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IELTS

WRITING TASK 2

What can I write about this question?


BOOK 3

GLOBALISATION, GOVERNMENT &


SOCIETY

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to book 3. In this book I have concentrated on large world issues. Sometimes these topics
can be difficult to find ideas for, so I hope this book helps.
In the other two books, I mentioned how to plan your essay, how to structure each paragraph and
how to edit the completed work.
In this book, I have included some introductions and conclusions to help you understand how to
produce them. Once again, I have included model essays for you to check your work against at the
end of the book.
Remember, the only way to improve your writing is to practice. So:

WRITE WRITE WRITE


Kris

CONTENTS
1. Will globalisation lead to the total loss of cultural identity?
2. Is our quality of life being damaged by multinational companies and their products?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual and the company of working from home?
4. Should the government spend more money on health care and education than on theatres and sports
stadiums?
5. Should people have to pay for their own health care through private health insurance or should health
care services be free?
6. Should immigrants to a new country follow the customs of the new country or keep their old customs?
7. Is watching TV bad for children?
8. Does the government make too many rules to protect society from danger?
9. Should information in the media be controlled because it may have a bad influence on young people
and society?
10. What will life be like in 100 years?
11. Should scientific research be controlled by the government rather than private companies?
12. Is the use of surveillance cameras in streets and supermarkets a violation of human rights?
13. What are the problems of tourism?
14. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes the government or the people who
build the homes?
15. Should governments spend less money on defence and weapons and more on poor people?
16. Are famous people treated fairly by the media?
17. Should it be difficult for people to borrow large sums of money?
18. Should libraries spend their money only on books?
19. Are gifts becoming too commercialised?
20. What are the purposes of such places as museums and how should they be funded?
21. Is the world becoming more selfish and do we need to return to traditional values?

22. Why are we putting the elderly in nursing homes and is it a good or bad development?
23. What are some of the problems of overpopulation and what is one possible solution?
24. Are social welfare payments essential to protect the rights of citizens?
25. Should parents be obliged to immunize their children against childhood diseases?
26. Should young drivers be made to do a safe driving education course?
27. What factors influence the decisions made by news editors on which stories to choose? Have we got
used to bad news and should more good news be printed?
28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of public buildings? Should the money be spent on housing
instead?
29. How can the wealth gap between developed and developing countries be reduced? Should first world
countries help third world countries?
30. Should there be a single world currency? What would be the advantages and problems of this?

QUESTION 1
As mass communication and transport continue to grow, societies are becoming more and more alike leading to a phenomenon
known as globalisation. Some people fear that globalisation will inevitably lead to the total loss of cultural identity.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

PARTIALLY AGREE
TOPIC
Will globalisation lead to the total loss of cultural identity?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Through the use of mass
communications, the world has become a
smaller place. It has also become very
westernized. People from all over the
world watch American movies, listen to
western music and look at English
websites. Therefore many non-western
countries are taking on western ideas,
behaviours and beliefs.

2. In addition, students from many
countries are travelling to English
speaking countries to learn the language.
After living there for any length time, they
return home taking with them the ideas
and behaviours they learned. This not
only involves language but may include
many other social issues from ways of
dressing to interpersonal relationships
which could be very different in their
country. Thus they go back changed and
then may change some of their own
traditions. They become more globalised.

3. With the spread of the big multinational companies, these days many
people drive American cars, eat
McDonalds or KFC and drink Coca Cola.
These global commodities can be very
different to local products.

DISAGREE 1. However, most people from nonwestern countries would be shocked to
think that they would lose their national
identities completely. While English may
be becoming a world language, Koreans

will always speak Korean and Japanese


will always speak Japanese; even though
Konglish and Janglish are popular with
the young.



COMPLETE ESSAY
These days, the internet and cheap air fares have led to people having more contact with other countries
and cultures than any other time in history. The world has become a global village and some feel that this
is leading to a blending of cultures. Others fear that this blending will lead to the complete loss of some
cultures. This essay will show how I partially agree with this statement.
Through the use of mass communications, the world has become a smaller place. It has also become very
westernized. People from all over the world watch American movies, listen to western music and look
at English websites. Therefore many non-western countries are taking on western ideas, behaviours and
beliefs.
In addition, students from many countries are travelling to English speaking countries to learn the
language. After living there for any length time, they return home taking with them the ideas and
behaviours they learned. This not only involves language but may include many other social issues from
ways of dressing to interpersonal relationships which could be very different in their country. Thus they
go back changed and then may change some of their own traditions. They become more globalised.
Moreover, with the spread of big multi-national companies, many people drive American cars, eat
McDonalds or KFC and drink Coca Cola. These global commodities can be very different to local
products.
However, most people from non-western countries would be shocked to think that they would lose their
national identities completely. While English may be becoming a world language, Koreans will always
speak Korean and Japanese will always speak Japanese; even though Konglish and Janglish are popular
with the young.
In conclusion, although many countries are becoming more westernised because of globalisation, there is
little chance that whole cultures will disappear. Most cultures carry proud traditions from the past and
these will definitely continue into the future.
(314 words)

QUESTION 2
In most countries multinational companies and their products are becoming more and more important. This trend is seriously
damaging our quality of life. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
PARTIALLY AGREE

TOPIC
Is our quality of life being damaged by multinational companies and their products?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Companies like McDonalds and KFC sell their products
worldwide and these products are very bad for us. This
kind of fast food can lead to obesity and the health
problems related to that, like high blood pressure and
diabetes. Tobacco companies also sell products that are
deadly and these multinational companies sell cigarettes in
every country of the world.

2. These huge companies can afford enormous advertising
budgets. So we are forced to watch all this advertising and
then we are persuaded to buy their products.

3. Many of the products from multinational companies may
displace traditional ones like food and clothing.

DISAGREE
1. One area where multinational companies help people is
that they are big employers. People in many countries in the
world work for McDonalds and Nike and so on. There is
the counterargument that many of these people are
employed in sweat shops for minimal pay and very bad
conditions. Some people believe however, that if these
people did not have these jobs then they would have no
work and no money.

COMPLETE ESSAY
Multi-national companies can be found in countries all over the world. There isnt a country where you
cannot find McDonalds, Ford and Apple. The question of the effect of these companies on our way of life
has become an issue. Are these companies doing more damage than good? This essay will show how
multi-national companies can hurt a country and its population.
Companies like McDonalds and KFC sell their products worldwide and these products are very bad for
us. This kind of fast food can lead to obesity and the health problems related to that, like high blood
pressure and diabetes. Tobacco companies also sell products that are deadly and these multinational
companies sell cigarettes in every country of the world.
Furthermore, these huge companies can afford enormous advertising budgets. So we are forced to watch

all this advertising and then we are persuaded to buy their products. Moreover, many of the products from
multinational companies may displace traditional ones like food and clothing.
One area where multinational companies help people is that they are big employers. People in many
countries in the world work for McDonalds and Nike and so on. There is the counterargument that many
of these people are employed in sweat shops for minimal pay and in very bad conditions. Some people
believe however, that if these people did not have these jobs then they would have no work and no money.
To sum up, although multi-national companies may employ millions of people around the world, they do
so for poor wages and under bad conditions. The spread of these huge companies has benefitted the
companies in the form of profit but has done little good for the people and countries they have gone into.
(289 word)

QUESTION 3
With developments in modern technology, many people are able to work from home. What are the advantages for the individual
and the company of working from home? What are the disadvantages?

INTRODUCTION
The development of the internet has made business communication easier and faster. It has also allowed
employees to have the choice to work from home or not. This essay will discuss the benefits and
drawbacks of telecommuting for both the individual and the company.
TOPIC
What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual and the company of working from home?
PURPOSE
Advantages
1. There are many advantages for the individual of telecommuting.
Firstly, the worker does not have to spend time travelling to and from
work in peak hour traffic. This gives them more time to spend on the job.
Secondly, women can stay home and raise their families while also
keeping their jobs. Working from home allows for more flexible time
scheduling, so a woman who has children can fit her work timetable
around her family. The woman keeps her job and the employee keeps a
worker who they have trained. It would cost the company money to train
a new employee.

2. Companies can also benefit from telecommuting. If there are fewer
people in the office then the company can have smaller premises. This
will save them money in overheads, like rent and power. Secondly,
employees may be happier working from home and a happy employee is
a more productive worker.

Disadvantages
1. On the other hand, there are a few disadvantages associated with
telecommuting as well. The worker may miss the social aspect of work.
Working alone all day on a computer may lead to loneliness and feelings
of isolation. Secondly, the worker will have to be disciplined enough not
to be distracted by things in the home. Moreover, the authority figures in
the company are not on site, so management will have less control over
what their workers are doing.


CONCLUSION
In conclusion, there are many benefits for employees to work from home including time-saved, job
satisfaction and life balance. Employers can also reap the benefits through having to pay fewer overheads.
Although there may be a few drawbacks, the advantages of telecommuting definitely outweigh the
disadvantages.

QUESTION 4
Some people say the government should not put money into building theatres and sports stadiums; they should spend more
money on medical care and education. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

INTRODUCTION
In this increasingly complex world, governments have to decide where their limited budgets should be
spent. Some believe that they should be spent on the health and education of the people rather than on
entertainment facilities like stadiums and theatres. This essay will show how I mostly disagree with this
statement.
TOPIC
Should the government spend more money on health care and education than on theatres and sports
stadiums?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. One cannot deny that health care and education are very important
services in a country. In some developing countries, this is more important
than theatres and sports stadiums because these facilities are not available
to all the population. Therefore more money should be spent on making
sure the people have good health and education.

