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Faculty of

Engineering

Computer Engineering

EERI 321

PRACTICAL 1

Completed by:

Mnr Carel Minnaar 22738983

Mnr Lemuel Zwart 22689125

Submitted to:

Dr. K Uren

29 AUGUST 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................III

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS.........................................................III

1.

PROBLEM STATEMENT..............................................................................1

2.

2.1.

2.2.

2.3.

2.4.

EQUATIONS

OF

MOTION.............................................................................................4

3.

SIMULATION RESULTS..............................................................................5

4.

CONCLUSION...........................................................................................6

5.

MATLAB CODE.........................................................................................7

6.

REFERENCES..........................................................................................10

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Movement scenario of the model............................................................................1

2

g

Force

Damping constant

Spring constant

y / x

Acceleration

y / x

Velocity

y/x

Position

1.PROBLEM STATEMENT

A soccer ball is considered as a physical system and must be modelled to determine how it

reacts in a certain environment. Factors, parameters and laws that will affect the soccer ball

will then be obtained for this certain environment. Differential equations will then also be

obtained and the model of the soccer ball will then be programmed and simulated in

MATLAB.

The mass of the soccer ball (M) equals 0.3 kg from the specifications. The damping and

spring constants can be chosen as any realistic values.

Figure 1 shows the movement model of the soccer ball in an environment (room) that must

be used to derive differential equations and to be simulated in MATLAB.

The simulation program will then be used to determine the point where the soccer ball

collides with the wall

( x1 , y1 )

and that the soccer balls first bounce must be directly under

There are three scenarios that must be considered for this model and they are the following:

For each scenario, the differential equations will be obtained to help simulate the model of

the soccer ball.

2.1.

At starting position,

( x0 , y0 )

the only factors that affect the soccer ball are the gravitation

on the ball.

Thus the differential equation for the soccer ball in the air at starting position is as follow:

Fball=Fg

M y =Mg

y =g

(1)

During freefall, the only forces acting on the ball is the 2 nd derivative of the position which in

this scenario is only gravity.

2.2.

( x1 , y1 )

away from the wall. The soccer ball has elasticity that is basically a spring with a constant of

k. The wall behaves as a damper with a damping constant b, that receives energy from the

ball. The wall dissipates the energy back to the wall and the soccer ball bounces away, but

some of the energy is lost because of damping.[5]

Thus the differential equation for the soccer ball colliding with the wall is as follow:

Fbal l x =( Fb+ Fs )

M x =b x kx

x =

b

k

x x

M

M

(2)

The second derivative of the position in this case translates to horizontal acceleration, and is

caused only by the spring constant. The damping of the wall absorbs and dissipates energy

at each point of contact.

2.3.

The differential equation of the ball making contact with the floor is as follow:

Fball=Fg( Fb+ Fs )

M y =Mgb y ky

y =g

b

k

y y

M

M

(3)

The 2nd derivative of vertical position results in the vertical acceleration which is caused by

gravity and during the time of contact with the floor, the existing direction of force is stored

and then reversed.

Fb

Fs

Fb =b v 21

Where

(4)

( 2v 1 )

F s =k

Where

( v2 v 1 )

(5)

spring.

2.4.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

The equation of motion used to determine the next inscription in the matrix recording the

velocity for x and y as the for loop is running:

v =u+at

(6)

Where v is the new speed, u is the initial speed and at is the speed increase. [3]

The equation above is required to determine the next position, which is calculated by using

two different formulas.

For calculating the next x-position, consider the fact that gravity has no effect.

s 1=s0 + v i t

(7)

For calculating the next y-position, consider the fact that gravity has an effect. [2]

1

s 1=s0 + v i t + a t 2

2

(8)

by the speed and

vi t

1 2

a t is the shift in position caused by the acceleration.

2

3.SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 2 shown below is the plot of the motion of the ball as it bounces until standstill. Decay

in speed is seen in the model as the speed of the displacement changes both horizontally

and vertically. A small incline angle is made with the vertical wall to the right in order to

transfer the maximum energy downwards so the spring can push the ball back upwards in

order to obtain the final position as shown.

For the simulation results the following was used for the parameters:

k =850 N /m

b wall =8 N /s

b floor =2.8 N / s

h=2.5 m

g=9.080665 m. s

4.CONCLUSION

By running the simulation and choosing different parameters, it can be clearly seen that the

parameter with the greatest effect is the initial horizontal speed. This will determine the angle

of the path that the ball makes with the horizontal, in this case the wall to the right. The angle

will affect the vertical downward speed and the vertical downward speed will affect the

maximum upward height the ball will reach after the first bounce. It will also affect the

distance the ball will bounce to the right.

Increasing the speed to a value too high will result in a lower compression of the spring,

which is modelled as the elasticity of the ball, and cause the ball to not be able to reach the

height just under the person throwing it. It was also found that in order for a realistic

simulation, the wall needs to absorb much more energy than the floor and therefore needs a

higher damping coefficient. Also observed was that dampers dissipate (wastes) energy and

springs only reverse the direction of the force by storing it and reproducing it in the opposite

direction.

