPLOYEE- whose employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking, the completion of termination
of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee (E.g. Artist (employee) ===> TV Network (Employer))
3.) SEASONAL EMPLOYEE- who work or perform services which are seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration
of the season (E.g. Sepulturero (Tomb worker) as employee==> SEASON: All Souls Day)
4.) CASUAL EMPLOYEE- who are not regular employee, project or seasonal employee. (E.g. Part-time faculty)
*In Philippines. The Labor force of the Philippines refers to that part of our population whose age ranges from 15 (can already perform
work) to 64 years old. The members of the labor force are those who are willing and able to work. Those who are actually working and
contributing positively to the economy constitute what we call the participating labor force. (Azarcon,et al., 2008)
Thus the following legal provisions protect the rights of the workers.
1.) Labor Code of the Philippines- also known as the Presidential Decree 442 of 1974 (under Marcos Presidency). the blueprint
(framework) of all Philippine labor laws. This code specifies all working conditions that must be enjoyed by a Filipino laborer. (Minimum
number of working hours: 8 hours/day; 40 hours (public sector); 48 hours (private))
FOR WOMEN: Maternity Leave (6 weeks=42 days); Paternity leave (n<Maternity leave), Article 133
*Legal Age of Employment: 18 years old; Retirement: 65 years old
**DOLE (Department of Labor and Employment)- the administrative agency responsible for strategizing employment in the country.
Current DOLE SECRETARY: Sec. Rosalinda Baldoz
Current DOLE-CAR Director: Dir. Henry Falbuena
2.) Magna Carta of Women- also known as Republic Act No. 9710 0f 2009. It provides protection from any forms of violence, standard
of just compensation, and human treatment among employed women either in private or public sector in the country.
*House Bill No. 1800- introduced by Gabriela Party list. A bill promoting an increase in maternity leave of female laborers from 6
weeks to 16 weeks. (2-weeks prior to the expected date of delivery, and another 4 weeks after delivery)..
3.) Republic Act 7192- also known as Women in Development and Nation Building Act. This law empowers feminine gender as a
co-worker of the masculine gender in nation building. This law also aimed to lessen any form of discrimination against women in a
working sphere.
4.) Magna Carta of the Poor (HOUSE BILL NO.4629)- authored by at least 182 representatives including F. Belmonte, M. Teodoro of
Marikina, R. Del Mar of Cebu City and E. Santiago (1-Sagip partylist) , it aims to achieve the Millennium Development Goals formulate
by United Nations in eradicating poverty, hunger and unemployment in the Philippines. It proposed to establish National Anti-Poverty
Commission (NAPC) assisted by the NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (NEDA) to provide national poverty
reduction plans including right to education among the poor, right to employment among the poor and right to business among the poor.
Employment Indicators in the Millennium Development Goals:
There are four employment indicators in the MDG:
A.) Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger
B.) Achieving full and productive employment and decent work of all
C.) Promoting gender equality and empowerment of Women
D.) Eliminating gender disparity in elementary and secondary education.
PROBLEMS REGARDING EMPLOYMENT IN PHILIPPINES:
a.) Insufficient wage
b.) Poor working conditions (exposed to hazardous substance)
c.) Inhumane treatment (violence against workers, e.g. The OFW)
d.) Absence of Job Security (issue on contractualization)
e.) Discrimination
II.) SOCIAL PROBLEM REGARDING EMPLOYMENT:
A.) UNEMPLOYMENT- it is a situation in which a worker of minimum legal age or beyond who is not employed but currently seeking
for employment. It includes the situation that workers who seek work but believe no job is available. Unemployment also refers to a
condition by which individual who has willingness to work and ability to work is disengaged whether in an occupation, profession or in a
business activities. According to Hayek, unemployment is due to discrepancy between the distribution of labor between industries and

the distribution of demand among their producers.