DISAGREE
1. However there is more to life than just health care and education.
Theatre is part of our cultural roots. Mention Kabuki, Shakespeare, or The
Bolshoi Ballet and one immediately recognises the culture they come
from. So venues to see these cultural performances are important to a
society.

2. In addition, sports stadiums are important for the simple reason that
they promote sport and therefore a healthy lifestyle. Young people follow
their favourite sports star or team and then want to play the sport. With
childhood obesity figures on the rise, any activity that encourages children
to play sport is important.


CONCLUSION
To sum up, while the health and education of a nation are important, cultural heritage and the protection of
it are just as important. A population interested in sport also leads to healthier people. Therefore,
governments need to spend at least some of their budgets on building venues for these pursuits.

QUESTION 5
The costs of medical health care are increasing all the time. Governments are finding it difficult to balance the health care
budget. Should citizens be totally responsible for their own health costs and take out private health insurance, or is it better to
have a comprehensive health care system which provides free health services for all? Discuss.


TOPIC
Should people have to pay for their own health care through private health insurance or should health
care services be free?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Every citizen has the right to a good health care system, whether they
are rich or poor. People should not be turned away from hospitals because
they do not have the money to pay or because they do not have insurance.
In some countries, like the USA, this is the case. It is inhuman and
immoral not to treat someone who is sick because they cannot pay.

2. A healthy population is an asset to a country. Healthy people work, earn
money and pay taxes. Governments should pay for health care as an
investment in their own economies.

DISAGREE
1. On the other hand, health care can be expensive. The price of new
medical technology is very high and may be beyond a governments
budget. Thus hospitals and therefore patients may miss out on the most up
to date treatment. Therefore richer people should be encouraged to take
out private health insurance to help balance the budget. Tax incentives, as
seen in Australia, would make people who can afford it, pay for their own
health care.


QUESTION 6
When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Others prefer to keep
their own customs. Compare these two choices.

TOPIC
Should immigrants to a new country follow the customs of the new country or keep their old customs?
PURPOSE
Keep old customs
1. One of the factors that make a multi-cultural society exciting is the
ethnic mix. Restaurants, clothing, theatre and supermarkets from India,
Korea, Greece and Vietnam add colour and flavour to a country. So
keeping some traditional customs can help a city attract tourists and
make new immigrants feel at home.

2. Certain traditions, especially religious traditions, should not be made
to change. One of the certainties of living in a democracy is that people

Follow new customs

of any colour or creed are free. If a certain group needs to follow a


dress code or food restrictions, then they should be free to do so.

1. However, some aspects of the new culture must be assimilated into
the new immigrants life. Laws of the land and general rules of
politeness must be observed, especially if they are different to the native
country. In Japan one is expected to take off their shoes in the house and
in India they haggle over the price of everything. Immigrants need to
realize that these modes of behaviour are unimportant or unacceptable in
Australia.

QUESTION 7
Many people argue that watching TV is bad for children. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?


TOPIC
Is watching TV bad for children?
PURPOSE
Agree
1. In the first place, watching TV is a
sedentary activity. Lying around on a sofa
and watching TV all day means that
children are not playing and getting
exercise. Because children are not as
active as in the past, childhood obesity
has become a major problem in all
countries of the world. The bad habits
that children learn will follow them into
adulthood. So fat children will become
fat adults and lead to the development of
diseases associated with obesity such as
high blood pressure, heart disease and
diabetes.

2. Secondly, much of the content shown
on TV is not suitable for children. Adult
themes like sex, drug use and violence are
presented and the young mind should not
have to deal with such issues. If there is
no parental control as to the content of
their watching, young people will be
exposed to unsuitable material.
Disagree
On the other hand, TV is a way for the
stressed student to relax. If regulated, a
couple of hours of TV a day is a good
way for a young person to unwind after
hours of study. In addition, there are many
educational documentaries and
programmes that a child can benefit from.

QUESTION 8
Governments make rules to protect people from danger, for example by making people wear seatbelts in cars or not allowing
smoking in public buildings. However, many people believe there are too many rules nowadays. To what extent do you agree or
disagree?


TOPIC
Does the government make too many rules to protect society from danger?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. There is a need to protect some people in every
society, in particular children. Government laws
have stopped child labour in Western countries,
which a hundred years ago was acceptable. There
are also government agencies and rules to protect
children from child abuse and other laws to make
sure that they get sufficient education to be valuable
members of society. All these rules are essential.

2. Furthermore, some rules are designed not only to
protect the individual, like the seatbelt law, but also
others. Banning smoking in public places stops the
risk of people being affected by smoking related
diseases through passive smoking. Cases of lung
cancer have been reported by non-smokers who
used to work in smoke-filled environments. A law
protecting the health of innocent workers was
necessary.

DISAGREE
1. However, some people feel that the government
has produced so many laws that we have become a
nanny state. By introducing so many restrictions,
individual freedom is being lost. The government
also needs to understand that we live in a
democracy where we should have rights to free
choice.

QUESTION 9
Some information in films, books and on the Internet has a bad influence on young people and society. Some people believe such
information should be controlled. Give your opinion on both points of view.

TOPIC
Should information in the media be controlled because it may have a bad influence on young people and
society?
PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Government censorship is a very tricky issue. There are certainly some

DISAGREE

themes that people, in particular young people, should not be allowed to


view. Young minds should not have to deal with issues of sex, drug use or
violence before they are mature enough to understand and judge them.
Many studies have shown that when children see a great deal of violence,
they become more aggressive towards their peers. Therefore, some
aspects of the media should be controlled.

1. However, where does the control stop? Once a government has control
of the media, they can then stop reports presented that show
dissatisfaction with the government. In some countries of the world,
reporters are not free to write about any government issues. This goes
against the basic human right of freedom of speech.

2. Besides this, it is not the government who should be in charge of
censoring a childs viewing, but the parents. They are the ones who should
be regulating what their children are watching and reading. If the power is
placed in the governments hands then there could be abuses of the system.

3. Parents and children can be informed of the content of shows through a
rating system, which is government prescribed. In Australia, each show is
given a rating which states what age the show is suitable for and then a
list of the themes are given. Parents can then decide if that programme is
suitable for their child. While the rating system is controlled by the
government, it still allows the viewer choice to watch it or not.

QUESTION 10
Some people feel that life in the future will be much better than today while others think the opposite. What will life be like in
100 years?

TOPIC
What will life be like in 100 years?
PURPOSE
GOOD
1. Life in the future will hopefully bring
new advances in medical treatment and
technology. We are on the way to finding
cures for cancer, AIDS and many genetic
disorders. Moreover, people are
becoming much more aware of the issues
that affect their health, like smoking and
obesity, so people will be healthier in the
future.

2. There will also be further advances in
the technology used for travel and
communication. It has only been in the
last twenty years that the Internet has been
developed which has seen huge
developments in the way we communicate
and receive information personally and in
business. In addition, travel has become
faster and cheaper and the world has
opened up to most people, leading to
globalisation.

BAD
1. However, there is a gloomy side to the
future as well. If we do not solve
environmental issues like global
warming, then the future is not so rosy. If
we keep burning fossil fuels and heating
up the Earth, then the consequences for
our planet will be dire. However, the
future may bring advances in alternative
fuels and energies, which will save the
planet. Developments in wind, solar,
hydro and thermal power are well
underway. Furthermore, the countries of
the world now know that they need to
plant more trees to sustain the
environment.

QUESTION 11
Scientific research should be controlled by governments rather than private companies. To what extent do you agree or
disagree?


TOPIC
Should scientific research be controlled by the government rather than private companies?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Firstly, scientific research should be under the control of
governments to make sure that the research is ethical and
correct. The main concern of private companies is to make
profits and they can skew the results of their research to suit
their own ends. An example of this would be the tobacco
industry. For years, tobacco companies claimed that they had
proof that tobacco did not harm your health. This, of course, has
been proven to be untrue. Companies that produced asbestos
also said it was safe. These companies produced false scientific
reports to sell more of their product. Government control would
stop false research.


DISAGREE
1. On the other hand, research is very expensive. Government
budgets are limited and must be spent on necessities like
infrastructure, health care and education. There simply is not
enough money to spend on the many things that need to be
studied. Big multi-national companies do have the budgets to
fund this research. They have the money to finance the people
and technology needed to produce results that will benefit
mankind.

2. The perfect solution is a combination of the two. The
research can be done by the private companies, usually to
produce a product that they can make profit from. This research
however, needs to be monitored by the government to ensure the
results are true and safe for people. Most countries have some
form of government agency, such as food and drug departments,
that test new products before they are made available to the
public. In this way the companies make money and the
government ensures the safety of its citizens.

QUESTION 12
Nowadays surveillance cameras are widely used in supermarkets and on the streets. Some people think that this is a violation of
human rights. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

TOPIC
Is the use of surveillance cameras in streets and supermarkets a violation of human rights?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Big Brother is watching you! has become a fact in our
society. There are cameras everywhere, watching every move
we make. Being constantly under the eye of a watcher, whether
it is in the street or the supermarket is very violating. A person
should have the right to be able to walk around their city
without being watched all the time. CCTV has taken away the
individuals right to privacy.

DISAGREE
1. It cannot be denied however, that CCTV is a great tool to
combat crime. Firstly it can be used as a deterrent. A person
may not commit a crime because he knows that he will be
recognized from the video and therefore caught. There is no
escaping the law when a camera is aimed at you.

