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1.

Gravity Geophysical Method


The gravity field on the surface of the Earth is not uniformly the same everywhere. It
varies with the distribution of the mass materials below. This lateral change can be measured and
interpreted in terms of likely causative geology. A Gravity survey is an indirect (surface) means
of calculating the density property of subsurface materials. The higher the gravity values, the
denser the rock beneath.
The purpose of gravity surveys is to aid in the detection and delineation of subsurface
geological features. Gravity meters measure the differences in gravitational attraction between
points of measurement. Nongeological effects are removed from the measured values to produce
gravity anomalies that are caused by rocks having anomalous density in comparison with the
density of the surrounding rocks.
2. Magnetics methods
The earths magnetic field induces a secondary magnetic field in ferrous materials. While
all materials exhibit this susceptibility to a certain extent, iron and steel materials generally
produce an effect that is easily measurable.
Geologic materials with ferrous minerals (usually magnetite) are good targets. Man-made
iron and steel items such as drums and tanks are often sought using measurements of the
magnetic field.
3. Electromagnetic methods
Electromagnetic methods (EM) measure electrical currents generated in the subsurface
resulting from the induction of time-varying magnetic fields at the ground surface. The EM
method measures the bulk conductivity of subsurface material beneath and between the
instruments transmitter and receiver coils. The readings are commonly expressed in the
conductivity units of milli-ohms/meter (m-ohms/m) or milliseimens/meter (mS/m). EM Surveys
are used for locating subsurface zones of highly-fractured bedrock, buried steel drums and tanks,
plumes of ground-water contamination, and clay-rich horizons.
4. Seismic methods
techniques used in geophysical exploration, based on the study of the propagation
characteristics of elastic (seismic) waves in the earths crust; such techniques are used to
investigate the crusts geological structure. Seismic exploration makes use of reflected and
refracted waves and the piezoelectric effect.

The principal seismic exploration techniques are the reflection method and the refraction
method; both make use of the difference in the elastic properties and density of rocks. In the
reflection method a seismic wave excited by an explosion or by mechanical action propagates in
all directions from the source and reaches certain reflecting interfaces in succession. At each
interface a reflected wave arises and returns to the earths surface, where it is registered by
instruments. The reflection method makes it possible to study geological structure at depths of
0.10.2 to 710 km and to determine the depth of seismic boundaries with a precision to 12
percent. The method detects small angular inconsistencies, pinches, and sectors where facies
change. The reflection method is the most precise and detailed method of studying sedimentary
strata and is used primarily in the search for petroleum and natural gas; it also is used in studying
certain ore deposits and in making regional geological studies.
The refraction method is based on the observation of waves refracted in a layer with an
increased propagation velocity of seismic waves. After the initial refraction, the waves cover a
significant part of their path in the layer, are refracted a second time, and then return to the
earths surface.
5. Radar Geophysical Methods
GPR uses high-frequency (usually polarized) radio waves, usually in the range 10 MHz to
2.6 GHz. A GPR transmitter emits electromagnetic energy into the ground. When the energy
encounters a buried object or a boundary between materials having different permittivities, it
may be reflected or refracted or scattered back to the surface. A receiving antenna can then
record the variations in the return signal. The principles involved are similar to seismology,
except GPR methods implement electromagnetic energy rather than acoustic energy, and energy
may be reflected at boundaries where subsurface electrical properties change rather than
subsurface mechanical properties as is the case with seismic energy.
6. Electrical Geophysical Methods
The electrical geophysical methods are used to determine the electrical resistivity of the
earth's subsurface. Thus, electrical methods are employed for those applications in which a
knowledge of resistivity or the resistivity distribution will solve or shed light on the problem at
hand. The resolution, depth, and areal extent of investigation are functions of the particular
electrical method employed. Once resistivity data have been acquired, the resistivity distribution
of the subsurface can be interpreted in terms of soil characteristics and/or rock type and
geological structure. Resistivity data are usually integrated with other geophysical results and
with surface and subsurface geological data to arrive at an interpretation.