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City of Malolos, Bulacan


Prepared by:



Donna is 26 years old. She hails from a poor family. She used and sell

her body to earn money at the age of 16 and had 3 kids at the age of 17 of
different fathers.

The childrens ages are: 9, 7 and 6 years old.

She is

pregnant again for the fourth time. She is so anxious about her situation
that sometimes she maltreats her children due to lifes difficulties and
pressures. She is currently jobless and she sometimes could no longer give
proper attention to her siblings.

None of the children was able to go to

school because of this situation.

In the initial interview with the worker, was firm in her words that she
does not like about her fourth pregnancy. She was saying that she could no
longer provide enough attention on the three children and yet she is again
on the family way.

The worker has noted a sigh on her efface and tears

began to fell from her eyes. She said that added to this difficulty is their
everyday expense to bridge hunger among her three kids.

Life is doubly

hard for her because the biological fathers of the children are no longer
giving support to them. When the worker asked about her childhood days,
became restless about the treatment she has also received from her mother.
She recalls that when she was like the age of her children she was physically
abused by her mother. She was saying that she engaged in prostitution to
help lift up the conditions of the family (all the while she thought). She has
some resentment on her mother and her going to prostitution was a sort of
retaliation against the mother and her family.

In the conversation with the worker, Donna was informed of possible

agencies that could be of assistance to her children while she could look for a
menial job to support her children.

She was also informed that there are

centers that could grant free elementary education for her children if this is
what she thinks as her priority. The worker was also preparing her for the
situation that she is involved and the eventual separation of her from the
kids should she could no longer provide the children the rights to survival
and development.



Knowledge base of the social work profession should know

to handle the case very well.

After I have read, analyzed and gathered all the tidbits of information I can
say that the case of Donna is pivotal. According to Donna she has a turbulent life
because of an early age Donna have been raising her 3 minor children solitary and
recently she is carrying her fourth pregnancy. Moreover, while she is articulating
that she is pregnant the tears started to fall and began to sigh. On the other hand,

Donna also stated that she sometimes maltreats her children due to pressures and
problems in life. Furthermore, while the conversation starting to bring out the story
of her life when she was little a sudden change of facial expression and she
manifested restlessness and joyless facial movements. According to Donna during
her childhood years she also experienced physical abused from her mother and
immersed in prostitution to give a hand for her family as well as to her children.
At the present days, Donna does not have a formal job and has infrequent
communication of her siblings because of the said situation. The family members
have little care for their personal hygiene as it is manifested in their appearance.
The biological fathers of her children have no support in financial aspect.
A self-directed process like professional development is needed by the social
worker to assume their responsibilities and also for the growth of their professional

knowledge. To handle the case of Donna, the social worker must be competent
enough and knowledgeable in theoretical facet, factual knowledge and practical or
personal ideas. In theoretical knowledge helps the social worker to comprehend on
how the technique has been done and succeed.

In factual knowledge we

asseverate which is true or not. On the other hand, Practical knowledge helps to see
the specific strategy to figure out the problem efficacious. These techniques are
significant and produce change to the client (s).

II. Methods of social work practice can use to approach the case.

Theories that can help in Donnas case: First is Sigmund Freuds stages
psychosexual development theory: in this stage, it can describe on how personality
develops during childhood. In addition, this stage focuses in seeking pleasure of ID
becomes focus in erotogenic facet. An early experience in this stage has a huge role
in developing a personality. If this stage completed and successfully done, the
person has a healthy personality. Certain concerns of client Donna have not settled
in the appropriate stage because she manifested some fixations like lack of pacifism
and low self-esteem.

Second theory is Erick Erickson the psychosocial development theory. In this theory
the view of development of personality from infancy to old age and considered one
of the best-known theories of personality wherein Erikson believed that personality
develops in a series of stages that describes the impact of social experience across
the whole lifespan.

In the assessment of childhood years of Donna, it has an effect to her present

status, thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Life is a continuous process and each

human being can pick learnings in everyday life. Donna has been given a challenge
since she was young by deprivation of needs. Molding the identity of a person has
begun in childhood days and become vital during nonage. This is the essential
concern in becoming competent in life. If the person surpasses this stage properly,
the person can completely controlled of his/her life. On the contrary, if the person
did not cope or handle this stage the person has a feeling of inadequateness.