2. Secondly, CCTV has been used very effectively to solve
crimes. Recently in Melbourne, a girl was savagely raped and
murdered as she walked home from a night out. Because of a
camera that was in a shop the girl passed and where she first
met her killer, the police were able to catch the murderer.
Although it did not stop the tragic crime, the camera helped the
police to capture a dangerous criminal and lock him away and
keep other women safe from him.

QUESTION 13
Tourism is becoming an increasingly important source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages should not be
overlooked. What are some of the problems of tourism?


TOPIC
What are the problems of tourism?

PURPOSE
PROBLEMS 1. The first problem caused by tourism is
the effect it has on the local population.
Retail outlets in tourist areas try to make
as much money out of the visitors as they
can. This means that prices for everyday

items can be more expensive than in nontourist areas. Thus the locals have to pay
more for day-to-day necessities, like
accommodation and food.

2. A further problem is that tourist areas
tend to attract crime. Criminals know that
tourists are travelling with valuables like
cameras, expensive mobiles and cash.
This can lead to pickpockets and muggers
moving into the area for what they see as
easy targets.

3. Large numbers of tourists can also have
an effect on the environment. Thousands
of people walking through natural areas,
such as national and heritage parks,
cannot but affect the environment. They
trample plants, frighten animals and leave
rubbish behind.

4. Last but not least, a large influx of
tourists in an area has a huge effect on the
infrastructure of that area. There is more
need for accommodation which means
building more resorts or hotels on land
that may be needed for other things. Other
infrastructure that is affected is water and
sewerage use. Finally, more people
produce more rubbish which must be
disposed of.

QUESTION 14
Safety standards are important when building peoples homes. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes
the government or the people who build the homes?


TOPIC
Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes the government or the people who build the homes?

Government

Builders

PURPOSE
1. In the first place, building contractors want to build homes as
cheaply as possible so they can make as much profit as possible.
Sometimes this means that they use inferior materials or building
methods. Therefore the government needs to check all their
procedures and methods to ensure the houses are safe to live in. In
some countries where there are not strict building codes, houses
have collapsed and killed people. This should not happen.

2. Secondly, in some countries there needs to be strict building
codes because the country may be prone to natural disasters. For
example, in Japan and New Zealand, buildings must be able to
withstand an earthquake. In Queensland, the government should stop
houses being built on flood plains. These building codes would stop
the loss of property or even life.

On the other hand, countries like Australia, which have very strict
building codes, have problems. The process of getting approval can
take a very long time. This makes the whole process of building a
house take longer and because of this, the house may cost more. The
process of approval can also be very expensive.


QUESTION 15
Many countries spend a great deal of money on defence and weapons. However some people feel that this is a waste of money
and the money would be better spent on helping poor people. Discuss this view and give your opinion.


TOPIC
Should governments spend less money on defence and weapons and more on poor people?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. The defence budgets of most first world countries are a huge
percentage of the governments budget. Even in third world
countries this is the case. It seems inhuman to spend money on a

DISAGREE

military when people are hungry, uneducated or sick, not only in


third world countries but also in the western world. These days,
the superpowers of the first world are all aligned and there is
enough military power to deal with any skirmishes that break
out, such as in Iraq and Afghanistan. Therefore, the governments
of the first world do not need to spend as much money on
weapons.

2. Secondly, war is often a result of need and poverty. If money
was spent on solving these problems then there would be less
need for the military. A country that is healthy, educated and rich
does not need to go to war. Germany went into WW II because
of a recession in the country and the Vietnam war fought by the
USA was very similar. If money was taken away from the
military and used to maintain a countrys wealth, then there
would be no need for war.

On the other hand, the military is a huge employer. Not only are
there thousands of people employed as soldiers, but there are
many other industries that manufacture everything from
weapons, to uniforms and the technology that a modern army
needs. These people also depend on defence contracts.

QUESTION 16
Are famous people treated fairly by the media? Should they be given more privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into
their private lives? Discuss.

TOPIC
Are famous people treated fairly by the media?

PURPOSE
YES
1. Quite often, famous people look for
publicity. In fact, they have special
publicity agents who ensure they are
getting enough. In a way, publicity is like
advertising but with the famous, they are
advertising themselves. They get huge
amounts of money for endorsing products
and this puts them in the limelight as well.
Actors and sports stars cannot complain
about their lack of privacy when they seek
to be in the public eye as often as
possible.

2. If a famous actor feels that their
privacy is being invaded then there is a
simple solution to this do not be an
actor. We all have a choice in our
professions and if being in the public eye
is something you do not want then choose
a job that does not demand this. Being an
object of public curiosity is just part of
the job of a famous person.

NO
1. On the other hand, being followed by
hoards of paparazzi must be a tremendous
strain. This can be seen in the tragic death
of the Princess of Wales, Princess Diana.
If she had not been chased by the
paparazzi, there may not have been an
accident and she would still be alive
today. In this case, the publicity machine
took two lives and that is unacceptable.


QUESTION 17
Many people are using credit cards or loans to run up huge personal debts that they may be unable to repay. It should therefore

be difficult for individuals to borrow large sums of money. What are your opinions of this?

TOPIC
Should it be difficult for people to borrow large sums of money?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. At present, all the major banks allow
anyone to have credit cards, quite often with
limits in the thousands of dollars. Many
banks will also lend 105% of a mortgage so
that you do not have to have any savings at
all. By law, in Australia, the banks are
supposed question the credit applicant as to
whether they have the ability to pay back the
loan. It is however fairly obvious that it is
very easy for people to build up five figure
debts. If the process of getting this money
was harder, then people would not get into so
much debt.

2. The banks do not care who they lend to
because, no matter what, they will make
money. Their interest rates on loans are very
high, and if a person is already in debt, the
high interest rates do not help them pay off
the loan. If the banks were made more
accountable, then this situation might be
different.

DISAGREE
1. On the other hand, do we need any more
government interference in our lives? The
government has made so many laws that we
are turning into a Nanny State. We are not
children that need to be told what to do all
the time. If a person cannot cope with their
debt, then it is their own fault. They
borrowed the money and spent it in the first
place. The individuals who build up these
debts have to learn to take responsibility for
their actions.

QUESTION 18
Public libraries have a limited supply of money so it should be spent on books rather than having facilities which offer high-tech
equipment such as DVDs, computers and computer games. Do you agree?

TOPIC
Should libraries spend their money only on books?

PURPOSE
AGREE

DISAGREE 1. We are living in the world of
technology. With the introduction of e
books and readers, people do not even
have to visit a library these days. They
can download any type of book
imaginable from many e book sites.
Possibly in the future all libraries will be
electronic and you will be able to
download books for free instead of
having to visit a library, spend time
choosing a book and then returning it.
Carrying an e book reader is much easier
than a big pile of books. Because of the
popularity of e books, libraries should be
looking into developing this technology
for their customers.

2. For students, libraries have become
mostly redundant as well. Most secondary
school and university students get the
information they need from the internet.
Therefore, a library should have
computers for people who cannot access
one of their own. Computer literacy and
access is essential in todays society and
the library is the place where
disadvantaged people should be able to
access them for free.

3. Libraries are places that record
culture, in particular in the form of the
written word. However, there are many
other forms of recorded culture as well.
Recordings of movies, music, theatre and
dance also need to be preserved. So this
should be part of the librarys function as

well.

QUESTION 19
Gifts are becoming more and more commercialised. What is your opinion?

TOPIC
Are gifts becoming too commercialised?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. A perfect example of this is Christmas.
In the past, Christmas was a Christian
religious ceremony but now days it is
much more about Santa Claus than
religion. Easter is about bunnies and
chocolate eggs. Stores start promoting
Christmas in October through advertising
and decorations. The festive season has
become a time for giving presents and this
has become much more important than the
original idea of the birth of Christ. Even
countries like Japan, that do not have a
Christian background, celebrate the
festival.

2. Valentines Day and Halloween have
also become much commercialised.
Globalisation has led to much of the
world adopting these American festivals.
So if you do not give your girlfriend a
present on Valentines Day, she will be
very disappointed. The merchandising for
Halloween has also become a big
industry.

3. It is a well-known fact that greeting
card companies have invented special
days so that they can sell more cards.
Grandparents Day and Teachers Day are
examples of this blatant
commercialisation.
DISAGREE

QUESTION 20
What are the purposes of such places as museums and how should they be funded?

TOPIC
What are the purposes of such places as museums and how should they be funded?

PURPOSE
PURPOSES
1. The first purpose of museums is to keep and record the
history, flora, fauna and culture of a country. Most
museums have examples, records and specimens of
animals and plants, examples of past technology and
lifestyles and artefacts from ancient cultures. They are the
places that these records are kept.

2. The second job of museums is education. Most school
students remember the class excursion to the museum and
the interesting things they saw there. Museums are places
that cater to all age groups. If the museum is famous it can
also attract tourists and therefore benefit the economy of a
country. Everybody is aware of the British Museum and
the Egyptian Museum and they are a must see on
travellers lists.

FUNDING
1. First and foremost, museums should be free to the
general public so that any member of the population can
see them, whether they are rich or poor. Funding should
come from two places. Firstly, because they are places
that protect a countries culture and attract tourists, they
should be partially funded by the government of that
country. Secondly, certain exhibits could be sponsored by
companies or wealthy individuals. These contributions
could be offset by tax rebates. Finally, if a country
borrows a particular exhibition from another country, the
costs could be paid by a small fee to view them.
QUESTION 21
Nowadays people are becoming more and more selfish and in order for society to become a better place we must return to more
traditional values. What is your opinion?


TOPIC
Is the world becoming more selfish and do we need to return to traditional values?

