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COLOUR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNESS

Copper Ore (Chalcopyrite)

Grayish olive

Grey

Submetallic

Obsidian

Black

Black

Viterous

Slate

Moderate brown

Moderate brown

Dull

White Marble

White

White

Dull

Argillaceous Sandstone

Greenish grey

Greenish grey

Submetallic

Red Sandstone

Moderate brown

Moderate brown

Submetallic

REACTION WITH
ACID

TABLE 1.1 : PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS IDENTIFICATION

SKETCH

7.0

QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

Briefly describe and explain two (2) classifications of minerals for each type.
Based on International Mineralogical Association, on the year 1995, the definition of
mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been
formed as a result of geological processes. Minerals are the basic material contained in the
earth crust. The term "mineral" refers to both a material's chemical composition, and its
physical structure. For a substance to be classified as a mineral, it must be a solid, non-liquid
substance, and a crystal structure. It is classified by their chemical composition. The main
components that are important in mineral forming are silicates, oxides and carbonates. Each
type of minerals has their own chemical and physical characteristic.
There are many types of mineral exist, such as Microcline, Garnet, Gypsum, Halite, Talc,
Aluminium Ore (Bauxite) Copper Ore (Chal Copyrite), Cacite-Carbonate Of Lime,
Plagioclase, Feldspar (Labradorite), Iron Ore(Magnetite). To be classified as a true mineral, a
substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure. It must also be a naturally
occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition.
The classifications of minerals are:
Silicates
This is the largest group of minerals. Silicates are made from metals combined with silicon
and oxygen. There are more silicates than all other minerals put together. They are classified
based on the structure of their silicate group. The silicates minerals make up the largest and
most important class of rock-forming minerals, constituting approximately 90 percent of the
Earth crust. Silicates minerals all contain silicon and oxygen. Silicate classification is based
on:

Single Chain
Double Chain
Two dimensional sheet minerals
Three Dimensional Frameworks

NON SILICATE

Non silicate mineral is a mineral that does not contain the silica tetrahedron. They are the
mineral that is not in silicate minerals group. They are also less complex than silicates group
and economically they are very important than the silicate minerals.
There are 5 classes of non silicate minerals. It is:

Oxides
Sulfides
Carbonates
Halides
Phosphates

1. Copper Ore (Chalcopyrite)


Chalcopyrite is a brass-yellow mineral with a chemical composition of CuFeS 2. It
occurs in most sulfide mineral deposits throughout the world and has been the most
important ore of copper for thousands of years. The surface of chalcopyrite loses its
metallic luster and brass-yellow color upon weathering. It tarnishes to a dull, gray-green
color, but in the presence of acids the tarnish can develop a red to blue to purple
iridescence.
2. Obsidian
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
It

is

produced

when felsic lava extruded

from

a volcano cools

rapidly

with

minimal crystal growth. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava
flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition (high silica content)
induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic
diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal
growth.
Black is the most common color of obsidian. Most obsidians have a composition
similar to rhyolite and granite. Granites and rhyolites can form from the same magma as
obsidian and are often geographically associated with the obsidian.

3. Slate

Slate is a rock that has many natural color variations including gray, blue, greenishgrey, dark red, black, tan and even purplish-gray. References to the color slate most
likely mean a medium-dark grey with blue undertones, because this is the most common
color variation of slate rock. Slate has a natural tendency to break into large, smooth, flat
pieces which makes it very easy to build with. Slate has been used for roofing tiles,
walkways, blackboards, small writing tablets, billiard tables, laboratory counter tops,
tombstones and floor tiles. It is often sealed to maintain its appearance. It is available with
a smooth finish suitable for chalkboards or a rougher, non-skid finish that makes for
durable non-skid footing.
4. White Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock formed when limestone is exposed to high
temperatures

and

pressures.

Marble

forms

under

such

conditions

because

the calcite forming the limestone recrystallises forming a denser rock consisting of
roughly equigranular calcite crystals. The variety of colours exhibited by marble are a
consequence of minor amounts of impurities being incorporated with the calcite during
metamorphism. While marble can appear superficially similar to quartzite, a piece of
marble will be able to be scratched by a metal blade, and marble will fizz on contact with
dilute hydrochloric acid. Marble is usually a light-coloured rock. When it is formed from
a limestone with very few impurities, it will be white in colour.
5. Argillaceous Sandstone
Argillaceous sandstones are often gray to blue. Because it is composed of light
colored minerals, sandstone is typically light tan in color. Other elements, however, create
colors in sandstone. The most common sandstones have various shades of red, caused by
iron oxide (rust). In some instances, there is a purple hue caused by manganese.
6. Red Sandstone
Quartz sand packed by pressure of overlying layers of rocks. Red stain usually from
small amount of hernatute. Used in curbing, building stone, and road construction.