In order to solve the model so that the ball will bounce back up to height just below the

person throwing it, the initial velocity needed is

required with the wall will be

(4 h , 0.97)

5.9 m/ s

damping against the wall has an effect on this velocity. It is just as important to note that in a

real world scenario, the friction due to air resistance needs to be taken into account,

especially for higher speeds as the horizontal frictional force experienced is directly

proportional to the square of the velocity. In order to account for this loss, the physical

dimension of the ball needs to be taken into account too, but for this simulation, since the

point of contact is very close to the wall, these losses are considered to be minimal.

5.MATLAB CODE

The code below will specify the parameters used throughout the simulation. All equations

used in the code is written in terms of these variables.

The program starts by defining the mass of the ball, the gravitational acceleration and the

damping constants. Then a matrix counter is used to keep track of the entries in the position,

velocity and acceleration matrix. The time duration simulated is 8 seconds, and each delta

increment is done with a step size of 0.0001 to obtain more accurate results and a smooth

graph.

close all;

clear all;

clc;

ball_mass = 0.3;

%

k = 850;

%

[1]

walldamper = 8;

%

floordamper = 2.8; %

g = -9.80665;

%

h = 2.5;

%

pos_y(1)= h + 2;

%

pos_x(1)= h*2;

%

velocity_y(1)= 0; %

velocity_x(1)= 5.9;%

matrixpos = 1;

y_collide = 0;

%

t = 8;

i = 0.0001;

Spring Constant of ball e = sqrt(height2/height1)

Damping Constant of a wall

Damping Constant of the floor

Acceleration of Gravity

Choose h for a width of 4*2.5

Starting position for y

Starting position for x

Starting velocity for y

Starting velocity for x

True/False Variable for first collision detection

% Time steps

The code below will start the simulation and increment each time y 0.001. In order to run the

simulation for a period of 8 seconds, the iteration will repeat for

8

=80 000

0.001

runs.

During freefall, Case 1, only gravitational acceleration causes a force on the ball and thus

the horizontal acceleration is not affected in any way.

for demonstrasie = 0:i:t

% Case1: Ball is in freefall

acceleration_y = g;

acceleration_x = 0;

During contact with the wall, the if statement will determine whether contact is made with the

wall to the left or the wall to the right. This will cause the ball to reverse direction and lose a

little bit of its energy. The second if statement records the position of contact made with the

wall, and will then disable itself in order to prevent further recordings. The equations used

are described under Section 2.

if( (pos_x(matrixpos) <= 0) || (pos_x(matrixpos) >= 4*h) )

acceleration_x = -((walldamper/ball_mass)*velocity_x(matrixpos))

- ((k/ball_mass)*pos_x(matrixpos));

end;

% Do this until 1st collision;

if ( (pos_x(matrixpos )>= 4*h)

y_collide = 1;

y_pov = pos_y(matrixpos);

end;

Still Case2

&& (y_collide == 0) )

% Prevent detection of other impacts

% Point Of Impact with wall

During a Case 3 scenario, the ball will hit the floor and damping will occur. Also, the direction

of the fall is reversed by the equation so the final velocity after compression of the spring.

if(pos_y(matrixpos) <= 0)

acceleration_y = g (floordamper/ball_mass*velocity_y(matrixpos)) (k/ball_mass)*pos_y(matrixpos);

end;

After all damping and frictional losses have been accounted for, the new position, velocity

and acceleration is obtained by using Eulers method. These are piecewise functions that

are calculated linearly, but in very small sections in order to obtain an Analog and realistic

result. The full explanation of the equations used can be found under Section 2.

v = u + at

velocity_x(matrixpos + 1) = velocity_x(matrixpos) + acceleration_x*i;

% Euler for x;

s1 = s0 + vi*t

pos_x(matrixpos + 1) = pos_x(matrixpos) + velocity_x(matrixpos+1)*i;

% Equation of motion for y;

v = u + at

velocity_y(matrixpos + 1) = velocity_y(matrixpos) + acceleration_y*i;

% Euler for y;

s1 = s0 + vi*t + (1/2)*a*(t)^2

pos_y(matrixpos + 1) = velocity_y(matrixpos + 1)*i + pos_y(matrixpos) +

(1/2)*acceleration_y*(i)^2;

matrixpos = matrixpos + 1; % Next Matrix Position

end;

Finally, the matrix is plotted and the result is printed to the main window.

grid on;

fprintf('For the parameters given, y_impact is : %u\n',y_pov);

title ('Displacement (m)','fontsize',14);

ylabel('Height(m)','fontsize',10);

xlabel('Length(m)','fontsize',10);

6.REFERENCES

[1] Physics.hku.hk, The Science of Soccer, 1 ed. ,

http://www.physics.hku.hk/~phys0607/lectures/chap05.html: physics.hku.hk, 2014-08-27.

[2] R.C. Hibbeler, Dynamics, 13 ed. , Singapore: pearson, 2013.

[3] Glenn Elert, " Equations of Motion," The Physics Hypertextbook, 1 ed., Ed. Glenn Elert,

http://physics.info/motion-equations/: Physics.info, 2014, .

[4] David Baez-Lopez, MATLAB with Applications to Engineering, 1 ed. , NYC: CRC Press,

12 Aug 2014.

[5] Richard C.Dorf, Modern control Systems, Twelfth ed. , University of California, Davis:

Pearson, 2011.

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