PURPOSE

AGREE

DISAGREE

1. One of the first reasons why people have become more


selfish is because there is so much competition in the
world. We have to compete for places at good high
schools and then at university. Then there is so much
competition in the business world. You have to fight other
people to get a good job and then you have to work against
each other to get higher in the company. In these days of
economic downturn there is even more competition for
jobs. So instead of trying to help or mentor each other we
are striving against each other.

2. Another factor that has led to more selfishness is the
death of the traditional community. In the past, people
knew their neighbours well and, as part of the community,
helped those who needed it. Now we live in huge cities
where it is rare to even know who your neighbours are let
alone offer to help them. This anonymity means we all
lead separate lives. Stories of people dying in their
apartments and nobody finding them for months are an
example of how separate and selfish our lives have
become. We need to get back to that sense of community
where we care for and look after our neighbours.

3. The third factor is that people do not feel safe helping
others. With so many internet scams around, people are
afraid to give money to charity online in case their identity
is stolen. If you help somebody in the street and it goes
wrong, you might find yourself facing a lawsuit. If you
meet someone online, they may not be who they say they
are and be a dangerous individual. For all these reasons,
people are afraid to step up and share because they might
become a victim of crime. Many modern day crimes did
not exist in the past so a solution to them seems
impossible.

QUESTION 22
Previous generations used to look after the older relatives in their families in their own homes. These days, many of the aged
live in nursing homes. Discuss why this has occurred and if you feel it is a good or bad development.


TOPIC
Why are we putting the elderly in nursing homes and is it a good or bad development?

PURPOSE
WHY
1. One of the main reasons families are putting their aged
members in nursing homes is that there is no one at home to
look after them. These days, most women have work outside
the house whereas in the past they used to stay at home to
look after children or elderly relatives. If an elderly relative
needs constant care then the only place they can get it is in an
aged care facility as during the day there is no one at home to
look after them.

GOOD OR BAD
1. There are many benefits to the elderly living in retirement
homes. If the facility is good, besides the medical and
nursing care available, there are many activities to keep the
patients stimulated. There are classes, shows, excursions and
daily exercise to keep the inmates minds and bodies nimble.
If they were living at home, there would be little of such
social activities.

2. However, abuses have been reported in the press. Because
of their frailty, some establishments take advantage of the
elderly patients by not giving them the proper care necessary.
There have been reports of patients left unattended for hours,
being tied to beds or even beaten. Usually these cases are in
the minority and it is up to the family and government
agencies to check that standards are being maintained.

QUESTION 23
The world is experiencing a dramatic increase in population. This is causing problems not only for poor, undeveloped countries,
but also for industrialized and developing nations.
Describe some of the problems that overpopulation causes, and suggest at least one possible solution.


TOPIC
What are some of the problems of overpopulation and what is one possible solution?

PURPOSE
PROBLEMS
1. The first major problem caused by overpopulation is
pollution. The more people there are the more demand there
is for products. Factories manufacture these products and
produce toxic emissions and create acid rain. There is more
demand for power and many power stations burn fossil fuels
to make electricity. This produces carbon dioxide which
contributes to global warming. A third factor that leads to
higher global temperatures is car exhaust. The more people
there are the more demand there is for cars and therefore
more exhaust. Besides all this, more people produce more
waste which has to be disposed of.

2. Secondly, a greater population needs more land for food
and accommodation. Therefore, natural habitats of animals
are destroyed which can lead to extinction of whole species.
Cutting down trees for farm land or development is another
factor that contributes to global warming.

SOLUTION
To solve these problems, population growth needs to be
stopped. China found the most effective policy with their
One Child law. There would have been disastrous
consequences if Chinas population had continued to grow.
They have managed to slow it through the very harsh
measure of allowing each family to have only one child. It is
only through harsh measures like this that the serious
problems of overpopulation can be solved.

QUESTION 24
Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a
guaranteed minimum income in a democratic society. Discuss.


TOPIC
Are social welfare payments essential to protect the rights of citizens?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. In a democracy, the rights of citizens to have a
basic income are very important. It is also the
humane duty of the wealthy to help support those
who are not as well off through taxes. It is not
only the unemployed who need to be looked after
by the state but also those who cannot work for
other reasons. These people are the sick, the
disabled, single mothers and the aged. If they
cannot get a minimum income, how are they
supposed to live?

2. In these troubled times of economic recession,
it is not the fault of the individual that they cannot
get a job. If the unemployment rate is high, there
are simply no jobs available. The unemployed
person cannot get a job and if they have a family,
they need state assistance to help them survive.
Without it, the poverty level of a country will rise
and this will lead to other social problems like
crime and violence.

REFUTE
3. On the other hand, some believe that there are
people who do not want to work and live off the
state welfare system. While this is true,
statistically it is a very small number compared to
the figures of people who do want to work but
cannot find a job. Others postulate that giving
people handouts like unemployment benefits
removes the motivation for finding a job.
However, the amount that is paid as social
welfare payment is so small that paid
employment, if available, is much more
preferable to benefit recipients.

QUESTION 25

Should parents be obliged to immunize their children against childhood diseases? Or do individuals have the right to choose not
to immunize their children?


TOPIC
Should parents be obliged to immunize their children against childhood diseases?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. In the first place, the whole idea of an immunization
programme is to keep all children safe. If everyone is
treated then there is a chance that the disease will
eventually disappear. This has been the case with the
world-wide immunization of people against small pox.
This was a disease that killed millions of people in the
past but is now virtually abolished.

2. If parents do not immunize their children, then, of
course, there is the chance that the child will catch that
disease. This has been the case with whooping cough.
Doctors are now seeing many more incidences of this
particular disease because the children have not been
immunized. Immunization keeps children safe from some
very deadly or debilitating diseases like polio and
meningitis. Nobody wants their children to get sick so
they should be immunized, and to protect all children, this
should be prescribed by the government.

DISAGREE
1. In contrast, there are parents who believe that the serum
that is used for some immunizations is harmful to their
children. There have been reports of side-effects from
some of the serums such as brain damage and other
terrible consequences. Therefore parents are very
reluctant to immunize them.

QUESTION 26
The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to make all young drivers complete a safe driving education course
before being licensed to drive. To what extent do you agree.


TOPIC
Should young drivers be made to do a safe driving education course?

PURPOSE
AGREE
1. Many accidents on the roads are caused by
young drivers and that is why insurance
premiums are so high for the younger motorist.
Young drivers, particularly young men, often
have a better idea of their driving skills than is
the reality. They often speed and drive under the
influence of drugs or alcohol. Moreover, when
they are in a dangerous situation they do not have
the driving experience to get themselves out of it
safely. A safe driving course may give them the
skills they need.

DISAGREE
2. It is not only young people, however, who
cause traffic accidents. There are still a great
many older drivers who speed or drive under the
influence of alcohol. Police statistics record this
fact. These people also need education
programmes to stop them from committing
driving offences. Harsher penalties for drink
driving and speeding may also reduce the
number of accidents.

2. Road conditions also contribute to a number
of car crashes. In this case the driver is not at
fault. The government needs to ensure the roads
are safe for all drivers, young and old.


QUESTION 27
News editors decide what to broadcast on television and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence these
decisions? Have we become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was reported?


TOPIC
What factors influence the decisions made by news editors on which stories to choose? Have we got

used to bad news and should more good news be printed?



PURPOSE
FACTORS
1. The first factor that influences editors is audience appeal. The bigger
the audience the more advertising they can sell. Quite often the more
sensational stories capture the largest audience. As viewers become
desensitized to what they are seeing, editors have to find more and more
sensational stories. That is why big disasters like the earthquake and
tsunami in Japan and the floods in Queensland got so much coverage.

2. The second factor that affects an editors decisions on stories is the
cost. It is much cheaper to produce soft news like entertainment and
fashion stories than hard news from other parts of the world. It is a fact
that a great number of news presentations these days are these soft stories.

GOOD OR BAD NEWS 1. It is also true that people prefer bad news stories. They are more
exciting than good news. We would rather hear about a tragedy on the
other side of the world where it cannot affect us than a cat being
rescued from a tree.

2. In addition, with editors trying to save money by producing soft news
stories, there is plenty of material in newspapers and on the TV that is not
bad news.

QUESTION 28
In many major cities of the world, you will find large public buildings, both new and old. Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of such buildings. How important is it for a country to construct impressive public buildings when houses are what
are really required?


TOPIC
What are the advantages and disadvantages of public buildings? Should the money be spent on housing
instead?
PURPOSE
ADV. / DISADV.
1. The main advantage of impressive public buildings is the tourist
attraction they are. Who would not visit Sydney without seeing The
Sydney Opera House or The Taj Mahal in India? These iconic buildings
draw tourists to a country which is of great economic importance.

2. The main disadvantage is the cost of building massive structures and
then the cost of maintenance. This has to come out of the public pocket
and is taken away from other budgets like housing, education and health
care.

HOUSING
1. Many of the most important buildings in many cities were built long in
the past. Examples of these would be the Taj Mahal, the Forbidden City
in China and the many beautiful temples in Japan. These buildings are
cultural icons and do not contribute greatly to the lack of housing.

2. New structures, however, would take money directly from public
coffers. If India was to build the Taj Mahal now, it would be wrong as
there are so many poor and homeless people in that country.

3. If these famous buildings attract enough tourists, then the cost of their
construction can be paid for by this industry. Then the money that needs to
go towards producing housing for the local population will not be lost.

QUESTION 29
The wealth gap between first world countries and third world countries seems to be increasing. How can we reduce this gap? Do
you think that developed countries have a duty to assist developing countries in every way?