Third theory is Maslows Hierarchy of needs. Maslows hierarchy of needs articulated

that human beings have been motivated to reach their needs. After they finish the
first level they will find ways to fulfill the next stages until they reach the final stage.
On the other hand, before they step up to next level they must satisfy the stage
where they are into.

In Donnas situation, she has the urge to climb into the next level until she reaches
the last stage of Maslows hierarchy needs which is the self-actualization. However,
there are lapses and disruptions in her life that will lead to unmet of needs.

Fourth is the Social learning Theory of Albert Bandura which defines that the
behavior can be learned from the environment through the process of observational
learning. In Donnas situation, she must assess and analyze herself and her
environment why the situations of their family have been experiencing trials and
problems. On that note, she can gain learnings that will help her to face the
problems and build self-trust.

Last theory is Alfred Adlers theory the Personality Theory. The theory stated the
persons behavior is motivated desiderate to reach success or superiority.
Inadequateness and lack of needs are the reasons why Donna feels inferior with
other people. People have the autonomy. The autonomy to choose their goals in life,
social interest, self-concept, as well as what personality they want. Donna has the

ability to generate her own brand of personality and she has the free will on what
the appropriate action to unravel her own problems.
The Social worker will understand why Donna manifests these behaviors
because of using the theoretical knowledge. Furthermore, using of practical
knowledge the social worker will have profound comprehension of the concept by
the peculiar experiences.
This information will help the social worker to intervene and propel the psychosocial functioning of the client on the top. These two, the theoretical and practical
knowledge have big role in improving clients well-being and having a social change
and the social worker will have the confidence to handle the case of the client.

III. Philosophical base and value foundation of the profession need to know to
apply it in this case.

Philosophical Base
According to Social work profession, man has worth and dignity. In Donnas
case, it is important that social worker has deep understanding about Donnas
situation as a prostitute. A job of a person cannot define his/her personality. The
social worker must understand that each individual is created in the image and
likeness of God. Every person commits mistakes but behind those mistakes people
have the right to be respect and be treated fair.
Values Foundation

1. Right to self-fulfillment, deriving his inherent capacity and thrust toward that

People can reach their maximum potential by doing hard-work,

patience and love in each doing. In Donnas situation, she can have another
chance reach her maximum potential even she had her unfortunate
beginnings. In addition, before Donna attains her potentials she must start
the change to herself.

2. Obligation to seek ways of self-fulfillment that can contribute to the common

In the assessment, Donna manifested anxiousness because of her lifes
situation and urge to give best life for her children as well as to her family.
However, things will not achieve or difficult to attain due to life challenges
and narrowed judgments of people and society. As a social worker, the
responsibility of changing and molding to a client like Donna for the
betterment is a big chance to help to bring back her social function.

3. Society has the obligation to facilitate the self-fulfillment of the individual

and the right to enrichment through the contribution of its individual
In the aspect of social work profession, it is right to give a hand to
those who are in need. Like Donna, support and care are one of the things
that can help her to adjust.

4. Each person requires for the harmonious development of his powers socially
provided and socially safe guarded opportunities for satisfying his basic
needs in the physical, psychological, economic, cultural aesthetic and
spiritual realms

Holistic approach is one of the tools that the social worker can be used.
In Donnas case, there are lots of aspects that the social worker can provide
yet we must know the art of prioritization.

5. Because of more complex Society, specialized social organization is required

to facilitate the individuals effort as self-realization
Social worker has the ability and skills in referring to other agencies. In
Donnas situation, the social worker can refer Donna and her children in
different agencies like LGU/NGO for skills training, TESDA for scholarship and
barangay officials for the financial assistance.

IV. Using the problem solving process, discuss in each step how will you
handle the case of Donna;

A method of social work practice that can be used in this case is CASEWORK. Social
work with individuals is one of the main parts of a generalist approach to social
work practice.
Main focus is to help individuals help themselves.
Traditional methods are frequently combined in practice where the workers
may work basically with individuals and families and set goals that may also
include a group or community effort.
Social casework is a method of helping people solve problems.

