6/6/2010

Organizational Structure
Basic Theories in Educational Administration (EDA 6565) Instructor: Dr Mohd Johdi Salleh

Presenter: Nahdi Samae | G0921795 Institute of Education | IIUM 11th May 2010

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Overview
• Definition
It is a framework for vertical control and horizontal coordination of the organization, mainly hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim.

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Overview (cont’)
• The structure depends entirely on the organization's objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them. • An organization chart illustrates the organizational structure and how it intends authority, responsibility etc.

Organization Chart

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Concept
• Organizations are a variant of clustered entities. An organization can be structured in many different ways and styles and will determine the modes in which it operates and performs

Centralize

Span of Mgt

Authority

Concept

Job Specialize

Chain of Command

Department al

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Classical Models
• Pre-bureaucratic (Before 1950s) structures lack standardization of tasks. This structure is most common in smaller organizations and is best used to solve simple tasks. The structure is totally centralized

• Bureaucratic structures have a certain degree of standardization. They are better suited for more complex or larger scale organizations. They usually adopt a tall structure.

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Bureaucratic Model Characteristics
• • • • • Division of Labor Rules Hierarchy of Authority Impersonality Competence

Axiomatic Theory of Organizations
• Definition
An axiom is an established rule or principle or a self-evident truth

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Theorist
• Jerald Hage
– Professor in Sociology, University of Wisconsin – Proposed the theory in 1965 – Based on theories of Weber, Barnard and Thompson

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The 8 Variables
• Organizational Means

The 8 Variables
• Organizational Means

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The 8 Variables
• Organizational Means

The 8 Variables
• Organizational Means

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The 8 Variables
• Organizational Ends

The 8 Variables
• Organizational Ends

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The 8 Variables
• Organizational Ends

The 8 Variables
• Organizational Ends

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The 7 Propositions

The 7 Propositions

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The 7 Propositions

The 7 Propositions

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The 7 Propositions

The 7 Propositions

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The 7 Propositions

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Low complexity High centralization High formalization High satisfaction Low adaptiveness High production High efficiency Low job satisfaction

High complexity Low centralization Low formalization Low stratification High adaptiveness Low production

Low efficiency
High job satisfaction

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Alternative Theories
• • • • • • • • • • McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Individual vs. Organization System 4 Organization Shaping School Culture Moral Leadership School Based Management Total Quality Management Compliance Theory Simple Structure Islamic Perspectives

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Remark
• facilitate working relationships between various entities in the organization • support command for coping with a mix of orders and a change of conditions while performing work. • allow for application of individual skills • Therefore it shall be altered from time to time to enable recovery.

Reference
• Abbas Ali.(2005) Islamic perspectives on Management and Organization. USA Edward Elgar Publishing Inc. • Hage, J. “An Axiomtic Theory of Organizations,” Administrative Science Quaterly, 10 (1965):289-320. • Lunenberg, F & Ornstein, A (2000) Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices (3rd ed) USA, Wadsworth/Thompson Learning • Silver, P. (1983) educational Administration: Theoretical Perspectives on Practice and Research. NY, Harper and Row. • http://www.merriam-webster.com/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

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