TOPIC
How can the wealth gap between developed and developing countries be reduced? Should first world
countries help third world countries?
PURPOSE
SHOULD
1. It is the duty of richer countries to help poorer ones. The poverty and
suffering of any person cannot be ignored, whether it is in your own
country or in another.

2. Many large companies take advantage of the cheap labour market in the
third world. Because of these abuses, businesses make huge profits. Some
of these profits should be given back to help the country and people who
are being abused.

HOW
1. The worst possible solution for third world countries is hand-outs. If a
country is suffering from a disaster or the after effects of war, then
donations are necessary to get them back on their feet. Increasing
international debt does not help a poor country to progress either. The
way to help is to lead them to being as self-sufficient as possible. If the
country is dry, then richer countries need to give them technology and
skills to develop sanitation and irrigation systems. If the countrys
children do not have schools, then they need to be built and teachers
trained.

2. To produce enough food, third world countries need to be taught
modern and self-sustaining farming methods. There has also been success
with helping the citizens of developing countries to set up microindustries so that individuals have enough to buy food for their families.
The main thing that third world countries need is education on how to
produce food or income. It is the old adage, Give a man a fish and he eats
for a day. Teach him to fish and he eats for a lifetime.

QUESTION 30
Trade and travel would be a lot easier with a single, global currency that we all use. Do you agree or disagree with this
statement? Would a single currency cause any problems?

TOPIC
Should there be a single world currency? What would be the advantages and problems of this?
PURPOSE
ADV
1. A world currency would make trading and travelling much
easier. The introduction of the Euro in Europe is the perfect
example of this. Travelling in most of the countries in Europe now
means that you do not have to worry about carrying a variety of
different currencies, just the one. Of course, this is a benefit to
businesses in the region as well.

2. If one is dealing with a single currency, there is no need to worry
about exchange rates. The value of the currency would be the same
all over the world so a traveller would not lose money by
travelling to another country with a stronger dollar value. Australia
is a good example of this at present. Because of the strong value of
the Australian dollar, trade and tourism has been affected.
3. Moreover, for around a century, the American dollar has been
the dominant currency in the world. This has led to America
becoming the most powerful country in the world. If there were one
world currency, no single country could dominate because of the
power of its money.

PROBLEMS
1. The main problem of a single world currency is the fact that
there would be less control over it. With each country having its
own currency, they are able to manage situations like
counterfeiting. If counterfeiting happens in one country, it does not
affect the entire world, but if there was only one currency, it would.
MODEL ESSAYS
QUESTION 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual and the company of
working from home?
The development of the internet has made business communication easier and faster. It has also allowed
employees to have the choice to work from home or not. This essay will discuss the benefits and
drawbacks of telecommuting for both the individual and the company.
There are many advantages for the individual of telecommuting. Firstly, the worker does not have to spend
time travelling to and from work in peak hour traffic. This gives them more time to spend on the job.
Secondly, women can stay home and raise their families while also keeping their jobs. Working from
home allows for more flexible time scheduling, so a woman who has children can fit her work timetable
around her family. The woman keeps her job and the employee keeps a worker who they have trained. It
would cost the company money to train a new employee.

Companies can also benefit from telecommuting. If there are fewer people in the office then the company
can have smaller premises. This will save them money in overheads, like rent and power. Secondly,
employees may be happier working from home and a happy employee is a more productive worker.
On the other hand, there are a few disadvantages associated with telecommuting as well. The worker may
miss the social aspect of work. Working alone all day on a computer may lead to loneliness and feelings
of isolation. Secondly, the worker will have to be disciplined enough not to be distracted by things in the
home. Moreover, the authority figures in the company are not on site, so management will have less
control over what their workers are doing.
In conclusion, there are many benefits for employees to work from home including time-saved, job
satisfaction and life balance. Employers can also reap the benefits through having to pay fewer overheads.
Although there may be a few drawbacks, the advantages of telecommuting definitely outweigh the
disadvantages.
QUESTION 4. Should the government spend more money on health care and education than on
theatres and sports stadiums?
In this increasingly complex world, governments have to decide where their limited budgets should be
spent. Some believe that they should be spent on the health and education of the people rather than on
entertainment facilities like stadiums and theatres. This essay will show how I mostly disagree with this
statement.
In the first place, one cannot deny that health care and education are very important services in a country.
In some developing countries, this is more important than theatres and sports stadiums because these
facilities are not available to all the population. Therefore more money should be spent on making sure
the people have good health and education.
However there is more to life than just health care and education. Theatre is part of our cultural roots.
Mention Kabuki, Shakespeare, or The Bolshoi Ballet and one immediately recognises the culture they
come from. So venues to see these cultural performances are important to a society.
In addition, sports stadiums are important for the simple reason that they promote sport and therefore a
healthy lifestyle. Young people follow their favourite sports star or team and then want to play the sport.
With childhood obesity figures on the rise, any activity that encourages children to play sport is important.
To sum up, while the health and education of a nation are important, cultural heritage and the protection of
it are just as important. A population interested in sport also leads to healthier people. Therefore,
governments need to spend at least some of their budgets on building venues for these pursuits.
(259 words)

QUESTION 5. Should people have to pay for their own health care through private health
insurance or should health care services be free?
These days, governments have many demands on their budgets. Where to spend money is an issue and
health care is a particular one. This essay will discuss if the individual or the government should pay for
health care.
In the first place, every citizen has the right to a good health care system, whether they are rich or poor.
People should not be turned away from hospitals because they do not have the money to pay or because
they do not have insurance. In some countries, like the USA, this is the case. It is inhuman and immoral not
to treat someone who is sick because they cannot pay.
Secondly, a healthy population is an asset to a country. Healthy people work, earn money and pay taxes.
Governments should pay for health care as an investment in their own economies
On the other hand, health care can be expensive. The price of new medical technology is very high and
may be beyond a governments budget. Thus hospitals and therefore patients may miss out on the most upto-date treatment. Therefore richer people should be encouraged to take out private health insurance to
help balance the budget. Tax incentives, as seen in Australia, would make people who can afford it, pay
for their own health care.
To sum up, there needs to be a balance between individual and government spending when it comes to
health care services. The more affluent members of a country can help fund the system and the government
can ensure that the less affluent are covered too.
(259 words)

QUESTION 6. Should immigrants to a new country follow the customs of the new country or keep
their old customs?
People migrate to different countries for a variety of reasons. Quite often the host country has a
completely different culture to the new immigrants. This essay will discuss whether migrants should
abandon their own culture and adopt the host culture or not.
First of all, one of the factors that make a multi-cultural society exciting is the ethnic mix. Restaurants,
clothing, theatre and supermarkets from India, Korea, Greece and Vietnam add colour and flavour to a
country. So keeping some traditional customs can help a city attract tourists and make new immigrants feel
at home.
Secondly, certain traditions, especially religious traditions, should not be made to change. One of the
certainties of living in a democracy is that people of any colour or creed are free. If a certain group needs
to follow a dress code or food restrictions, then they should be free to do so.
However, some aspects of the new culture must be assimilated into the new immigrants life. Laws of the
land and general rules of politeness must be observed, especially if they are different to the native
country. In Japan one is expected to take off their shoes in the house and in India they haggle over the
price of everything. Immigrants need to realize that these modes of behaviour are unimportant or
unacceptable in Australia.
In conclusion, new migrants should be able to maintain their native customs when they have to do with
religion or important mores. On the other hand, they need to adapt to the social and legal rules of their
adopted country as well.
(263 words)

QUESTION 7. Is watching TV bad for children?


The development of technology has brought many advancements to the business, education and
entertainment fields. Television is one of those innovations. This essay will discuss the benefits and
drawbacks of TV, in particular in the lives of children.
In the first place, watching TV is a sedentary activity. Lying around on a sofa and watching TV all day
means that children are not playing and getting exercise. Because children are not as active as in the past,
childhood obesity has become a major problem in all countries of the world. The bad habits that children
learn will follow them into adulthood. So fat children will become fat adults and lead to the development
of diseases associated with obesity such as high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes.
Secondly, much of the content shown on TV is not suitable for children. Adult themes like sex, drug use
and violence are presented and the young mind should not have to deal with such issues. If there is no
parental control as to the content of their watching, young people will be exposed to unsuitable material.
On the other hand, TV is a way for the stressed student to relax. If regulated, a couple of hours of TV a
day is a good way for a young person to unwind after hours of study. In addition, there are many
educational documentaries and programmes that a child can benefit from.
To sum up, while TV may have some drawbacks, if the amount of viewing time is controlled then there
are benefits for the child as well. Parents need to control the amount of time their child watches TV and
the content that they view.
(280 words)

QUESTION 8. Does the government make too many rules to protect society from danger?
It seems that each day brings a new rule from the government. Some feel that our personal freedoms are
being stopped and others feel that these rules are necessary to safeguard society. This essay will discuss
the issue.
Firstly, there is a need to protect some people in every society, in particular children. Government laws
have stopped child labour in Western countries, which a hundred years ago was acceptable. There are
also government agencies and rules to protect children from child abuse and other laws to make sure that
they get sufficient education to be valuable members of society. All these rules are essential.
Furthermore, some rules are designed not only to protect the individual, like the seatbelt law, but also
others. Banning smoking in public places stops the risk of people being affected by smoking related
diseases through passive smoking. Cases of lung cancer have been reported by non-smokers who used to
work in smoke-filled environments. A law protecting the health of innocent workers was necessary.
However, some people feel that the government has produced so many laws that we have become a
nanny state. By introducing so many restrictions, individual freedom is being lost. The government also
needs to understand that we live in a democracy where we should have rights to free choice.
To sum up, the government needs to make laws to protect the vulnerable in our society. This factor is far
more important than the loss of some rights, like smoking in public places. One of the governments jobs
is to ensure a safe environment for all its citizens.
(264 words)

