You are on page 1of 24

AFD EFD CFD

Introduction to
the Wonderful World
of Fluid Mechanics

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Dynamics

Fluids are essential to life

History has been shaped by fluid dynamics!

Human body 95% water


Earths surface is 2/3 water
Atmosphere extends 17km above the earths surface
Geomorphology
Human migration and civilization
Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods
warfare

Significance in modern world is great.


9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Da Vinci

Bernoulli

Navier

9/4/2016

Newton

Stokes
57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Leibniz

Euler

Reynolds

Prandtl
3

Significance

Fluids are omnipresent

9/4/2016

Weather & climate


Vehicles: trains, planes, and automobiles?
(and ships)
Environment
Physiology and medicine
Sports & recreation
Many other examples!
57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Weather & Climate


Tornadoes

Global Climate

9/4/2016

Thunderstorm

Hurricanes

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Vehicles
Surface ships

Aircraft

Submarines

High-speed rail

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Environment
River Hydraulics

Air pollution

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Physiology and Medicine


Blood pump

9/4/2016

Ventricular assist device

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Sports & Recreation


Water sports

Cycling

Auto racing

9/4/2016

Offshore racing

Surfing

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Engineering practice

Engineers have a variety of tools available for


analysis and design of fluid dynamic systems

Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)


Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

This class provides an introduction to all three


tools.

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

10

Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Range of methods

Empirical relations derived from EFD data


Solution to the full Navier-Stokes equations (~ 80
known solution)
U = 0
DU
1 2
= p +
U + ui u j
Dt
Re

Elegant solution to laminar boundary layer flow


e.g. , Blasius solution to laminar boundary layer flow

Limited applicability to real flows


However, AFD is important since it provides
basis for EFD and CFD

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

11

Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Example: laminar pipe flow


Schematic

Laminar flow, exact solution:

1 ( p )(R2 r 2)
u(r) =
4 x

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

12

Analytical Fluid Dynamics

Example: Moody diagram for laminar


and turbulent pipe flow Moody Diagram

Turbulent flow:
Empirical Relations

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

13

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

Based upon dimensional analysis and similarity

Model vs. full-scale prototype: reduced cost, safety, laboratory


scale

Model-scale facilities: wind tunnel, towing tank, flume,

Measurement systems

Instrumentation

Flow meters & anemometers


Pitot-static probes
Hot wire probes
Laser Doppler velocimetry
Particle image velocimetry

Data acquisition
Data reduction visualization, and analysis

Uncertainty assessment

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

14

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

EFD Examples

B-727 in flight
during vortex study

Trailing vortex pairs flow


over delta wing

Waves around submarine

9/4/2016

Flow of air past buildings

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

15

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

EFD at IIHR
History

Today

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

16

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

Teaching
Pipe Flow(Lab2)

9/4/2016

Airfoil(Lab3)

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

17

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

EFD movie 1:

Velocity and vorticity


distribution on nominal
wake plane of DTMB
model 5512 in regular
head waves

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

18

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

EFD movie 2: Unsteady wave pattern around DTMB


model 5512 in regular head waves

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

19

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of


computer

ENIAC 1, 1946

IBM WorkStation

CFD Engineers early pioneers of the Internet


Software

Human interface with computer


Governing equations, boundary and initial conditions
Numerical methods for solving system of equations and
conditions
Rise of commercial CFD companies in 1990s

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

20

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD Movie 1

Wake Vortex
Influence on
Ambient
Potential
Temperature

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

21

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD Movie 2

Free surface animation


for ship in regular waves

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

22

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD Movie 3:

Unsteady RANS
simulation of
DTMB model 5512
in regular head waves

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

23

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD Movie 4:

Unsteady RANS
simulation of
DTMB model 5512
with prescribed
roll motion

9/4/2016

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

24