It is

individualized, scientific, and artistic.

It helps individuals with personal as well as external and environmental
It is a method of helping through a relationship that taps personal and other
resources for coping with problems.

Interviewing and assessment are major tools of casework.

It is bio psychosocial.

The practice framework

To prevent those conditions which contribute to the breakdown of a healthy
relationship between the individual and their family, other associates, or the
Help people to identify and resolve problems in their relationships or to
minimize the negative effects.











Problems in social casework

The social casework addresses itself to the solution of problems that block or
minimize the effectiveness of the individual in various roles. Social workers are
frequently confronted with situations in which the casework objective may be that
of helping a client use a service.

Casework process


In the study phase, the client is engaged in presenting the problem. The key is
engagement. The client makes the important decision of whether to enter

treatment. The emphasis on the interaction is on the here-and-now and on the

problem not as might be perceived by the worker, but as experienced at the
moment by the client. Data gathering and history taking concentrate on relevance.
The contacts during the initial phase may be among the most dynamic of the entire
process. A client is likely to feel most helpless and vulnerable and most available to








reassurance, demonstration of confidence in ability, and being prudent stroking are

powerful tools of the social worker and can be highly therapeutic.


In assessment it provides a differential approach to treatment based on individual

differences and needs. An individuals strengths need to be identified and utilized as
part of the change process. An assessment is fluid and dynamic. The assessment
begins with a statement of the problem by the client. The results in an
understanding of the problem, it includes initial impressions that are confirmed,
modified, or rejected in the light of additional information. It includes judgment
about the strength and limitations of the individual in coping with the situation.
Treatment planning and treatment itself are guided by assessment. There is mutual
agreement of the worker and the client in assessment. Goals must be congruent
with the clients needs and the availability of services. These goals are respected,
supported and reinforced.


The social worker together with the client will set Goal. It consists of specific,
measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bound objectives.


Intervention or treatment begins with the first contact. The study process is
treatment when it helps the client to clarify the problem and to make changes from
this understanding. The relationship is the mainspring of social work intervention.

Warmth, caring, and congruence have been identified as essential qualities. Skills
include interviewing, recording, letter writing, referrals to other agencies and
services, and helping the client to use personal and other resources. Efforts support
and strengthen the clients ego through emotional catharsis, reassurance,
clarification of the problem, and sympathetic listening.

Intervention (basic principles)

Right to determine own course of action within the limits of their capacity to make
sound choices. Acceptance of client is implying acceptance in their capacity to
change. Relate to strengths rather than pathology. It seeks to understand the
person and to help plan for constructive change. Knowledge about the clients
family and its situation is used responsibly. The professional responsibility is for the
welfare of the total family. The responsible is not only to the client but to oneself,
the agency, the community, and the profession. Innovations of professional
activities must be consistent with casework goals.


The social worker will monitor whether the interventions are effective and efficient,
the established goals have been achieved, if there is a need for modifications in the
treatment and whether if Donna is being helped in real sense. The purpose of
evaluation is to see if the efforts of the case worker are yielding any result or not, if
the techniques used are serving the purpose and if the goals are being achieved. It
is a method of knowing what the outcomes are related to the interventions provided
to Donna. This will also strengthen the relationship of between the worker and the
client that will motivate the client to work towards her goal. It is a continuous
process that needs to be evaluated from time to time. In this phase also, the worker
have to enhance their own image and also of the agency to develop public relations.

Donna need to give a feedback on the effectiveness of the services provided to her.



The ending or limiting of a process that was commenced when the agency
agreed to enter into the intervene process aimed at delivering a service to a client
with a problem. A time is when the client can look back with satisfaction on what
has been accomplished. Signals that the worker has confidence in the clients ability
to learn to cope with situations and grow.