QUESTION 9 Should information in the media be controlled because it may have a bad influence on
young people and society?
The issue of censorship of the media has always been controversial. Whether we should ban certain
content because of its effect on young people will be discussed in this essay.
Government censorship is a very tricky issue. There are certainly some themes that people, in particular
young people, should not be allowed to view. Young minds should not have to deal with issues of sex,
drug use or violence before they are mature enough to understand and judge them. Many studies have
shown that when children see a great deal of violence, they become more aggressive towards their peers.
Therefore, some aspects of the media should be controlled.
However, where does the control stop? Once a government has control of the media, they can then stop
reports presented that show dissatisfaction with the government. In some countries of the world, reporters
are not free to write about any government issues. This goes against the basic human right of freedom of
speech.
Besides this, it is not the government who should be in charge of censoring a childs viewing, but the
parents. They are the ones who should be regulating what their children are watching and reading. If the
power is placed in the governments hands then there could be abuses of the system.
Parents and children can be informed of the content of shows through a rating system, which is
government prescribed. In Australia, each show is given a rating which states what age the show is
suitable for and then a list of the themes are given. Parents can then decide if that programme is suitable
for their child. While the rating system is controlled by the government, it still allows the viewer choice
to watch it or not.
In conclusion, censorship is a difficult issue. It should be parents who are in charge of their childs
viewing habits, not the government. Then freedom of the press can be protected.
(321 words)

QUESTION 10. What will life be like in 100 years?


Over the past 50 years, there have been more advances than in the whole of human history. The question
then arises of what the next 100 years will bring. This essay will discuss the positive and negative
outcomes of the future century.
Life in the future will hopefully bring new advances in medical treatment and technology. We are on the
way to finding cures for cancer, AIDS and many genetic disorders. Moreover, people are becoming much
more aware of the issues that affect their health, like smoking and obesity, so people will be healthier in
the future.
There will also be further advances in the technology used for travel and communication. It has only been
in the last twenty years that the Internet has been developed which has seen huge developments in the way
we communicate and receive information personally and in business. In addition, travel has become faster
and cheaper and the world has opened up to most people, leading to globalisation
However, there is a gloomy side to the future as well. If we do not solve environmental issues like global
warming, then the future is not so rosy. If we keep burning fossil fuels and heating up the Earth, then the
consequences for our planet will be dire. However, the future may bring advances in alternative fuels and
energies, which will save the planet. Developments in wind, solar, hydro and thermal power are well
underway. Furthermore, the countries of the world now know that they need to plant more trees to sustain
the environment.
All in all, there are a great number of positive things that will happen in the future, but unless we deal
with environmental problems, the future does not look so positive.
(288 words)

QUESTION 11. Should scientific research be controlled by the government rather than private
companies?
Research over the past few decades has led to many innovations, from hybrid cars to the internet. Some of
these new discoveries, however, have not been particularly good for people or the environment.
Therefore, some feel that research should lay under the protection of governments. This essay will discuss
whether it is business or governments who should be in control of research.
Firstly, scientific research should be under the control of governments to make sure that the research is
ethical and correct. The main concern of private companies is to make profits and they can skew the
results of their research to suit their own ends. An example of this would be the tobacco industry. For
years, tobacco companies claimed that they had proof that tobacco did not harm your health. This, of
course, has been proven to be untrue. Companies that produced asbestos also said it was safe. These
companies produced false scientific reports to sell more of their product. Government control would stop
false research.
On the other hand, research is very expensive. Government budgets are limited and must be spent on
necessities like infrastructure, health care and education. There simply is not enough money to spend on
the many things that need to be studied. Big multi-national companies do have the budgets to fund this
research. They have the money to finance the people and technology needed to produce results that will
benefit mankind.
The perfect solution is a combination of the two. The research can be done by the private companies,
usually to produce a product that they can make profit from. This research however, needs to be
monitored by the government to ensure the results are true and safe for people. Most countries have some
form of government agency, such as food and drug departments, that test new products before they are
made available to the public. In this way the companies make money and the government ensures the
safety of its citizens.
In conclusion, companies have the money, technology and people to do research into new innovations.
The government, however, must also be involved to keep big business honest and citizens safe.
(358 words)

QUESTION 12. Is the use of surveillance cameras in streets and supermarkets a violation of human
rights?
Where ever you go these days you are informed that you are being watched by CCTV. The police claim it
is to protect citizens while civil libertarians say it goes against our rights. This essay will discuss both
sides of the issue.
Big Brother is watching you! has become a fact in our society. There are cameras everywhere, watching
every move we make. Being constantly under the eye of a watcher, whether it is in the street or the
supermarket is very violating. A person should have the right to be able to walk around their city without
being watched all the time. CCTV has taken away the individuals right to privacy.
It cannot be denied however, that CCTV is a great tool to combat crime. Firstly it can be used as a
deterrent. A person may not commit a crime because he knows that he will be recognized from the video
and therefore caught. There is no escaping the law when a camera is aimed at you.
Secondly, CCTV has been used very effectively to solve crimes. Recently in Melbourne, a girl was
savagely raped and murdered as she walked home from a night out. Because of a camera that was in a
shop the girl passed and where she first met her killer, the police were able to catch the murderer.
Although it did not stop the tragic crime, the camera helped the police to capture a dangerous criminal and
lock him away and keep other people safe.
In conclusion, CCTV may have become a necessary evil. It prevents or solves crimes, which keeps our
streets safe.
(269 words)

QUESTION 13. What are the problems of tourism?


Tourism is big business these days and in some countries it is a source of huge revenue. However, tourism
does come with problems. This essay will describe the issues raised by the Tourist Industry.
The first problem caused by tourism is the effect it has on the local population. Retail outlets in tourist
areas try to make as much money out of the visitors as they can. This means that prices for everyday items
can be more expensive than in non-tourist areas. Thus the locals have to pay more for day-to-day
necessities, like accommodation and food.
A further problem is that tourist areas tend to attract crime. Criminals know that tourists are travelling
with valuables like cameras, expensive mobiles and cash. This can lead to pickpockets and muggers
moving into the area for what they see as easy targets.
Large numbers of tourists can also have an effect on the environment. Thousands of people walking
through natural areas, such as national and heritage parks cannot but affect the environment. They trample
plants, frighten animals and leave rubbish behind.
Last but not least, a large influx of tourists in an area has a huge effect on the infrastructure of that area.
There is more need for accommodation which means building more resorts or hotels on land that may be
needed for other things. Other infrastructure that is affected is water and sewerage use. Finally, more
people produce more rubbish which must be disposed of.
To sum up, though tourism in an area may bring much needed funds, it also brings its own problems. It
raises prices and increases the crime rate and also creates pollution.
(274 words)

QUESTION 14. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes the government or
the people who build the homes?
The recent disaster in Bangladesh has shown the world the importance of building regulations. If there are
not strict building codes, people can die. This essay will discuss whether building laws should be in the
hands of the government or the builders.
In the first place, building contractors want to build homes as cheaply as possible so they can make as
much profit as possible. Sometimes this means that they use inferior materials or building methods.
Therefore the government needs to check all their procedures and methods to ensure the houses are safe to
live in. In some countries where there are not strict building codes, houses have collapsed and killed
people. This should not happen.
Secondly, in some countries there needs to be strict building codes because the country may be prone to
natural disasters. For example, in Japan and New Zealand, buildings must be able to withstand an
earthquake. In Queensland, the government should stop houses being built on flood plains. These building
codes would stop the loss of property or even life.
On the other hand, countries like Australia, which have very strict building codes, have problems. The
process of getting approval can take a very long time. This makes the whole process of building a house
take longer and because of this, the house may cost more. The process of approval can also be very
expensive.
In conclusion, the government must protect its citizens by ensuring there are codes that make their houses
and buildings safe. They should be the ones to enforce these codes rather than builders, who are more
interested in profits.
(268 words)
QUESTION 15. Should governments spend less money on defence and weapons and more on poor
people?
Where governments spend their budgets is of concern to the citizens of most countries. Defence budgets
can be a major part of government spending. This essay will discuss whether such amounts of money
should be spent on weapons rather than other worthier causes.
Firstly, the defence budgets of most first world countries are a huge percentage of the governments
budget. Even in third world countries this is the case. It seems inhuman to spend money on a military
when people are hungry, uneducated or sick, not only in third world countries but also in the western
world. These days, the superpowers of the first world are all aligned and there is enough military power
to deal with any skirmishes that break out, such as in Iraq and Afghanistan. Therefore, the governments of
the first world do not need to spend as much money on weapons.
Secondly, war is often a result of need and poverty. If money was spent on solving these problems then
there would be less need for the military. A country that is healthy, educated and rich does not need to go
to war. Germany went into WW II because of a recession in the country and the Vietnam War fought by the
USA was very similar. If money was taken away from the military and used to maintain a countrys

wealth, then there would be no need for war.


On the other hand, the military is a huge employer. Not only are there thousands of people employed as
soldiers, but there are many other industries that manufacture everything from weapons, to uniforms and
the technology that a modern army needs. These people also depend on defence contracts.
In conclusion. While the defence forces are important employers in a country, if less government money
was spent on defence, it could be used better in other places. A strong defence force does not cloth or
feed the poor. (320 words)

QUESTION 16. Are famous people treated fairly by the media?