8.0

CONCLUSION

Based on this identification on minerals experiment, we know that all the minerals are
actually very useful in their own way. Every single mineral has their own significance in
the variation of industries especially the construction industry. Besides using it as a sample
to evaluate during the design process, it is also can be a part of construction material.
For examples, feldspar also can be use as tarred roofing materials. In addition, it also
used in the cements and concrete. Still it is very useful in construction industry because
cement and concrete are the main material that we use to build any construction. Gypsum
can be processed and can be use as prefabricated wallboard or as industrial or building
plaster.
The knowledge of minerals is an essential for those who dealing with construction,
especially the one who involve in site investigation since they are responsible to any
geology data of the site. The flow of the construction is based on the geology data itself
because from the data, they can determine which method or which techniques that can be
use to make the construction safe, cheap and success.
From the experiment, we also have identified the physical characteristic of each
mineral that are very important in mineral identification. It is because they are different by
their physical and chemical characteristic. This experiment brings a lot of benefit to us in
order to improve our knowledge in geology.

TABLE 1.2.1 : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK


ROCK
NAME
Obsidian

Rhyolite

TEXTURE

COLOUR

Aphanitic,

Black

CHEMICAL

COMPOSITION

COMPOSITION

Quartz, hornblende,

even or

orthoclase, plagioclase,

porphyritic

muscovite, biotite

Aphanitic,

Grayish

Quartz, hornblende,

even or

orange pink

orthoclase, plagioclase,

porphyritic
Biotite-granite

MINERAL

ORIGIN

65% acid

Plutonic

65% acid

Plutonic

65% acid

Volcanic

Volcanic

muscovite, biotite

Medium to

Light

Quartz, hornblende,

course

brownish

orthoclase, plagioclase,

phaneric

grey

muscovite, biotite

Hornblende

Aphanitic,

Very light

Quartz, hornblende,

55%-65%

syenite

porphyritic

grey

orthoclase, plagioclase,

intermediate

magnetic & ilmenite, biotite


Basalt

Aphanitic,

Dark grey

Hornblende, augite, olivine,

even or

plagioclase, magnetic &

porphyritic

ilmenite

45%-55% basic

Volcanic

SKETCH

7.0

QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

1. Briefly explain two (2) types of igneous rock


There are various ways of classifying igneous rocks. The most significant are
mineralogical and chemical composition and rock texture (geological environment). Igneous
rock are either formed Intrusive and Extrusive Rocks.
Extrusive Rock
Cools rapidly at the surface producing fine-grained (aphanitic) igneous rock.
Intrusive Rocks
Cools slowly underground producing course-grained (phaneritic) igneous rock.
2. Explain the igneous rock classification according to the texture and chemical and
mineral composition.
Igneous rocks are classified according to texture, chemical and mineral composition. The
classification of the many types of different igneous rocks can provide us with important
information about the conditions under which they formed. From the specimen, there are five
types of igneous rock that has been chosen.
i.

Obsidian
-

Obsidian is an igneous rock that is very different than most types. The texture of
obsidian is aphanitic which as an adjective, (from the Greek is invisible) is a name
given to certain igneous rocks which are so fine grained that their component mineral
crystals are not detected by the unaided eye (as opposed to phaneritic igneous rocks,
where the minerals are visible to the unaided eye) even or porphyritic which relating
to or denoting a rock texture containing distinct crystals or crystalline particles
embedded in a compact groundmass. The mineral composition are Quartz 26%,
Hornblende 5%, Ortoclase 32%, Plagioclase 6%, Muscovite 16% and Biotite 16%.
The chemical composition is Acid >65%. Obsidian is formed by very rapid cooling of
lava. When certain types of lava cool this fast, it make volcanic glass or Obsidian.

ii.

