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Sistem Koordinat Non Cartesian

Departemen Teknik Mesin

Fakultas Teknik

Universitas Indonesia

Depok, 2013

Sistem Koordinat Non Cartesian

Chapter Objectives :

To investigate particle motion along a curved path using different coordinate

systems.

Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential Components

Curvilinear Motion n, t.

If normal and tangential axes are used for the analysis,

then v is always in the positive t direction. The

acceleration has two components. The tangential

components, at, accounts for the change in the

magnitude of the velocity; a slowing down is in the

negative t direction, and a speeding up is in the

positive t direction. The normal component, an

accounts for the change in the direction of velocity.

The component is always in the positive n direction.

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS :

Coordinate System

When path of the particle is known, establish a set of n and t coordinates having a

fixed origin which is coincident with the particle at the instant

Positive tangent axis acts in the direction of the motion and the positive normal

axis id directed toward the paths center of curvature

n and t axes are advantageous for studying the velocity and acceleration of the

particle

Velocity

Particles velocity is always tangent to the path

Magnitude of the velocity is found from the derivative of the path function

Tangential Acceleration

Tangential component of acceleration is the result of the time rate of change in

the magnitude of velocity

Tangential component acts in the positive s direction if the particles speed is

increasing and in the opposite direction if the seed is decreasing

For rectilinear motion,

Tangential component acts in the positive s direction if the particles speed is

increasing and in the opposite direction if the seed is decreasing

For rectilinear motion,

at v

at ds vdv

If ac is constant,

1

s s0 v0t (ac ) c t 2

2

v v0 (ac ) c t

v 2 v02 2(ac ) c ( s s0 )

Normal Acceleration

Normal component of acceleration is the result of the time rate of change in the

direction of the particles velocity

Normal component is always directed towards the center of curvature of the path

along the positive n axis

For magnitude of the normal component,

v2

an

If the path is expressed as y = f(x), the radius of the curvature at any point on the

path is determined from

[1 (dy / dx) 2 ]3 / 2

d 2 y / dx 2

Curvilinear Motion r, , z.

If the path of motion is expressed in polar coordinates, then the velocity and

acceleration components can be written as

v r

a r r 2

r

v r

a r 2r

To apply these equations, it is necessary to determine r , r, r,,

at

the

instant considered. If the path r = f() is given, then the chain rule of calculus must

be used to obtain the time derivatives. Once the data is substituted into the

equations, then the algebraic sign of the results will indicate the direction of

components of v or a along each axis.

Coordinate System

Polar coordinate are used to solve problem involving angular motion of the radial

coordinate r, used to describe the particles motion

To use polar coordinates, the origin is established at a fixed point and the radial

line r is directed to the particle

The transverse coordinate is measured from a fixed reference line to radial line

Velocity and Acceleration

Once r and the four time derivatives r, r,, have been evaluated at the instant

considered, their values can be used to obtain the radial and transverse

components of v and a

Motion in 3D requires a simple extension of the above procedure to find

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