The international standard definition of unemployment adopted by the 13th ICLS is based on three criteria, which have to meet
simultaneously. According to this definition, the unemployment comprise all persons who were:
1.) without work, i.e. Not in paid employment or self-employment
2.) currently available for work but not employed
3.) seeking for work (willing to work), that is had taken specific steps in a particular period to seek employment
As being measured, unemployment rate is determined by:
U.R.= total number of unemployed persons determined by the institution
X 100
Total number of persons that must be in labor force(15-64years)
Types of Unemployment:
*According to market conditions (economic activities):
Frictional Unemployment- also known as transitional unemployment. This type of unemployment results to when people who
have left jobs and are searching for new employment. This also applies to fresh graduates who are seeking for employment as
well and is a result of unbalanced market structure that prevents the job seekers from occupying particular job vacancies that are
available.
Cyclical or Keynesian Unemployment- this type of unemployment includes all people who are not working because firms do not
need their labor due to lack of demand or a downturn in the business cycle. It is the amount of unemployment resulting from
decline in national REAL GDP (gross domestic product) during periods of recession (short-term decline in economic activity) or
depression (long-term decline in economic activity).
Seasonal Unemployment- it is a type of unemployment that results from seasonal patterns of production. This condition is likely
to exist in such productive activities which can be undertaken only during a specific season.
Structural Unemployment- it results from permanent shift in the pattern of demand for goods and services or from changes in
technology so that it is also known as technological unemployment. The structurally unemployed workers have skills that are
not in demand by employers so that for the neglected laborers to be employed, they have to learn new skills or acquire new
abilities to seek employment. This often happens in the long-term rather than short term.
*According to manner of employers:
Voluntary Unemployment- which is attributed to an individuals decision not to be employed because of various external factors
such as family, costs of travel, etc.
Involuntary Unemployment- it exists because of the socio-economic environment which includes market structure, government
intervention and the level of aggregate demand in which the individual worker operates. Involuntary unemployment is not
attributed to individuals decision to stop in labor.
Short Activity: PAIRED LETTERS. For each following situations, put the appropriate letter before the example. F- frictional employment,
C- for cyclical unemployment, S- structural unemployment and Se- seasonal unemployment. Afterwards, determine if it is voluntary
unemployment (VU) or involuntary unemployment (IU).
________ A literary editor decided to leave her job in New York to look a new job in the Philippines since her family is there
________ Advances in farming technology makes the assembly-line agricultural workers obsolete
________Mr. Camot has currently no job since his work as lantern-maker is only profitable during Christmas season yet he is willing to
wait for the next season to earn money.
________A computer programmer did not expect to lose his job but unfortunately he was laid off because of recession
________A skilled glass maker is aware that he will be unemployed next week when a new machine arrive to do the labor faster. As a
consequence, he decided to attend a livelihood seminar in order to establish a business in the future to earn continuously earn money.
________An individual who is a fresh BA Computer Engineering graduate refuses to work at SUNNY Company due to below minimum
wage, thus he is seeking employment to other company.
THEORIES OF UNEMPLOYMENT (Theoretical Explanations Regarding Unemployment):
Reference: Important Theories of Unemployment and Public Policies by Adil Mouhammed (2011)
1.) CLASSICAL ECONOMIC THEORY OF UNEMPLOYMENT: as proposed by Pigou (1933) and Solow (1981), argues that the labor
market consists of demand and supply of labor (Economics perspective). Demand of labor is a derived demand, obtained from the
declining portion of the marginal product of labor while supply of labor is derived from workers choice whether to spend time for
working fully or partly. Unemployment is a condition wherein demand of labor and supply of labor are not in equilibrium state (balance
condition).
2.) THE THEORY OF INNOVATIONS OF UNEMPLOYMENT: as developed by German economist Von Mangoldt, states that the
society is organized according to economic needs of people; hence, some people are required to possess entrepreneurial skills to gain

