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# AFD EFD CFD

Introduction to
the Wonderful World
of Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Dynamics

## Human body 95% water

Earths surface is 2/3 water
Atmosphere extends 17km above the earths surface
Geomorphology
Human migration and civilization
Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods
warfare

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## 57:020 Fluid Mechanics

History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Da Vinci

Bernoulli

Navier

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Newton

Stokes
57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Leibniz

Euler

Reynolds

Prandtl
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Significance

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## Weather & climate

Vehicles: trains, planes, and automobiles?
(and ships)
Environment
Physiology and medicine
Sports & recreation
Many other examples!
57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Global Climate

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Thunderstorm

Hurricanes

Vehicles
Surface ships

Aircraft

Submarines

High-speed rail

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Environment
River Hydraulics

Air pollution

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Blood pump

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Water sports

Cycling

Auto racing

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Offshore racing

Surfing

## 57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Engineering practice

## Engineers have a variety of tools available for

analysis and design of fluid dynamic systems

## Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)

Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

tools.

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Range of methods

## Empirical relations derived from EFD data

Solution to the full Navier-Stokes equations (~ 80
known solution)
U = 0
DU
1 2
= p +
U + ui u j
Dt
Re

## Elegant solution to laminar boundary layer flow

e.g. , Blasius solution to laminar boundary layer flow

## Limited applicability to real flows

However, AFD is important since it provides
basis for EFD and CFD

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Schematic

1 ( p )(R2 r 2)
u(r) =
4 x

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## Example: Moody diagram for laminar

and turbulent pipe flow Moody Diagram

Turbulent flow:
Empirical Relations

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scale

## Model-scale facilities: wind tunnel, towing tank, flume,

Measurement systems

Instrumentation

## Flow meters & anemometers

Pitot-static probes
Hot wire probes
Laser Doppler velocimetry
Particle image velocimetry

Data acquisition
Data reduction visualization, and analysis

Uncertainty assessment

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## Experimental Fluid Dynamics

EFD Examples

B-727 in flight
during vortex study

over delta wing

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EFD at IIHR
History

Today

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Teaching
Pipe Flow(Lab2)

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Airfoil(Lab3)

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EFD movie 1:

## Velocity and vorticity

distribution on nominal
wake plane of DTMB
model 5512 in regular

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## EFD movie 2: Unsteady wave pattern around DTMB

model 5512 in regular head waves

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computer

ENIAC 1, 1946

IBM WorkStation

Software

## Human interface with computer

Governing equations, boundary and initial conditions
Numerical methods for solving system of equations and
conditions
Rise of commercial CFD companies in 1990s

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CFD Movie 1

Wake Vortex
Influence on
Ambient
Potential
Temperature

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CFD Movie 2

## Free surface animation

for ship in regular waves

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CFD Movie 3:

simulation of
DTMB model 5512

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CFD Movie 4: