Endocrinology of Genitourinary System Anatomy

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Renin Peptide Hormone Secreted by Kidney from Granular Cells of Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Secreted in Response to ↓ Arterial Blood Pressure (↓ in Blood Volume)(Detected by Baroreceptor) ↓ NaCl in Ultra-Filtrate of Nephron (Flow is Measured by Macula Densa of Juxtaglomerular Apparatus) Sympathetic Nervous System Activity (also control BP) (act through β1-Adrenergic Receptors) Human Renin is Secreted by at least 2 Cellular Pathways Constitutive Pathway Regulated Pathway Secretion of Prorenin Secretion of Mature Renin Processes ↓ BP produce a Baroreceptor Resp onse (↑ Sympathetic Activity)

Secretes ↑ Renin

Renin → Angiotensinogen → Angiotensin I

(Lungs ) by ACE, Angiotensin I → Angiotensin II

Angiotensin II Produces ↑ Aldosterone

Aldosterone Stimulates Reabsorption of Sodium (Distal Tubule, Collecting Duct)

Cl- (-ve charge) Follow Na+ (+ve charge) Passively

H2O flows them into Blood (Reabsorption) by Osmosis

Erythropoietin (EPO) (Hematopoietin, Hemopoietin) Glycoprotein Hormone that Controls Erythropoiesis Is a Cytokine for Erythrocyte Precursors in Bone Marrow Produced by Peritubular Capillary Endothelial Cells (in Kidney) (Peritubular Fibroblasts of Renal Cortex) Small amounts produced in Liver Biological Functions 1° - Promoting Red Blood Cell Survival (protecting cells from Apoptosis) Brain’s Response to Neuronal Injury Wound Healing Process Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent (ESA) Exogenous EPO is used as a Performan ce-Enhan cing Drug Regulation Feedback Mechanism (measuring Blood Oxygenation) Hypoxia-Inducible Factors (HIFs) (Transcription Factors for EPO) Hydroxylated, Proteosomally Digested in Presence of Oxygen Binds to Erythropoietin Receptor (EpoR) on RBC Surface Activates JAK2 Cascade Found in (Activate Intracellular Biological Pathways upon binding with Epo) • Bone Marrow Cells • Peripheral, Central Nerve Cells Cooperates with various Growth Factors (Involved in Development of Precursor Red Cells) CFU-E BFU-E (Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) (Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid) Completely dependent on Responsive to Erythropoietin Erythropoietin Under Hypoxic Con ditions, Kidney will Produce, Secrete Erythropoietin (↑ Production of RBC by targeting CFU-E) Actions Vasoconstriction-Dependent Hypertension Stimulate Angiogenesis Induce Proliferation of Smooth Mus cle Fibers

Male Reproductive System – Gonads, Reproductive Tract, Accessory Sex Glands Reproduction Depends on Union of Male, Female Gametes Female System – Site of Prenatal Development Primary (1°) Reproductive Organs Male Female Pair of Testis Pair of Ovaries Spermatozoa Ova Testosterone Estrogen, Progesterone Reproductive Tract + Accessory Organs (found in Either Sex) Unique Secondary (2°) Characteristics are found in Each Sex (Traits include Differences in) Body Configuration Distribution of Body Hair

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Reproductive Endocri nology Cells of Leydig in Testis – Secrete Testosterone Testosterone is Secreted in Blood, Carried by Plasma Proteins Reaches Target Cells (Numerous Effe cts) Testosterone - 5 Major Effects Masculinises Reproductive Tract, External Genitalia (Fetal Testis) Growth, Maturation of Reproductive System (onset of Puberty) (Essential for Spermatogenesis, Maintain Male Reproductive Tract) Development of Sexual Libido Maintain Sex Drive (in Adult Male) Signals Development of Secondary (2°) Sexual Characteristics Signaling Protein Anabolism (Non-Reprodu ctive Functions) Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia Relatively Undifferentiated Primordial Germ Cells Diploid In the Outermost Layer in Walls of Seminiferous Tubules Functional Sperm Cells (near Lumens of Tub ules) (Released) Proliferate by Mitotic Division (Produce New Primordial Germ Cells) (Move toward Lumen through Progressive Stages of Spermatogenesis)
Each Sperm-Forming Daughter Cells form 4 Ident ical Primary Spermatocytes These Dipl oid Cell s Carry out 1s t Me iotic Divi sion
↓ ↓

Each Primary Spermatocyte Forms 2 Secondary Spermatocytes (Haploid, Double-Stranded Chromosome s)

Each Secondary Spermatocytes forms 2 Spermatids (Haploid, Single-Stranded Chromosome)

Therefore, Each Primary Spermatocyte Forms 4 Spermatids Spermiogenesis Packaging (Remodelling) of Spermatids Differentiation into 4 Parts – Head, Acrosome, Tail, Midpiece Through Sperm Cell Maturation Cells are Intimately associated with Sertoli Cells (cells are in wall of Seminiferous Tubules) Tight Junctions between Sertoli Cells (form a Blood-Brain Barrier) Sertoli Cells Provide Nourishment for Sperm Cells Carry out Phagocytosis Secrete a Seminiferous Tubule Fluid into Lumens of Tubules Site of Action to Control Spermatogenesis (Signalled by Testosterone, FSH) Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG Axis)