Rhyolite
-

Rhyolite is a light-colored, fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock that typically contains


quartz and feldspar minerals. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across. The texture of rhyolite is aphanitic, even or porphyritic. The
mineral composition are Quartz 26%, Hornblende 5%, Ortoclase 32%, Plagioclase
6%, Muscovite 5% and Biotite 16%. The chemical composition is Acid >65%.
Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock, and
consequently, outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Rhyolites that
cool too quickly to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre, also called
obsidian.

iii.

BIOTITE GRANITE
-

Biotite-Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous


rock. Granites usually have a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some
individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass, in which case the
texture is known as porphyritic. The texture of Biotite-Granite is medium to coarse,
phaneric. The mineral compositions are Quartz 27%, Hornblende 4.8%, Ortoclase
32%, Plagioclase 6.4%, Muscovite 6.4% and Biotite 16.6%. The chemical
composition is Acid >65%. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes
known as a porphyry. Granites can be pink to gray in color, depending on their
chemistry and mineralogy. By definition, granite has a color index (the percentage of
the rock made up of dark minerals) of less than 25%. Granite is usually found in the
continental plates of the Earth's crust.

iv.
-

HORNBLENDE SYENITE
Hornblende Syenite is an uncommon, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock. It has the
same general composition as granite, but the quartz component is either absent or
present in relatively small amounts less than five percent. The different varieties of
syenite are named on the basis of additional minerals in the rock,for example,
hornblende syenite and mica syenite. Syenites are occasionally used as building
stones. The texture of Hornblende Syenite is medium to coarse, phaneric. The mineral
compositions are Quartz 1.6%, Hornblende 32%, Ortoclase 22.4%, Plagioclase 24%
and Biotite 14.4%. The chemical composition is Acid 55% to 65%. A syenite is

produced when a granitic or igneous rock undergoes a fairly low degree of partial
melting, a condition that is required because potassium is an incompatible element and
tends to enter a melt first.

v.
-

BASALT
Basalt is a common extrusive volcanic rock. It is usually grey to black and finegrained due to rapid cooling of lava at the surface of a planet. Unweathered basalt is
black or grey. On Earth, most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting
of the mantle. The texture of Basalt is aphanitic, even or porphyritic. The mineral
compositions are Hornblende 11.2%, Augite 24%, Olivite 1.6%, Plagioclase 38.4%
and Magnetite and Ilmenite 17.6%. The chemical composition is Acid 45% to 55%.
The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition
typical of basalt, but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic (coarse) groundmass
are generally referred to as diabase which also called dolerite or gabbro.

8.0

CONCLUSION
Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and

metamorphic rock. From our observation of the igneous rock in the given Table 1.2.1 in the
laboratory, it is also its significance in construction industry. The geologist and engineer
working on projects have determined the origin of the igneous rock and the mineralogy of the
rock which types are suitable for the projects.
Based on results, there are certain uses of each igneous rock. They are basalt which an
igneous, extrusive fine-grained and dark gray to black rock. It is the volcanic equivalent of
plutonic gabbro and is rich in ferromagnesian minerals. Basalt can be used in aggregate and
roadbeds. It is widely used for railroad track beds. It is widely used as crushed stone for
concrete aggregate, road metal, railroad ballast, etc. Smaller quantities are cut and polished
for dimension stone and called black granite. Granite is an igneous-plutonic rock, medium to
coarse-grained that is formed mainly of feldspars, quartz and mica and is extremely hard and
light colored. It makes a high grade aggregate for construction and is a favorite dimension
stone for statues, buildings and counter tops and is widely used in many building products like
asphalt shingles. Obsidian also is an igneous-volcanic rock that is glassy with a brilliant
vitreous luster. It is generally black but more or less smoky along translucent to transparent
edges and may be found in gray, reddish brown, mahogany, or dark green. Black is sometimes
mixed with the other colors to form thin bands or produce a marbled effect. Obsidian
scratches window glass and is so silica-rich that when slowly crystallized a very light-colored
granite is formed. It occurs as volcanic lava flows are thick and of limited areas. In olden
times it was used as knives, spearheads and other sharp implements that are a result of
conchoidal fractures. Native Americans formed arrows out of obsidian. Finally is rhyolite
which is an igneous-volcanic rock that is the volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite, having
excess silica. It is very fine-grained and occurs when magma of granitic composition erupts at
the earths surface or intrudes the crust at shallow depths. It cools rapidly so only small
crystals are able to develop. It is mainly a construction rock.Therefore, we know that igneous
rock has its own uses and very significance in construction industry because igneous rocks
vary greatly in suitability for various types of engineering projects.