Name: Donna Roxas

Age/ Gender: 26 years old / Female
Date of Birth: Feb 10, 1988
Place of Birth: San Fernando Pampanga
Address: #143 mahal kita street, Tondo Manila
Educational Attainment: Grade 2
Religion: Roman Catholic
Family Composition









Grade 2


Jessa Roxas










Billy Jean












Donna, a 26 year old pregnant woman who has been raising her 3 minor
children solitary and recently she is carrying her fourth pregnancy. Moreover, while
she is articulating that she is pregnant the tears started to fall and began to sigh.
On the other hand, Donna also stated that she sometimes maltreats her children
due to pressures and problems in life. Furthermore, while the conversation starting
to bring out the story of her life when she was little a sudden change of facial
expression and she manifested restlessness and joyless facial movements.
According to Donna during her childhood years she also experienced physical
abused from her mother and immersed in prostitution to give a hand for her family
as well as to her children.
At the present days, Donna does not have a formal job and has infrequent
communication of her siblings because of the said situation. The family members
have little care for their personal hygiene as it is manifested in their appearance.
The biological fathers of her children have no support in financial aspect.



At the present, the client has adversity in managing in her recent situation.
She looks vulnerable and stressed. During the conversation of the social worker and
the client, the client stated that she was a harlot when she was 15 and taking care
of her 3 children with different fathers. Furthermore, she has difficulties to cope with
her problems. Moreover, she also mentioned that she is disappointed about her
current situation with her family as well as her pregnancy.


A capampangan girl named Donna went to Manila to work as a prostitute.
She articulated during the interview that she does not have the skills or ability to
have other job aside from her recent job. Due to poverty and lack of knowledge
in many ways, at the age of 17 she gave birth to her first baby girl and her
partner left them without any support. Donna realized that she needs to go
backs from her work to support her daughter. When Donna is working again
from her previous work she met her second partner and got pregnant and
unfortunately she had the same experience from her first relationship as well as
from her third relationship. Donna did not give up for love and she fell in love
once again for the fourth time and that love results another baby but few
months after she knows that she is pregnant her partner did the same with her
past relationship who abandoned her. Donna feels disappointed and started to
lose hope.

Family Rosal live in Tondo Manila. The place has poor socio-economic status
and over populated due to poverty. In this area, the common problems that you
encounter are gambling, prostitution and substance abuse.


A 26 year old pregnant woman Donna came to the office that needs help.

According to Donna, she has a turbulent life because of an early age she has
been raising her 3 minor children solitary and recently she is carrying her fourth
pregnancy. Moreover, while she is articulating that she is pregnant the tears
started to fall and began to sigh. On the other hand, Donna also stated that she
sometimes maltreats her children due to pressures and problems in life.
Furthermore, while the conversation starting to bring out the story of her life
when she was little a sudden change of facial expression and she manifested
restlessness and joyless facial movements. According to Donna during her

childhood years she also experienced physical abused from her mother and
immersed in prostitution to give a hand for her family as well as to her children.
At the present days, Donna does not have a formal job and has infrequent
communication of her siblings because of the said situation. The family members
have little care for their personal hygiene as it is manifested in their appearance.
The biological fathers of her children have no support in financial aspect.



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The client will manifest self-trust and a peaceful response when dealing with
problems after being present at different trainings in parenting skills and
counseling. Donna can differentiate and see the root of the problems and where it
started. On the other hand, she also manifests determination to find a job to meet
the needs of her family and to do the responsibility of a parent with full confidence
and conviction. However, she also learned how stop the feeling of anger towards to
others and disremember the negativities that she had in the past. After all have
been said and done, she realizes that she has the ability and skills to solve her own
problems and make plans and strategies on how to solve it.


The process of helping is still on progress. The social worker will refer Donna
with the appropriate agencies that can help her to bring back the abilities, skills as
well as her confidence.

Social work profession is guided by the values and Code of Ethics. These
values are transformed into accepted practice principles for the purpose of
informing our intervention with clients.

V. Identify the presenting, underlying, precipitating and working problems in

the case and incorporate this in your helping process;

Presenting Problem


It is the most crucial problem that the client stated and may serve as the initial
problem for work. However the worker must still do the proper assessment.

Underlying Problem.
It is used to identify the idea, cause and the problem. On the other hand, it is
important to know the underlying problem to be able to solve the issue.
Precipitating Problem
Is one of the factors that cause the occurrence of the problems.

Working Problem
It focuses in the problem to generate an appropriate plan and intervention.