Testosterone – Essential for Mitosis, Meiosis of Germ Cells FSH – Important for Spermatid Remodelling Estrogen – Male Reproductive Health Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Activity ↑ at Puberty Male Accessory Sex Glands Seminal Vesicles Prostate Gland Bulbourethral Glands Fructose for Energy Alkaline Fluid to Mucus Secretion for Prostaglandin for Neutralize Acidity of Lubrication Smooth Muscle Female Reproductive Tract Contraction in Tract Provide Clotting Enzymes Prostaglandins (Locally-Acting Chemical Messengers)(Fatty Acid Derivatives) • Promote Sperm Transport • Promote Bronch odilation • ↑ Renal Blood Flow • Inhibit HCl from Stomach • Enhance Cortisol Secretion

Female Reproductive Endocri nology Complex Cycling of Female Sex Hormones Ovaries Produce Ova Produce Estrogen, Progesterone Functions of Estrogen Maturation, Maintenance of Female System Establish Female Secondary Sexual Characteristics Ova Maturation, Release Transport of Sperm from Vagina to Site of Fertilization in Oviduct Function of Progesterone Prepare a Suitable Environment for Nourishing Developing Embryo, Fetus Ovarian Cycle (28 Days)

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Changes in Uterus Beginning of Menstrual Cycle, there is Sloughing off of Endometrium of Uterus (Due to ↓ Estrogen, Progesterone) Proliferative Phase In Follicular Phase (↑ Estrogen) cause Thickening in Uterine Lining Uterine Secretory Phase After Ovulation, Progesterone produce Further Thickening of Uterine Lining Suitable for Implantation New Ovarian Follicular Phase Degeneration of Corpus Luteum Menstruation begins Female Cycle Cyclical Changes in Cervical Mucous Fluctuating Estrogen, Progesterone Puberty changes in Females = Males GnRH Secretion ↑ (at Onset of Puberty) GnRH – Stimulate release of Hormones from Anterior Pituitary Estrogen – Changes in Female Reproductive System, Body Characteristics Menopause Mid-Life Hypothalamic Change (cau se Onset of Menopau se) Characterized by ↑ Irregular Cycles, Dwindling Estrogen Levels (Has widespread physiological actions) Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG Axis)

Follicular Phase 1st Half of Cycle Dominated by Maturing Follicles Granulosa cells of some Primary Follicles Proliferate Oocyte inside each Follicle Enlarges Theca Cells (in Follicle) secrete ↑ Estrogen (Circulate throughout Body) Rapid Follicular Growth ↑ FSH signal Ovarian Follicle to Secrete ↑ Estrogen ↑ Estrogen Feedback to Inhibit FSH LH rises (Peaks in Mid-Cycle) Triggers Ovulation (Estrogen Output ↓) (Mature Follicle → Corpus Luteum)

Luteal Phase Corpus Luteum Left behind in Ovary after it loses its sex cell by Ovulation Corpus Luteum Secretes • ↑ Progesterone (compared to Follicular Phase) • Estrogen Degenerates after 14 Days of Formation (unless Fertilization, Implantation occur) If Fertilization, Implantation occur Corpus Luteum continue to secrete its hormones (Corpus Luteum of Pregnancy) Progesterone output Inhibits release of FSH, LH With ↓ LH, Corpus Luteum Degenerates Ovulation

1 Follicle Grows ↑ Rapidly Matures about 14 Days after onset of Follicular Development Follicle Ruptures to release Oocyte (from Ovary) Released Sex Cell Enters Oviduct (may or may not be Fertilized)

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Hormones Secreted by Placenta

Lactation

hCG Maintain Corpus Luteum of Pregnancy Estrogen Stimulate Growth of Myometrium (Strengthen it for Parturition) Progesterone Suppresses Uterine Contractions Relaxin Softens Cervix to prepare it for Cervical Dilation at Parturition Placental PTHrp ↑ Plasma Ca2+ in Maternal Blood Overall, Maternal Body System respond to ↑ Demands of Gestation Changes Include • Uterine Enlargement • ↑ Amount of Blood Parturition (Birth) During Last Trimester, Uterus becomes More Excitable Mild Contraction occur Cervix begins to Soften (near Parturition) Fetus Shifts Downwards (Head Contacting Cervix) Rhythmic contraction (Begin at Onset of Lab or) (↑ Estrogen) Oxytocin Labor Progresses Powerful Muscle Stimulant

↑ Estrogen Secretion Progesterone Prolactin Promotes Extensive Stimulates Mammary Gland Duct Development in Alveolar-Lobular Development Breasts Development Lactation Abrupt ↓ in Estrogen, Progesterone Loss of Placenta Oxytocin Prolactin Induce Milk Ejection Promotes Milk Secretion Breast Feeding (Advantages) Infant Mother Abundance of I mmune Cells Oxytocin Many Substances Hastens Involution of Uterus (eg. Lactoferrin) Weaning (Introdu cing Adult Diet, Withdrawal of Mother’s Milk) Cessation of Production

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