TABLE 1.2.2 : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK


ROCK NAME

TEXTURE

MODE OF
ORIGIN
Hidrogenic,
biochemical or
chemically altered

Chert

Coarse ( > 2mm )


Medium ( 1/16 to
2mm )
Fine ( < 1/16mm )

Gravel

Medium Grained
1 / 16 2mm

Mechanical or
Bioclastic

Conglomerate

Coarse Grained
( > 2mm )

Mechanical or
Bioclastic

Argillaceous

( 1 / 256 1 / 16 mm )
Fine Grained
< 1 / 256 mm

Medium Grained
1 / 16 2mm

shale

Shell limestone

COMPOSITION OF ROCK

CLASSIFICATION

Quartz and feldspar Clayey,


silty, sandy,
Ferruginous

Siliceous

Quartz, feldspar, and rock


fragments
Clayey, silty, sandy,
Calcareous, carbonaceous,
Not common
Quartz and feldspar
Clayey, silty, sandy,
Ferruginous
Not common

Various salts

Mechanical or
Bioclastic

Quartz and feldspar


Clayey, silty, sandy,
Ferruginous
Not common

Clastic Rock

Mechanical or
Bioclastic

Shell
Clayey, silty, sandy,
Calcareous, carbonaceous,
Calcareous phospatic

Clastic Rock

Clastic Rock

SKETCH

7.0

QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

1. List the characteristics that distinguish sedimentary rocks from igneous and
metamorphic rocks.
Criteria For Distinguish Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rock
In describing any rock, one should precede from the general to the particular, firstly its colour, behavior
on weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is igneous, sedimentary or
metamorphic rock. The outstanding characteristics of the igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks is
given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive that the rock belongs
to a certain class.

(a) Igneous
Interlocking grains, massive structures

i)

ii)
Absent of stratification or fossils
(a) Sedimentary

i)

and sorting
iii)Stratification
Interlocking
grains of grains into layers according to their size.

ii)

texture. or
iv)Fragmental
High feldspar

iii)

Grains often rounded.

iv)

Structures such as bedding, ripple marks and mud cracks.

v)

Presence of fossils.

vi)

Presence of minerals of chemical or organic origin, such as halite, gypsum, chert


carbonates.

vii)

Absence of easily weathered minerals such as biotite and augite.

ferromagnesian content

(b) Metamorphic
i)
Parallel orientation of mineral crystals

2.

ii)

Interlocking crystal

iii)

Secondary cleavage independent bedding.

iv)

Foliation, schistosity and slaty texture

Explain all the genesis of sedimentary rocks.


Sedimentary rocks may properly be regarded as secondary rocks, because they
generally result from weathering and disintegration of existing rock masses. The genesis of

sedimentary rocks involves four major processes. These four processes included
weathering, transportation, deposition and lithification (compaction and cementation).
Weathering is chemical and mechanical processes that act to break up rocks such as
an interaction between rocks exposed at the Earths surface and elements in the
atmosphere. The preexisting rocks can disintegrate and decompose either by physically or
chemically and forms layer of loose, decayed rock debris or soil. The unconsolidated
material can then be transported easily by various agents such as streams, wind,
groundwater and glaciers. For example, once surface rocks have been broken up into
fragments by weathering processes, erosion (by wind and moving water) can transport the
detrital material away from its source region to a new location where these new sediments
can be deposited.
The most effective form of sediment transportation is running water. Large
quantities of sediment are carried towards the sea and deltas are formed from sediment
transported by rivers. Wind and glaciers also transport sediment although restricted to
certain climatic zones. Sorting that occurs during transportation is an important factor in
the genesis of sedimentary rock. Water and air are fluids, thus the size of detrital material
that can be transported depends on the velocity of the fluid. In other words, rapidly moving
water or air can transport larger grain size detrital material that more slowly moving water
or air. Ice, on the other hand, is a solid. Thus, ice can transport all sizes of sediment
independent of the velocity at which the ice is moving. In the case of transport by water or
air, sediments are deposited at locations where the velocity of the fluid decreases. For
example, consider a river flowing out of the mountains into a lake.
Deposition process takes place due to settlement of sediments and loose aggregates.
The most significant factor in the origin of sedimentary rocks is the environment that exists
where the sediment is deposited. The depositional environment determined the
characteristics of sedimentary rock formed physical, chemical and biological condition. For
example, type of transporting agents, geochemical parameters such as pressure, oxygen,
temperature, and flow characteristics of depositing fluids (velocity). Distinctive types of
texture, composition, internal structure, and fossil assemblages are thus developed in each
deposition.
Lithification is the process of converting unconsolidated sediments into
sedimentary rocks. Compaction is the process whereby loose sediments are compacted to a

