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upward speed of 2 m/s.

this system having segments which are changing

length. Position coordinates sA and sB will be used

since each is measured from a fixed point (C or D)

and extends along each blocks path of motion. In

particular, sB is directed to point E since motion of

B and E is the same. The red colored segments of

the cords remain at a constant length and do not

have to be considered as the block move.

considered and is related to the changing position

coordinates sA and sB by the equation

s A 3sB l

Time Derivative.

yields

v A 3vB 0

vA = 6m/s

EXAMPLE 2

Determine the speed of block A if block B has an

upward speed of 2m/s.

Positions of A

and B are defined using coordinates sA and sB.

Since the system has two cords which change

length, it is necessary to use a third coordinate sC

in order to relate sA to sB. Length of the cords can

be expressed in terms of sA and sC, and the length

of the other cord can be expressed in terms of sB

and sC. The red colored segments are not

considered in this analysis.

s A 2sC l1

sB ( sB sC ) l2

Eliminating sC yields,

s A 4sB 2l2 l1

Time Derivative.

v A 4vB 0

so that vB = -2m/s (upward)

vB 8m / s 8m / s

EXAMPLE 3

Determine the speed with which block B rises if the

end of the cord at A is pulled down with a speed of

2m/s.

Position-Coordinate Equation.

The position of

A is defined by sA, and the position of block B is

specified by sB since point E on the pulley will have

the same motion as the block. Both coordinates are

measured from a horizontal datum passing through

the fixed pin at pulley D. Since the system consists

of two cords, the coordinates sA and sB cannot be

related directly. By establishing a third position

coordinate, sC, and the length of the other cord in

terms of sA, sB and sC.

the remaining constant cord lengths l1 and l2 (along

the hook and link dimensions) can be expressed as

sC sB l1

s A sC sB sC sB l2

Eliminating sC yields

sC 4sB l2 2l1

Time Derivative.

v A 4vB 0

vB 0.5m / s 0.5m / s

EXAMPLE 4

A man at A s hoisting a safe

S by walking to the right

with a constant velocity vA =

0.5m/s. Determine the

velocity and acceleration of

the safe when it reaches the

elevation at E. The rope is

30m long and passes over

a small pulley at D.

Rope segment

DA changes both direction and magnitude.

However, the ends of the rope, which define the

position of S and A, are specified by means of the x

and y coordinates measured from a fixed point and

directed along the paths of motion of the ends of

the rope. The x and y coordinates may be related

since the rope has a fixed length l = 30m, which at

all times is equal to the length of the segment DA

plus CD.

I DA

152 x 2

ICD 15 y

l lDA lCD

30

152 x 2 15 y

y 225 x 15

2

(1)

Time Derivative.

Taking time derivative,

using the chain rule where, vS = dy/dt and vA =

dx/dt

dx

dy 1

2x

vS

dt 2 225 x 2 dt

x

225 x

vA

(2)

At y = 10 m, x = 20 m, vA = 0.5 m/s, vS =

400mm/s

derivative of eqn (2),

x(dx / dt)

dx

1

aS 2

xv

dt v A

2 3/ 2 A

2

dt

225 x

(225 x )

d2y

dvA

1

225v 2A

3/ 2

2

2

dt

225 x

225 x

aS 3.6mm / s 2

EXAMPLE 5

A train, traveling at a constant speed of 90km/h,

crosses over a road. If automobile A is traveling t

67.5km/h along the road, determine the magnitude

and direction of relative velocity of the train with

respect to the automobile

Vector Analysis.

The relative velocity is

measured from the translating x, y axes attached

to the automobile. Since vT and vA are known in

both magnitude and direction, the unknowns

become the x and y components of vT/A. Using the

x, y axes and a Cartesian vector analysis,

vT v A vT / A

~

~

~

90 i (67.5 cos 45 i 67.5 sin 45 j ) vT / A

~

~

v

{42.3i 47.7 j )km / h

T/A

The direction of vT/A defined from the x axis is

vT / A y 47.7

tan

vT / A x 42.3

48.40

EXAMPLE 6

Plane A is flying along a straight-line path, while

plane B is flying along a circular path having a

radius of curvature of B = 400 km. Determine the

velocity and acceleration of B as measured by the

pilot of A.

Velocity.

The x, y axes are located at an

arbitrary fixed point. Since the motion relative to

plane A is to be determined, the translating frame

of reference x. y is attached to it. Applying the

relative-velocity equation in scalar form since the

velocity vectors of both plane are parallel at the

instant shown,

( ) vB v A vB / A

600 700 vB / A

vB / A 100km / h 100km / h

Acceleration.

Plane B has both tangential

and normal components of acceleration, since it is

flying along a curved path. Magnitude of normal

acceleration,

2

vB

aB n 900km / h2

aB a A aB / A

900~

i 100 ~j 50 ~j a

B/ A

aB / A

~

~

900 i 150 j km / h 2

of aB / A

2

1 150

aB / A 912km / h

tan

9.46

900

EXAMPLE 7

At the instant, car A and B

are traveling with the speed

of 18 m/s and 12 m/s

respectively. Also at this

instant, A has a decrease in

speed of 2 m/s2, and B has

an increase in speed of 3

m/s2. Determine the velocity

and acceleration of B with

respect to A.

point on the ground and the translating x, y axes

are attached to car A. Using Cartesian vector

analysis,

vB v A vB / A

~

~

~

12 j 18 cos 60 i 18 sin 60 j vB / A

~

~

v

9 i 3.588 j m / s

B/ A

Thus,

vB / A 92 3.5882 9.69m / s

Its direction is

vB / A y 3.588

tan

vB / A x

9

21.7

Acceleration.

component is

aB n

vB2

1.440m / s

yields

aB a A aB / A

~

~

~

~

1.440 i 3 j 2 cos 60 i 2 sin 60 j aB / A

a

2.440~

i 4.732 ~j m / s 2

B/ A

aB / A 5.32m / s 2

62.7

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