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Catatan Perkuliahan ( Lecture Notes )

ENME 600008 - KINEMATIKA DAN DINAMIKA

Topik 2: Kinematika Benda Titik


Sistem Koordinat Non Cartesian

Pengelola dan pengajar : Wahyu Nirbito, Dr., Ir., MSME


Departemen Teknik Mesin
Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Indonesia

Depok, 2013

Topik 2: Kinematika Benda Titik


Sistem Koordinat Non Cartesian
Chapter Objectives :
To investigate particle motion along a curved path using different coordinate
systems.
Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential Components
Curvilinear Motion n, t.
If normal and tangential axes are used for the analysis,
then v is always in the positive t direction. The
acceleration has two components. The tangential
components, at, accounts for the change in the
magnitude of the velocity; a slowing down is in the
negative t direction, and a speeding up is in the
positive t direction. The normal component, an
accounts for the change in the direction of velocity.
The component is always in the positive n direction.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :
Coordinate System
When path of the particle is known, establish a set of n and t coordinates having a
fixed origin which is coincident with the particle at the instant
Positive tangent axis acts in the direction of the motion and the positive normal
axis id directed toward the paths center of curvature
n and t axes are advantageous for studying the velocity and acceleration of the
particle
Velocity
Particles velocity is always tangent to the path
Magnitude of the velocity is found from the derivative of the path function
Tangential Acceleration
Tangential component of acceleration is the result of the time rate of change in
the magnitude of velocity
Tangential component acts in the positive s direction if the particles speed is
increasing and in the opposite direction if the seed is decreasing
For rectilinear motion,
Tangential component acts in the positive s direction if the particles speed is
increasing and in the opposite direction if the seed is decreasing
For rectilinear motion,
at v
at ds vdv

If ac is constant,

1
s s0 v0t (ac ) c t 2
2
v v0 (ac ) c t
v 2 v02 2(ac ) c ( s s0 )

Normal Acceleration
Normal component of acceleration is the result of the time rate of change in the
direction of the particles velocity
Normal component is always directed towards the center of curvature of the path
along the positive n axis
For magnitude of the normal component,
v2
an

If the path is expressed as y = f(x), the radius of the curvature at any point on the
path is determined from
[1 (dy / dx) 2 ]3 / 2

d 2 y / dx 2

Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components


Curvilinear Motion r, , z.
If the path of motion is expressed in polar coordinates, then the velocity and
acceleration components can be written as
v r
a r r 2
r

v r
a r 2r
To apply these equations, it is necessary to determine r , r, r,,
at
the
instant considered. If the path r = f() is given, then the chain rule of calculus must
be used to obtain the time derivatives. Once the data is substituted into the
equations, then the algebraic sign of the results will indicate the direction of
components of v or a along each axis.

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :


Coordinate System
Polar coordinate are used to solve problem involving angular motion of the radial
coordinate r, used to describe the particles motion
To use polar coordinates, the origin is established at a fixed point and the radial
line r is directed to the particle
The transverse coordinate is measured from a fixed reference line to radial line
Velocity and Acceleration
Once r and the four time derivatives r, r,, have been evaluated at the instant
considered, their values can be used to obtain the radial and transverse
components of v and a

Use chain rule of calculus to find the time derivatives of r = f()


Motion in 3D requires a simple extension of the above procedure to find