denser state by additional stress from accumulated material deposited from time to time or
even tectonic forces. The process of expulsion of water from the void spaces between
particles takes place as they are forced closer together. Cementation is an important process
that transforms sediment into solid rock. The process takes place by filling the voids in
pore spaces by chemical precipitation. These pore spaces are gradually filled by
precipitation from groundwater. This is the most effective lithification process due to the
chemical cement that bonds the particles together. Most commonly cementing minerals are
silica, calcium carbonate, limonite and iron oxide.

SEDIMENTARY
METAMORPHI
C

IGNEOUS

Chemical
ly

WEATHERIN
G
(disintegrat
(disintegrat
e)

Physicall
y

This whole process of forming sedimentary rocks is known as


DIAGENESIS. The figure below shows the pre existing rocks exposed on Earths
surface.
detached rock
fragment
loose SURFACE
PRE EXISTING ROCKS EXPOSED
ON EARTHS
aggregates sediment

EROSION &
TRANSPORTAION

DEPOSITION

Compactio
n

LITHIFICATION

Cementatio
n

Figure 1 : The pre existing rocks exposed on Earths surface

8.0

CONCLUSION

Sedimentary rocks are formed when eroded fragments of old rocks and dead
organisms settle (usually in seas or rivers) to form sediment. Over millions of years, layers of
sediment build up and are buried one on top of the other. They are compressed, and their
weight squeezes out the water. Eventually the pieces of rock in the sediment become bonded
together to form sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary rocks are laid down in layers called beds or strata. Each new layer is laid
down horizontally over older ones. There are usually some gaps in the sequence called
unconformities. These represent periods in which no new sediments were being laid down, or
when earlier sedimentary layers were raised above sea level and eroded away.

Sedimentary rocks contain important information about the history of the Earth. They
contain fossils, the preserved remains of ancient plants and animals. The composition of
sediments provides us with clues as to the original rock. Differences between successive
layers indicate changes to the environment which have occurred over time. Sedimentary
rocks can contain fossils because, unlike most igneous and metamorphic rocks, they form at
temperatures and pressures that do not destroy fossil remnants.
Sedimentary rocks such as limestone can be used for a variety of purposes including
highway construction and building stones, and, in the classroom, as chalk. Rocks such as coal
and oil shale can be processed for their valuable, energy-containing carbon compounds. Rock
gypsum can be ground up and used in a number of ways, including plaster and wall board.
Virtually all buildings and public structures require sedimentary rock in their
construction. The cement and the sand and gravel used to make concrete, iron ore for steel,
bauxite used in making aluminum, brick and tile, cut stone used for facing large buildings,
and even asphalt for the roads which make these buildings accessible.

TABLE 1.2.4 : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK


ROCK
NAME

Gneiss

Mica Schist

Quartzite

Slade

White
Marble

STRUCTURE

GRAIN

Gneissic

Medium to
coarse

Schistose

Medium to
coarse

Granulose

Medium to
coarse

MINERAL
COMPOSITIO
N

PARENT
ROCK

Quartz,
Feldspar,
Minor,
Ferromagnesians

Granite,
Arkose,
Conglomerate.

Micas,
Quartz,
Feldspar,

Shale,
Mudstone or
tuff

Quartz greatly
predominant

Cleared

Very fine

Clay mineral,
Detrital micas,
Chlorite

Granulose

Medium to
course

Calcite of dolomite
greatly dominant

METAMORPHISM
TYPE

Regional

Increasing
Regional

Quartz,
Sandstone

Regional

Shale,
Mudstone tuff

Dynamic

Limestone

Contract of
regional

SKETCH

7.0

QUESTION AND DISCUSSION

1. What is foliation?
Foliation is characteristic of the main group of metamorphic rock. The word means
that the minerals of which the rock is formed are arranged in felted fashion. Each layer is
lenticular and composed of one or more minerals, but the various layers are not always
readily separated from one another. It will be appreciated that these characteristics are
different from the flow structure of lava and also from the deposition bedding which occurs
in unaltered sedimentary rocks. Schist is the name commonly applied to such a foliated rock,
and the various types of schistose rock are among the best-known metamorphic rocks.
One of the most conspicuous features of these rocks is a direction of parting akin to
bedding which often maintains a general orientation for a considerable distance. This feature
is termed foliation. Any foliated metamorphic rock will split much more easily along the
foliation plane than in any other direction through the rock. In fact, all the physical properties
of the foliated rocks tend to be highly directional.