profit through 1.) finding particular market 2.) acquisition of productive agents 3.) skillful combination of factors of production, 4.)
successful sales policy and 5.) innovations. Thus, employment is determined by capitalist with entrepreneurial motive to gain wealth.
Therefore, unemployment occurs when the entrepreneur decided for innovations such as opening of new market, introducing new
technology, etc. that impedes the potential of human laborers to work.
3.) THEORY OF EFFECTIVE DEMAND OF UNEMPLOYMENT: elaborated by Veblen (1904) and Keynes (1936); argued that capitalist
individuals as well as the state are generating deficient aggregate demand for labor; hence, many people were becoming unemployed.
Capitalists invest more on machinery that can substitute human labor. Therefore, unemployment is involuntary phenomenon.
4.) THE REAL BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY OF UNEMPLOYMENT: as elaborated by Chatterjee (1995); states that technology is the
main source of employment and unemployment. Technology for production also fuels the vitality of the countrys business cycle.
For instance: Machines (need operators) for manufacturing ============> More employment
Machines (replace human labor at cheaper cost) =========> Less employment
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
1.) Demographic Characteristics of Labor- refers to the age, qualification and behavior of participating labor force.
2.) Poor quality of labor - individual-level, laborers did not allocate maximum efficiency in labor
3.)Geographic distribution of labor- individuals who live in an agricultural location tends to become unemployed in farming activities
whereas those who reside in industrialized place tend to become unemployed in manufacturing or sales activities.
4.) Mobility of labor- Unemployment is greatly felt in place where most people are highly condensed and they compete for employment
E.g.: In Philippines, the following regions indicate the highest rate of unemployed people (SWS survey)
National Capital Region---------------- 9.3 %
CALABARZON--------------------------- 8.6 %
ILOCOS REGION----------------------- 8.5%
CENTRAL LUZON---------------------- 8.5%
Effects of Unemployment:
A.) Direct Effects- these effects are vividly and immediately observable such as;
1.) Poverty among families
2.) Lose of Income resulting to starvation
3.) Failure to meet financial obligations
4.) Failure in National Productivity
5.) Lowering of Self-Confidence
B.) Indirect Effects- these effects are felt gradually by the business sector, the government and the individual in the long run.
1.) Loss of tax revenue (Government)
2.) Adverse health and psychological effects (Individual)
3.) Loss of human capital (Business Sector)
*PHILIPPINE SETTING: Tabular Presentations of Employment and Underemployment in the Philippines according to joint Philippine
Statistics Authority (PSA) and International Labor Organization (ILO).
Natural Unemployment Rate in the Philippines: 4%; the government can still tolerate this condition and can provide subsidies
TABLE 1:
Indicator

Total Unemployment
Persons)
2015 (Jan-Mar) 2014

(Estimated

Number

2013

Male
Female

1.920 Million
1.080 Million

1.899 Million
1.070 Million

1.764 Million
1.012 Million

Ages
15-24
25-54
55-above

*1.447 Million
*1.420 Million
*0.133 Million

1.432 Million
1.405 Million
0.132 Million

1.368 Million
1.293 Million
0.114 Million

of

Unemployment Rate
2015 (Jan-Mar)
6.6 %

2014

2013
6%

7.3 %

*The employment rate is estimated at 93.4 % (nearly


40 million including at least 2 million OFW) in
January, higher than 92.5 % in 2014. There were at
least 38 Million people employed: 54.6% worked in

*estimated

the service sector, 29.5 % in agricultural sector and


15.9% in industry sector.

REGIONAL LEVEL: According to PSA (2014)


Population of Employed Persons in the Different Regions in the Philippines
REGION (TOP 5)
ESTIMATED POPULATION
REGION 4-A
5.001 Million (growth rate: 4.6%)
NCR
4.577 Million (growth rate: -1.5%)
REGION III
3.996 Million (growth rate: 0.9%)
REGION VI
3.083 Million (growth rate: -1.2%)
REGION VII
2.959 Million (growth rate: 1.8 %)
IN South-East Asian Countries:
Philippines
Indonesia
Brunei
Myanmar
Malaysia
Singapore
Viet Nam
Laos
Thailand
Cambodia

As of 2013, Unemployment Rate According to ILO:


Country
Unemployment Rate
7.3%
6.0%
3.7%
3.5%
3.2%
3.1%
1.9%
1.4%
1.0%
N<0.1%, 0.3%

