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Blended Learning

Historically, the form of our education were conducted in traditional classrooms where a
teacher led the class in a face-to-face learning environment. Today, with the facilitation of
technology, our daily activities are pushed into an easy-living environment and so does the
teaching and learning style. Later on with the help of the internet in education, there is an
existence of Online Learning. But even then, many teachers in online learning classrooms tend
to take all the exact same things theyve taught in the onsite classroom to the online class as
what Campbell and Groom (2009) mentioned digital facelift, which is insufficient to realize our
learners potential in the twenty-first century. Seeing the lack of the two teaching and learning
styles above, there is a combination between the two styles together into what they call Blended
Learning. In today educational settings, blended learning are used interchangeably with hybrid
courses, and it is recently becoming a trending word in the field. According to a study conducted
by the California Learning Resource Network (CLRN), 78% of respondents in a study either
offered blended learning or planned to within the following school year.
Definition of Blended Learning
Blended learning simply refers to the
integration of the advantages of the online
learning method with some aspects of
traditional methods such as face-to-face
leaning. Instructor may use the classroom to
present the lesson and have group discussion online to encourage students to share idea about
the topic. According to Stein and Graham (2014), blended learning focuses on blended courses
as a combination of onsite (i.e. face-to-face) with online experiences to produce effective,
efficient, and flexible learning. Its assumed to provide the integration of synchronous and
asynchronous learning and technology enriched learning activities.
Key elements of Blended Learning

When emerging theories of Constructivism, Cognitivism, and Performance

support, Carman (2005) observes that there are five key elements in blended learning process
as the following:
1. Live Events: synchronous (online class learning activities that happen at the same time),
instructor-led learning events in which all learners participate at the same time, such as
in a live virtual classroom.
2. Online Content: learning experiences that the
learner completes individually, at his own speed and
on his own time, such as interactive, Internet-based
or CD-ROM training.
3. Collaboration: environments in which learners
communicate with others, for example, email and
online chat.
4. Assessment: a measure of learners knowledge:
pre-assessments - to determine prior knowledge,
and post-assessments - to measure learning

Prepared by: LYHOUR HENG

Academic year 2016-2017

5. Reference Materials: materials that enhance learning retention and transfer, including
PDA downloads, and PDFs.

Model of Blended Learning

Based on 40 existing programs in The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning: Profiles of
Emerging Models, Staker and her team proposed six simply understandable models of blended
learning as the following:
1. Face-to-face driver: The teacher provides online learning for remediation or
supplemental instruction.
2. Rotation: Students will experience a mixture of online and classroom instruction.
3. Flex: The curriculum is presented via an online platform with teacher support.
4. Online Lab: The physical lab is used to deliver the online course approach
5. Self-blend: Students are encouraged to select which courses they will take in order to
supplement what is offered at their school
6. Online driver: The primary format is online but physical facilities for various happenings
such as extracurricular activities, check-ins, and other functions.
Academic goal of Blended learning
The vision of blended learning according to the blended learning at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology ( MIT) are as the following:
Provide appropriate support for learners (time, technology, guidance)
Develop clear learning and performance goals
Make objective decisions based on the best learning outcomes
Make collaborative decisions (from learners perspective)
Obtain visible, enthusiastic management support
Move basic skill development to eLearning and use the classroom for more advanced
Teachers role
According to a research from Edgenuity, there are ten research-based roles that teachers in
blended classroom should adopt to boost students learning performance.
1. Understand the technology students will be using
2. Create a data-driven culture
3. Set high expectations
4. Carefully plan offline activities
5. Promote deeper learning and check for understanding
6. Teach students metacognitive and self-regulation skills
7. Make learning relevant and engaging
8. Monitor data
9. Provide positive feedback to students and celebrate success
10. Encourage online discussion
Advantages of blended learning
RESEARCH UNIVERSITY, Futch (2005) mentioned the benefit of blended learning into four

1. More effective pedagogy

2. Improved outcomes
3. Convenience, flexibility, and access (reduced opportunity cost)
Prepared by: LYHOUR HENG

Academic year 2016-2017

4. Cost effectiveness.
Disadvantages of blended learning
In the same research thesis, Futch (2005) also raised some challenging factors she found in
blended learning. Those challenges are as the following:

1. Finding the right blend

2. Increased time demands
3. Technical difficulties
4. Institutional barriers.
VIII. Teaching example
The teaching objective is planned at differentiating between Present simple and Past simple.
Teacher and students work together in the onsite classroom
Teacher uses instructor-led technique in explaining the grammar points to students
Students works collaboratively in groups discussing the use of the grammar points
Teacher brings exercises on the online website to test students understanding of the

Students listen to the song and complete the exercises in their web-browser (can be
onsite classroom or anywhere with the internet connection)
Teacher creates group discussion on Facebook and gives feedback online.

Carman, M. J. (2005). Blended Learning Design: Five Key Ingredients. Retrieved on 21st
September, 2016 from
Cambell, G., & Groom, J. (2009). No digital facelifts: Toward a personal cyber infrastructure.
Conference Presentation: Open Ed 2009, University of British Columbia, British
Columbia, Canada.
Stein, J & Graham, C.R. (2014). Essentials for Blended Learning: A standard-based guide.
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Futch, S. L. (2005). A Study of blended learning at a metropolitan research university. (Doctoral
thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida). Retrieved on 22nd September,
2016 from

Prepared by: LYHOUR HENG

Academic year 2016-2017