2. Distinguish between slaty cleavage, phyllitic, schistosity and gneissic texture.


i. Slaty Cleavage - This texture is caused by the parallel orientation of microscopic
grains. The name for the rock with this texture is slate, and the rock is characterized
by a tendency to separate along parallel planes. This feature is a property known as
slaty cleavage.
ii. Phyllitic Texture - This texture is formed by the parallel arrangement of platy minerals,
usually micas that are barely macroscopic. The parallelism is often silky, or
crenulated. The predominance of micaceous minerals imparts a sheen to the hand
specimens. A rock with a phyllitic texture is called a phyllite.
iii. Schistose Texture - This is a foliated texture resulting from the suhparallel to parallel
orientation of platy minerals such as chlorite or micas. Other common minerals
present are quartz and amphiholes. A schistose texture lies between the parallel platy
appearance of phyllite and the distinct banding of gneissic texture. The average grain
size of the minerals is generally smaller than in a gneiss. A rock with schistose

texture is called a schist.


iv. Gneissic Texture - This is a coarsely foliated texture in which the minerals have been
segregated into discontinuous hands, each of which is dominated by one or two
minerals. These bands range in thickness from 1 mm to several centimeters. The
individual mineral grains are macroscopic and impart a striped appearance to a hand
specimen. Light-colored bands commonly contain quartz and feldspar. and the dark
hands are commonly composed of hornblende and hiotite. Accessory minerals are
common and are useful in applying specific names to these rocks. A rock with a
gneissic texture is called a gneiss.

8.0

CONCLUSION
Metamorphic rock is the transformation of an existing rock type, the protolith, in a

process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". The protolith is subjected to
heat and pressure (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 C and pressures of 1500 bars)
causing profound physical and/or chemical change. The protolith may be sedimentary rock,
igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of
the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage
(metamorphic facies). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface,
subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can
form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure,
friction and distortion. They are also formed when rock is heated up by the intrusion of hot
molten rock called magma from the Earth's interior. The study of metamorphic rocks (now
exposed at the Earth's surface following erosion and uplift) provides us with information
about the temperatures and pressures that occur at great depths within the Earth's crust.
Metamorphic rocks are hard and non-porous, meaning that water cannot filter through
them. Metamorphic rocks are formed when an existing rock changes shape or size due to
intense heat and/or pressure. The metamorphic rock marble is used in high-end construction
projects, where it is made into kitchen counter tops and luxury flooring tiles. The formation
of marble is rare and so it is seen as an expensive, luxury item in construction. Another
metamorphic rock, slate, is more commonly used. Typically it is made into tiles for roofs.
Gneiss a metamorphic uneven granular medium to coarse grained crystalline with more or
less parallel mineral orientation. Colors are too variable to be of diagnostic value. Due to
physical and chemical similarity between many gneisses and plutonic igneous rocks some are
used as building stones and other structural purposes.
Marble a metamorphic even-granular grain to medium grained and may be uneven
granular and coarse grained in calc-silicate rock. The normal color is white but accessory
minerals act as coloring agents and may produce a variety of colors. Depending upon its
purity, texture, color and marbled pattern it is quarried for use as dimension stone for statuary,
architectural and ornamental purposes. Dolomite rich marble may be a source for magnesium
and is used as an ingredient in the manufacture of refracting materials.

Schist are fissile or foliated contains many rocks or minerals, usually mica called as mica
schists, its weather vastly through the luminous cleavages, giving rise to soil high in
vermiculite and quartz, used for building stones
Slate is hardened shale or siltstone or mudstones containing fine grained rocks high in
mica and quarts
Quartzite is recrystallized quartzitic sandstone, formed by the action of heat and pressure.
Very slow to weather and produces shallow light textured sandy soil. It is extremely resistant
to weathering. It can be used for construction, e.g. red-brown sandstone or "brownstone".