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EXAMPLE 1

Determine the speed of block A if block B has an


upward speed of 2 m/s.

Position Coordinate System. There is one cord in


this system having segments which are changing
length. Position coordinates sA and sB will be used
since each is measured from a fixed point (C or D)
and extends along each blocks path of motion. In
particular, sB is directed to point E since motion of
B and E is the same. The red colored segments of
the cords remain at a constant length and do not
have to be considered as the block move.

The remaining length of the cord, l, is also


considered and is related to the changing position
coordinates sA and sB by the equation
s A 3sB l
Time Derivative.
yields

Taking the time derivative

v A 3vB 0

so that when vB = -2m/s (upward)


vA = 6m/s

EXAMPLE 2
Determine the speed of block A if block B has an
upward speed of 2m/s.

Position Coordinate Equation.


Positions of A
and B are defined using coordinates sA and sB.
Since the system has two cords which change
length, it is necessary to use a third coordinate sC
in order to relate sA to sB. Length of the cords can
be expressed in terms of sA and sC, and the length
of the other cord can be expressed in terms of sB
and sC. The red colored segments are not
considered in this analysis.

For the remaining cord length,


s A 2sC l1
sB ( sB sC ) l2
Eliminating sC yields,
s A 4sB 2l2 l1

Time Derivative.

The time derivative gives


v A 4vB 0
so that vB = -2m/s (upward)
vB 8m / s 8m / s

EXAMPLE 3
Determine the speed with which block B rises if the
end of the cord at A is pulled down with a speed of
2m/s.

Position-Coordinate Equation.
The position of
A is defined by sA, and the position of block B is
specified by sB since point E on the pulley will have
the same motion as the block. Both coordinates are
measured from a horizontal datum passing through
the fixed pin at pulley D. Since the system consists
of two cords, the coordinates sA and sB cannot be
related directly. By establishing a third position
coordinate, sC, and the length of the other cord in
terms of sA, sB and sC.

Excluding the red colored segments of the cords,


the remaining constant cord lengths l1 and l2 (along
the hook and link dimensions) can be expressed as
sC sB l1

s A sC sB sC sB l2

Eliminating sC yields

sC 4sB l2 2l1

Time Derivative.

The time derivative give


v A 4vB 0

when vA = 2m/s (downward)

vB 0.5m / s 0.5m / s

EXAMPLE 4
A man at A s hoisting a safe
S by walking to the right
with a constant velocity vA =
0.5m/s. Determine the
velocity and acceleration of
the safe when it reaches the
elevation at E. The rope is
30m long and passes over
a small pulley at D.

View Free Body Diagram

Position Coordinate System.


Rope segment
DA changes both direction and magnitude.
However, the ends of the rope, which define the
position of S and A, are specified by means of the x
and y coordinates measured from a fixed point and
directed along the paths of motion of the ends of
the rope. The x and y coordinates may be related
since the rope has a fixed length l = 30m, which at
all times is equal to the length of the segment DA
plus CD.

Using Pythagorean Theorem,

I DA

152 x 2

ICD 15 y

l lDA lCD
30

152 x 2 15 y

y 225 x 15
2

(1)

Time Derivative.
Taking time derivative,
using the chain rule where, vS = dy/dt and vA =
dx/dt
dx
dy 1
2x
vS

dt 2 225 x 2 dt

x
225 x

vA

(2)

At y = 10 m, x = 20 m, vA = 0.5 m/s, vS =
400mm/s

The acceleration is determined by taking the time


derivative of eqn (2),
x(dx / dt)

dx
1
aS 2
xv
dt v A
2 3/ 2 A
2
dt
225 x
(225 x )
d2y

dvA
1
225v 2A

3/ 2
2
2
dt
225 x
225 x

At x = 20 m, with vA = 0.5 m/s,

aS 3.6mm / s 2

EXAMPLE 5
A train, traveling at a constant speed of 90km/h,
crosses over a road. If automobile A is traveling t
67.5km/h along the road, determine the magnitude
and direction of relative velocity of the train with
respect to the automobile

Vector Analysis.
The relative velocity is
measured from the translating x, y axes attached
to the automobile. Since vT and vA are known in
both magnitude and direction, the unknowns
become the x and y components of vT/A. Using the
x, y axes and a Cartesian vector analysis,

vT v A vT / A

~
~
~
90 i (67.5 cos 45 i 67.5 sin 45 j ) vT / A

~
~
v
{42.3i 47.7 j )km / h
T/A

The magnitude of vT/A is

vT / A (42.32 47.72 )2 63.8km / h


The direction of vT/A defined from the x axis is

vT / A y 47.7
tan

vT / A x 42.3
48.40

EXAMPLE 6
Plane A is flying along a straight-line path, while
plane B is flying along a circular path having a
radius of curvature of B = 400 km. Determine the
velocity and acceleration of B as measured by the
pilot of A.

Velocity.
The x, y axes are located at an
arbitrary fixed point. Since the motion relative to
plane A is to be determined, the translating frame
of reference x. y is attached to it. Applying the
relative-velocity equation in scalar form since the
velocity vectors of both plane are parallel at the
instant shown,
( ) vB v A vB / A
600 700 vB / A
vB / A 100km / h 100km / h

Acceleration.
Plane B has both tangential
and normal components of acceleration, since it is
flying along a curved path. Magnitude of normal
acceleration,
2
vB
aB n 900km / h2

Applying the relative-acceleration equation,


aB a A aB / A
900~
i 100 ~j 50 ~j a
B/ A

aB / A

~
~
900 i 150 j km / h 2

From the figure shown, the magnitude and direction


of aB / A
2
1 150

aB / A 912km / h
tan
9.46
900

EXAMPLE 7
At the instant, car A and B
are traveling with the speed
of 18 m/s and 12 m/s
respectively. Also at this
instant, A has a decrease in
speed of 2 m/s2, and B has
an increase in speed of 3
m/s2. Determine the velocity
and acceleration of B with
respect to A.

View Free Body Diagram

Velocity. The fixed x, y axes are established at a


point on the ground and the translating x, y axes
are attached to car A. Using Cartesian vector
analysis,

vB v A vB / A
~
~
~
12 j 18 cos 60 i 18 sin 60 j vB / A
~
~
v
9 i 3.588 j m / s

B/ A

Thus,

vB / A 92 3.5882 9.69m / s

Its direction is

vB / A y 3.588
tan

vB / A x
9
21.7
Acceleration.
component is

The magnitude of the normal

aB n

vB2

1.440m / s

Applying the equation for relative acceleration


yields

aB a A aB / A
~
~
~
~
1.440 i 3 j 2 cos 60 i 2 sin 60 j aB / A
a
2.440~
i 4.732 ~j m / s 2

B/ A

Magnitude and direction is

aB / A 5.32m / s 2

62.7