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INTRODUKSI

Topik 1: Kinematika Benda Titik

Gerak Lurus dan Gerak Lengkung

Departemen Teknik Mesin

Fakultas Teknik

Universitas Indonesia

Depok, 2013

Gerak Lurus dan Gerak Lengkung

Chapter Objectives :

To introduce the concepts of position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

To study particle motion along a straight line and represent this motion

graphically.

Basics.

Mechanics the state of rest of motion of bodies subjected to the action of forces

Static equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or moves with constant velocity

Dynamics deals with accelerated motion of a body

o Kinematics treats with geometric aspects of the motion

o Kinetics analysis of the forces causing the motion

Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any instant, the particles position,

velocity, and acceleration

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion

Rectilinear Kinematics.

Rectilinear kinematics refers to motion along a

straight line. A position coordinate s specifies the

location of the particle on the line and the

displacement s is the change in this position.

The average velocity is a vector quantity, defined as

the displacement divided by the time interval.

vavg

r

t

This is the different than the average speed, which is a scalar and is the total

distance traveled divided by the time of travel.

vsp avg sT

t

The time, position, instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration are

related by the differential equations

v ds / dt

a dv / dt

a ds v dv

If the acceleration is known to be constant, then the integration of these equations

yields v v0 ac t

1

s s0 v0t act 2

2

v 2 v02 2 ac s s0

Coordinate System

Establish a position coordinate s along the path and specify its fixed origin and

positive direction.

The particles position, velocity, and acceleration, can be represented as s, v and a

respectively and their sense is then determined from their algebraic signs.

The positive sense for each scalar can be indicated by an arrow shown alongside

each kinematics eqn as it is applied

Kinematic Equation

If a relationship is known between any two of the four variables a, v, s and t, then

a third variable can be obtained by using one of the three the kinematic equations

When integration is performed, it is important that position and velocity be known

at a given instant in order to evaluate either the constant of integration if an

indefinite integral is used, or the limits of integration if a definite integral is used

Remember that the three kinematics equations can only be applied to situation

where the acceleration of the particle is constant.

Graphical Solutions.

If the motion is erratic, then it can be described by a graph. If one of these graphs

is given, then the others can be established using the differential relations, v =

ds/dt, a = dv/dt, or a ds = v dv.

Curvilinear Motion, x, y, z.

For this case, motion along the path is resolved into rectilinear motion along the x,

y, z axes. The equation of the path is used to relate the motion along each axis.

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :

Coordinate System

A rectangular coordinate system can be used to solve problems for which the

motion can conveniently be expressed in terms of its x, y and z components.

Kinematic Quantities

Since the rectilinear motion occurs along each coordinate axis, the motion of each

component is found using v = ds/dt and a = dv/dt, or a ds = v dv

Once the x, y, z components of v and a have been determined. The magnitudes of

these vectors are found from the Pythagorean theorem and their directions from

the components of their unit vectors.

Motion of a Projectile

Projectile Motion.

Free flight motion of a projectile follows a

parabolic path. It has a constant velocity in

the horizontal direction and constant

acceleration of g = 9.81 m/s2 in the vertical

direction. Any two of the three equations for

constant acceleration apply in the vertical

x x0 (v0 ) x t

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :

Coordinate System

Establish the fixed x, y, z axes and sketch the trajectory of the particle

Specify the three unknowns and data between any two points on the path

Acceleration of gravity always acts downwards

Express the particle initial and final velocities in the x, y components

Positive and negative position, velocity and acceleration components always act in

accordance with their associated coordinate directions

Kinematics Equations

Decide on the equations to be applied between the two points on the path for the

most direct solution

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