IN WORLDS PERSPECTIVE: The Philippines is better compared to Great Britain and United States which both have an
unemployment rate of 7.5 % as of 2013. Among countries with the highest unemployment rates are: EGYPT (12.7%), GREECE (27.6%)
and SPAIN (27.6%).
IN GENERAL VIEW, Unemployment is:
*Structural-Functionalist View: The reality of unemployment is needed by the society in order for the people to be motivated in
maximizing their potentials by acquiring quality education, purposeful skills and effective social relations to function well in the society
resulting to progress and socio-economic development. On the other hand, capable but unemployed people, can be viewed as
human-reserved force by an institution i.e. Government in times of calamities, war, etc.
*Marxist View (Conflict View)- Unemployment is an evidence of capitalist rule in a society. Capitalists innovate the factors of
production through advance technologies resulting to alienation of laborers.
*Symbolic-Interactionist View: Unemployment is a symbol of social order and social stability. Social order, in the sense that through
unemployment condition, there are people who will easily obey the authority particularly the government for they have no means to
oppose (Sign of Oppression) but if all members of the society will be employed, there would be a manifestation of extreme competition
in terms of material wealth. Unemployment, as a symbol of social stability, enlightens the members of society to be sympathetic to
others. Employed members will help those unemployed members by giving them financial assistance or helping them to seek
employment.
BUT, UNEMPLOYMENT IS A PROBLEM BECAUSE:
It impeded the potential of a well-abled individual to work.
It causes the fall of national productivity in global market.
It results to poverty and hunger among large number of households.
It lowers the self-confidence among individuals.
It is generally experienced by significant number of people around the world
It can result to other social disorders such as crimes like theft, human trafficking, syndicated carnapping, etc.
III.) UNDEREMPLOYMENT AS A SOCIAL REALITY

Underemployment (Income-Related Inadequate employment)- it is a condition when an employed individual expressed the
desire to have additional hours in their present jobs or to have a new job with longer hours in order to gain more income to sustain daily
living.
According to the definition adopted by the 16th ICLS, underemployment comprise all persons engaged in particular employment who
were willing to work for additional hours to have higher wages since the current employment is not sufficient to achieve standards of
convenient living.
Underemployment is determined through these three-point criteria:
Willingness to work for additional hours
Availability to work for additional hours
Insufficiency of current employment (low-graded salary)
Lets examine:
Table of Minimum Wage Rates By Sector And Region, Philippines
REGION
Indicator (SECTOR)
Non-Agriculture
Service Sector
Industry Sector
(White-Collar Job, Paid
Employment)
NCR
P456.00 + 15.00
P419.00 + 15
P419.00 + 15.00
(establishments
(Manufacturing)
employing at least 15
workers or less)
CAR
P280.00 + 15.00
280.00 + 15.00
280.00 + 15.00
(Baguio City, La
(Baguio City, La
(Baguio City, La
Trinidad, Tuba, Itogon,
Trinidad, Tuba, etc.)
Trinidad, Tuba, etc.)
Sablan)
260.00 : 10 workers or
less
P263.00 + 15.00
263.00 + 15.00
(Mt. Province, Abra,
263.00 + 15.00
(Mt. Province, Abra,
Kalinga, Ifugao,
(Mt. Province, Abra,
Kalinga, Ifugao,
Kalinga and Apayao)
Kalinga, Ifugao,
Kalinga and Apayao
Kalinga and Apayao
239.00: 10 workers or
less
ILOCOS REGION
P205.00 + 15.00
205.00 + 15.00
253.00 + 15.00
(small-scaled)
(Mining and Quarrying)

Agriculture Sector
P419.00 + 15.00

262.00 + 15.00
(Baguio City, Tuba,
etc.)
246.00 + 15.00
(Mt. Province, Abra,
etc.)

233.00 + 15.00
(including
aquaculture)

253.00 + 15.00
(Large-scaled)
CENTRAL VISAYAS
P210.00 + 15.00
220.00 + 15.00
253.00 + 15.00
233.00 + 15.00
(tourism-influence)
CENTRAL MINDANAO
P210.00 +15.00
N<200.00 + 15.00
230.00 + 15.00
230.00 + 15.00
(due to security threat)
*15.00 pesos addition to minimum wage as approved by the Philippine government this 2015.
*In Baguio City: Minimum salary: Php 7,000-8,000 =========================> Standard of Convenient living Costs
(3-members): Php 13,000-Php 15,000
Two Kinds of Underemployment:
A.) Visible Underemployment- is a type of underemployment wherein the employed person, preferably a part-time employee who
worked less than 40 hours (public sector) or less than 48 hours (private sector) a week is wanting additional hours of labor.
B.) Indivisible Underemployment- is a type of underemployment wherein the fully employed person (working for 40-48 hours a week)
still wants additional work to finance his/her needs.
Situations:
Mr. Macipag, a computer layout artist in PACIFICA Comics, is earning at least 1000 pesos a day and he is satisfied with his