The statements below are the identified presenting, underlying, precipitating, and
working problem that the social worker integrated for the helping process in

Donnas case.

Presenting Problem:
A 25 year old pregnant girl Donna is manifesting anxiousness and seeking for a job
to support her 3 children.

Underlying Problem:
A jobless woman, harlotry and unavailable resources

Precipitating Problem:

Lack of education, physically and emotionally abuse

Working Problem:
Resources and opportunities to be provided for her family due to lack of Skills by the


Given the 7 principles as part of the philosophical foundation of the

profession, enumerate and discuss what principles you have to apply
in the case of Donna.

In Donnas case, all principles have been incorporated by the social worker.
The social worker will inject all the knowledge that the client needs from the 7
principles, method and theories to provide proper intervention.

Acceptance of People as they are.

The social worker brings into the relationship with the client her professional
educational experience, and the agencys support of her helping role in keeping
with its societal prescribed goals. These form the basis for respecting the client
(individual, group or community) under any circumstances, an approach which is
an expression of a compound of attitudes that are based on scientific assumptions
about human behaviour. This leads the worker not only to an understanding of the
meaning and causes of the clients behaviour, but also to a mode of meeting and
interacting with the client, ex. Non-judgementally. She manifests a genuinely warm
interest and concern in the client and his situation, in the cause(s) of the difficulty or
problem, and in what can be done about it.
The principle of acceptance does not mean approval of deviant attitudes or
behaviour. The object of acceptance is not the good but the real, which means
dealing with the client as he is in reality.

The principle of acceptance of people as they are states that, on earth there
are unique individuals with different looks, personality, thoughts, and actions that
we see. In case of Donna, she needs a person who can give a hand to rebuild her
self-esteem and bring back the trust to do her regular routine as a parent. As a
social worker, establishing rapport is the essential action to see the client feel
comfortable and accepted during the interview.

Participation of the Client in Problem-solving

One can almost say that the principle of participation is already a given, for
indeed, how can there be a helping relationship without the clients participation?
Just the same, there is need to stress the point that the workers does not take over
in a helping relationship. The client is there, and has a part in the entire problemsolving process. From the time that the worker begins to gather information, the
client is asked to provide pertinent facts, to present his own perception of the
situation, and is involved in defining the nature of the problem, and if there are
many problems, he is involved in prioritizing these problems. He participates in
planning ways of resolving the problem, in thinking of possible alternatives. He
asked to look into his own resources and which of these can be applied to problem
solving. Then he himself must act in relation to the problem, and not rely on the
worker to take all the necessary actions that would solve his problem. This would
only develop/reinforce client passivity and dependence upon others.
The principle says that active participation of Donna (client) can help the
social worker to formulate a better assessment and generate an appropriate
intervention. During the interview the social worker must use polite or therapeutic
words to stimulate the good mood of the client and begin to converse and give the
information that social worker needs.

Self-determination as a right of the Client


The main idea in this principle is that principle is that the individual (or group or
community) is in economic, personal, or social need, has the right to determine
what his needs are and how they should be met. The worker does not do everything
for the client, for she knows that the clientis capable of self-help. She will not
manipulate his affairs, but will guide him so that he is able to look at his problem
objectively, understand what choices or alternatives are open to him, their
implications and consequences, and then make his own decisions. A client develops
or regain her self-respect and self-confidence when he realizes that he is able to
solve his own problems.

According to this principle, Donna has the autonomy to create own likes and
decisions. Donna has the right and freedom to make her own decisions and choices
in what solution with her problems. But, Donna needs to be aware that in every
decision there are an advantages and disadvantages. As a social worker, we must
know the right of each individual and respect each right.

Individualization of clients
The principle of individualization involves the recognition and understanding of
each clients unique qualities and the differential use of principles and methods in
assisting each toward a better adjustment, based upon the right of human beings to
be individuals and to be treated not just as a human being but as this human being
with his personal differences.
In this principle tells the right of a person. In Donnas case, she must
recognize that she is one of a kind that others do not have. This principle helps the
social worker to encourage the client to change for the betterment. The social
worker must intervene the best, appropriate and effective intervention to the client.



