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Table 2.

2: Summary of the statistic of external line inspection technologies for monitoring pipelines above and underground
Types of



Phased Array Technology

System description: Phased array technology use of ultrasonic beam with
individual elements in a multi-element transducer that operated by computer
controlled excitation. It is the latest advanced ultrasonic technology with the
capability of variation angle, focal distance and focal point size. Inspecting a part
with a variable angle beam with maximizes detection on defect orientation and the
result presented through A-Scan, B-Scan and C-Scan representations (Mistras, 2009).
Limitation: The inspection carried out by section or part of pipe with axial detection
and the result presented using scanning tool (complex analysis and costly)

UltraWave LRT

System description: The UltraWave LRT, an advanced flaw detection system that
use guided wave technology with low frequency to perform long-range inspections
on pipes. It localizes areas of potential corrosion and metal loss by collecting cross
sectional data and detecting wall thickness variations. This inspection tool is used for
aboveground conventional structures, which is also considered as an inspection
solution for unpiggable pipes. F-scan color map is used to display flaw evaluation
and advanced data analysis (Waltham, 2013).
Limitation: The flaw evaluation are using scanning method which considerably high
cost analysis.

Limitation: The system is used for localized detection with limited for large area thinning . The penetration up to 12-15 mm depth of tube wall. which measures the changes in the electromagnetic field.corrocont. Limitation: This tool is limited for metal surface inspection due to the principle of magnetism used. (Jamaludin. System description: LFET is a scanning system for integrity inspection of various diameter aboveground pipelines and unpiggable pipelines with the same resolution and accuracy of intelligent pipeline pigs. The LFET generating an electromagnetic field into the steel plate and produce an eddy current in the conductive material. 2016).Metal Magnetic Memory (MMM) Inspection tool utilised by PETRONAS Aboveground pipe Low Frequency Electromagnetic Testing (LFET) www. The inspection is based on screening process and the locations of SCZ are recorded using an Encoder attached to the scanning System description: Metal Magnetic Memory (MMM) used to monitor the pipe condition of internal and external area. corrosion pits and material loss (Corrocont. The MMM technology is a direct method for the identification of stress concentration zones and imperfections in steel structures. 2014). MMM measures Natural Magnetic Waves emitted by the piping and identify its Stress Concentration Zone (SCZ).

This will produces a visible indication of defect on the surface of the material (Iisndt.75 to 38 inch outside diameter. With acquisition speeds of up to two meters per second.Magnetic Particle Testing www. Limitation: Applicable to pipes ranging from 1. which involves the component under testing being System description: Magnetic particle testing is applied to detect cracks and other discontinuities on ferromagnetic and electrically conductive materials. ECA technology helps to keep surface preparation to a minimum for stress corrosion cracking. The result is viewed by C-scan representation (Gammaps. 2016).gammaps. It is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and then dusting the surface with iron particles.iisndt. Surface and nearsurface flaws distort the magnetic field by the attracted iron Aboveground pipe Eddy Current Array Technology ww. This ECA probe is attached to the chain scanner. which enables two-axis mapping of the inspected area of the pipeline. 2013). Limitation: Only applicable for materials that can be magnetized. The magnetic particles are attracted to areas of flux leakage and form an indication at that point. There is no result information on the depth of flaws that are detected. System description: ECA inspection is able to record data for advanced reporting and result traceability. . performing an inspection with ECA is also extremely fast. .

Magnetic Tomography Method (MTM) System description: Magnetic Tomography Method (MTM) Technology is developed for assessing safety and integrity of pressurized underground pipelines made of ferromagnetic materials. The accuracy is not affected by the close proximity of other pipelines or city (Raja Ismail. Limitation: Unpredictable detection of defects such as holes. Method uses "natural" magnetization of the ferrous pipes by magnetic field of the earth. MTM measures the stress caused by these defects and identifies their type. Underground pipe Inspection tool utilised by PETRONAS Direct Current Voltage Gradient (DCVG) System description: Direct Current Voltage Gradient (DCVG) survey is the most accurate method available to size and locate pipe coating . location and orientation in accordance to the area of stress with no restriction. 2014). pitting and the depth of detectable defect cannot be < 5% of wall thickness.

and fittings. The technology operates by placement of an array of probes placed in a belt. The technique is based on measuring the voltage gradients in the soil above a cathodically protected pipeline. The voltage deflection needs to be well monitored by the operator. By measuring the path difference between two reference Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT) Underground pipe http://www. The distance covered by the ultrasonic waves is dependent on the pipe AC Current Attenuation (ACCA) Limitation: There is no detection on the defect existed when the operator immediately above the defect location. the voltage gradient can be traced. It generates ultrasonic guided waves longitudinally down the length of pipe.ansndt. 2015). System description: AC Current Attenuation (ACCA) used to identify coating anomalies on buried pipelines by measuring the strength of an electromagnetic field around the pipe due to alternating current signal. circumferentially wrapped around the pipe being inspected.defects. The system can inspect both directions from each inspection location thus can maximise production (Ansndt. . 2012). branch connections. www. the voltmeter will signify voltage value higher than the signal in any intact coating location along the pipeline route (Alpha. Limitation: Need a certain amount of sensors and couplant for transmitting the ultrasonic wave into the pipe wall. System description: Long Rang Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT) is the reliable technique for screening pipe systems underground or underwater where access is often limited. As the coating fault is approached.alphaleak.

ryscocorrosion. A significant change in the current attenuation rate can indicate coating anomalies. Limitation: ACCA data can be influenced by geometrical effects of the pipe and the rate of attenuation depend on coating properties. ACCA usually performed using the Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM) or other electromagnetic instrument (Rysco. 2015). Electromagnetic induction is used to detect and measure the intensity of the signal. and the resultant pipe current is calculated.The AC signal will flows along a straight conductor to produce a symmetrical magnetic . http://www.