income. He only consumed at least 5 hours a day for that job or equivalent to 30 hours a week. Will you considered Mr. Cipag
underemployed?
Ms. Ayat, a full time civil servant in the provincial office of Pangasinan, is earning at least 18,000 pesos a month. However after
her work at 6 p.m., she accepted online tutorial sessions for English, Philippine history and Business Mathematics at the rate of
300 an hour per tutee. Do you consider her as underemployed?
Ms. Veki, a part-time instructor at Saint Luisito Agapito College, earns at least 12,000 pesos a month. In order to finance the
demand of her large family, she still needs to work for additional hours as field research assistant of DSWD to earn additional 300
pesos a day. Is Ms. Veki underemployed?

STATISTICAL PRESENTATION
Employment Rate

Underemployment Rate
(From Employment Rate)

Unemployment Rate

93.4 %

17.3 %

6.6%

*Notes: The underemployment


rate as of first quarter of 2015 is
17.3 %. However in 2014, the
underemployment rate was 18.2
% and in 2013 was 19.2 %.

VS.
Over-employment (Inadequate employment related to excessive hours)- comprises all employed persons who want to seek work,
either the same job or in another job, less than they actually worked during the reference period.
IV.) JOB MISMATCH AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM
Job-skill mismatch (Skill-related inadequate employment)- is defined as a condition by which an individual who earned a
particular aptitude through formal education cannot able to seek employment corresponding to the acquired skills; thus, the individual
will be forced to employ in another field without considering the real skills imbibed just to earn money for daily needs. It signifies poor
utilization of human capital.
Situations:
. BS Industrial Engineering graduate ==============> Job: Mall cashier
BS Accountancy graduate
==============> Job: Call-center agent
Assoc. Course in Culinary Arts
=============> Job: Chef at Hotel Venus
BA Political Science graduate
==============> Job: Municipal Civil Servant
BS Social Work graduate
==============> Job: Local DSWD employee
(Which is/are job-skill mismatch/es?)
According to Alvin Ng, Department of Economics-UST: Labor mismatch impacts the economy in such a way that the time spent
pursuing a particular course in college becomes a futile exercise for the student and brings about an oversupply of talents to a certain
profession. The problem is cultural mindset, of need to become a professional with specialized skills regardless if there is an existing
demand in the economy.
E.g. Society (needs 2 million nurses) ========================> 5 million Nursing graduates (2-million;hired *others: 3 million?)
Society (needs 3 million teachers) =======================> 10 million (BSED, BEED graduates); 3 M hired; 7 million?
*Effects: Labor mismatch, extreme competition (individual level), brain-drained
STATISTICS: According to Philippine Statistics Authority headed by Lisa Grace S. Bersales, PhD, 22.4% of unemployed individuals
were college graduates (2014) and 32.7 % were high school graduates.
To MITIGATE THIS PHENOMENON: The labor force has to strike a balance between individuals with basic skills and those special
skills in certain professions. The implementation of K+12 educational system-the program meant to align the Philippines with the
international 12-year basic education program is the first step to solve labor mismatch according to Ng. The assumption is that K+12
graduates can take care of basic jobs (e.g. In manufacturing process) that do not need highly technical skills such as metagenomic
analysis (BS Biology), political methodology (BA Political Science), Behavioral analysis (BS Psychology), etc.
IN GENERAL:
TYPOLOGY OF DISADVANTAGED WORKERS (as adopted in Cabegin, Dacuycuy and Alba, 2010)

Openly Unemployed

Discouraged Workers

Underemployed workers

Full-employed vulnerable
workers
Persons who comprise those Persons who are without work Persons who are reported Persons who do not share the
who are without work but are but not seeking work because waiting additional hours to work same entitlements or protection
available and actively seeking they believe that there is none in the present job or through an accrued to regular workers.
work
available
additional job.

