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Catatan Perkuliahan ( Lecture Notes )

ENME 600008 - KINEMATIKA DAN DINAMIKA

INTRODUKSI
Topik 1: Kinematika Benda Titik
Gerak Lurus dan Gerak Lengkung

Pengelola dan pengajar : Wahyu Nirbito, Dr., Ir., MSME


Departemen Teknik Mesin
Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Indonesia

Depok, 2013

Topik 1: Kinematika Benda Titik


Gerak Lurus dan Gerak Lengkung
Chapter Objectives :
To introduce the concepts of position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
To study particle motion along a straight line and represent this motion
graphically.
Basics.
Mechanics the state of rest of motion of bodies subjected to the action of forces
Static equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or moves with constant velocity
Dynamics deals with accelerated motion of a body
o Kinematics treats with geometric aspects of the motion
o Kinetics analysis of the forces causing the motion
Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any instant, the particles position,
velocity, and acceleration
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Rectilinear Kinematics.
Rectilinear kinematics refers to motion along a
straight line. A position coordinate s specifies the
location of the particle on the line and the
displacement s is the change in this position.
The average velocity is a vector quantity, defined as
the displacement divided by the time interval.

vavg

r
t

This is the different than the average speed, which is a scalar and is the total
distance traveled divided by the time of travel.
vsp avg sT
t
The time, position, instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration are
related by the differential equations
v ds / dt
a dv / dt
a ds v dv
If the acceleration is known to be constant, then the integration of these equations
yields v v0 ac t
1
s s0 v0t act 2
2
v 2 v02 2 ac s s0

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :


Coordinate System
Establish a position coordinate s along the path and specify its fixed origin and
positive direction.
The particles position, velocity, and acceleration, can be represented as s, v and a
respectively and their sense is then determined from their algebraic signs.

The positive sense for each scalar can be indicated by an arrow shown alongside
each kinematics eqn as it is applied
Kinematic Equation
If a relationship is known between any two of the four variables a, v, s and t, then
a third variable can be obtained by using one of the three the kinematic equations
When integration is performed, it is important that position and velocity be known
at a given instant in order to evaluate either the constant of integration if an
indefinite integral is used, or the limits of integration if a definite integral is used
Remember that the three kinematics equations can only be applied to situation
where the acceleration of the particle is constant.
Graphical Solutions.
If the motion is erratic, then it can be described by a graph. If one of these graphs
is given, then the others can be established using the differential relations, v =
ds/dt, a = dv/dt, or a ds = v dv.
Curvilinear Motion, x, y, z.
For this case, motion along the path is resolved into rectilinear motion along the x,
y, z axes. The equation of the path is used to relate the motion along each axis.

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components


PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :
Coordinate System
A rectangular coordinate system can be used to solve problems for which the
motion can conveniently be expressed in terms of its x, y and z components.
Kinematic Quantities
Since the rectilinear motion occurs along each coordinate axis, the motion of each
component is found using v = ds/dt and a = dv/dt, or a ds = v dv
Once the x, y, z components of v and a have been determined. The magnitudes of
these vectors are found from the Pythagorean theorem and their directions from
the components of their unit vectors.
Motion of a Projectile
Projectile Motion.
Free flight motion of a projectile follows a
parabolic path. It has a constant velocity in
the horizontal direction and constant
acceleration of g = 9.81 m/s2 in the vertical
direction. Any two of the three equations for
constant acceleration apply in the vertical

direction, and in the horizontal direction only


x x0 (v0 ) x t
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :
Coordinate System
Establish the fixed x, y, z axes and sketch the trajectory of the particle
Specify the three unknowns and data between any two points on the path
Acceleration of gravity always acts downwards
Express the particle initial and final velocities in the x, y components
Positive and negative position, velocity and acceleration components always act in
accordance with their associated coordinate directions
Kinematics Equations
Decide on the equations to be applied between the two points on the path for the
most direct solution