Magazines, TV shows and the Internet are full of with stories about the rich and famous and their lives.
Some feel that the media is unfair to these celebrities. This essay will show how I mostly disagree with
this statement.
In the first place, quite often, famous people look for publicity. In fact, they have special publicity agents
who ensure they are getting enough. In a way, publicity is like advertising but with the famous, they are
advertising themselves. They get huge amounts of money for endorsing products and this puts them in the
limelight as well. Actors and sports stars cannot complain about their lack of privacy when they seek to
be in the public eye as often as possible.
Moreover, if a famous actor feels that their privacy is being invaded then there is a simple solution to this
do not be an actor. We all have a choice in our professions and if being in the public eye is something
you do not want, then choose a job that does not demand this. Being an object of public curiosity is just
part of the job of a famous person.
On the other hand, being followed by hoards of paparazzi must be a tremendous strain. This can be seen in
the tragic death of the Princess of Wales, Princess Diana. If she had not been chased by the paparazzi,
there may not have been an accident and she would still be alive today. In this case, the publicity machine
took two lives and that is unacceptable.
To sum up, it is very important for most celebrities to remain in the public eye, so for them to complain
about being treated unfairly by the media is ridiculous. They have chosen a life of fame and that means
taking the attention that comes with it.
(305 words)

QUESTION 17. Should it be difficult for people to borrow large sums of money?
In these times of consumerism, people are spending more money than ever before. Many choose to use
credit to pay for these purchases and end up with huge debts. This essay will discuss whether it should be
harder to get credit and therefore alleviate this situation.
Firstly, all the major banks allow anyone to have credit cards, quite often with limits in the thousands of
dollars. Many banks will also lend 105% of a mortgage so that you do not have to have any savings at all.
By law, in Australia, the banks are supposed question the credit applicant as to whether they have the
ability to pay back the loan. It is however fairly obvious that it is very easy for people to build up five
figure debts. If the process of getting this money was harder, then people would not get into so much debt.
In addition, the banks do not care who they lend to because, no matter what, they will make money. Their
interest rates on loans are very high, and if a person is already in debt, the high interest rates do not help
them pay off the loan. If the banks were made more accountable, then this situation might be different.
On the other hand, do we need any more government interference in our lives? The government has made
so many laws that we are turning into a Nanny State. We are not children that need to be told what to do
all the time. If a person cannot cope with their debt, then it is their own fault. They borrowed the money
and spent it in the first place. The individuals who build up these debts have to learn to take responsibility
for their actions.
To sum up, it should be harder to get credit from the banks and they should be more accountable for their
lending. However, it is also up to the individual to live within their means and not overspend.
(330 words)

QUESTION 18. Should libraries spend their money only on books?


We are living in a multi-media world which includes TVs, computers and the World Wide Web. Whether
Libraries should include this media or only just books is an issue of contention. This essay will show that
libraries must use all the media available.
Firstly, we are living in the world of technology. With the introduction of e books and readers, people do
not even have to visit a library these days. They can download any type of book imaginable from many e
book sites. Possibly in the future all libraries will be electronic and you will be able to download books
for free instead of having to visit a library, spend time choosing a book and then returning it. Carrying an e
book reader is much easier than a big pile of books. Because of the popularity of e books, libraries should
be looking into developing this technology for their customers.
In addition, for students, libraries have become mostly redundant as well. Most secondary school and
university students get the information they need from the internet. Therefore, a library should have
computers for people who cannot access one of their own. Computer literacy and access is essential in
todays society and the library is the place where disadvantaged people should be able to access them for
free.
Finally, libraries are places that record culture, in particular in the form of the written word. However,
there are many other forms of recorded culture as well. Recordings of movies, music, theatre and dance
also need to be preserved. So this should be part of the librarys function as well.
To sum up, libraries have to become involved in modern media to remain up to date and to allow equality.
They also need to keep records of a nations culture by using other technologies than books.
(303 words)

QUESTION 19. Are gifts becoming too commercialised?


In the past, gifts were usually only given on birthdays and on special days, but now, there are so many
special days that we are constantly buying presents. This essay will show why gift giving has become so
commercialised.
A perfect example of this is Christmas. In the past, Christmas was a Christian religious ceremony but now
days it is much more about Santa Claus than religion. Easter is about bunnies and chocolate eggs. Stores
start promoting Christmas in October through advertising and decorations. The festive season has become
a time for giving presents and this has become much more important than the original idea of the birth of
Christ. Even countries like Japan, that do not have a Christian background, celebrate the festival.
Valentines Day and Halloween have also become much commercialised. Globalisation has led to much
of the world adopting these American festivals. So if you do not give your girlfriend a present on
Valentines Day, she will be very disappointed. The merchandising for Halloween has also become a big
industry.
It is a well-known fact that greeting card companies have invented special days so that they can sell more
cards. Grandparents Day and Teachers Day are examples of this blatant commercialisation.
To sum up, the days when we gave a gift from the heart for a special reason are gone. Now we are
pressured into gift giving for any reason and much of the symbolism and true nature of the occasion have
disappeared. Retail outlets, greeting card companies and even toy businesses now direct our gift giving
choices.
(261 words)

QUESTION 20. What are the purposes of such places as museums and how should they be funded?
Most cities, large or small, boast at least one museum. They have a variety of functions and may be as
diverse as Train and Rail Museums to Doll Museums. This essay will discuss the main purpose of
museums and then go on to talk about who should pay for them.
The first purpose of museums is to keep and record the history, flora, fauna and culture of a country. Most
museums have examples, records and specimens of animals and plants, examples of past technology and
lifestyles and artefacts from ancient cultures. They are the places that these records are kept.
The second job of museums is education. Most school students remember the class excursion to the
museum and the interesting things they saw there. Museums are places that cater to all age groups. If the
museum is famous it can also attract tourists and therefore benefit the economy of a country. Everybody is
aware of the British Museum and the Egyptian Museum and they are a must see on travellers lists.
First and foremost, museums should be free to the general public so that any member of the population can
see them, whether they are rich or poor. Funding should come from two places. Firstly, because they are
places that protect a countries culture and attract tourists, they should be partially funded by the
government of that country. Secondly, certain exhibits could be sponsored by companies or wealthy
individuals. These contributions could be offset by tax rebates. Finally, if a country borrows a particular
exhibition from another country, the costs could be paid by a small fee to view them.
All in all, museums protect and record the things that make our countries unique. They should be free and
supported by the government and sponsorship.
(295 words)

QUESTION 21. Is the world becoming more selfish and do we need to return to traditional values?
It is a cut-throat world these days and people are always competing against each other. Some feel that this
has made us more self-absorbed and selfish. This essay will show how the situation has occurred.
One of the first reasons why people have become more selfish is because there is so much competition in
the world. We have to compete for places at good high schools and then at university. Then there is so
much competition in the business world. You have to fight other people to get a good job and then you
have to work against each other to get higher in the company. In these days of economic downturn there is
even more competition for jobs. So instead of trying to help or mentor each other we are striving against
each other.
Another factor that has led to more selfishness is the death of the traditional community. In the past,
people knew their neighbours well and, as part of the community, helped those who needed it. Now we
live in huge cities where it is rare to even know who your neighbours are let alone offer to help them.
Stories of people dying in their apartments and nobody finding them for months are an example of how
separate and selfish our lives have become. We need to get back to that sense of community where we
care for and look after our neighbours.
The third factor is that people do not feel safe helping others. With so many internet scams around, people
are afraid to give money to charity online in case their identity is stolen. If you help somebody in the street
and it goes wrong, you might find yourself facing a lawsuit. For all these reasons, people are afraid to
step up and share because they might become a victim of crime.
In conclusion, we are becoming more selfish due to competition, lack of community and crime. We need
to return to a more traditional life, but it will be difficult. (336 words)
QUESTION 22. Why are we putting the elderly in nursing homes and is it a good or bad
development?
In the past, when relatives became elderly or sick, they stayed at home with the family. That is not the
case these days. This essay will describe why this is happening and say why there are both advantages
and disadvantages.
One of the main reasons families are putting their aged members in nursing homes is that there is no one at
home to look after them. These days, most women have work outside the house whereas in the past they
used to stay at home to look after children or elderly relatives. If an elderly relative needs constant care
then the only place they can get it is in an aged care facility as during the day there is no one at home to
look after them.
There are many benefits to the elderly living in retirement homes. If the facility is good, besides the
medical and nursing care available, there are many activities to keep the patients stimulated. There are
classes, shows, excursions and daily exercise to keep the inmates minds and bodies nimble. If they were
living at home, there would be little of such social activity.
However, abuses have been reported in the press. Because of their frailty, some establishments take
advantage of the elderly patients by not giving them the proper care necessary. There have been reports of

patients left unattended for hours, being tied to beds or even beaten. Usually these cases are in the
minority and it is up to the family and government agencies to check that standards are being maintained.
To sum up, because both people in a family now work outside the house, care for elderly relatives is now
impossible. Nursing homes offer many benefits to the elderly, but they must also be monitored to ensure
the clients are safe and treated well.
(302 words)