SPECIAL ISSUES REGARDING LABOR FORCE IN THE PHILLIPINES:


A.) CHILD LABOR
Child labor , as defined by Ateneo De Manila Human Rights Center (1998) in economic terms, as the involuntary participation
vs voluntary participation (child work) of a child in a variety of work situations, on more or less regular basis, to earn livelihood for
himself or herself or for others.
Victims of child labor: more male than female (Rosario and Bonga, retrieved 2014)
The ILO-IPEC defines child labor more categorically and comprehensively as work situations where children (as young as 5 years old)
are :
1.)compelled to work on a regular basis to earn living for their families and as a result are disadvantaged educationally and socially
2.) working in conditions that are exploitive and damaging their health including mental development
3.)forced to lead prematurely adult lives
*The Philippine government had as yet not signed the ILO Convention No. 138 on the minimum employable age. In fact, child labor is
most concentrated in Asia and Africa which account for more than 90% of total child employment (10 years-14 years old)
The Philippine law (R.A. 7658 Anti-Labor Law) defines child labor as the illegal employment of children below the age of 15, where
they are not directly under the sole responsibility of their legal guardian, or the latter employs other workers apart from their
children who are not members of their families, or their endangers their life..
DOLE criteria of Child Labor ( Department Order No. 4, 1999)
a) Ages under 18 whose work causes exposure to physical, psychological or sexual abuse (cyber pornography)
b) Whose work underground or underwater or at dangerous heights
c) Work with dangerous machinery, equipment and tools or which involves manual handling or transport of heavy loads
d) Work in unhealthy environment
e) Work under particularly difficult condition
MAJOR CAUSES OF CHILD LABOR:
A.) Poverty because of employment and underemployment had been the major push factor in the occurrence of child labor
B.) Frivolous parenting
C.) Children became orphans
D.) Syndicated activities (crime-oriented approach)
E.) Early exposure of children toward socialization of labor
Situations:
Nonong, a 10-year old orphan (mother and father were deceased), is selling newspapers, cigarettes and candies along the street
to earn additional income as commanded by his uncle. Given this situation, he became out-of-school youth. Will you consider
Nonong a child laborer?
An 8-year old child star Cutie Misty is earning at least 1 million a month for the various endorsements, tv soap opera, etc.
Because of this, the DOLE helped her in managing her income by allocating 25% of the money for her educational trust fund, 10%
for her insurance, etc. Cutie Misty is a major provider for her family for she helped her parents in building their dream house. Do
you consider Cutie Misty a child laborer?
Nanoy, a 9 nine-year old child of Mang Ernesto who is a farmer, decided to help his father in the farm during Saturdays since he
has no classes. Mang Ernesto agreed with Nanoy but being a father, he ensured that Nanoy, is always in good condition in
helping in the farm works by giving him gloves, enough water for hydration, enough food to eat, etc. Nanoys farm works include
planting crops, lifting loads (harvested crops in sacks) and land tilling. Is Nanoy a child worker or a child laborer?
Statistics (NSO): 1995- 1 out 9 children is engaged in child labor

2014- *nearly 3 out of 10 children are engaged in child labor


*There were at least 4 million children are working in the country in which at least 1.5 million of them are child laborers.
According to official data of NSO, the survey showed that about 30,000 children laborer had reported having suffered from
work-oriented injuries and illnesses. Majority of these lived in rural areas, especially in Region VII, ARMM, Region X, and NCR (minimal
cases)
In CAR: at least 25,000 are child laborers.
Historical trend: *After the People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino signed the International Declaration on the Survival,
Protection and Participation of Children in the 1989 World Summit.
On November 9, 1993, President Fidel V. Ramos signed a aw prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years old. However, it
aloows employment of children of the siad age if they work directly under the management and the responsibilty of parents.
B.) DOUBLE BURDEN OF WOMAN
As cited in the works of Beaujot, Ravanera, et. al., Sharing the Double Burden, the double burden of women in labor refers
to a condition by which women simultaneously handling office works and household chores. Double Burden of Women in Labor is
considered to be a problem because it is discriminatory in nature. Double Burden of Women in Labor is a proof of highly patriarchal
society.
However, the tension between caring and earning is a useful entry point for the study of contemporary social life with respect to
employment rate.
MODELS OF THE DIVISION OF EARNING AND CARING ACTIVITIES

Model

Nature

Complementary-Traditional
Complementary-gender-reversed
Womens Double Burden
(PROBLEM)