The idea behind the principle of confidentiality is to provide the client protection,
within the limits of the law, from harm that might result from his divulging
information to the worker. Trust is an important element in a client-worker
Principle of confidentiality is one of the most common principles that the
professionals have been used. In handling of Donnas case, this principle helps to
protect each statement of the client professionally.
Confidentially is the essential right of an individual. Though, the client
mentioned all the private statements of her life. The social worker has the liability to
keep her statement privately.

Worker Self-awareness

In its broad sense, this principle means that the social workers is always
conscious that her role is to make use of her professional relationship with her client
in a way that will enhance primarily the clients development rather than her own.
This principle concerns in the development of an individual. The social worker
must be aware and give attention in molding the functions and personality of a
person. In addition, the social worker must wear the professionalism at all times to
give assurance to Donna that she chooses the right person to solve her problems.
After Donna stated her concerns, it is the social worker responsibility to have nonjudgmental skills towards to client behavior.

Client Worker relationship

The relationship between worker and client (whether the client is a person, a
group, or a community), is the means for carrying out the social workers function.


The phrase that social work problem-solving takes place within a meaningful
worker-client relationship puts the emphasis on relationship.
The principle gives active interaction of the client to possess of being
controlled and purposive. To gain a meaningful relationship and to have an effective
intervention towards Donnas development and help her in transformation, the
social worker must not have too much attachment with the client. Moreover, the
social worker should manifest self-control and focus with the identified problem to
come up with good results.


The tools, skills and techniques in Social Work Practice.

1. Interviewing

An interview is face-to-face meeting between two or more persons, directed towards

a purpose, such as to obtain information, to give instructions, and to help.

How an interview is conducted greatly depends upon its purpose. Hence, an

interview conducted in connection with a survey will probably be limited to getting
the information needed for the study. In a social work interview, the social worker
often goes beyond merely getting information. Even in interviewing applicants
requesting a particular agency service, the worker usually would also give
information or instruction, provide guidance and support, give suggestion and make
necessary interpretations, all of which are already aspects of helping.
An interview involves both verbal and non-verbal communication which will
be discussed separately under the tool communication.

The social work practitioner makes use of the interview throughout the
helping process, in his work with individuals, groups and communities. In the
community work, one more frequently hears the term conference which,
essentially, involves the same process.

2. Communication

Communication is a term derived from the Latin word communis which means to
make common, and the word communi-care, which means to share or to impart.

Communication is a two-way process (which starts with the source initiating the
communication and the receiver responding) and method (a way of helping people
learn, through varied forms) by which asource purposively shares messages with a
receiver directly or via a channel and both learn from each other.

Knowledge about communication a growing branch of study that is now also

referred to a science can be extremely helpful to the social worker who will
undoubtedly have many occasions to use such knowledge to effectively influence
people and help bring about change.

Elements of the Communication Process

Based on the preceding definition, the communication process has four essential
elements: source, message, channel, and receiver.




Communication may originate from an individual, a group or an institution. When

applied to social work, this means that communication could be initiated by a social
worker, with her client, her co-worker, her agency, or with a worker in another



The message of communication could be knowledge, an attitude, and/or behavior

which the source wishes to convey to the receiver. This message can be conveyed
in various ways: verbally, non-verbally, and through symbols.



Channel refers to the proper course or channel of transmission of communication,

that is, either interpersonal communication or mass media, or both.



The person, group, or population segment/total population that is the intended

audience of a communication is called the receiver. In effective communication,
the receiver is the first consideration.

3. Recording

Virtually all social work agencies keep some form of records which identify the
clients they serve and the kind of service rendered to them. They are kept for as

long as the agency thinks they are still needed. Agencies vary in their practice of












application/admission/intake form (in cases where it is an individual or group who is

the client), and a community study/ survey findings and/or problem assessment
report based on initial community meeting. Some record interviews or conferences
held and services rendered, and significant activities undertaken in the course of
the helping process, are often also available.
In the case of Donna, the help provider has done the initial interview with the
client. During the interview, the social worker gathered all the imperative data that
can help to the case management become more specific, measurable, attainable,
realistic, and time bound.