QUESTION 23. What are some of the problems of overpopulation and what is one possible
solution?
Every day the population of the world gets larger and larger. So many people in the world can have great
negative impacts. This essay will describe the problems and suggest a solution for overpopulation.
The first major problem caused by overpopulation is pollution. The more people there are the more
demand there is for products. Factories manufacture these products and produce toxic emissions and
create acid rain. There is more demand for power and many power stations burn fossil fuels to make
electricity. This produces carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming. A third factor that leads to
higher global temperatures is car exhaust. The more people there are the more demand there is for cars
and therefore more exhaust. Besides all this, more people produce more waste which has to be disposed
of.
Secondly, a greater population needs more land for food and accommodation. Therefore, natural habitats
of animals are destroyed which can lead to extinction of whole species. Cutting down trees for farm land
or development is another factor that contributes to global warming.
To solve these problems, population growth needs to be stopped. China found the most effective policy
with their One Child law. There would have been disastrous consequences if Chinas population had
continued to grow. They have managed to slow it through the very harsh measure of allowing each family
to have only one child. It is only through harsh measures like this that the serious problems of
overpopulation can be solved.
Overpopulation is causing environmental disasters. Strong measures must be taken to stop the upward
curve of population growth. If nothing is done, then the world will not be a good place for all these
people to live. (284 words)

QUESTION 24. Are social welfare payments essential to protect the rights of citizens?
In these days of global economic recession, some people find it difficult to get a job or income. For these
people to survive, they need help from the government. This essay will describe why social welfare is
necessary in any country.
Firstly, in a democracy, the rights of citizens to have a basic income are very important. It is also the
humane duty of the wealthy to help support those who are not as well off through taxes. It is not only the
unemployed who need to be looked after by the state but also those who cannot work for other reasons.
These people are the sick, the disabled, single mothers and the aged. If they cannot get a minimum income,
how are they supposed to live?
In these troubled times of economic recession, it is not the fault of the individual that they cannot get a job.
If the unemployment rate is high, there are simply no jobs available. The unemployed person cannot get a
job and if they have a family, they need state assistance to help them survive. Without it, the poverty level
of a country will rise and this will lead to other social problems like crime and violence.
On the other hand, some believe that there are people who do not want to work and live off the state
welfare system. While this is true, statistically it is a very small number compared to the figures of people
who do want to work but cannot find a job. Others postulate that giving people handouts like
unemployment benefits removes the motivation for finding a job. However, the amount that is paid as
social welfare payment is so small that paid employment, if available, is much more preferable to benefit
recipients.
All in all, a social welfare system is essential if a country is to look after its poor, sick and elderly. If it
does not exist, then these people will find it impossible to do so also.
(331 words)

QUESTION 25. Should parents be obliged to immunize their children against childhood diseases?
Childhood immunization has become a contentious issue with parents these days. Some feel that it
protects their child while others think it is dangerous. This essay will discuss both sides of the issue.
In the first place, the whole idea of an immunization programme is to keep all children safe. If everyone is
treated then there is a chance that the disease will eventually disappear. This has been the case with the
world-wide immunization of people against small pox. It was a disease that killed millions of people in
the past but is now virtually abolished.
If parents do not immunize their children, then, of course, there is the chance that the child will catch that
disease. This has been the case with whooping cough. Doctors are now seeing many more incidences of
this particular disease because the children have not been immunized. Immunization keeps children safe
from some very deadly or debilitating diseases like polio and meningitis. Nobody wants their children to
get sick so they should be immunized, and to protect all children, this should be prescribed by the
government.
In contrast, there are parents who believe that the serum that is used for some immunizations is harmful to
their children. There have been reports of side-effects from some of the serums such as brain damage and
other terrible consequences. Therefore parents are very reluctant to immunize them.
To sum up, parents need to be reassured that immunization is safe for their children. If governments can
guarantee this safety, then all youngsters should be vaccinated to protect them from deadly childhood
diseases.
(264 words)

QUESTION 26. Should young drivers be made to do a safe driving education course?
These days, young men and women are able to get their licences at 16 years old and by their late teens,
many own a car. Because of their lack of driving experience, some feel that these new motorists should be
more educated about driving. This essay will discuss the issue.
In the first place, many accidents on the roads are caused by young drivers and that is why insurance
premiums are so high for the younger motorist. Young drivers, particularly young men, often have a better
opinion of their driving skills than is the reality. They often speed and drive under the influence of drugs
or alcohol. Moreover, when they are in a dangerous situation they do not have the driving experience to
get themselves out of it safely. A safe driving course may give them the skills they need.
It is not only young people, however, who cause traffic accidents. There are still a great many older
drivers who speed or drive under the influence of alcohol. Police statistics record this fact. These people
also need education programmes to stop them from committing driving offences. Harsher penalties for
drink driving and speeding may also reduce the number of accidents.
Road conditions also contribute to a number of car crashes. In this case the driver is not at fault. The
government needs to ensure the roads are safe for all drivers, young and old.
To sum up, a safe driving course may be a good idea for many drivers, young and old. These are not the
only measures that need to be taken to make our roads safer. The government must spend more money on
road maintenance as well to protect all drivers.
(283 words)

QUESTION 27. What factors influence the decisions made by news editors on which stories to
choose? Have we got used to bad news and should more good news be printed?
We can receive the news on many forms of media; from newspapers, the radio, the internet and TV. News
editors play a major role in what news we get to see. This essay will discuss the reasons that editors
choose certain stories and whether the public favours bad news to good.
The first factor that influences editors is audience appeal. The bigger the audience the more advertising
they can sell. Quite often the more sensational stories capture the largest audience. As viewers become
desensitized to what they are seeing, editors have to find more and more sensational stories. That is why
big disasters like the earthquake and tsunami in Japan and the floods in Queensland got so much coverage.
The second factor that affects an editors decisions on stories is the cost. It is much cheaper to produce
soft news like entertainment and fashion stories than hard news from other parts of the world. It is a
fact that a great number of news presentations these days are these soft stories.
It is also true that people prefer bad news stories. They are more exciting than good news. We would
rather hear about a tragedy on the other side of the world where it cannot affect us than a cat being
rescued from a tree.
In addition, with editors trying to save money by producing soft news stories, there is plenty of material
in newspapers and on the TV that is not bad news.
In summary, editors choose stories based on their sensational appeal or their cost. This will not change
while people prefer to watch dramatic, sad news to good.
(271 words)
QUESTION 28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of public buildings? Should the money
be spent on housing instead?
Most large cities in the world have famous public buildings. Often these structures are paid for through
government funding. Some feel that this money would be better spent elsewhere, such as on public
housing. This essay will show how I mostly disagree with this statement.
The main advantage of impressive public buildings is the tourist attraction they are. Who would not visit
Sydney without seeing The Sydney Opera House or The Taj Mahal in India? These iconic buildings draw
tourists to a country which is of great economic importance.
The main disadvantage is the cost of building massive structures and then the cost of maintenance. This
has to come out of the public pocket and is taken away from other budgets like housing, education and
health care.
However, many of the most important buildings in many cities were built long in the past. Examples of
these would be the Taj Mahal, the Forbidden City in China and the many beautiful temples in Japan. These
buildings are cultural icons and do not contribute greatly to the lack of housing. New structures, however,
would take money directly from public coffers. If India was to build the Taj Mahal now, it would be

wrong as there are so many poor and homeless people in that country.
If these famous buildings attract enough tourists, then the cost of their construction can be paid for by this
industry. Then the money that needs to go towards producing housing for the local population will not be
lost.
In conclusion, public buildings help a countys economy through the Tourism dollar and therefore they
should be protected and maintained. The money made from tourism can then be spent on the population,
including on such things as housing.
(289 words)
QUESTION 29. How can the wealth gap between developed and developing countries be reduced?
Should first world countries help third world countries?
The question of third world poverty has been an issue for a long time and solutions are not easy. This
essay will show how developed countries should help developing countries.
Firstly, it is the duty of richer countries to help poorer ones. The poverty and suffering of any person
cannot be ignored, whether it is in your own country or in another. In addition, many large companies take
advantage of the cheap labour market in the third world. Because of these abuses, businesses make huge
profits. Some of these profits should be given back to help the country and people who are being abused.
The worst possible solution for third world countries is hand-outs. If a country is suffering from a disaster
or the after effects of war, then donations are necessary to get them back on their feet. Increasing
international debt does not help a poor country to progress either. The way to help is to lead them to being
as self-sufficient as possible. If the country is dry, then richer countries need to give them technology and
skills to develop sanitation and irrigation systems. If the countrys children do not have schools, then they
need to be built and teachers trained.
To produce enough food, third world countries need to be taught modern and self-sustaining farming
methods. There has also been success with helping the citizens of developing countries to set up microindustries so that individuals have enough to buy food for their families. The main thing that third world
countries need is education on how to produce food or income.
To sum up, the first world must help poorer countries. The means of aid must come in the form of
education, so that third world countries will be able to stand alone eventually. (297 words)
QUESTION 30. Should there be a single world currency? What would be the advantages and
problems of this?
Because of globalisation, many aspects of society have been affected including business, trade and
entertainment. In addition, because of cheap air fares, people are travelling overseas more so than any
other time in history. Therefore, some feel that the world needs a single currency. This essay will discuss
the pros and cons of such an idea.
In the first place, a world currency would make trading and travelling much easier. The introduction of the
Euro in Europe is the perfect example of this. Travelling in most of the countries in Europe now means
that you do not have to worry about carrying a variety of different currencies, just the one. Of course, this

is a benefit to businesses in the region as well.


If one is dealing with a single currency, there is no need to worry about exchange rates. The value of the
currency would be the same all over the world so a traveller would not lose money by travelling to
another country with a stronger dollar value. Australia is a good example of this at present. Because of the
strong value of the Australian dollar, trade and tourism have been affected. A single currency with the
same value all over the world would not disadvantage any one country.
Moreover, for around a century, the American dollar has been the dominant currency in the world. This
has led to America becoming the most powerful country in the world. If there were one world currency,
no single country could dominate because of the power of its money.
To sum up, there are many advantages to a world currency. It would make business and travel easier and
fairer.
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