Wife is doing more unpaid work and husband more paid work
Husband is doing more unpaid jobs and wife more paid works
Wife is doing the same amount of, or more, paid work and more
unpaid work
CAUSES: Death of husband
Husbands incapability to work
Unwanted pregnancy
Mens Double Burden
Husband is doing the same amount of, or more, paid work and
(PROBLEM)
more unpaid work
CAUSES: Death of wife
Wifes incapability to work
Wifes delicate condition (pregnancy) *short-term
TREND:
Wife and husband are doing the same amount of work.
SHARED ROLES
Condition: Husband (night shift employment; laundry course in
*In Philippines, from highly patriarchal form of employment the afternoon)
to gender-sensitive employment
Wife (day shift; washing of plates in the evening,
(Good labor force = Gender equality)
helping the children in making assignments
OR
HIRING HOUSEHELPER : In Philippines, KASAMBAHAY LAW
as authored by JV Ejercito
C.) GENDERING LABOR
In Philippines, gendering labor is a cultural orientation in which a particular job must correspond to particular gender.
FOR INSTANCE:
*Teacher: only for females
*Caregiver: only for females
*Welder: only for males
*Driver: only for males
*Doctor: only for males
*Nurses: only for females
Other concern: AGING OF LABOR- age as key determinant for employment. In Philippines, there is a senate bill proposed by Sen.
Pia Cayetano regarding the employment of well-abled senior citizens or those who are at least 40 years old and above.

10

WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM?


Bias in nature, without necessary assessment to someones qualification
It impeded the liberty of individual to work
D.) LABOR CONTRACTUALIZATION
Labor Contractualization refers to a condition when an employee has no assurance of employment over a long period of time
(e.g. Mall setting: 6-months employment). Contractualization has eroded salary and wages, job security and the exercise of labor
unionism. Security of tenure in employment has been defined in Article 279of PD 442 as, the non-termination of the services of an
employee by the employer, in cases of regular employment, except for just cause or authorized cause.
In 2010, the Department of Labor and Employment reports that the number of establishments resorting to outsourcing or contracting
out of job, work or service was placed at 2,471. This figure represents 10.4 % of the estimated 23,723 business establishments
nationwide. (Resureccion and Rosario, 2012)
LEGAL ASPECT: Cite Less-than-six months contract periods: Is retail industry circumveting the law? The Philippine Case by
Resureccion and Del Rosario (2012)
Historical Trend: On February 21, 2002, Department of Labor and Employment promulgated the Department Order No. 18-02
specifying the implementing rules of 106-109 of the Labor Code as legitimizing contracting and subcontracting-which undermine
workers rights to security of tenure.
THE SOLUTION: GOVERNMENT APPROACHES TO SOLVE UNEMPLOYMENT
Current Administration:
The Plans under the administration of Pres. Benigno Simeon C. Aquino, III
*THE PHILIPPINE DEVELOPMENT PLAN (2011-2016)
The PDP 2011-2016, as prepared and coordinated by the National Economic Development Authority, as the statutory national planning
authority for socio-economic development in the country, provides the strategic policy framework for the Philippines.
MAJOR CONTENTS:
THE PHILIPPINE LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT PLAN (LEP)
Alignment of laborers skills and type of employment through coordinating with the private sectors
Strengthen policies regarding employment (benefits, sick leave, etc.)
Provides accountability and excellent strategic management
National Tripartite Industrial Peace Council- ensures good negotiation between group of employers and labor unions

INCLUSIVE GROWTH IN EMPLOYMENT: Highlighting the Pillars of a Decent Work


DECENT WORK PILLARS
DEFINITION
Employment Pillar
Increases in employment levels
Workers Rights
Improvements in the quality of employment
Social Protection
Expansions in access to employment opportunities
Social Dialogue
Advancements in social dialogue processes toward mutual or
collective gains
STRATEGIC ACTIONS (SPECIFIC):
Generates an average of one million local employment per year excluding international employment
Formulating a national industrial policy
Focusing policies and progrms on key job generating areas toward increasing productivity nad employment
Formulating through social dialogue sectoral, trade and investment policies
Promoting better business environment
Promoting employment-intensive undertakings through infrastructure
Promoting entrepreneurship
Promoting productive investment
Developing and harmonizing green programs fron environmental-sustainability
*ALSO INCLUDES RELATED ARTICLES SUPPLEMENTING THE DISCUSSION